WorldWideScience

Sample records for m16 rifle flechettes

  1. Recommended Alternate Qualification Courses for the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Services AREA & WORK U71T NUMBERS Litton Systems, Inc. 2Q263743A794M P.O. Box 7113, Mountai.n View, CA 94039-7113 322(:2 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...Record Fire and the KDAC require soldiers to apply the tour fundamentals of marksmanship (steady position, trigger squeeze, breath control , and...34, Thet Alteraste Ceurse wI be used only when standard rccrdW Miread Knamt Dsim V441a14% rerge are unsira ,Iee "thadfris tee 2 m ew "ar. e ~tltnet Prior

  2. Influence of Organizational Culture on the Acquisition of the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    23-25. 9 M. Fortun and S. S. Schweber. “Scientists and the Legacy of World War II: The Case of Operations Research (OR),” Social Studies of Science 23...War II: The Case of Operations Research (OR),” Social Studies of Science 23, no. 4 (Nov.): 595-642. Howe, Walter J. and E.H. Harrison, “The AR-15

  3. Analysis of M16A2 Rifle Characteristics and Recommended Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    target and finds he needs to make an elevation change, depending upon which sight/target combination is being used, one click of the front sight will move...targets being fielded and our recommended sights will result in all sight movements of one click moving the bullet one square on the new zero target or one

  4. Adequacy of M16A1 Rifle Performance and Its Implications for Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    distance from the center of the zeroing circle (i.e., until the weapon was zeroed to within one click of elevation and windage of zero). The center of the...approximately .3 to .4 cm, indicating the weapons were adequately zeroed for that range (i.e., within the one click zeroing criterion). Figure 5 includes... one click error with ab- normally severe tilts of the weapon. Vertical displacement was below 43 a WNW In I w 04 0 r-40 44 0 C a. > aito gui0 ZIaa ’o

  5. Universal Infantry Weapons Trainer (UIWT). Volume 1. M-16 Rifle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    source used in the system is a semiconductor, gallium arsenide laser. The laser is collimated by a simple plano convex lens. The laser is attached where...UfSATSOATA LITE~tlY ’%.CH’, /s PIF#, 3-48 OF 80/2P MAUAL U5MRTSSTATUS LITERALLY 6ED9’, /* PiE 3-44 *./ EcC LITERALLY ’±R; /* AS(I I "EsCFm * ZERO LITERALLY...H EI E CHIP CT 9026 15 1 EN I E6t E EXTEIEI INTEPRUPTS 41? A 2 WRIT: NOY R,R2 ,GET PIE STATUS *218 627 93 JZ WRIT ,IF 0lJETE ENPTY NO ACTION 𔄁 𔄂

  6. Analysis of gun barrel rifling twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Chen, Guangsong; Qian, Linfang; Liu, Taisu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of gun barrel rifling twist, the constraint relation between rifling and projectile is investigated. The constraint model of rifling and projectile is established and the geometric relation between the twist and the motion of projectile is analyzed. Based on the constraint model, according to the rotating band that is fired, the stress and the motion law of the rotating band in bore are analyzed. The effects to rotating band (double rotating band or wide driving band) caused by different rifling (rib rifling, increasing rifling and combined rifling) are also investigated. The model is demonstrated by several examples. The results of numerical examples and the constraint mode show that the uncertainty factors will be brought in the increasing rifling and combined rifling during the projectile move in the bore. According to the amplitude and the strength of the twist acting on rotating band, the steady property of rotational motion of the projectile, the rib rifling is a better choose.

  7. Effects of Shivering on Rifle Shooting Performance in U. S. Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    M-16A2 rifle [Fig. 1 (B)], and a control switch interfaced with a desktop computer. The subjects aimed and fired at a solid black bull’s-eye...shivering response, as noted by an increase in myoelectric activity and visual observation, began 5 to 30 min after exposure to the cold environment

  8. Basic Rifle Markmanship Trainer’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Effeotiveness of Improved Dealo Rifle IHarksmanihiy Training Proreams, ARI/Litton-4ellonlos Drift Rese~roh Report, January iWO. 3. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op...alt. 4. Smith, Thompson, Evans, Osborne, Maxey, and Horsy , Zffaots of Down-Rwa6 Feedbaok and the ARI Zeroing Target in Rifle Harksmanshi Training...Rifle and Rifle Harksmansho, June 1974. 8. Osborne, Horsy , and Smith, op. cit. 9. Thompson, et. al., op. ait. c-i

  9. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 10, Appendix 9. Audit Trail of Chief of Staff, Army Actions and Decisions Concerning the M16

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    REPTILES REQUIREMENTS RESCUE BEACONS RESCUE EQUIPMENT RESCUE VEHICLES RESCUES RESEARCH AIRCRAFT RESEARCH FACILITIES RESEARCH MANAGEMENT...REGULATORS SPERMATOGENESIS SPHERES SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY SPHERICAL WAVES SPHEROMETERS SPHERULITES SPIDERS SPIKES SPILLING SPILLWAYS SPIN DOWN SPIN

  10. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  11. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  12. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  13. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    performance with the M16A1 rifle. Study 1. A validation of the artificial intelligence direct fire weapons research test bed. Orlando, FL: U.S...communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: An EEG coherence analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 25(2... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  14. Cost Effective LOGMARS (Logistics Applications of Automated Marking and Reading Symbols) Marking of the M16 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    amortization period. 70 CP = .288 :REM SAVINGS/WPN/MONTH FOR INVENTORY BY 0-1 0 -2! 80 QOPT1 = 480 :REM Optimum quantity of wpns shippE, i" ie., 1 dromedary full...90 QOPT2 = 240 :REM Optimum quantity of wpns shipped; ie., I dromedary full. 100 SOPT1 = .0236 :REM Shipping cost/weapon/mi for optimum ship qty

  15. Correlation of Breech Erosion Gage to Accuracy for M16A1 Rifle with Chrome Plated Barrel Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    b.0 0 V 4 0 0 0 wl + - -4M 0.0 4’ 1 it 0 If 11 N1 NIf A Q0 0: .0 m0 J=O3 04A L 1 1 C14 02 o 44 .0 .0 x0 .0 .0 000*~l N m % ~0 r- 000\\ .0.0. .0.0...0 C4 9-4 VNN -4 9-4 VcMi-vc ~ ~ ~ C Oc 0 C’- E. N Et~N -4 E-4 E~N-4 14’ ’A., -.;; 25 igated closely for the best performing gage. All the larger diF

  16. Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: Obtaining a 200 M Zero with M16 Rifle and M4 Carbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    zeroing procedures. Because peer learning requires all individuals (i.e., peers) to be engaged in the learning process (Tomasello, 1999; Vygotsky , 1978...Trends in peer learning. Educational Psychology, 25, 631-645. Vygotsky , L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological

  17. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator Development to Improve Soldier Shooting Skills with the M16A3 Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    101 ( ot SF11.! its CIP 1(2024 IVf SFC TEI IHISTI ID! 123 DIE SCLIO TIC SFC lID 1121 IDE 00 LDE SE4 SEE030 IDE (SFI), .Y TIGET I Cl? V1 115110 $TE SID...DUFFSl IF Slots IDE SIC CI? I’D fill ID0E 1255 :IS EYCl. IT loVE ltI 101 EDC 10 119 iIT040 VATTI DIE BUFFER IF Slots IS ODD SIT SFC HIMTJ I if0 0SET Dit...Of BUFFER lED. LDA (SFB( ,T CLC $?I EVIL :SET UP Fot :50 STOPOFF II III. CLC IDC SIB L1 -10 ADDITIOE OF 119111 i5! SPIT ABC 0! PAL ICC GITIO :OFFSET

  18. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  19. 75 FR 18403 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rifle, CO AGENCY... E airspace at Rifle, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Rifle, CO...

  20. CFD Studies on Multi Lead Rifled [MLR] Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr T C Mohankumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the merits of multi lead rifled [MLR] tubes in vertical water tube boiler using CFD tool. Heat transfer enhancement of MLR tubes was mainly taken in to consideration. Performance of multi lead rifled tube was studied by varying its influencing geometrical parameter like number of rifling, height of rifling, length of pitch of rifling for a particular length. The heat transfer analysis was done at operating conditions of an actual coal fired water tube boiler situated at Apollo Tyres LTD, Chalakudy, India for saturated process steam production. The results showed that the heat transfer increased when compared with existing inner plane wall water tubes.

  1. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    18  Figure 2.  Typical Platoon Flashlight and NVGs .............................................................33  x THIS...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...conditions may be such that pickup from a central point is impossible, and supplies are therefore delivered by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft (HQ USMC

  2. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  3. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability after rifle shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  5. Review of Rifle Marksmanship Training Research. CRESST Report 783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Lee, John J.; Wainess, Richard; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    The UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is under contract from the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to conduct research on assessment models and tools designed to support Marine Corps rifle marksmanship. In this deliverable, we first review the literature on known-distance rifle marksmanship…

  6. Using human-centered design to improve the assault rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Lang; Yuan, Cheng-Kang; Liu, Bor-Shong

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to interview infantry soldiers to determine their preferences with respect to rifle design and to examine the effect of buttstocks on shooting performance. Factor analysis showed that seven main factors should be considered in rifle redesign including tactics necessary, interface design, saving weight, bullpup configuration, sight design, other devices, and bayonet lug. For the shooting experiment, a total of four shooting trials were performed with the T-91 rifle, with buttstock lengths of 26 mm, 34 mm, self-adjusting stock, and bullpup stock. The analysis revealed that buttstock length had a significant effect on shooting performance. The redesigned rifle weight and total length should be reduced to 3.2 kg and 750 mm, respectively. The rifle buttstock should be a non-adjustable bullpup style. The buttstock shape should be curved and the hand-guard type should be more deeply and density seams, while the trigger handle shape should be slanted.

  7. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  8. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  9. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  10. 77 FR 71493 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-8 in the Vicinity of Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Vicinity of Rifle, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical... Rifle, CO, to correct the description contained in part 71 to ensure it matches the information... realigned over the Rifle, CO, VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation...

  11. An Experimental Review of Basic Combat Rifle Marksmanship: MARKSMAN, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, James W.; And Others

    Commanding officers in Vietnam and others have indicated that individual rifle marksmanship training needed attention. Furthermore, no comprehensive, systematic study of Army rifle marksmanship has been conducted since the Work Unit TRAINFIRE studies conducted by HumRRO in 1954. Phase 1 of the MARKSMAN research dealt with basic rifle marksmanship.…

  12. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide in Groundwater at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Davis, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a reactive transient presenting ubiquitously in natural surface waters, can react with a large suite of biologically important and redox-sensitive trace elements. The dominant source of H2O2 in natural waters has long been thought to be photo-oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by molecular oxygen to produce superoxide radical, which then proceeds via dismutation to generate H2O2. However, recent studies have indicated that dark production of H2O2 in deep seawater, principally by biological production, is potentially on par with photochemical generation. Here, we present evidence for abiotic dark generation of H2O2 in groundwater in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO. Background H2O2 concentrations were determined in situ using a sensitive chemiluminescence-based method. Our results suggest H2O2 concentrations ranged from lower than the detection limit (1 nM) to 54 nM in different monitoring wells at the site, and the concentrations exhibited close correlations with profiles of dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations in the wells, indicating a possible metal redox cycling mechanism. In addition, dissolved natural organic matter, which could potentially coordinate the interconversion of ferric and ferrous species, might also play an important role in H2O2 formation. While biologically mediated activities have been recognized as the major sink of H2O2, the detected H2O2 pattern in groundwater suggests the existence of a balance between H2O2 source and decay, which potentially involves a cascade of biogeochemically significant processes, including the interconversion of ferrous/ferric species, the generation of more reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, the depletion of dissolved oxygen and further transformation of natural organic matter and other chemical pollutants.

  14. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Old Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, J H [Mountain States Research and Development, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  15. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  19. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  20. Development of Sensor-Based Measures of Rifle Marksmanship Skill and Performance. CRESST Report 756

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Paul D.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Parks, Daniel; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of rifle marksmanship skill and performance were developed using a prototype instrumented laser-based training system. Measures of performance were derived from laser strikes on a video-projected target. Measures of rifle marksmanship skill--breath control, trigger control, and muzzle wobble--were developed from shooters' breathing and…

  1. Effects of Concentration Disruption on Simulated Basic Rifle Marksmanship Scores among Stryker Brigade Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…

  2. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  3. IUE observations of high velocity gas towards the M16 nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.

    1984-03-01

    The star HD 168183, which is part of the giant H II region-molecular cloud complex of M16 (NGC 6611), has been observed at high resolution using the IUE satellite. High velocity interstellar absorption components have been detected at velocities of -83, -38 and +40 km s-1 and it is proposed that a stellar wind-driven shock-front, interacting with the ambient neutral interstellar gas, is responsible for such complex velocity structure. Strong absorption from five of the 12C16O UV molecular lines has also been detected and the present UV absorption line data seem consistent with radio observations of M16 in which the Tenorio-Tagle 'champagne' model has been invoked to explain the ionized and neutral gas outflows from the nebula.

  4. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846

  5. Clinical effects of pranayama on performance of rifle shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amte Snehal Shekhar, Mistry Hetal M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has an enormous scientifically proven effect on man’s physical and psychological functioning. Pranayama constitute the most vital aspects of yoga. Various methods of pranayama have a sound scientific basis and are traditionally believed to produce equilibrium between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. The link between body and mind is obligatory for the better performance of sports persons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out the effect of pranayama on the performance of Rifle shooters by measuring the parameters like-breath holding time, lung functional capacity and shooting performance. Method: 52 state level shooters subjects were chosen from 2 centres between the age group of 15-30years. Out of them, 26 shooters were given training in the techniques of pranayama for 3weeks.The other 26 subjects served as control i.e. with out Pranayama training. Variables like shooting performance, breath holding time (BHT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR and pulse rate (PR were measured in both the groups. Results: The study showed highly significant improvement in all the five variables shooting performance (in mm, BHT, PEFR, RR and PR with p value of 3.62E-05, 2.78E-07, 1.31E-09, 0.013, 3.40E-04respectively. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that pranayama is efficacious for better performance of Rifle shooters and should be included in their training practice.

  6. RIFLE classification in geriatric patients with acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Ji; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young

    2016-06-01

    The RIFLE classification is widely used to assess the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its application to geriatric AKI patients complicated by medical problems has not been reported. We investigated 256 geriatric patients (≥65 years old; mean age, 74.4 ± 6.3 years) who developed AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE classification. Etiologic, clinical, and prognostic variables were analyzed. They were categorized into RIFLE-R (n = 53), RIFLE-I (n = 102), and RIFLE-F (n = 101) groups. The overall in-hospital mortality was 39.8 %. There were no significant differences in RIFLE category between survivors and non-survivors. Survivors had significantly less needs for a ventilator and vasopressor, and lower number of failing organs. Survivors had higher systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels. We performed a logistic regression analysis to identify the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In a univariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, RIFLE classification, number of failing organs, need for a ventilator and vasopressor, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, in a multivariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, number of failing organs, and serum albumin levels were independent risk factors, with no significant difference for in-hospital mortality with the RIFLE classification. The RIFLE classification might not be associated with mortality in geriatric AKI patients in the ICU. In geriatric patients with AKI, various factors besides severity of AKI should be considered to predict mortality.

  7. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  8. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  9. High-speed measurement of rifle primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of rifle primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Our key findings are: 1) Most of the primer models tested show 5-12% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) For most primer types tested, peak pressure magnitudes are well correlated with measured primer masses so that significant reductions in standard deviation are expected to result from sorting primers by mass. 3) A range of peak pressures from below 200 psi to above 500 psi is available in different primer types.

  10. Investigation into the fabrication of a composite top attack recoilless rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kevin R.

    1990-01-01

    The fabrication of a lightweight, expendable recoilless rifle using composite materials was investigated. Filament winding and braiding were successfully employed in the construction of several of these shoulder-fired weapons.

  11. The influence of rifle carriage on the kinetics of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, S A; Haslam, R A

    2008-06-01

    The influence that rifle carriage has on human gait has received little attention in the published literature. Rifle carriage has two main effects, to add load to the anterior of the body and to restrict natural arm swing patterns. Kinetic data were collected from 15 male participants, with 10 trials in each of four experimental conditions. The conditions were: walking without a load (used as a control condition); carrying a lightweight rifle simulator, which restricted arm movements but applied no additional load; wearing a 4.4 kg diving belt, which allowed arms to move freely; carrying a weighted (4.4 kg) replica SA80 rifle. Walking speed was fixed at 1.5 m/s (+/-5%) and data were sampled at 400 Hz. Results showed that rifle carriage significantly alters the ground reaction forces produced during walking, the most important effects being an increase in the impact peak and mediolateral forces. This study suggests that these effects are due to the increased range of motion of the body's centre of mass caused by the impeding of natural arm swing patterns. The subsequent effect on the potential development of injuries in rifle carriers is unknown.

  12. Association between eye dominance and training for rifle marksmanship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L F; Classe, J G; Hester, M; Harris, K

    1996-02-01

    This pilot study was performed to determine the effect, if any, exerted by crossed dominance (contralateral hand and eye dominance) on the ability of novice riflemen to learn how to accurately shoot a rifle. Sighting dominance was used to determine the dominant eye. Hand dominance was determined by the arm used to shoulder the rifle in the shooting position. Subjects were 308 military recruits at the Fort Benning Army Base in Columbus, Georgia, who had undergone basic training in rifle marksmanship. Qualification scores obtained at the base rifle range were used to measure the subjects' ability to learn marksmanship skills. The subjects with right-hand/right-eye and left-hand/left-eye (uncrossed) dominance had qualification scores that were significantly higher (p = .009) than the subjects with right hand/left-eye and left-hand/right-eye (crossed) dominance. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with uncrossed dominance achieved rifle qualification (86.1 percent) than subjects with crossed dominance (56.5 percent) (p = .000). The learning of rifle marksmanship is influenced by eye dominance. Individuals who shoot right handed and are left-eye dominant or who shoot left handed and are right-eye dominant do not learn marksmanship skills as readily as individuals who have matched eye and hand dominance. Since crossed hand and eye dominance can be easily determined, it should be possible to identify cross dominant individuals and provide them with special training so that they can perform at a higher level of skill.

  13. Acute Renal Failure in Patients with Severe Falciparum Malaria: Using the WHO 2006 and RIFLE Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on the application of the RIFLE criteria among patients with severe malaria. This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 257 medical records of adult hospitalized patients with severe falciparum malaria at the Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak province in the northern part of Thailand. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in patients with severe falciparum malaria and its association with RRT as well as in-hospital mortality. Using the WHO 2006 criteria, ARF was the second most common complication with incidence of 44.7% (115 patients. The requirement for RRT was 45.2% (52 patients and the in-hospital mortality was 31.9% (36 patients. Using the RIFLE criteria, 73.9% (190 patients had acute kidney injury (AKI. The requirement for RRT was 11.6% (5 patients in patients with RIFLE-I and 44.9% (48 patients in patients with RIFLE-F. The in-hospital mortality gradually increased with the severity of AKI. The requirement for RRT (P<0.05 and the in-hospital mortality (P<0.05 were significantly higher in ARF patients with severe falciparum malaria using both criteria. In conclusion, the RIFLE criteria could be used for diagnosing AKI and predicting outcomes in patients with severe malaria similar to the WHO 2006 criteria.

  14. Acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting: assessment using RIFLE and AKIN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius José da Silva Nina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage Renal Failure and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for diagnosis of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Retrospective cohort. 169 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from January 2007 through December 2008 were analyzed. Information was entered into a database and analyzed using STATA 9.0. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 63.43 1 9.01 years old. Predominantly male patients (66.86% were studied. Acute Kidney Injury was present in 33.14% by AKIN and in 29.59% by RIFLE. Hemodialysis was required by 3.57% and 4.0% of the patients when AKIN and RIFLE were applied respectively. There was 4.0% and 3.57% mortality of patients with Acute Kidney Injury according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively. In 88.76% of the cases, there was good agreement between the two methods in the detection (kappa=0.7380 and stratification (kappa=0.7515 of Acute Kidney Injury. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria have a good agreement in the detection and stratification of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting.

  15. STELLAR 'EGGS' EMERGE FROM MOLECULAR CLOUD (Star-Birth Clouds in M16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This eerie, dark structure, resembling an imaginary sea serpent's head, is a column of cool molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that is an incubator for new stars. The stars are embedded inside finger-like protrusions extending from the top of the nebula. Each 'fingertip' is somewhat larger than our own solar system. The pillar is slowly eroding away by the ultraviolet light from nearby hot stars, a process called 'photoevaporation'. As it does, small globules of especially dense gas buried within the cloud is uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs' -- an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules'. The shadows of the EGGs protect gas behind them, resulting in the finger-like structures at the top of the cloud. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars -- stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually the stars emerge, as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The stellar EGGS are found, appropriately enough, in the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' permanent objects in the sky), a nearby star-forming region 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly- ionized oxygen atoms. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo:

  16. Predictive value of RIFLE classification on prognosis of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiong; CHEN Hui-de; WANG Xiao-wen; ZHAO Song; CHEN Xiu-kai; ZHENG Yue; SONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal timing to start continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) patients has not been accurately established. The recently proposed risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI may provide a method for clinicians to decide the "optimal timing" for starting CRRT under uniform guidelines. The present study aimed: (1) to analyze the correlation between RIFLE stage at the start of CRRT and 90-day survival rate after CRRT start, (2) to further investigate the correlation of RIFLE stage with the malignant kidney outcome in the 90-day survivors, and (3) to determine the influence of the timing of CRRT defined by RIFLE classification on the 90-day survival and malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on the data of 106 critically ill patients with AKI, treated with CRRT during a 6-year period in a university affiliated surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Information such as sex, age, RIFLE stage, sepsis, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of organ failures before CRRT, CRRT time during SiCU, survival, and kidney outcome conditions at 90 days after CRRT start was collected. According to their baseline severity of AKI at the start of CRRT, the patients were assigned to three groups according to the increasing severity of RIFLE stages: RIFLE-R (risk of renal dysfunction, R), RIFLE-I (injury to the kidney, I) and RIFLE-F (failure of kidney function, F) using RIFLE criteria. The malignant kidney outcome was classified as RIFLE-L (loss of kidney function, L) or RIFLE-E (end-stage kidney disease, E) using RIFLE criteria. The correlation between RIFLE stage and 90-day survival rate was analyzed among these three RIFLE-categorized groups. Additionally, the association between RIFLE stage and the malignant kidney outcome (RIFLE-L+RIFLF-E) in the 90-day survivors was analyzed

  17. 33 CFR 334.480 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek and Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Broad River, S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. 334.480..., S.C.; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot rifle and pistol ranges, Parris Island. (a) During periods when the rifle and pistol ranges on Parris Island are in use, the following areas will be restricted to...

  18. An Exploratory Investigation of the Effect of Individualized Computer-Based Instruction on Rifle Marksmanship Performance and Skill. CRESST Report 754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined whether individualized multimedia-based instruction would influence the development of rifle marksmanship skills in novice shooters with little or no prior rifle marksmanship experience. Forty-eight novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to shoot at an 8-inch target at a simulated distance…

  19. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  20. The Influence of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors on the Development of Rifle Marksmanship Skills. CRESST Report 753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…

  1. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in acute myocardial infarction patients: a comparison between AKIN and RIFLE criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Yacov; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gal-Oz, Amir; Steinvil, Arie; Ben Assa, Eyal; Keren, Gad; Roth, Arie; Arbel, Yaron

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with adverse outcomes after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The recently proposed AKI network (AKIN) suggested modifications to the consensus classification system for AKI known as the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage (RIFLE) criteria. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and mortality (early and late) of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria in the STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). We retrospectively studied 1,033 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Recruited patients were admitted between January 2008 and November 2012 to the cardiac intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute STEMI. We compared the utilization of RIFLE and AKIN criteria for the diagnosis, classification, and prediction of mortality. The AKIN criteria allowed the identification of more patients as having AKI (9.6 vs. 3.9 %, p RIFLE) (7.6 vs. 1.9 %, p RIFLE criteria. Mortality was higher in AKI population defined by either RIFLE (46.3 vs. 6.8 %, OR 11.9, 95 % CI 6.15-23.1; p RIFLE and AKIN was an independent predictor of both 30-day and up to 5-year all-cause mortality. However, there was no significant statistical difference in the risk provided by these two scoring systems. AKIN criteria are more sensitive in defining AKI compared with the RIFLE criteria in STEMI. However, no difference exists in the mortality risk provided by these two scoring systems.

  2. Incidence and Mortality of Acute Kidney Injury after Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando B.; Bruetto, Rosana G.; Torres, Ulysses S.; Otaviano, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. Methods and Results In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35–5.25, pRIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59–6.15, pRIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62–3.62, pRIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52–4.28) at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46–3.54) at 1 year (pRIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria. PMID:23894572

  3. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  4. Acute renal failure according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, G; Landa, M; Masevicius, D; Gianassi, S; San-Román, J E; Silva, L; Gimenez, M; Tejerina, O; Díaz-Cisneros, P; Ciccioli, F; do Pico, J L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. A prospective, multicenter observational study with a duration of one year from February 2010 was carried out. RIFLE and AKIN were employed using the urinary (UC) and creatinine criteria (CC) jointly and separately. Nine polyvalent Critical Care Units (CCUs) in Argentina. A total of 627 critical patients over 18 years of age were admitted to the CCU for more than 48h. inability to quantify diuresis, surgical instrumentation of the urinary tract, and need for renal support therapy (RST). Calculated hourly diuresis (CHD) was used to apply the UC. The incidence of ARF was 69.4% and 51.8% according to RIFLE and AKIN, respectively. UC detected ARF in 59.5% of cases, while CC identified ARF in 34.7% (RIFLE) and 25.3% (AKIN). The mortality rate was 40.9% and 44.6% according to RIFLE and AKIN respectively, was significantly higher than in patients without ARF, and increased with disease severity (Data processing: Excel, SQL and SPSS. Levene test, comparison of means with Student t and chi-squared, with 95% confidence interval). RIFLE identified more cases of ARF. UC proved more effective than CC. The presence of ARF and severity levels were correlated to mortality but not to days of stay in the CCU. Implementation of the unified CHD was useful for implementing UC and achieving comparable results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of M16C62 SCM for Thrash-sign Controller System%M16C62单片机在激光打标控制器系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蔷

    2006-01-01

    介绍了一种激光打标控制器,该系统由M16C62单片机(SCM)、存储器接口、键盘和显示接口、串口通信接口和驱动电路接口等部分组成;该方案充分利用M16C62单片机的丰富功能,减少外围电路,提高系统稳定性,方便文件管理.

  6. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilian Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. METHODS: The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9% cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN or Stage Risk (RIFLE. They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+R(-+K(+A(-] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank P<0.001. CONCLUSION: KDIGO criteria identified significantly more CRS type 1 episodes than RIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  7. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    which remained the standard for U.S. military rifles well into the 1960s. The .30-caliber rifle has resurfaced during the current war on terrorism as...the hip and the time limit was reduced to one minute for the second and third trials. The Krag proved capable of firing 15 shots in 32 seconds as a...magazine empty.” Rapidity at will – “Same as test I, except that piece will be fired from the hip , without aim at stop butt at short range; hits

  8. Perbandingan Angka Fertilitas dan Hambatan Perkembangan Embrio Mencit yang Dikultur dalam Medium M16 dan Human Tubal Fluid (THE COMPARISON OF MICE FERTILITY RATE AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT CELL BLOCK WHEN CULTURED IN M16 AND HUMAN TUBAL FLUID MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiati .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the fertility rate and embryonic development cell block ofmice when cultured in M16 and Human Tubal Fluid (HTF media, respectively. Two months old femaleBalbC mice were super ovulated using Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG and Human ChorionicGonadotrophin (HCG prior to mating with vasectomies mice. At 17 hours post mating the mice wassacrificed for the collections of egg cells and spermatozoa. Egg cells were collected by tearing the fertilizationsac, while the sperm were collected from caudal epididymis. After the collection, both the egg cells andsperm were put in Petri dish containing M16 and HTF media and kept in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C for onehour prior to the in vitro fertilization (IVF was performed. In vitro fertilization was performed in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C and kept for 24 hours in M16 and in HTF culture media. The results showed thatfertilization rate was 98.09% and 99.57%; cell block embryonic development was 85.09% and 83.36%when cultured in M16 and HTF media, respectively. In conclusion, HTF media can be used for culturingmouse embryo.

  9. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept c

  10. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839256; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617298; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341156698; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962

    2016-01-01

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept c

  11. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept

  12. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-7 DATE August 2015 ADA THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE ...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T15-7 THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING MARINE RIFLE SQUAD OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN...0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  13. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather) condition

  14. Marksmanship for Young Shooters: The Air Rifle as an Instructional Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julian W., Ed.

    The purposes of this manual, which is part of a series on outdoor education, are: (1) to show some ways in which the spring-type air rifle can be used as an instructional tool in the school curriculum (especially in the elementary school) and in recreational and agency programs involving young shooters and (2) to provide information on the…

  15. Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  16. Effect of carrying a rifle on physiology and biomechanical responses in biathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Bishop, Phil; Höök, Martina; Willis, Sarah; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of carrying a rifle on the physiological and biomechanical responses of well-trained biathletes. Ten elite biathletes (five men and five women) performed ski skating with (R) or without a rifle (NR) on a treadmill using the V2 (5° incline) and V1 techniques (8°) at 8 and 6 km·h(-1), respectively, as well as at racing intensity (approximately 95% of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), 10.7 ± 0.8 and 7.7 ± 0.9 km·h(-1), respectively). V˙O2, ventilation (V˙(E)), HR, blood lactate concentration (BLa), and cycle characteristics as well as pole and leg kinetics were evaluated during these trials. Metabolic data were all higher for R than for NR, as follows: V˙O2, +2.5%; V˙(E), +8.1%; RER, +4.2%; all P rifle reduced cycle time and length, poling and arm swing times, and leg ground contact time and increased cycle rate, the peak and impulse of leg force, average cycle force, and impulse of forefoot force (all P rifle elevated physiological responses, accelerated cycle rate, and involved greater leg work, with no differences between the V1 and V2 techniques.

  17. Assessment of Rifle Marksmanship Skill Using Sensor-Based Measures. CRESST Report 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Sam O.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this report was to test the use of sensor-based skill measures in evaluating performance differences in rifle marksmanship. Ten shots were collected from 30 novices and 9 experts. Three measures for breath control and one for trigger control were used to predict skill classification. The data were fitted with a logistic regression…

  18. Colour-the-INSight : Combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.J.; Hiddema, A.C.; Vliet, S.F. van

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather)

  19. Identification and predicting short-term prognosis of early cardiorenal syndrome type 1: KDIGO is superior to RIFLE or AKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Xinling; Du, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; An, Shengli; Tan, Ning; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Li, Liwen; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) is usually type 1 of the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of AKI is critical. This study was to determine if the new KDIGO criteria (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) for identification and short-term prognosis of early CRS type 1 was superior to the previous RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The association between AKI diagnosed by KDIGO but not by RIFLE or AKIN and in-hospital mortality was retrospectively evaluated in 1005 Chinese adult patients with AHF between July 2008 and May 2012. AKI was defined as RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, respectively. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis of in-hospital mortality. Within 7 days on admission, the incidence of CRS type 1 was 38.9% by KDIGO criteria, 34.7% by AKIN, and 32.1% by RIFLE. A total of 110 (10.9%) cases were additional diagnosed by KDIGO criteria but not by RIFLE or AKIN. 89.1% of them were in Stage 1 (AKIN) or Stage Risk (RIFLE). They accounted for 18.4% (25 cases) of the overall death. After adjustment, this proportion remained an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality [odds ratios (OR)3.24, 95% confidence interval(95%CI) 1.97-5.35]. Kaplan-Meier curve showed AKI patients by RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO and [K(+)R(-)+K(+)A(-)] had lower hospital survival than non-AKI patients (Log Rank PRIFLE or AKIN. AKI missed diagnosed by RIFLE or AKIN criteria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality, indicating the new KDIGO criteria was superior to RIFLE and AKIN in predicting short-term outcomes in early CRS type 1.

  20. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. Wahrhaftig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI: risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7 years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97–3.38, , grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71–8.08, , and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10–10.6, . The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68–0.80, and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, . Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population.

  1. CHANDRA/ACIS-I STUDY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE NGC 6611 AND M16 STELLAR POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS-67, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Prisinzano, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-07-10

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in young stellar objects and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow us to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC 6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age {<=}3 Myr. We study an archival 78 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC 6611 and two new 80 ks observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V and the other on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star formation. We detect 1755 point sources with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars and analyze the X-ray spectral properties of OB stars. Our study supports the lower level of X-ray activity for the disk-bearing stars with respect to the disk-less members. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of M16 is similar to that of Orion, supporting the universality of the XLF in young clusters. Eighty-five percent of the O stars of NGC 6611 have been detected in X-rays. With only one possible exception, they show soft spectra with no hard components, indicating that mechanisms for the production of hard X-ray emission in O stars are not operating in NGC 6611.

  2. Chandra/ACIS-I study of the X-ray properties of the NGC 6611 and M16 stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Drake, J J; Prisinzano, L

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating the origin of X-rays in YSOs and the correlation with their evolutionary stage are under debate. Studies of the X-ray properties in young clusters allow to understand these mechanisms. One ideal target for this analysis is the Eagle Nebula (M16), with its central cluster NGC6611. At 1750 pc from the Sun, it harbors 93 OB stars, together with a population of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to disk-less Class III objects, with age <= 3Myrs. We study an archival 78 ksec Chandra/ACIS-I observation of NGC6611, and two new 80ksec observations of the outer region of M16, one centered on the Column V, and one on a region of the molecular cloud with ongoing star-formation. We detect 1755 point sources, with 1183 candidate cluster members (219 disk-bearing and 964 disk-less). We study the global X-ray properties of M16 and compare them with those of the Orion Nebula Cluster. We also compare the level of X-ray emission of Class II and Class III stars, and analyze the X-ray spectral prope...

  3. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  4. Incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction: a comparison between KDIGO and RIFLE criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI increases the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Recently, a new AKI definition was proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO organization. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence and the early and late mortality of AKI diagnosed by RIFLE and KDIGO criteria in the first 7 days of hospitalization due to an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 1,050 AMI patients were prospectively studied. AKI defined by RIFLE and KDIGO occurred in 14.8% and 36.6% of patients, respectively. By applying multivariate Cox analysis, AKI was associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio (AHR for 30-day death of 3.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35-5.25, p<0.001 by RIFLE and 3.99 (CI 2.59-6.15, p<0.001 by KDIGO and with an AHR for 1-year mortality of 1.84 (CI 1.12-3.01, p=0.016 by RIFLE and 2.43 (CI 1.62-3.62, p<0.001 by KDIGO. The subgroup of patients diagnosed as non-AKI by RIFLE but as AKI by KDIGO criteria had also an increased AHR for death of 2.55 (1.52-4.28 at 30 days and 2.28 (CI 1.46-3.54 at 1 year (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: KDIGO criteria detected substantially more AKI patients than RIFLE among AMI patients. Patients diagnosed as AKI by KDIGO but not RIFLE criteria had a significantly higher early and late mortality. In this study KDIGO criteria were more suitable for AKI diagnosis in AMI patients than RIFLE criteria.

  5. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Gremse, Carl; Kanstrup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Non-lead hunting rifle bullets were developed to make superior quality ammunition, and the need to reduce lead exposure of wildlife and humans. European and US hunters’ concerns about non-lead bullets involve perceptions of availability, costs, efficacy, accuracy, toxicity, and barrel fouling...... companies make non-lead bullets for traditional, rare, and novel rifle calibres. Local retail availability is now a function of consumer demand which relates, directly, to legal requirements for use. Costs of non-lead and equivalent lead-core hunting bullets are similar in Europe and pose no barrier to use....... Efficacy of non-lead bullets is equal to that of traditional lead-core bullets. Perceptions of reduced accuracy and greater barrel fouling must be addressed by industry and hunter organizations and, if verified, resolved. Non-lead bullets are made in fragmenting and non-fragmenting versions...

  6. Clinical characteristics of acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in mass rifle drills without ear protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Seok; Park, Sang-Yong; Park, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Won-Sang

    2011-10-01

    One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises without using any hearing protection. All soldiers had been training on the K2 rifle. We took medical histories; conducted physical examinations and hearing evaluations (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and impedence audiometry); and distributed the Newmann's Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) survey. In addition, we evaluated a normal control group of 64 subjects of similar age who had never fired a rifle. In the patient group, the most common and irritating reported symptom was tinnitus (94.2%), and the average THI score in the patient group was 39.51 ± 14.87, which was significantly higher than the control group score (0.56 ± 3.94) (p < 0.001). Average outcomes of post-exposure air conduction thresholds were 21.33 ± 13.25 dB HL in the affected ears. These levels also were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.16 ± 4.07dB HL) (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was most prominent at high frequencies. An asymmetry of hearing loss related to head position during shooting was not observed. Acoustic trauma induced by gunshot noise can cause permanent tinnitus and hearing loss. Hearing protection (bilateral earplugs) and environmental reform are necessary.

  7. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  8. Stress fractures of forearm bones in military recruits of rifle drill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Lin; Pan, Ru-Yu; Wu, Jia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Shyu-Jye

    2009-10-01

    Stress fractures rarely occur in the forearms. These injuries usually occur in healthy young patients, which are usually neglected by patients or physicians. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid late complications of these fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze a case series of military recruits who participated in rifle drill training and presented with forearm stress fractures at our institution. We evaluated 216 military recruits of rifle drill training. Twelve patients were diagnosed with forearm stress fractures by typical history, physical examination, laboratory studies, serial radiographs, and bone scan examinations. Eighteen fractures were found in 12 patients. On initial radiographs, 11 had periosteal reactions, 4 had callus formation with complete fracture lines, and 3 were normal. All 18 fractures had increase radioactivity in the involved middle (15 of 18) or distal (2 of 18) ulnae and one middle radius (1 of 18). Stress fractures of the forearms in military rifle drill training usually occur in middle ulnae. Fifty percent of them were bilateral fractures. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnosis. Early diagnosis with conservative treatment can achieve satisfactory results and avoid late complications of stress fractures.

  9. Fatal laryngeal oedema in an adult from an air rifle injury, and related ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Nemanja; Cukic, Dragana; Curovic, Ivana; Golubovic, Mileta

    2015-01-01

    Air guns (air pistols and rifles) are already recognized as being potentially lethal. The diabolo pellet has a calibre of .177 (4.5 mm), a 1250 fps velocity, is high energetic, and is most commonly used in such weapons. In the presented case, the victim sustained an air rifle injury to the neck. The pellet passed through the thyroid cartilage, subsequently causing the extensive laryngeal swelling with haematoma around the pellet channel which fatally obstructed the airway. It is estimated microscopically that at least a number of hours must have passed from the injury to the time of death. For this case, a shooting distance was estimated by using experimental shooting values compared to physics formulas for accelerated motion. The case under question has confirmed an applicable legal approach that can be utilized by countries to classify air rifles as being as harmful as other firearms, especially those with high muzzle velocities. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Real-time biomechanical biofeedback effects on top-level rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, David R; Underwood, Stacy M; Shapiro, Robert; Hall, John W

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of training with real-time biomechanical biofeedback on technique and performance of rifle shooters. Top-level shooters were randomly assigned to biofeedback- (n = 5) and control- (n = 4) groups. Bi-weekly training of 20 shots air-rifle for 4 weeks, with pre- and post-tests of 20 shots air-rifle and smallbore, were performed. The biofeedback group received individualized real-time auditory biofeedback on postural- and barrel-stabilities. Results revealed a technique of reducing postural- and barrel-stabilities towards triggering (e.g. barrel speed 8.0 ± 1.2 mm/s at 3.0-1.0 s reducing to 5.4 ± 0.8 mm/s at 0.3-0.1 s). There were no changes pre- to post-tests and no differences between groups in these measures of stability. The biofeedback group showed meaningful improvements in performance measures, whereas the control group showed no improvement (e.g. smallbore shot group diameter change: biofeedback group -2.6 mm; control group 0.1 mm). Biomechanical biofeedback is proposed to have improved performance, possibly through training better decision making, but the actual cause requires further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining acute kidney injury in dengue viral infection by conventional and novel classification systems (AKIN and RIFLE): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Yusra Habib; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2016-02-01

    Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue. 667 patients with dengue were defined and staged according to the conventional definition (CD), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Appropriate statistical methods were used to compare these three criteria. The incidence of AKI during dengue infection was 14.2% by AKIN criteria, 12.6% by RIFLE criteria and 4.2% by CD. AKIN and RIFLE criteria were comparable while AKIN-I identified 11 more patients with AKI than RIFLE-R (76.8% vs. 73.8%, p=0.023). CD was found to be less sensitive than AKIN and RIFLE due to stratification of only severe AKI cases with serum creatinine ≥176.8 µmol/L. Overall mortality was 1.2% and severe stages of AKI were associated with increased mortality (pRIFLE identified six and CD identified three risk factors. Old age, severe dengue and the use of nephrotoxic drugs were found to be independent predictors identified by all criteria while hypertension was only identified by AKIN. The incidence of AKI in dengue infection, the risk factors for its development and clinico-laboratory characteristics vary significantly according to the diagnostic criteria used. In our analysis, AKIN and RIFLE were comparable to each other and superior to CD with regard to early diagnosis and sensitivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Acute kidney injury after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a comparison of AKIN and RIFLE criteria for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, J-Y; Lee, J B; Yoon, Y; Seo, H-S; Song, J-G; Hwang, G S

    2014-12-01

    Although both Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria are frequently used to diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), they have rarely been compared in the diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study investigated the incidence of, and risk factors for, AKI, defined by AKIN and RIFLE criteria, and compared their ability to predict mortality after infrarenal AAA surgery. This study examined 444 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery between January 1999 and December 2011. Risk factors for AKI were assessed by multivariable analyses, and the impact of AKI on overall mortality was assessed by a Cox's proportional hazard model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to assess the performance of AKIN and RIFLE criteria in predicting overall mortality. AKI based on AKIN and RIFLE criteria occurred in 82 (18.5%) and 55 (12.4%) patients, respectively. The independent risk factors for AKI were intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by AKIN criteria, and age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and CKD by RIFLE criteria. After IPTW adjustment, AKI was related to 30 day mortality and overall mortality. NRI was 15.2% greater (P=0.04) for AKIN than for RIFLE criteria in assessing the risk of overall mortality. Although AKI defined by either AKIN or RIFLE criteria was associated with overall mortality, AKIN criteria showed better prediction of mortality in patients undergoing infrarenal AAA surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 5, Addenda D6--D8 to Appendix D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This volume contains appendices D6 through D8 containing laboratory test data: from MK-F investigation, 1987, Old Rifle and New Rifle sites; on bentonite amended radon barrier material; and from MK-F investigation, 1987, riprap tests.

  15. RIFLE classification and mortality in obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute kidney injury: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ebtesam M; Behery, Manal M El; Sayed, Gamal Abbas El; Abdulatif, Howaida K

    2014-10-01

    This study is to assess the correlation of risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification with hospital mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) obstetric patients and to evaluate the relation of acute kidney injury (AKI) to other risk factors. The 4 stages of RIFLE (nonacute renal failure, risk, injury, and failure) were scored from 0 to 3 points, respectively. The prognostic performance of the RIFLE score was compared to the general ICU models. AKI occurred in 30 (5.88%) of patients admitted to ICU. The main causes of AKI were hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome 13 (43%), pregnancy-related hypertension 9 (30%), puerperal sepsis 3 (10%), abruption placentae 2 (6.6%), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 2 (6.6%), and anesthetic complications 1 (3.3%). According to the RIFLE criteria, patients were classified into Risk (3.3%), Injury (16.6%), Failure (33.3%), and Loss (46.6%). Maternal mortality from total ICU admission occurred in 51 (10%) cases, of these 16 (31.3%) cases were due to AKI. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were hyperbilirubinemia, low levels of HCO3, and RIFLE. Receiver-operator characteristic curves for ICU patients according to RIFLE score showed area under the curve = 0.824. The RIFLE classification system could predict the risk of mortality from AKI in obstetric ICU patients and mortality was positively associated with high RIFLE classes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Influence of acute kidney injury on short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: risk factors and prognostic value of a modified RIFLE classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Esteve, Francisco; Torrado, Herminia; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Carrio, Maria L; Farrero, Elisabet; Javierre, Casimiro; Ventura, Josep L; Manez, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome. The modified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification for AKI, which classifies patients with renal replacement therapy needs according to RIFLE failure class, improves the predictive value of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Our aim was to assess risk factors for post-operative AKI and the impact of renal function on short- and long-term survival among all AKI subgroups using the modified RIFLE classification. We prospectively studied 2,940 consecutive cardiosurgical patients between January 2004 and July 2009. AKI was defined according to the modified RIFLE system. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative variables usually measured on and during admission, which included main outcomes, were recorded together with cardiac surgery scores and ICU scores. These data were evaluated for association with AKI and staging in the different RIFLE groups by means of multivariable analyses. Survival was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier and a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. A complete follow-up (mean 6.9 ± 4.3 years) was performed in 2,840 patients up to April 2013. Of those patients studied, 14% (n = 409) were diagnosed with AKI. We identified one intra-operative (higher cardiopulmonary bypass time) and two post-operative (a longer need for vasoactive drugs and higher arterial lactate 24 hours after admission) predictors of AKI. The worst outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, were associated with the worst RIFLE class. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed survival of 74.9% in the RIFLE risk group, 42.9% in the RIFLE injury group and 22.3% in the RIFLE failure group (P RIFLE injury (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.347, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.122 to 4.907, P = 0.023) and RIFLE failure (HR = 3.093, 95% CI 1.460 to 6.550, P = 0.003) were independent predictors for long-term patient mortality

  17. Vibration transmissibility on rifle shooter: A comparison between accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, L.; Casacanditella, L.; Santolini, C.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    The transmission of mechanical vibrations from tools to human subjects is known to be potentially dangerous for the circulatory and neurological systems. It is also known that such damages are strictly depending on the intensity and the frequency range of the vibrational signals transferred to the different anatomical districts. In this paper, very high impulsive signals, generated during a shooting by a rifle, will be studied, being such signals characterised by a very high acceleration amplitude as well as high frequency range. In this paper, it will be presented an experimental setup aimed to collect experimental data relative to the transmission of the vibration signals from the rifle to the shoulder of subject during the shooting action. In particular the transmissibility of acceleration signals, as well as of the velocity signals, between the rifle stock and the subject's back shoulder will be measured using two piezoelectric accelerometers and a single point laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Tests have been carried out in a shooting lab where a professional shooter has conducted the experiments, using different experimental configurations: two different types of stocks and two kinds of bullets with different weights were considered. Two uniaxial accelerometers were fixed on the stock of the weapon and on the back of the shoulder of the shooter respectively. Vibration from the back shoulder was also measured by means of a LDV simultaneously. A comparison of the measured results will be presented and the pros and cons of the use of contact and non-contact transducers will be discussed taking into account the possible sources of the measurement uncertainty as unwanted sensor vibrations for the accelerometer.

  18. Evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI) with RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülger, F; Pehlivanlar Küçük, M; Küçük, A O; İlkaya, N K; Murat, N; Bilgiç, B; Abanoz, H

    2017-07-17

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of AKI development on mortality with four different classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, KDIGO) in critically ill trauma patients followed in the intensive care unit. A retrospective review of 2034 patients in our intensive care unit was conducted between July 2010 and August 2013. A total of 198 patients with primary trauma were included in the study to evaluate the development of AKI. When the presence of AKI was investigated according to the four criteria (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO), the highest incidence of AKI was found according to the KDIGO classification (74.2%), followed by AKIN (72.2%), RIFLE (69.7%), and CK (59.1%). It was observed that more AKI developed according to KDIGO in patients with multiple trauma and thoracic trauma (p = 0.031, p = 0.029). Sixty-two (31%) of the 198 trauma patients monitored in the intensive care unit died; mortality was frequently found high in AKI stage 2 and 3 patients. According to the CK classification, there was a significant increase in mortality in patients with AKI on the first day (p = 0.045). AKI classifications by RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO were independently associated with the risk of in-hospital death. In this study, the presence of AKI was found to be an independent risk factor in the development of in-hospital mortality according to all classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO) in critically traumatic patients followed in ICU, and the compatibility between RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO was the highest among the classification systems.

  19. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  20. Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection following rifle butt recoil chest injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mamatha; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Jufaili, Mahmood; Valiath, John

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  1. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting......The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...

  2. Using GRIN to save 50% lens weight for an 8x rifle scope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, R. A.; Beadie, G.

    2017-05-01

    Starting with a literature-based design for a rifle scope, we demonstrate the potential to replace large, heavy glass lenses with polymer-based GRIN lenses with little optical penalty, while saving 50% of the lens weight in the system. Several properties of the primary design are chosen to favor manufacturability, such as leaving glass for the external surfaces and choosing polymers and GRIN geometries based on proven fabrication techniques. Compared to the reference design which weighed 154 g, the GRIN-substituted design weighed 78 g while maintaining visually constant performance from 0-40°C.

  3. Oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite in groundwater at Old Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Veeramani, Harish; Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Blue, Lisa Y.; Giammar, Dianiel E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Suvorova, Elena; Yabusaki, Steve; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Mehta, Apurva; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Reductive bioremediation is currently being explored as a possible strategy for uranium-contaminated aquifers such as the Old Rifle site (Colorado). The stability of U(IV) phases under oxidizing conditions is key to the performance of this procedure. An in situ method was developed to study oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO2), a desirable U(VI) bioreduction product, in the Old Rifle, CO, aquifer under different variable oxygen conditions. Overall uranium loss rates were 50–100 times slower than laboratory rates. After accounting for molecular diffusion through the sample holders, a reactive transport model using laboratory dissolution rates was able to predict overall uranium loss. The presence of biomass further retarded diffusion and oxidation rates. These results confirm the importance of diffusion in controlling in-aquifer U(IV) oxidation rates. Upon retrieval, uraninite was found to be free of U(VI), indicating dissolution occurred via oxidation and removal of surface atoms. Interaction of groundwater solutes such as Ca2+ or silicate with uraninite surfaces also may retard in-aquifer U loss rates. These results indicate that the prolonged stability of U(IV) species in aquifers is strongly influenced by permeability, the presence of bacterial cells and cell exudates, and groundwater geochemistry.

  4. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  5. Floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenoff, L.E.

    1960-01-01

    The floods of May 1959 in the Au Gres and Rifle River basins, Michigan, resulted from heavy rainfall during the night of May 19-20. Peak unit discharges for small drainage areas (less than about 15 square miles) were the highest ever measured in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and for very small areas (about one square mile) were of the same order of magnitude as those for the record Ontonagon River flood of August 1942 in the Upper Peninsula.Because the flood area is sparsely populated, damages were largely confined to farm lands and facilities and to secondary roads and their appurtenant drainage structures.The U. S. Geological Survey, through the district office in Lansing, Michigan, operates a network of streamgaging stations and crest-stage stations in the area affected by this flood. Six recording rain gages are operated in the upper Rifle River basin. Most of the gaging stations have been in operation for 7 to 9 years giving systematic records of stage, discharge, and volume of flow covering the range from drought to flood. This report contains records of-stage and discharge at 9 gaging stations for the floodperiod, peak discharges at 7 crest-stage stationsand 2 miscellaneous sites within the flood area, andother data pertinent to the flood.

  6. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  7. Relation of Elite Rifle Shooters' Technique-Test Measures to Competition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Simo; Linnamo, Vesa; Mononen, Kaisu; Kuitunen, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters. Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters' competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period. Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05-.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = -.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = -.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = -.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000). The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

  8. Numerical simulation of multi-rifled tube drawing - finding proper feedstock dimensions and tool geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, P.; Buček, P.; Ridzoň, M.; Mojžiš, M.; Parilák, L.'

    2017-02-01

    Production of multi-rifled seamless steel tubes is quite a new technology in Železiarne Podbrezová. Therefore, a lot of technological questions emerges (process technology, input feedstock dimensions, material flow during drawing, etc.) Pilot experiments to fine tune the process cost a lot of time and energy. For this, numerical simulation would be an alternative solution for achieving optimal parameters in production technology. This would reduce the number of experiments needed, lowering the overall costs of development. However, to claim the numerical results to be relevant it is necessary to verify them against the actual plant trials. Searching for optimal input feedstock dimension for drawing of multi-rifled tube with dimensions Ø28.6 mm × 6.3 mm is what makes the main topic of this paper. As a secondary task, effective position of the plug - die couple has been solved via numerical simulation. Comparing the calculated results with actual numbers from plant trials a good agreement was observed.

  9. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  10. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  11. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  12. Prospecting for natural attenuation: Coupled geophysical-biogeochemical studies at DOE's Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Long, P. E.; Flores Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2011-12-01

    Research activities at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado (USA) are designed to integrate geochemical, biological, and hydrological studies to enhance our understanding of subsurface uranium mobility. While much of the research activities at the site have focused on stimulating subsurface microbial activity through acetate amendment, there is growing interest in the role that natural biogeochemical processes play in constraining uranium mobility in the aquifer. Such processes constitute a form of natural uranium attenuation in the subsurface and are inferred to result from elevated concentrations of natural organic matter associated with alluvial sediments. Referred to as naturally reduced zones (NRZ's), they are characterized by the presence of reduced and/or magnetic mineral phases (e.g. FeS, FeS2, and Fe3O4), elevated Fe(II), and refractory organic carbon compounds (e.g. roots, twigs, and cones). Elevated rates of microbial activity associated with NRZ's and their mineralogical makeup act to sequester uranium from groundwater at levels higher that background alluvium. Their unique composition within a matrix of relatively oxidized, low-bioactivity sediments constitutes a potential target for a variety of exploration geophysical techniques, such as induced polarization and magnetic susceptibility. Both methods have been successfully applied at the Rifle IFRC site to delineate the ubiquity and extent of NRZ's across the floodplain. Sediments recovered from drilling targets identified through the use of exploration geophysical techniques have identified elevated uranium concentrations associated with both magnetite and framboid pyrite; however, the extent to which such minerals are the direct product of in situ microbial activity remains unknown. While diverse, the microbial community composition of NRZ's suggest dominance by fermentative organisms capable of degrading lignitic carbon to low molecular weight organic

  13. Numerical Study of Modular 5.56 mm Standard Assault Rifle Referring to Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Płatek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes investigations carried out to verify a loading mechanism of a newly designed modular assault rifle MSBS-5.56. A complex character of interaction between its elements during a reloading process encouraged the authors implement a numerical approach based on the multibody system to specify the essential dynamic characteristics. The achieved results were compared to the data recorded during the experimental tests on the shooting range. Owing to the proposed modelling methodology, a good agreement between experimental and numerical studies has been achieved.A numerical model presented in the paper will be applied in further investigations to analyse strength parameters of the reloading mechanism and to conduct additional optimisation studies.

  14. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  15. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  16. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  17. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  19. The RIFLE versus AKIN classification for incidence and mortality of acute kidney injury in critical ill patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiachuan; Tang, Xi; Hu, Zhangxue; Nie, Ling; Wang, Yiqin; Zhao, Jinghong

    2015-12-07

    The sensitivity and accuracy of the Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/End-stage (RIFLE) versus acute kidney injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the incidence and prognostic value of the RIFLE versus AKIN criteria for AKI in critically ill patients. Literatures were identified by searching Medline, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. Nineteen studies with 171,889 participants were included. The pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) were analyzed. We found that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria is different for the incidence of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (P = 0.02, RR = 0.88), while not for cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.30, RR = 0.93). For AKI-related hospital mortality, the AKIN criteria did not show a better ability in predicting hospital mortality in either ICU (P = 0.19, RR = 1.01) or cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.61, RR = 0.98) compared to RIFLE criteria. Our findings supported that the AKIN criteria can identify more patients in classifying AKI compared to RIFLE criteria, but not showing a better ability in predicting hospital mortality. Moreover, both RIFLE and AKIN criteria for AKI in cardiac surgery patients had better predictive ability compared with the ICU patients.

  20. 小口径火炮数控拉线机床设计与研究%Design and research on CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胜龙; 王新科; 景富军

    2012-01-01

    膛线是火炮身管的命脉线,膛线的加工质量决定了火炮的有效射程、命中率和寿命.针对国内外火炮膛线加工技术差距,结合小口径火炮膛线加工工艺,设计了小口径火炮数控拉线机床,并对机床关键结构与控制系统进行了描述.%The rifle is a key factor for rifled barrel , and the rifle processing quality decided the effective firing range, shooting accuracy and lifetime. Aiming at the rifle processing technology gap at home and a-broad, and considering the rifle processing technology for small caliber piece, we designed the CNC rifle broaching machine for small caliber piece, and described its key structures and control system.

  1. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    more than counteract the beneficial effect of any semiautomatic rifle” (Canfield, 2009, p. 6). In his letter, MacArthur also mentions utilizing the...overall weapon weight. The design called for construction using lighter materials such as polymers and aircraft grade aluminum. The M16’s polymer

  2. Predictive value of the RIFLE urine output criteria on contrast-induced nephropathy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Aldjia; Defrance, Pierre; Lalmand, Jacques; Delcour, Christian; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michaël

    2016-03-28

    To investigate the predictive value of decreased urine output based on the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification on contrast- induced acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) in intensive care (ICU) patients. All patients who received contrast media (CM) injection for CT scan or coronary angiography during a 3-year period in a 24 bed medico-surgical ICU were reviewed. Daily serum creatinine concentrations and diuresis were measured for 3 days after CM injection. We identified 23 cases of CA-AKI in the 149 patients included (15.4 %). Patients who developed CA-AKI were more likely to require renal replacement therapy and had higher ICU mortality rates. At least one RIFLE urine output criteria was observed in 45 patients (30.2 %) and 14 of these 45 patients (31.1 %) developed CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations. In 30 % of these cases, urine output decreased or didn't change after the increase in creatinine concentrations. The RIFLE urine output criteria had low sensitivity (39.1 %) and specificity (67.9 %) for prediction of CA-AKI, a low positive predictive value of 50 % and a negative predictive value of 87.2 %. The maximal dose of vasopressors before CM was the only independent predictive factor for CA-AKI. CA-AKI is a frequent pathology observed in ICU patients and is associated with increased need for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. The predictive value of RIFLE urine output criteria for the development of CA-AKI based on creatinine concentrations was low, which limits its use for assessing the effects of therapeutic interventions on the development and progression of AKI.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  4. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  5. Importance of RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) in Hemodialysis Initiation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Iskender; Yildirim, Fatma; Kayacan, Esra; Bilaloğlu, Burcu; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin

    2017-07-01

    Our study evaluated the differences between early and late hemodialysis (HD) initiation in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications. On the assumption that early initiation of HD in critical patients according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria decreases mortality, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 68 patients in our medical ICU and divided the patients into 2 groups: Those undergoing HD in no risk, risk, or injury stage according to RIFLE and in stage 0, I, or II according to AKIN were defined as early HD and those in failure stage according to RIFLE and in stage III according to AKIN were defined as late HD. The median age of the patients was 66.5 years, and 56.5% were male. HD was started in 25% and 39.7% of the patients in the early stage in the RIFLE and AKIN classification, respectively. According to RIFLE, HD was started in 61.5% of the surviving patients in the early stage; this rate was 16.4% in the deceased patients (P=0.001). HD was commenced in 69.2% of the surviving patients in AKIN stages 0, I, and II and in 32.7% of the deceased patients (P=0.026). Sepsis (61.5% vs. 94.5%; P=0.001) and mechanical ventilation (30.8% vs. 87.3%; PRIFLE decreased ICU mortality (61.5% vs. 16.4%; P=0.001). In conclusion, in critically ill patients, HD initiation in the early stages according to the RIFLE classification decreased our ICU mortality.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Meteorological Data to Assess Evapotranspiration and Infiltration at the Rifle Site, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Long, P. E.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Christensen, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Net infiltration to the vadose zone, especially in arid or semi-arid climates, is an important control on microbial activity and solute and green house gas fluxes. To assess net infiltration, we performed a statistical analysis of meteorological data as the basis for hydrological and climatic investigations and predictions for the Rifle site, Colorado, USA, located within a floodplain in a mountainous region along the Colorado River, with a semi-arid climate. We carried out a statistical analysis of meteorological 30-year time series data (1985-2015), including: (1) precipitation data, taking into account the evaluation of the snowmelt, (2) evaluation of the evapotranspiration (reference and actual), (3) estimation of the multi-time-scalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), (4) evaluation of the net infiltration rate, and (5) corroborative analysis of calculated net infiltration rate and groundwater recharge from radioisotopic measurements from samples collected in 2013. We determined that annual net infiltration percentage of precipitation varies from 4.7% to ~18%, with a mean of ~10%, and concluded that calculations of net infiltration based on long-term meteorological data are comparable with those from strontium isotopic investigations. The evaluation of the SPEI showed the intermittent pattern of droughts and wet periods over the past 30 years, with a detectable decreasein the duration of droughts with time. Local measurements within the floodplain indicate a recharge gradient with increased recharge closer to the Colorado River.

  7. Sorption of U(VI) to G. uraniireducens and A. palmae under Old Rifle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Howe, K.; Comolli, L.; Long, P.; Stucker, V.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial reduction as a remediation method for uranium contaminated Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been explored with promising results. Although transport models have been improved to include variations in geochemical concentration, reductive microbial processes and adsorption of uranium to minerals, they do not incorporate the presence of microbes as possible sorption surfaces that may influence the overall transport of uranium. Our overall objective is to examine U(VI) sorption to biomass by determining partition coefficients between U(VI) and the microbial species of Geobacter uraniireducens and Acholeplasma palmae. Once these partition coefficients are obtained, they will be incorporated into a thermodynamic model with the geochemical parameters of the Old Rifle Site. Preliminary results indicate that U(VI) sorbs 1000X more strongly to bacteria under atmospheric pCO2 conditions than under 2% pCO2 conditions. U(VI) sorption to the surface of G. uraniireducens is 4X stronger than to the surface of A. Palmae and in high-DIC waters is comparable in strength to reported U(VI)-mineral surface sorption. While the concentration of G. uraniireducens during and after remediation results in relatively small sorption site density, the possibility persists that sorption to G. uraniireducens may retard uranium transport at the geochemical gradients which exist in nature.

  8. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  9. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  10. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  11. [The forensic medical characteristic of the factors associated with a shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and the inflicted injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭzberg, S A; Makarov, I Iu; Lorents, A S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the structural characteristics of the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and three regular types of the bullets differing in the head shape fired from it. Morphological features of the injuries inflicted by such bullets are described in conjunction with the peculiarities of precipitation of the shot products in their projection as the prerequisites for their objective differentiation. Results: The study allowed to reveal the composition of the gunshot residues and to determine the maximum distance of their distribution. The specific features of experimental damage inflicted by the shots from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle to the coarse white calico fabric targets were shown to depend on the shot range. The objective signs of the so-called "short-range" shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle were described for the first time.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  13. Tracking transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter using fluorescence spectroscopy at Rifle vadose zone, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the most mobile and active form of natural organic matter. It plays important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles. Its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and climate change. The objective of this study is to investigate the transport and transformation of DOM by tracking the spatial and seasonal variations of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers were installed along a groundwater flow transect, and allowed collection of temporally resolved pore water samples from different depths. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was used to trace changes in DOM characteristics. The humification index (HIX) was applied to evaluate variations in humification extent of DOM. EEM analysis identified fulvic-like, humic-like, tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore waters. Tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like compounds are typically considered as the recent microbial by-products, and they showed higher concentrations in the deeper vadose zone in late spring, and decrease from spring to winter. HIX values are smaller within the deeper vadose zone (1.5 ̶ 3.5 m) than in the overlying 1.0 m soil water and underlying groundwater samples (≥ 3.5 m), suggesting that some non- or less-humified DOM (or "fresh" microbial-derived DOM) was transferred during late spring. HIX value at each depth increased continuously from late spring to winter, with rapid humification occurring in late spring to early summer. These results suggest an annual cycle in which less humified soil organic matter is transferred into the deeper vadose zone during snowmelt/rainfall events, and then humified further through microbial transformation.

  14. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  15. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16.  Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Aortic Dissection Following Rifle Butt Recoil Chest Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Valiath

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  17. Uranium and Strontium Isotopic Study of the Hydrology of the Alluvial Aquifer at the Rifle Former U Mine Tailings Site, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. N.; Shiel, A. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Rifle Site consists of a floodplain along the Colorado River that was remediated through the removal of surface material underlying former uranium-vanadium mill tailings. The semi-arid (precip. = ~30 cm/year) catchment for the site has an area of ~1km2. The Rifle Site provides an excellent field laboratory for the study of the fluxes of water and carbon from the vadose zone to groundwater (LBNL SFA2.0, http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/sssfa2/). A network of monitoring wells, particularly a set instrumented in the vadose zone, provide the opportunity to closely sample groundwater and vadose zone porewater both in space and time. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variation of vadose zone interaction with groundwater within the Rifle floodplain and provide constraints for a Rifle hydrological model, we have analyzed the Sr isotopic compositions, 234U/238U activity ratios, and d238U of groundwater, vadose zone porewater (sampled through depth-distributed lysimeters) and surface water including the Colorado River. Significant contrasts in 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U allow the identification of different sources contributing to Rifle groundwater, while d238U provides an additional tracer and insights into redox processes. Vadose zone porewater is characterized by high 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations and falls at one end of a mixing line with Rifle groundwater, while upgradient groundwater with lower 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations falls at the other end. A mixing model using vadose zone porewater and upgradient groundwater as endmembers suggests that the contribution of vertical recharge through the floodplain increases to ~20% systematically across the floodplain towards the Colorado River. An exception to this pattern is a well located 150m from the river with recent high U concentrations (>300 ppb) and U and Sr isotopic compositions consistent with a 38% vadose zone contribution. U and Sr isotopes show that an irrigation-return ditch that cuts

  18. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  19. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  20. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  1. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  2. Near-surface seismic surveys at Rifle, Colorado for shallow groundwater contamination risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zelt, C. A.; Levander, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August 2012, we carried out a series of seismic surveys at a site located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The ground water beneath this site was contaminated by former vanadium and uranium ore-processing operations from 1924 through 1958. The site is on an alluvial terrace created by a flood-plain meander of the Colorado River. On the south side, the terrace is bounded by a steep descending slope to the Colorado River; on the other sides, it is bounded by ascending slopes of the more resistant sedimentary rocks of the Wasatch Formation. Although remedial actions have been taken to remove the contaminated surface materials, there are still potential risks from residual materials and redistribution of the contaminated water harming human health. This seismic project, funded by The U.S. Department of Energy, was designed to provide hydrogeologic information through sub-surface velocity model building and imaging of the water aquifer. A 3D compressional wave seismic survey covers an area that is 96 m in the N-S direction by 60 m in the E-W direction. An orthogonal, symmetric receiver and source template was used with 24 receiver lines, 96 channels per receiver line, and 2.5 m between lines. The inline shot and receiver spacing is 2 m and 1 m, respectively. The source was an accelerated weight drop striking a metal plate. The source has a dominant frequency at ~60 Hz, and is down by 20 db at 20 Hz and 150 Hz, providing data suitable for seismic tomography and seismic migration methods. Besides this 3D survey, three other seismic experiments were performed: (1) a 2D multi-component source and receiver survey, (2) a 3D surface wave experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones, and (3) an ambient noise experiment using 4.5 Hz geophones to record passing vehicles and trains. Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented.

  3. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  4. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Cañal-Bruland, R.; Wurff, P. van der; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop th

  5. Impact of glycemic control on the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a comparison of two strategies using the RIFLE criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.

  6. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  7. Metatranscriptomic Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Rifle (CO) Subsurface Relevant to C, S, N, and Fe Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is a limited understanding of the chemolithoautotrophic activity of aquifer microorganisms, such subsurface microbial activity could greatly influence the cycling of elements such as C, S, N, and Fe. Here, we present transcriptional (RNA-Seq) evidence of the emergence of such chemolithoautotrophic activities in groundwater filter samples from a 2-month experiment in which up to 1.5 mM nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic/anoxic aquifer (Rifle, CO) containing a large reservoir of reduced Fe- and S-containing compounds. Illumina sequence data from rRNA-subtracted cDNA libraries was assembled and mapped to phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome data. Indicative of the activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, many high-abundance transcripts mapped to the Gallionellaceae family, whose known members are chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that catalyze Fe(II) oxidation. For example, included among the most abundant transcripts were a cold-shock protein and an acyl carrier protein with 96-98% protein sequence identity to Gallionella capsiferriformans and a nitrite reductase (nirS) gene likely belonging to a Sideroxydans relative. The apparent activity of Gallionellaceae members is consistent with 16S rRNA iTag analyses of these samples, which indicated that Gallionella-related taxa accounted for up to ~50% of these communities. Evidence of sulfide oxidation also was apparent in these samples. For example, highly expressed subunits of APS reductase were very similar to those of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic S- and Fe(II)-oxidizing Thiobacillus denitrificans in terms of sequence identity (98-99%) and synteny of the mapped scaffold. Also highly expressed were a ß-Proteobacterial Form II RubisCO gene and a hydrazine oxidoreductase gene (93% identity to the planctomycete KSU-1), the latter strongly indicative of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity, which has seldom been reported in aquifer environments. Such

  8. Comparacao dos criterios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO quanto a capacidade de predicao de mortalidade em pacientes graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Machado Levi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em pacientes gravemente enfermos, sendo os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO utilizados para sua classificação. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a comparação dos critérios citados quanto à capacidade de predição de mortalidade em pacientes gravemente enfermos. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, utilizando como fonte de dados prontuários médicos. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os critérios de exclusão foram tempo de internamento menor que 24 horas e doença renal crônica dialítica. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta ou óbito Para análise dos dados, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, qui-quadrado, regressão logística multivariada e curva ROC. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 64 anos, com mulheres e afrodescendentes representando maioria. Segundo o RIFLE, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 22,58%, 24,19% e 35,48% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda e em estágios Risk, Injury e Failure, respectivamente. Quanto ao AKIN, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 12,90% e 40,32% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. Considerando o KDIGO 2012, a taxa de mortalidade foi de 17,74%, 29,03%, 11,29% e 41,94% para pacientes sem lesão renal aguda, estágio I, estágio II e estágio III, respectivamente. As três classificações apresentaram resultados de curvas ROC para mortalidade semelhantes. Conclusão: Os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO apresentaram-se como boas ferramentas para predição de mortalidade em pacientes graves, não havendo diferença relevante entre os mesmos.

  9. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  10. Carrying a rifle with both hands affects upper body transverse plane kinematics and pelvis-trunk coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Joseph F; Hasselquist, Leif; Bensel, Carolyn K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how carrying a rifle in both hands affects upper body motion and coordination during locomotion. In total, 11 male soldiers walked (1.34 m/s) and ran (2.46 m/s) with a weapon (M4 condition) and without a weapon (NW condition) while kinematic pelvis and trunk data were collected. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare segmental ranges of motion (ROM), pelvis-trunk coordination (continuous relative phase) and coordination variability between gait mode and weapon combinations. Carrying a weapon decreased sagittal plane trunk ROM at both speeds and increased trunk rotation during running. Mean (±SD) transverse plane coordination was more in-phase while carrying a weapon (M4 = 83°±31, NW = 60°±36, p = 0.027) and transverse plane coordination variability decreased (M4 = 23°±3.6, NW = 15°±4.4, p = 0.043). Coordination differences between M4 and NW were similar to differences reported in the literature between individuals with and without back pain. Long-term injury implications due to decreased coordination variability are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Knowledge of the effects of rifle carriage on pelvis-trunk coordination may provide insight into short-term protective strategies and long-term injury mechanisms. These should be considered in occupations requiring individuals to carry torso loads in combination with holding an object in both hands that restricts arm swing.

  11. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  12. Assessing the Effects of Suomi NPP VIIRS M15/M16 Detector Radiometric Stability and Relative Spectral Response Variation on Striping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern satellite radiometers have many detectors with different relative spectral response (RSR. Effect of RSR differences on striping and the root cause of striping in sensor data record (SDR radiance and brightness temperature products have not been well studied. A previous study used MODTRAN radiative transfer model (RTM to analyze striping. In this study, we make efforts to find the possible root causes of striping. Line-by-Line RTM (LBLRTM is used to evaluate the effect of RSR difference on striping and the atmospheric dependency for VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The results show that previous study using MODTRAN is repeatable: the striping is related to the difference between band-averaged and detector-level RSR, and the BT difference has some atmospheric dependency. We also analyzed VIIRS earth view (EV data with several striping index methods. Since the EV data is complex, we further analyze the onboard calibration data. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test shows that the noise along track direction is the major reason for striping. We also found evidence of correlation between solar diffuser (SD and blackbody (BB for detector 1 in M15. Digital Count Restoration (DCR and detector instability are possibly related to the striping in SD and EV data, but further analysis is needed. These findings can potentially lead to further SDR processing improvements.

  13. A Comparison of Traditional and Novel Definitions (RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO) of Acute Kidney Injury for the Prediction of Outcomes in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K.; Mc Gorrian, Catherine; Treacy, Cecelia; Kavanaugh, Edel; Brennan, Alice; Mahon, Niall G.; Murray, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if newer criteria for diagnosing and staging acute kidney injury (AKI) during heart failure (HF) admission are more predictive of clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year than the traditional worsening renal function (WRF) definition. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected clinical data on 637 HF admissions with 30-day and 1-year follow-up. The incidence, stages, and outcomes of AKI were determined using the following four definitions: KDIGO, RIFLE, AKIN, and WRF (serum creatinine rise ≥0.3 mg/dl). Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability of each AKI definition for the occurrence of adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalization, dialysis). Results AKI by any definition occurred in 38.3% (244/637) of cases and was associated with an increased incidence of 30-day (32.3 vs. 6.9%, χ2 = 70.1; p < 0.001) and 1-year adverse outcomes (67.5 vs. 31.0%, χ2 = 81.4; p < 0.001). Most importantly, there was a stepwise increase in primary outcome with increasing stages of AKI severity using RIFLE, KDIGO, or AKIN (p < 0.001). In direct comparison, there were only small differences in predictive abilities between RIFLE and KDIGO and WRF concerning clinical outcomes at 30 days (AUC 0.76 and 0.74 vs. 0.72, χ2 = 5.6; p = 0.02) as well as for KDIGO and WRF at 1 year (AUC 0.67 vs. 0.65, χ2 = 4.8; p = 0.03). Conclusion During admission for HF, the benefits of using newer AKI classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, KDIGO) lie with the ability to identify those patients with more severe degrees of AKI who will go on to experience adverse events at 30 days and 1 year. The differences in terms of predictive abilities were only marginal. PMID:23801998

  14. Implementation of RIFLE criteria and assessment of factors that affect the prognosis in patients with acute renal failure in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Alper Usluoğulları

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute renal failure (ARF was seen in 5-20%of patients in intensive care unit (ICU. The disturbancesof metabolic and hormonal functions contribute to increasethe rate of mortality and morbidity in the patientswhose have ARF. In our study, firstly we separated thepatients, have ARF, into the groups as RIFLE classificationafter that we compared the collected data from clinicand laboratory, at the same time we evaluated the factorsmay effects the prognosis of patients.Methods: The fifty patients that have ARF in the intensivecare unit of Başkent Universty Hospital were included.The patients divided into three groups, which are calledrisk, injury and failure according to RIFLE classification.The grouped patients are compared as laboratory andclinical features. We planned that divide the patients intotwo groups as died and alive according to prospective followup, when we put diagnosis, we record the vital signsand laboratory values.Results: There is a considerable difference as statisticalbetween RIFLE groups about insulin resistance (HOMAIR.(p =0,034, p =0,004. When we compare the patientwhether they needs hemodialysis or not, during the patientbeing at intensive care unit, and mortality rate, wesaw considerable difference as statistical (p =0,017, p=0,010, p =0,001. Glucose, insulin level, and HOMA-IRobserved meaningful as statistical in the exitus groups. (p=0,040, p=0.048, p =0,001.Conclusion: We think that the close monitoring of bloodglucose and the controlled insulin treatment may be beneficialby taking into consideration of high mortality rate inthe patient with ARF accompanying hyperglycemia andinsulin resistance.Key words: ARF, RIFLE classification, hyperglycemia,prognosis

  15. Prognosis of acute kidney injury in dogs using RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure)-like criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Chang, C-C; Chan, J P-W; Hsu, W-L; Lin, K-W; Wong, M-L

    2011-03-12

    A retrospective case-series study evaluated the prognosis of 853 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage renal failure) criteria, derived from human medicine. The 30-day mortality of dogs with AKI in each class was found to be 23.8 per cent (40 of 168) dogs for Risk, 41.0 per cent (107 of 261) dogs for Injury and 78.5 per cent (333 of 424) dogs for Failure. Using the dogs in the Risk class as the reference, the mortality of dogs in either the Injury or Failure class was significantly higher than that of dogs in the Risk class (PFailure class (three days). Using a multiple logistic regression model, a new score that simultaneously considered RIFLE class, diarrhoea status and serum phosphorus level was calculated to predict prognosis. Evaluation using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) indicated that the new scoring method (AUROC 0.80) was a better prognostic indicator than using RIFLE criteria alone (AUROC 0.73).

  16. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during biostimulation experiments at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Kowalsky, Michael B; Englert, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S

    2010-03-01

    Electron donor amendment for bioremediation often results in precipitation of secondary minerals and the growth of biomass, both of which can potentially change flow paths and the efficacy of bioremediation. Quantitative estimation of precipitate and biomass distribution has remained challenging, partly due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of natural porous media and the scarcity of field data. In this work, we examine the effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on the spatial distributions of mineral precipitates and biomass accumulated during a biostimulation field experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Field bromide breakthrough data were used to infer a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity through inverse transport modeling, while the solid phase Fe(III) content was determined by assuming a negative correlation with hydraulic conductivity. Validated by field aqueous geochemical data, reactive transport modeling was used to explicitly keep track of the growth of the biomass and to estimate the spatial distribution of precipitates and biomass. The results show that the maximum mineral precipitation and biomass accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the injection wells, occupying up to 5.4vol.% of the pore space, and is dominated by reaction products of sulfate reduction. Accumulation near the injection wells is not strongly affected by heterogeneities present in the system due to the ubiquitous presence of sulfate in the groundwater. However, accumulation in the down-gradient regions is dominated by the iron-reducing reaction products, whose spatial patterns are strongly controlled by both physical and geochemical heterogeneities. Heterogeneities can lead to localized large accumulation of mineral precipitates and biomass, increasing the possibility of pore clogging. Although ignoring the heterogeneities of the system can lead to adequate prediction of the average behavior of sulfate-reducing related products, it can also lead to an

  17. An investigation into the behaviour of air rifle pellets in ballistic gel and their interaction with bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Beard, J; Allison, R

    2010-07-15

    Although air weapons are considerably lower in power than other firearms, there is increasing concern that serious injuries can result from their misuse. The present study was therefore carried out to improve understanding of the terminal ballistic behaviour of air rifle pellets. Pellets were fired into ballistic gel under a variety of conditions. The pellets penetrated further than anticipated from their low cross-sectional density, and Bloom number was not necessarily a good guide to gel behaviour. Pellet penetration into the gel decreased with increasing gel concentration, and appeared to be linear at higher concentrations. Pointed pellets penetrated up to 50% further than rounded pellets. Power and range affect penetration, but other factors are also important, and power alone is not a simple guide to potential penetration. Test firings were also carried out firing pellets into ballistic gel that contained sections of animal bone. Computed tomography (CT) and visual observation were employed to record the interactions. CT scanning showed potential as a tool for examining pellet damage. The bone appeared to be undamaged, but the pellets were severely deformed on impact. If the pellet strikes the bone at an angle, less energy is absorbed by the impact and the pellet fragments may ricochet and cause further damage in the gel. A tentative model is proposed for estimating the energy absorbed by the impact.

  18. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  19. Physico-Chemical Heterogeneity of Organic-Rich Sediments in the Rifle Aquifer, CO: Impact on Uranium Biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Pham, Don Q; O'Brien, Timothy M; Hausladen, Debra; Noël, Vincent; Lallier, Florent; Maher, Kate; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Rifle alluvial aquifer along the Colorado River in west central Colorado contains fine-grained, diffusion-limited sediment lenses that are substantially enriched in organic carbon and sulfides, as well as uranium, from previous milling operations. These naturally reduced zones (NRZs) coincide spatially with a persistent uranium groundwater plume. There is concern that uranium release from NRZs is contributing to plume persistence or will do so in the future. To better define the physical extent, heterogeneity and biogeochemistry of these NRZs, we investigated sediment cores from five neighboring wells. The main NRZ body exhibited uranium concentrations up to 100 mg/kg U as U(IV) and contains ca. 286 g of U in total. Uranium accumulated only in areas where organic carbon and reduced sulfur (as iron sulfides) were present, emphasizing the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions to uranium retention and the essential role of organic matter. NRZs further exhibited centimeter-scale variations in both redox status and particle size. Mackinawite, greigite, pyrite and sulfate coexist in the sediments, indicating that dynamic redox cycling occurs within NRZs and that their internal portions can be seasonally oxidized. We show that oxidative U(VI) release to the aquifer has the potential to sustain a groundwater contaminant plume for centuries. NRZs, known to exist in other uranium-contaminated aquifers, may be regionally important to uranium persistence.

  20. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  1. RIFLE 评分评价妊娠并发急性肾损伤的发生和预后%The evaluation value of RIFLE scoring for occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云宏; 顾勤; 刘宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用RIFLE评分评价重症监护室(ICU)收治的重症孕产妇妊娠并发急性肾损伤(AKI)的发生情况及临床预后情况。方法采用回顾性分析的方法研究2009年6月至2012年6月三年间南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院ICU收治重症孕产妇的临床资料。采用2004年急性透析质量指导组(ADQI)推荐诊断标准,将入组患者分为非妊娠并发AKI组及妊娠并发AKI组,AKI组组内按RIFLE评分的分期标准分为严重程度不同的“风险期(R)”、“损伤期(I)”、“衰竭期(F)”,比较各期患者住院期间急性生理学和慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)评分、肾功能转归、需要肾脏替代治疗例数、住ICU和住院时间及死亡率等指标。结果3年内共有81例重症孕产妇收住ICU,妊娠并发AKI的发生率为23.5%(19/81),其中10例患者需要肾脏替代治疗,转出ICU时11例患者肾功能完全恢复,4例患者肾功能部分恢复,4例患者肾功能未恢复。根据RIFLE评分的分期标准对妊娠并发AKI患者分组,其中7例符合R期,6例符合Ⅰ期,6例符合F期。R期患者中无发展到F期,Ⅰ期患者中1例发展到F期。F期患者APACHEⅡ评分[(14.5±6.72)分]明显高于R期患者[(6.86±2.79)分](P=0.008),三亚组组间肾功能转归(完全恢复、部分恢复、未恢复)有显著性差异(P=0.026),F期患者住ICU时间[(10.17±5.81)d]较R期[(4.00±4.12)d]患者明显延长(P=0.039)。结论危重孕产妇发生妊娠并发AKI的概率较高,RIFLE评分的不同分期与患者APACHEⅡ评分、肾功能转归及住ICU时间均有关。%Objective Using RIFLE scoring to evaluate the occurance and outcomes of acute kidney injury(AKI) in pregnancy of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to the intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective analysis of critically ill obstetric patients who admitted to

  2. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  3. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  4. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  5. CO2 production rate maxima in the deeper unsaturated zone of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Hobson, C.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from soils are important to understand in order to predict subsurface feedbacks to the atmosphere and responses to climate change. Such fluxes are commonly monitored at the soil surface and generally assumed to largely originate within shallow depths. Relatively little is understood on the depth distribution of CO2 production below the rhizosphere. We monitored CO2 fluxes at the soil surface, and measured vertical profiles of vadose CO2 concentrations, matric potentials, and temperatures at the Rifle Site, a saline semi-arid floodplain along the Colorado River in order to determine the significance of deeper vadose zone respiration. Vadose zone CO2 profiles exhibit temperature-dependent seasonal variations, and are consistent with CO2 fluxes measured at the soil surface. The measured vadose zone CO2 concentration profiles combined with gas diffusion coefficients estimated from soil properties indicated that local maxima in rates of CO2 production persist in the deeper vadose zone, about 1 m below the rhizosphere, and above the water table (~3.5 m below the soil surface). We hypothesized that water and oxygen activities, nutrient levels, and temperatures remain favorable for microbial respiration throughout the year in the subrhizosphere, unlike overlying drier soils and the underlying poorly aerated aquifer. Using soils and sediments from the field site, the hypothesized existence of deeper subsurface maxima in CO2 production rate is currently being tested in the laboratory through sediment incubation experiments and in 2.0 m tall vadose zone columns. Initial results from the laboratory support the hypothesized persistence of a subrhizosphere "hot zone" for microbial respiration, partly sustained through seasonal pulses of dissolved and labile organic carbon originating from the rhizosphere. These findings suggest that similar sustained deeper local maxima in respiration rates may occur in many other regions where near-surface conditions are

  6. "Assessment of RIFLE and AKIN criteria to define acute renal dysfunction for HIPEC procedures for ovarian and non ovarian peritoneal malignances".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Sánchez, A; Cadenas-Febres, A; Cabrera-Bermon, J; Muñoz-Casares, F C; Casado-Adam, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, J M; López-Andreu, M; Briceño-Delgado, J; Rufián-Peña, S

    2016-06-01

    The acute renal dysfunction (ARD) is a common complication in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Our aim is evaluate the ARD post-HIPEC procedures using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. Evaluate the risk factors and analyze ARD's impact on postoperative course. From 2011 to 2014, in a retrospective way using a prospective database were operated by HIPEC procedure. The ARD was analyzed by RIFLE and AKIN criteria. The perioperative features were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to define the risk factors to develop the ARD. 141 patients were treated and analyzed. The ARD was detected in 30.5% (Injury 18.4% and Failure 12.1%) when RIFLE criteria were applied. The multivariate analysis detected that decrease of pH during HIPEC [OR = 29.39 (5.09-169.76)], PCI [OR = 1.07 (1.01-1.15)] and ureteral catheters [OR = 12.71 (1.44-111.85)] were associated to the development of acute renal injury (ARI) post-HIPEC. Decrease of Na during HIPEC [OR = 1.15 (1.01-1.30)], intraoperative inotrope use [OR = 3.83 (1.12-13.09)] and PCI [OR = 1.06 (1.0-1.14)] were associated to acute renal failure (ARF) post-HIPEC. The ARD was related to a higher length of stay hospital (17.2 ± 11 vs. 13.8 ± 8 days) (p = 0.05) but no impact in early survival was observed in ARD group. The widespread use of RIFLE criteria for ARD would have major benefits in terms of accurately diagnosing patients undergone HIPEC procedures. The ARD has a detrimental impact in length of stay hospital. The knowledge of risk factors helps us to prevent the ARD post-HIPEC by means of an aggressive and multidisciplinary perioperative management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The specific features of the damage to the non-biological and biological simulators of the human body inflicted by the shots from a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajzberg, S A; Makarov, I Ju; Lorents, A S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific constructional features of a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle designed to use three types of bullets differing in the head shape. Also, the morphological signs of the injuries inflicted by such bullets that can serve as the prerequisites for objective differentiation of the damages are considered. The study revealed peculiarities of experimental damage to the non-biological (plasticine blocks) and biological (bio-mannequins) simulators of homogeneous human tissues inflicted by the shots from the pneumatic rifle from different distances.

  8. 基于ADAMS的自动步枪自动机数值仿真研究%Numerical Simulation Based on ADAMS for Automatic Rifle Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋超杰; 姚养无

    2014-01-01

    An automatic rifle was taken as study object ,the simulation model of the automatic rifle automata was set up by UG and ADAMS ,and the virtual prototype model of the automata was realized in ADAMS/View environment .Through ADAMS simulation analysis function ,the dynamic characteristic curves of the automata were obtained .This study may provide a basis for the design and test of firearms .%以某自动步枪为研究对象,利用 UG 和 ADAMS 软件联合建立了其三维仿真模型,将其导入ADAMS/View环境中得到虚拟样机模型,通过ADAMS自身的仿真分析功能得到了自动机的动力学特性曲线。为枪械设计提供了依据,并大大降低了枪械试验的费用和时间。

  9. A study on the effect of different rifle calibres in euthanisation of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in seal traps in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, Torsten; Malmsten, Jonas; Bernodt, Karin; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar

    2013-11-13

    In recent years, the euthanasia of seals has been discussed internationally and concern has been raised regarding the use of rifles, the effect of different calibres, and which calibres are sufficient for humane euthanasia. This study therefore investigated the effect of different firearm calibres on euthanasia of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in traps, and provides information for the development and refinement of regulations for hunting seals in the wild. The effect of different calibres was studied in 19 seals shot in the head and neck at close range. All seals were necropsied and radiographed to characterize the injuries caused by the bullets. All tested calibres, 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and .12 shotgun, were sufficiently effective to cause severe skull fractures, meningeal haemorrhages and instant death. Rifles with 5.6 mm bullet diameter or larger, and a .12 shotgun loaded with a slug fired at close range to the head and neck of grey seals all caused instant death and can therefore be recommended for hunting seals in the wild.

  10. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, February 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Banfield, Jill [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chandler, Darrell P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, James A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hettich, Bob [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); VerBerkmoes, Nathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kerkhof, Lee J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peacock, Aaron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Rifle IFRC continued to make excellent progress during the last 12 months. As noted above, a key field experiment (Best Western) was performed during 2011 as a logical follow-on to the Super 8 field experiment preformed in 2010. In the Super 8 experiment, we successfully combined desorption and bioreduction and deployed a number of novel tracer techniques to enhance our ability to interpret the biogeochemistry of the experiment. In the Best Western experiment, we used the same experimental plot (Plot C) as was used for Super 8. The overarching objective of the Best Western field experiment was to compared the impacts of abiotic vs. biotic increases in alkalinity and to assess the mass of the sorbed pool of U(VI) at Rifle at the field scale. Both of these objectives were met. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that the underlying biogeochemical data sets were obtained that will support a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes, including remarkable insight into previously unrecognized microbial processes taking place during acetate amendment of the subsurface for a second time.

  11. Organic Carbon Inventories and Vertical Fluxes Through the Vadose Zone into Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Kim, Y.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Gilbert, B.; Dayvault, R. D.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding carbon inventories and fluxes within the vadose zone and groundwater of semi-arid regions is challenging because of their typically deep profiles, moderately low soil organic carbon (SOC) inventories, low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes, and slow changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) inventories. The remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site situated on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado possesses a number of characteristics that facilitate investigation of subsurface carbon fluxes. These include locally derived fill soil having SOC and SIC concentrations representative of the region, established vegetation cover (perennial grasses and shrubs) on the fill, boundaries between the fill and underlying alluvium distinguishable through concentrations of SIC and other chemical components, predictable groundwater flow and interaction with the adjacent Colorado River, and a clearly delineated impermeable lower boundary (Wasatch Formation shale) at depths ranging from 6 to 7.5 m. Environmental characteristics of this site permit year-round sampling of both pore water and pore gas throughout most of the moderately deep (~ 3.5 m) vadose zone. Within this well-defined hydrological system, we recently installed a suite of tensiometers, pore water (vadose zone and groundwater) samplers, gas samplers, and neutron probe access tubes at three sites along a transect aligned with the groundwater flow direction in order to determine inventories and fluxes of water, carbon, and other components. The tensiometer and piezometer measurements are revealing impacts of infiltration and groundwater recharge events, evapotranspiration, and capillary fringe-groundwater interactions. The results of pore water analyses are showing relatively high concentrations of DOC (up to 4 mM) in the vadose zone, and particulate organic carbon (POC) mobile in the capillary fringe. Differences in DOC characteristics are being determined using a variety of analytical techniques. Hydraulic

  12. Redox Fluctuation Influences Viral Abundance in the Reduced Zone of a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer in Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Weber, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally reduced zones (NRZs) within alluvial aquifers contain naturally elevated concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and can play a role in controlling the fate of redox-active contaminants. OC in NRZs stimulates microbial activity through coupling of OC oxidation to reduction of subsurface electron acceptors. Stimulation of the indigenous microbial community also results in the stimulation of the viral community. Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on Earth and can indirectly influence carbon cycling by infecting and lysing host cells, resulting in release of OC bound in biomass. In the alluvial aquifer near Rifle, CO, prior acetate injection resulted in reductive immobilization of U and a reduced zone simulating a NRZ, with elevated ferrous iron and sulfide (53.2-62.5 µM and 0.2-3.1 µM, respectively). To study the effects of redox fluctuations in a RZ, oxygenated groundwater was injected. Prior to injection, groundwater was suboxic (0.05-0.11 mg/L). Amended O2 was immediately consumed in the RZ. While cell numbers didn't significantly increase, viruses increased from 1.1x106-2.1x106 mL-1 to 2.3x106-4.6x106 mL-1. VCR increased 1.8-3.4 fold from 3.9-10.1 to 11.0-17.9, demonstrating microbial activity. These changes were associated with large fluctuations of groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting viral release of OC from cellular biomass. Groundwater ORP decreased from an initial -146 mV - -132 mV to -317 mV - -304 mV, indicating an increase in the supply of available electron donors. Thus, rather than expected oxidative solubilization of U following amendment of O2, soluble U decreased, suggesting likely U reduction in the RZ. Fe and S fluctuated, but changes were not associated with aqueous U. Across the whole floodplain, viral abundance is correlated to groundwater dissolved OC, suggesting that viruses may be contributing to the liberalization of dissolved OC from biomass in NRZs, allowing turnover of carbon and reduction of contaminants of

  13. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  15. Associação do RIFLE com letalidade e tempo de internação em pacientes críticos com lesão renal aguda RIFLE: association with mortality and length of stay in critically ill acute kidney injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Rosso dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a classificação do RIFLE com a letalidade e tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e no hospital. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, observacional e longitudinal aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição. Foram coletados os dados de todos os pacientes internados por mais de 24 horas na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina de setembro de 2007 a março de 2008 e com seguimento até a alta ou óbito. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: com lesão renal aguda e sem lesão renal aguda. O grupo com lesão renal aguda foi classificado conforme o RIFLE e subdividido de acordo com a classe máxima alcançada: risco, injúria ou falência. Não foram incluídas as classes loss e end-stage no estudo. Analisou-se também APACHE II e SOFA. Utilizaram-se os testes t Student e Qui-Quadrado, principalmente. Um pOBJECTIVE: To correlate the RIFLE classification with mortality and length of stay both in the intensive care unit and hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study, approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. Data were collected for all patients staying longer than 24 hours in the intensive care unit of Hospital Universitário Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina from September 2007 to March 2008, followed-up either until discharge or death. Patients were divided in two groups: with or without acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injury group was additionally divided according to the RIFLE and sub-divided according to the maximal score in Risk, Injury of Failure. Loss and End-stage classes were not included in the study. APACHE II and SOFA were also evaluated. The t Student and Chi-Square tests were used. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The sample included 129 patients, 52 (40.3% with acute kidney injury

  16. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  17. Experimental Study of U(VI) Release Kinetics from Aquifer Sediments from a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Rifle, Colorado, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Campbell, K. M.; Hayes, K. F.; Davis, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium(VI) release kinetics from aquifer sediments from a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado was studied to understand uranium distribution within the sediments. The sediments were sampled at depths of 3.5-3.8 m in December 2004. The samples were air-dried, sieved, and the uranium content in the sediments, determined by gamma-radiometry, was 4.1 μg/g sediment. The labile fraction of U(VI) in the sediments was determined using carbonate/bicarbonate extractions, which should cause complete desorption of U(VI) in the absence of mass transfer limitations. Carbonate/bicarbonate extraction of the sediments showed very slow release kinetics, with only 12 % of the labile U(VI) in the sediments being released during the first 96 hours of extraction. This is much less than found in a previous study at a different mill tailings site (Naturita, Colorado), in which more than 80 % of labile U(VI) was released during the same period of extraction. Up to two months of carbonate/bicarbonate extraction released 1 μg U(VI) per gram of Rifle sediment, which is 25 % of the total U in the sediment. Extraction with an artificial groundwater prepared to simulate the field groundwater chemistry showed 0.26 μg U/g sediment was released during the initial 94 hours of extraction, with a gradual increase of released U(VI) with time, while other major and minor elements (except Si) rapidly reached steady-state concentrations during the first few hours of reaction. Two hypotheses are under consideration to explain the slow U(VI) release kinetics: 1) colloidal clay fraction particles cementing larger grains of the sediments are creating nanoscale interparticle pores that act as a diffusion barrier to U(VI) desorption, and 2) a U(IV) solid phase exists whose oxidation and dissolution control the U(VI) release rate. To test the hypotheses, oxidation and extraction of the sediments have been conducted using oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study are

  18. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Wurff, Peter; Daanen, Hein A M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop the treadmill and shoot at the target. Fatigue increased progressively throughout the 20-minute test. Results indicated that shooting accuracy was not affected by fatigue. However, the distance to the target at which participants decided to shoot showed a U-shaped relationship with fatigue, R(2) = 0.884, p = 0.013. At low fatigue levels (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]  6.5) shooting distance increased again. At high levels of fatigue, participants stopped running sooner, aimed at the target longer and shot less often. Findings indicate that physiological parameters influence not only perception but also actual transitions between different actions.

  19. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the ‘Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease’ (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa e Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1–4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems. PMID:28616211

  20. Acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a comparison between the 'Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease' (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta; Rodrigues, Natacha; Godinho, Iolanda; Gameiro, Joana; Neves, Marta; Gouveia, João; Costa E Silva, Zélia; Lopes, José António

    2017-06-01

    Using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and their ability to predict in-hospital mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock was compared. We performed a retrospective analysis of 457 critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock hospitalized between January 2008 and December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO systems with in-hospital mortality. Model fit was assessed by the goodness-of-fit test and discrimination by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Statistical significance was defined as P RIFLE (84.2%) and KDIGO (87.5%) identified more patients with AKI than AKIN (72.8%) (P RIFLE was not [adjusted OR 2.0 (95% CI 1-4), P = 0.063]. The AUROC curve for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three classifications (RIFLE 0.652, P RIFLE and KDIGO diagnosed more patients with AKI than AKIN, but the prediction ability for in-hospital mortality was similar between the three systems.

  1. Injuria Renal Aguda aplicando escala de pRifle en Niños del Hospital Universitario del Valle: características clínicas, manejo y evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Restrepo de Rovetto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: to know the epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in the pediatric population at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV, a tertiary University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Methods: We obtained a series of cases through daily surveillance for a seven-month period (June 1 to December 31, 2009 in patients older than 30 days and under 18 years at HUV. We excluded patients with previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The new pRIFLE scale was used to define AKI. Results: 27 patients were detected, with mean age of 36 months. Incidence of AKI was 0.38% from pediatric admissions and 6.2% from the pediatric intensive care unit (pICU admissions. The pRIFLE scale at study entrance was: Risk: 2 patients, Injury: 8, Failure: 17. Etiology of AKI was: pre-renal in 89%, primary renal disease in 3.7%, and post-renal in 7.4%. There was an association of AKI with sepsis in 66.7% and 48.2% progressed to septic shock. Six patients required renal replacement therapy, all required peritoneal dialysis. The AKI was multi-factorial in 59.3% and associated with systemic multi-organ failure in 59.3%. At study entry, 63% patients were in pICU. The average hospital stay was 21.3 ± 9.2 days. Six children died, 16 resolved AKI, and nine were left with renal sequelae. Conclusions: We recommended pRIFLE scale for early diagnosis of AKI in all pediatric services. Education in pRIFLE scale, prevention of AKI, and early management of sepsis and hypovolemia is recommended.

  2. The effects of Fe-oxidizing microorganisms on post-biostimulation permeability reduction and oxidative processes at the Rifle IFRC site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara Sze-Yue [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-07-02

    Fe oxidation and biomineral formation is important in aquifers because the highly-reactive oxides can control the mobility of nutrients (e.g. phosphate, C) and metals (e.g. arsenic, uranium). Mineral formation also has the potential to affect hydrology, depending on the volume and distribution in pore spaces. In this exploratory study, we sought to understand how microbial Fe-oxidizers and their biominerals affect, and are affected by groundwater flow. As part of work at the Rifle aquifer in Colorado, we initially hypothesized that Fe-oxidizers were contributing to aquifer clogging problems associated with enhanced bioremediation. To demonstrate the presence of Fe-oxidizers in the Rifle aquifer, we enriched FeOM from groundwater samples, and isolated two novel chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. P101 and Curvibacter sp. CD03. To image cells and biominerals in the context of pores, we developed a “micro-aquifer,” a sand-filled flow-through culture chamber that allows for imaging of sediment pore space with multiphoton confocal microscopy. Fe oxide biofilms formed on sand grains, demonstrating that FeOM produce Fe oxide sand coatings. Fe coatings are common on aquifer sands, and tend to sequester contaminants; however, it has never previously been shown that microbes are responsible for their formation. In contrast to our original hypothesis, the biominerals did not clog the mini-aquifer. Instead, Fe biofilm distribution was dynamic: they grew as coatings, then periodically sloughed off sand grains, with some flocs later caught in pore throats. This has implications for physical hydrology, including pore scale architecture, and element transport. The sloughing of coatings likely prevents the biominerals from clogging wells and aquifers, at least initially. Although attached biomineral coatings sequester Fe-associated elements (e.g. P, As, C, U), when biominerals detach, these elements are transported as particles

  3. Design and Simulation of Muzzle Brake in Anti-materiel Rifle%反器材步枪膛口装置设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓; 王刚; 周峰

    2014-01-01

    某反器材步枪膛口装置为两腔冲击式制退器,由于结构设计原因,枪手在射击时,制退器后喷的火药燃气会产生较大的冲击波﹑声响及火焰,对射手容易造成伤害。为了解膛口装置制退效率的影响因素,优化其结构使其在相同制退效率下,减小冲击波等对射手的伤害,根据三维非定常 Euler 方程,利用 Fluent软件对弹丸飞离改进后膛口装置时的流场建模并进行仿真,并利用 Matlab软件编程对其制退效率进行了数值计算,两者结果相符。结果分析表明:优化后制退器可在保证相同制退效率下,有效地减小冲击波大小,可为解决同类问题提供有价值的借鉴。%The muzzle brake of an anti-materiel rifle is the impacted muzzle brake with two ca-vities.Due to its structural design,when the shooter is shooting,gunpowder gas backfired by the muzzle brake will produce a lot of the shock waves,noise and flame,this will be harm to the shooter.In order to understand the effect factors of the recoil efficiency of the rifle muzzle brake,and optimize its structure to decrease the harm to the shooter under condition of the same recoil efficiency,the process of proj ectile flying away from a three-dimensional muzzle brake was simulated by use of the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations and the Fluent software.Moreover,the recoil efficiency of the muzzle brake was calculated by means of the Matlab software,and the two results were consistent.The results showed that the improved muzzle brake of the equal efficiency can effectively reduce the shock wave,and can also provide valuable reference for solving the similar problems.

  4. Preliminary virulence evaluation on mutation of pgm attenuates Brucella melitensis 16 strain%布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变活菌苗株毒力初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 潘玉焕; 罗德炎; 王希良

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过减毒性实验评价布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变活菌苗株毒力减弱情况,为新型减毒活疫苗的研制和布鲁杆菌感染免疫防御的研究奠定基础.方法 进行布鲁杆菌侵袭实验等动物和细胞实验评价突变菌株的毒力减弱情况.结果 突变菌株在小鼠体内能生存,但较强毒株存活数量有很大减少(P<0.001);突变菌株较强毒株对多粘菌素B更为敏感,存活率与强毒株相比有明显下降(P<0.001);突变菌株LPS较强毒株LPS明显缺失;突变菌株在体外HeLa细胞中能存活但复制减弱.结论 布鲁杆菌M16株pgm基因突变菌株毒力减弱.可作为未来布鲁杆菌新型减毒活疫苗的候选者,有进一步研究的价值.%Objective Evaluate the effect of attenuation and lay the foundation for the research of immunological mechanism of brucella infection and the development of novel live attenuated vaccines. Methods The effect of attenuation is evaluated by brucella invasion experiment, and other animal and cell experiments. Results Compared with wild - type strains, the mutation strains have several aspects different from it: ( 1 ) though the mutation strains of Brucella melitensis 16. can survive in the mouse model, the survival rates in the spleens of the inoculated mice were significantly lower than the wild - type strain; ( 2 ) the mutation strains were more sensitive to PmB than the wild - type parental strain; ( 3 ) the amount of LPS on the mutation strain of Brucella melitensis 16. were seen less than on the wild - type parental strain; (4) the replication rate of mutatation stains in HeLa cell line decreased dramatically although it can survive in it in vitro. Conclusions We have confirmed the attenuated effect of the mutation strain of Brucella melitensis 16, it can be used as a candidate vaccine for the control of brucellosis.

  5. Automated QA/QC For Data Management, Curation, And Standardization Of Hydrological, Meteorological, And Biogeochemical Datasets at the Rifle Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) "Genomes to Watershed" Science Focus Area field effort at the Rifle site in Colorado, USA, sensor-based hydrological and meteorological datasets and data from laboratory characterization of groundwater samples have been curated and archived in a database (http://ifrcrifle.org). We have developed automated quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) methods to detect and identify errors made while recording, manipulating, formatting, transmitting and archiving data, or due to the malfunctioning of sensors. The focus was on developing and implementing basic QA/QC for the DOE Legacy Management installed SOARS network that collects data from the water-level pressure transducers, vadose zone and groundwater thermistors, as well as the meteorological stations. We developed and implemented QA/QC procedures to identify and flag the sources of erroneous data and cleaned up the water-level time series data using outlier filtering methods. Based on the analysis of field water-level data, we provided recommendations on the reinstallation and calibration of pressure transducers installed in monitoring wells. Additionally, in support of the QC of the geochemical dataset, we developed an approach of flagging the samples based on the evaluation of ionic balance of water samples. We also advanced a visualization system to allow users to plot and download raw data and perform QA/QC of time series data masked by the quality flags.

  6. 步枪实弹发射枪榴弹后坐过载环境仿真方法%Setback Overload Environment Simulation of Rifle Grenade Live Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍帅; 王雨时; 闻泉; 黄建强; 龚显益; 喻新连

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide ballistic environment to fuze design,the process of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm and 7.62 mm caliber bullet was simulated with the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA,and then the setback over-load-time curve was obtained,the peak of the setback overload was obtained through experiments using the cop-per cylinder pressure measuring principle,which proved the result of simulation.The peak of the setback over-load of firing rifle grenade using bullet was more than 1 9 000 g,and it’s much higher than that of firing rifle grenade using blank.The time that firing rifle grenade using bullet is as short as 120 μs,and closed to the time of impact when fuze was dropping to steel plate from 1.5 m height.The setback overload of firing rifle grenade using 7.62 mm calber bullet is 80% higher than that of firing rifle grenade using 5.8 mm caliber bullet.The set-back overload was lower when the material of the bullet trap was softer,whereas which was higher.%针对步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载环境特殊,并不是膛压函数的问题,应用 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 有限元仿真软件对5.8 mm 和7.62 mm 口径步枪实弹发射枪榴弹过程进行数值模拟,获得了后坐过载-时间曲线,利用铜柱测压原理实验测得了后坐过载峰值,验证了仿真结果。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载峰值最小达19000 g ,远大于步枪空包弹发射时的后坐过载。步枪实弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载持续时间很短,只有120μs 左右,与1.5 m 落高跌向钢板的跌落冲击持续时间接近。7.62 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载比5.8 mm 口径枪弹发射枪榴弹的后坐过载大80%左右;捕弹器材料软时后坐过载小,反之则较大。

  7. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  8. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  9. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G; Green, Rhys E

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2g for the carcass and 0.2g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Specific Mixture of Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Facilitates Partial Non-Responsiveness to Whey Protein in Mice Orally Exposed to β-Lactoglobulin-Derived Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, Atanaska I.; Meulenbroek, Laura A. P. M.; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E. M.; Knippels, Léon M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Oral tolerance is a promising approach for allergy prevention in early life, but it strongly depends on allergen exposure and proper immune environment. Small tolerance-inducing peptides and dietary immunomodulatory components may comprise an attractive method for allergy prevention in at-risk infants. This study aimed to investigate whether early oral exposure to β-lactoglobulin-derived peptides (BLG-peptides) and a specific synbiotic mixture of short- and long- chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS/lcFOS, FF) and Bifidobacterium breve (Bb) M-16V (FF/Bb) can prevent cow’s milk allergy (CMA). Three-week-old female C3H/HeOuJ mice were orally exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS), whey protein, or a mixture of four synthetic BLG-peptides combined with a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to intragastric sensitization with whey protein and cholera toxin. To assess the acute allergic skin response and clinical signs of allergy, mice were challenged intradermally with whole whey protein. Serum immunoglobulins were analyzed after a whey protein oral challenge. Cytokine production by allergen-reactivated splenocytes was measured and changes in T cells subsets in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal lamina propria were investigated. Pre-exposing mice to a low dosage of BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to whey protein sensitization resulted in a significant reduction of the acute allergic skin response to whey compared to PBS-pretreated mice fed a control diet. Serum immunoglobulins were not affected, but anaphylactic symptom scores remained low and splenocytes were non-responsive in whey-induced cytokine production. In addition, preservation of the Th1/Th2 balance in the small intestine lamina propria was a hallmark of the mechanism underlying the protective effect of the BLG-peptides–FF/Bb intervention. Prior exposure to BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet is a promising approach for protecting the intestinal Th1/Th2 balance and reducing the

  11. Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Region Floodplain: Multiple Approaches to Constrain Estimates of Seasonal- and Depth Dependent Fluxes at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Bill, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Hobson, C.; Dayvault, R.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of floodplains as links between watersheds and rivers highlights the need to understand water and carbon fluxes within floodplain profiles, from their surface soil, through the vadose zone and underlying groundwater. Here, we present results of field and laboratory measurements conducted to quantify fluxes at a remediated uranium/vanadium mill tailings site on a floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. This semi-arid site has a vegetated, locally derived fill soil that replaced the original milling-contaminated soil to a depth of about 1.5 m. The fill soil overlies about 4.5 m of native sandy and cobbly alluvium containing the shallow aquifer. The aquifer generally drains into the Colorado River and is underlain by low permeability Wasatch Formation shale. Within this system, key issues being investigated include water and carbon fluxes between the vadose zone and aquifer, and CO2 fluxes through the vadose zone soil out to the atmosphere. Magnitudes of these fluxes are typically low, thus challenging to measure, yet increasingly important to quantify given the expansion of arid and semi-arid regions under changing climate. The results of field investigations demonstrated that the annual water table rise and fall are driven by snowmelt runoff into the Colorado River in late spring to early summer. Tensiometer data indicate that net recharge from the deeper part of the vadose zone into groundwater occurs later in summer, after water table decline. The effectiveness of summer evapotranspiration in limiting groundwater recharge is reflected in water potentials decreasing to as low as -3 MPa within the upper 1.5 m of the vadose zone. Examination of the historical precipitation record further indicates that net recharge only occurs in years with above-average precipitation during winter and spring. These short intervals of net recharge also facilitate C transport into groundwater because of higher organic C concentrations in the vadose zone. Fluxes of CO2 measured

  12. Simulation of Flow Field in Gap of Electrochemical Machining by Rifle Cathode of Pull Type with the Stream%拉式顺流膛线阴极电解加工间隙流场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涵; 范植坚; 范庆明; 郑雄伟

    2016-01-01

    针对传统膛线阴极电解加工时加工间隙流场发散、电解液逆流使电解机床主轴受力大以及阴极工作齿严重烧伤时整体阴极报废等问题,设计了一种电解液在阴极内部换向、加工间隙顺流、可更换工作齿的大口径深混合膛线拉式阴极结构,采用多物理场仿真软件 COM-SOL 对加工间隙流场进行仿真。结果表明拉式顺流阴极流场分布优于传统拉式正流阴极。在确定拉式顺流阴极结构的前提下,阴极圆锥盘角度为100°、斜小孔倾斜50°、回液小孔孔径为2 mm 时电解液压力损失最小,最有利于电解产物的排除,电解液排除顺畅。%Aiming at the situation of push force of ECM tool spindle because of the spred and inversion of gap flow field,and the scraped cathode because of burned working tooth in traditional electrolytic cathode rifling,a new cathode structure of large diameter,deep and mixing composite rife is designed,by which the electrolyte stream reverses inside,the gap is downsteam and the working tooth is replaceable. The simulation of flow field in the gap by the COMSOL shows that the pull downstream cathode is better than the traditional rifling cathode.Based upon this pull downstream cathode,the electrolyte pressure loss is less and the exclusion of the electrolytic products smoothly while the cathode is with the parameters of cone angle of 100°,the inclination of inclined hole of 50°and the return liquid hole diameter of 2 mm.

  13. [Experimental effect of a shot caused by 4.5 mm cartridges fired from a Norica Dragon air-rifle and a Walther PPK/S air-pistol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kedzierski, Maciej; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, according to the Weapons and Ammunition Act" an air weapon which has kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreational shooting with this weapon does not have to be performed in a special shooting-range, but can be carried on in an open terrain providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study we presented experimental effects of shooting pneumatic weapons (Norica Dragon air-rifle and Walther PPK/S air-pistol) which had kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of shooting the above weapons at human soft tissues and thin bones of the temple region to empirically evaluate the degree of danger to health and life, which such shots can produce. We used 20% gelatine blocks at 10 degrees C, which were the model of human soft tissues, and fresh calf scapulas, which served as the models of the temporal bone of the human cranium. Before the experiment, we had evaluated the weight of all the projectiles and their initial velocity using a chronograph. By these measures, we calculated the kinetic energy of the fired missiles. After shooting, we estimated if projectiles of different shapes shot from air weapons characterized by different kinetic energy and from different distances penetrated the gelatine blocks and if the said missiles perforated the bones. We also measured the depth of missiles penetration in the gelatine blocks.

  14. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. Settings and Design: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Results: In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both. Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1–6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0 was 3.2 (1.4–6.7, P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9–1.8, P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Conclusion: Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  15. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Analyses Reveal the Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Dissolved Organic Matter through the Vadose Zone to Groundwater at the Rifle, Colorado River Floodplain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Gilbert, B.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex and poorly understood mixture of natural organic compounds that play important roles in terrestrial C transport and biogeochemical cycles, and its reactivity makes it sensitive to seasonal variations and longer term climate change. As a component within the LBNL Science Focus Area 2.0, this study is designed to determine the spatial and temporal variability of DOM concentrations and characteristics throughout the vadose zone and groundwater within a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado. Three sets of vertically stratified pore water samplers and wells were installed along a groundwater flow transect. These installations allowed acquisition of vertically- and temporally-resolved pore water samples from the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone from April 2013 to May 2014. Ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UVA) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy are being applied to trace the changes in DOM characteristics. Initial results indicate that the aromatic C contents (%) of DOM vary with depth and season and exhibit patterns distinct from groundwater. EEM analysis identified fulvic- and humic-like substances as the major fluorescent components of DOM in pore water samples. The concentrations of fulvic- and humic-like matter decreases with depth within the vadose zone, and increases from Spring and Summer to Fall, then decreases in Winter. The trend is consistent with UVA results. Microbial by-product-like components in DOM show higher concentrations in the vadose zone, and decrease from Spring to Winter. Fulvic- and humic-like substances are the only detectable fluorophore components in the groundwater samples. The results from both UVA and EEM suggest that (1) aromatic C or fulvic- and humic-like matter are preferentially adsorbed within shallower sediments during transport; and (2) microbial transformations of DOM composition may occur in the vadose zone, particularly during late Spring

  16. Cigarette- and snus-modified association between unprotected exposure to noise from hunting rifle caliber weapons and high frequency hearing loss. A cross-sectional study among swedish hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. In all, 202 hunters completed a questionnaire regarding the hearing test. Associations were modeled using Poisson regression. Current, daily use of tobacco was reported by 61 hunters (19 used cigarettes, 47 moist snuff, and 5 both). Tobacco users tended to be younger, fire more shots with HRC weapons, and report more hunting days. Their adjusted PR (1-6 unprotected HRC shots versus 0) was 3.2 (1.4-6.7), P < 0.01. Among the nonusers of tobacco, the corresponding PR was 1.3 (0.9-1.8), P = 0.18. P value for the interaction was 0.01. The importance of ear protection could not be quantified among hunters with HRC weapons because our data suggested that the HFHI outcome had led to changes in the use of such protection. Among hunters using weapons with less sound energy, however, no or sporadic use of hearing protection was linked to a 60% higher prevalence of HFHI, relative to habitual use. Tobacco use modifies the association between exposure to unprotected impulse noise from HRC weapons and the probability of having HFHI among susceptible hunters. The mechanisms remain to be clarified, but because the effect modification was apparent also among the users of smokeless tobacco, combustion products may not be critical for this effect.

  17. Technical Objective Document for Combat Clothing, Uniforms and Integrated Protective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    greatest extent possible, current tooling , design, and manufacturing techniques with the new lightweight coposite materials. Prosedlightweihtt hebnets...M16 rifle compatibility. Initiation of Phase II hardware devopment . Initiation of detailed development of scenario for field operationaldewnstration

  18. Frontline Strategies of the National Rifle Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    editor of the NRA’s monthly newsletters “Freedom’s Voice” and the “The EVC Update,” as well as the weekly “Grassroots Alert”. Mr. Caroline’s detailed...responsibilities include: • recruiting, training and mobilization of over 320 Election Volunteer Coordinators ( EVCs ), • coordinating political...Election Volunteer Coordinators The continued training of the Election Volunteer Coordinators’ ( EVC ) gives the NRA a diverse source of influence by

  19. The ’Rakkasans’ Rifle & Headquarters Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College,Combat Studies Institute,Fort...its ability to figure things out and apply a logical and methodical approach to everything. These two companies were completely different in nature, but...equal in their abilities to accomplish any given task. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as

  20. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    nation building through programs such as the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR )6. Other tasks of the CR include providing local expertise, guidance, and...Requirements FN Fabrique Nationale HF Human Factors HSI Humansystems® Incorporated JCR Junior Canadian Rangers MOTS Military off the Shelf NATO...support the Junior Canadian Rangers ( JCR ) Program, which helps to achieve national and territorial goals through nation building. DEFICIENCY

  1. Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    given A piezometric efficiency 1 of 0.5 yields, using values of peak acceleration based on Eq. 5-7. Eq. 5-6, 12 V, in. t5 -7) AL 112~j 12P#o. 5) where V...15000 1516 8134 3000 20000 917 7082 20000 1257 6063 30000 996 4054 0.50 1500 6000 1473 4017 0.60 1500 6000 993 393710000 954 2386 10000 658 2392 15000

  2. Texturas de los minerales del grupo de la sílice de la manifestación epitermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo, región de Moa: clasificación, descripción e implicaciones genéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leduar Ramayo-Cortés

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la región de Moa, Cuba oriental, se localizan varias manifestaciones hidrotermales. Se trata de sistemas vetiformes y brechas hidrotermales con contenidos significativos de metales nobles. La manifestación hidrotermal El Rifle-Hato Viejo se destaca por su extensión, y está formada por brechas y vetas de cuarzo mineralizadas, vinculadas preferentemente a fracturas correspondientes al sistema de fallas NW-SE y se hospeda en rocas sedimentarias del Campaniense Tardío-Daniense. El estudio textural de los minerales del grupo de la sílice permitió el reconocimiento de varias texturas, las cuales fueron clasificadas en tres grupos: 1 texturas de crecimiento primario (calcedonia maciza, costriforme, en peine, cristales zonados, y maciza, 2 texturas de recristalización (mosaico, plumosa y llameante, y 3 texturas de reemplazo (en enrejado, paralelo y radiado. Sobre la base de este análisis se estableció la secuencia deposicional de los diferentes minerales del grupo de la sílice y se reveló la presencia de la paragénesis de alteración adularia-sericita, lo cual indicaría el desarrollo de un sistema epitermal de baja sulfuración. Estas texturas también se usaron para indicar el nivel de emplazamiento dentro del sistema epitermal; en este caso, el emplazamiento de la manifestación El Rifle-Hato Viejo se corresponde con el nivel intermedio o coloiforme-costriforme, el cual se encuentra por encima de la zona propicia para la deposición del oro, por lo que podría esperarse la presencia de contenidos más elevados en profundidad.

  3. Features of blunt wound in back of pig wearing composite armour hit by high speed microstomia Rifle bullet%高速小口径步枪弹致防弹衣后猪背部钝性损伤特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 赖西南; 王建民; 张波; 李冠桦; 黄艺峰; 苏正林; 王丽丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究某型高速小口径步枪弹(简称某步枪弹)致复合防弹衣保护下的长白猪背部钝性损伤的特点及力学机制.方法 17头长白猪随机数字表法分为实验组(n=9)、对照组(n=5)和压力测定组(n=3).实验组采用复合防弹衣(陶瓷防弹板+超高分子量聚乙烯)防护猪背部,以某步枪弹瞄准背部T8椎体射击防弹衣,观察射击前、后猪心率、动脉血压和血氧饱和度,检测脑电、心电;射击后6h活杀解剖,观察猪病理损伤特点.对照组除射击无弹头的等量弹药的空包弹外,余处理同实验组.压力测定组仅测定某步枪弹射击猪背部时局部压力.结果 实验组、压力测定组防弹衣均未击穿,步枪弹命中防弹衣瞬间,防弹衣后局部肌肉组织压力升高明显,猪心率、动脉收缩压、心电与对照组相比无明显变化,防弹衣后脊髓呈钝挫伤病理改变,心内膜、肺脏、肝脏、肾、脾脏轻度出血.结论某型高速小口径步枪弹击中猪背部复合防弹衣时,防弹衣虽未击穿,但防弹衣后脊髓及胸腹腔脏器组织存在不同程度钝性损伤,这可能与防弹衣快速变形造成的背部钝性撞击,局部压力升高有关.%Objective To investigate the features of back wounds and mechanical mechanism of experimental pigs protected by composite armour hit by high speed microstomia Rifle bullet. Methods A total of 17 pigs were randomly divided into experimental group (re = 9) , control group (n = 5 ) and pressure testing group ( n = 3 ) . Pigs of the experimental group adopt composite armour ( ceramic bulletproof plates + ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) to protect their back and get shoot by high speed microstomia Rifle bullets aim at T8 back centrum vertebrae. Control group received same procedures as experimental group except shooting e-quivalence cartridge without bullet. Pressure test group was used to measure local timely pressure shooting by Rifle bullet. The pigs

  4. Ballistics of the 30-06 Rifle Cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    www.hodgdon.com/PDF/Youth%20Loads.pdf. 14. Endris, Graham. DETAIL SPECIFICATION CARTRIDGE,.300 WINCHESTER MAGNUM MATCH, MK 248 MOD 1 DODIC AB43...Jason T. Gomez and Arun Shukla November 2001, pp. 965-979. 10, November 2001, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 25, pp. 965-979

  5. Basic Rifle Marksmanship Test: Cadre Pretest and Posttest Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    group" do not provide suffi- cient infcrmation for a trainee to modify his own behavior. Further, excessive use of negative reinforcement and...yelled at" and "Not enough individual attention [is] given to firers .... . Negative reinforcement and punishment are two training procedures that use...sversive stimuli as feedback. In negative reinforcement , be- haviors producing escape from an aversive stimulus (e.g., yelling) are strengthened. Thus

  6. Science Curriculum: Shot-Gun or Rifle Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur DeW.; Hatton, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Stating that the shotgun approach to the science curriculum which has evolved for general education purposes is inappropriate for occupational programs, the authors report on research to evaluate the science curriculum for relevance to skills needed in various occupations. (MF)

  7. Magnetic cannon: The physics of the Gauss rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Arsène; Besserve, Pauline; Caussarieu, Aude; Taberlet, Nicolas; Plihon, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic cannon is a simple device that converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy. When a steel ball with low initial velocity impacts a chain consisting of a magnet followed by addition steel balls, the last ball in the chain gets ejected at a much larger velocity. The analysis of this spectacular device involves an understanding of advanced magnetostatics, energy conversion, and the collision of solids. In this article, the phenomena at each step of the process are modeled to predict the final kinetic energy of the ejected ball as a function of a few parameters that can be experimentally measured.

  8. Effects of furosemide on the hearing loss induced by impulse noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriksunov Leonid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The permanent hearing loss following exposure to intense noise can be due either to mechanical structural damage (tearing caused directly by the noise or to metabolic (biochemical damage resulting from the elevated levels of free radicals released during transduction of the sound overstimulation. Drugs which depress active cochlear mechanics (e.g. furosemide and salicylic acid or anti-oxidants (which counteract the free radicals are effective in reducing the threshold shift (TS following broadband continuous noise. This study was designed to determine whether furosemide can reduce the TS following exposure to impulse noise, similar to its action with continuous broadband noise. Methods Shortly after furosemide injection, mice were exposed to simulated M16 rifle impulse noise produced by different loudspeakers and amplifiers in different exposure settings and, in other experiments, also to actual M16 rifle shots. Results Depending on the paradigm, the simulated noises either did not produce a TS, or the TS was reduced by furosemide. The drug was not effective in reducing TS resulting from actual impulse noise. Conclusion Simulated M16 rifle impulse noise may not truly replicate the rapid rise time and very high intensity of actual rifle shots so that the TS following exposure to such noise can be reduced by these drugs. On the other hand, actual M16 impulse noise probably causes direct (frank mechanical damage, which is not reduced by these drugs.

  9. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigo-Adrover, M.; Saldaña-Ruíz, S.; van Limpt, K.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.; Knol, J.; Franch, A.; Castell, M.; Pérez-Cano, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of preb

  10. Fires. September-December 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    into every NCO and com- pany grade officer course. My guidance to the School is to explore ways to take the best modules from the TIOC, JFO and EW...exchanged its older M16A2 5.56-mm semiautomatic rifles for a pure fleet of M4 carbines with rail systems, complete with sights and “own- the-night” scopes

  11. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    OOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER «. TITLE (md Subtitl.) VOLUME II, EFFECTS OF GENDER, LOAD, AND BACKPACK ON EASY STANDING AND...worn or carried and the type of backpack used on parameters of the easy standing and vertical jumping performance of men ajnd women. Fourteen men and...3 - combat gear (Load 2 plus PASGT helmet, PASGT armor vest, simulated M16 rifle); Load A - combat gear and 20-lb backpack oo,; JAM 7» 1473

  12. Reliance on Simulation in Initial Entry Rifle Marksmanship Training and Future Directions for Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Tables C2 through C5). Table 4 is a snapshot of what occurred. It presents a sample of the drills and the number of repetitions of the drills in each...scenarios, including the Alt C drill, as the training progressed and to conduct fewer grouping drills. Table 4 Number of Repetitions for a Sample ...the associated skills, nor what sequence of drills would work best. So the choice of drills on a given day could easily have been a judgement call

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  14. Lightening the Load of a USMC Rifle Platoon Through Robotics Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    visual aides to the human operators, but to provide audio cues as well, making the robots interact on a more human-like level (Haas and van Erp 2010...This study investigates robots that can literally walk, run, and crawl next to the Marine, as well as respond to verbal commands or visual signals as a...none of them work side- by-side with their human operators. The collaboration or teamwork of the human-robot interaction is critical, especially on

  15. Thermal-Work Strain during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (March 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    and waist circumference at the navel (anthropometric tape measure) were measured to estimate percent body fat using Wright and Wilmore’s technique...did not allow for weight or waist circumference measurement prior to donning the PSM system, the measurements were obtained at the volunteers...3 mile run time, percent body fat, height, weight, load carried, and waist circumference ) by mission period. Table 4: Volunteer characteristics

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  17. Teaching and Assessing Complex Skills in Simulation With Application to Rifle Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    individual performance skills that require complex perceptual motor activity. Examples include certain sports , such as golf and tennis and as studied here...distractions, and a shift from dependence upon external cues to internal ( proprioceptive ) stimuli as a means to guide coordinated task performance (Fitts...and for professional sports like baseball, tennis and golf, the skill is composed of tasks that can be taught individually because there are consistent

  18. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  19. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 4-2-013 Commodity Engineering Test Procedures, Recoilless Rifle Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    External Fire, and Munition Test Procedures. The critical requirements of the STANAG are: (a) The test is done in an enclosed hearth designed...of STANAG 4240. However, the procedures of the STANAG are not amenable to satisfying the TB due to the confinement of the required hearth . c...within the hearth or bonfire. (4) Observations photographs of any reactions such as burning or explosions. TOP 4-2-013 22 September 2009

  20. Overmatch: Enabling the Infantry Rifle Squad as the Foundation of the Decisive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ridgeline, carrying in excess of fifty pounds of equipment, for three miles. Montcastle noted the terrain in northwestern Afghanistan was so treacherous ...development of the human dimension. As then-President Eisenhower wrote in a letter to Joseph L. Collins , “There has been much talk of air and sea

  1. Love My Rifle: What Schoolgirls Need and How the Army Can Give It to Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Robin Truth

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Florida state legislature, by a nearly unanimous vote, rushed passage on a statute that allowed sex segregation in public school classrooms. According to the version of the bill that passed through the Florida House, sex-segregated public school classrooms would be an expansion of school choice and would be implemented only…

  2. Rifle impulse noise affects middle-ear compliance in soldiers wearing protective earplugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, A; Hamery, P; De Mezzo, S; Fialaire, J-C; Roux, A; Untereiner, M; Cardinale, F; Michel, H; Klein, C; Belcourt, B

    2016-01-01

    We tested middle-ear functioning in humans following intense exposure to noise. Noise generated by small caliber firearms was thought to have no effect on the middle-ear. A cross-over design. We measured middle-ear impedance, acoustic reflex, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) before and after practice rounds performed twice per day. Fifty-nine soldiers equipped with earplugs undergoing regular training for a special mission. The mean noise exposure (LAeq8h) was estimated to be 106 ±1 dB SPL. Impedancemetry revealed a significant increase in the compliance and gradient of the tympano-ossicular chain after impulse noise exposure in the right and left ears. Acoustic reflex reactivity did not show a significant change. DPOAEs and TEOAEs were slightly decreased at 2 kHz, and showed a marked asymmetry in disfavor of the left ear. In soldiers with initial high reactivity of acoustic reflex, increased compliance was associated with a significant decrease in left TEOAEs at 1.5 and 2 kHz. Our results suggest that the use of small-caliber firearms, even while wearing earplugs, affects middle-ear function and may play a role in the early stage of auditory fatigue encompassing tinnitus.

  3. Bloody Mud, Rifle Butts, and Barbed Wire: Transforming the Bataan Death March in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts made by Leslie Marmon Silko's who took factual raw materials and, through the alchemy of her creative artistry, transformed her novel, "Ceremony" into something new and different is presented. Silko has made certain changes in the Bataan Death March in "Ceremony", and portrayed the Japanese with considerable sympathy.

  4. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the tec

  5. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the tec

  6. Effects of an Occupational Therapy Hand Dominance Transfer Intervention for Soldiers With Crossed Hand-Eye Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luken, Michelle; Yancosek, Kathleen E

    2017-01-01

    Crossed dominance (CD) is defined as an individual's dominant hand and dominant eye being on opposite sides of the body. CD negatively impacts an individual's ability to accurately aim and fire long-barreled guns. The authors developed and evaluated a hand dominance transfer (HDT) intervention to improve the M16 rifle shooting accuracy, efficiency, and skill transfer. Twenty-four U.S. Army soldiers with CD were taught how to handle and fire an M16 rifle using the nondominant hand. Training was conducted at a military, indoor laser-equipped weapons simulator. Accuracy for shooting 40 rounds at baseline with the nondominant eye and dominant hand (NDE/DH) was 22.12 compared to shooting 30.46 with the dominant eye and nondominant hand (DE/NDH). This difference was statistically significant with p = .000. The transfer of shooting accuracy skill (retention) following the HDT intervention was 33.42 with a comparative p value of .100. Efficiency of shooting 10 rounds at baseline with the NDE/DH was 6.3 compared to shooting 7.3 with the DE/NDH. This difference was not statistically significant (p = .107). The transfer of shooting efficiency skill (retention) was 7.96 with a comparative p value of .349. This study supports shooting with the DE/NDH. HDT could be further developed to address the soldiering skill of shooting an M16.

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan Implemented at an Outdoor Rifle Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    and young children absorb ingested lead more readily than do older children and young adults. Lead exposure across a broad range of blood lead levels...cells, anemia , kidney damage, impaired reproductive function, interference with Vitamin D metabolism, impaired cognitive performance, delayed

  8. MOONLIGHT 11. AN INVESTIGATION OF INDIVIDUAL NIGHT RIFLE FIRING UNDER ILLUMINATION RANGING FROM NO MOON THROUGH FULL MOON

    Science.gov (United States)

    full moon . Conclusions: A general confirmation of the individual night firing procedures prescribed by TC 23-1 is indicated. An interaction was observed between firing technique (pointing or aiming) and low levels of natural illumination. At some point between half and full moon the pointing technique becomes less effective than the aiming technique. It is recommended that HRU Nr 3 coordinate with TIS to gather additional individual night firing data at low levels of natural illumination above half-moon in order to accomplish the following objectives:

  9. High frame-rate real-time x-ray imaging of in situ high-velocity rifle bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Miller, Stuart R.; Robertson, Rob; Singh, Bipin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2016-05-01

    High frame-rate imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) as well as for ballistic impact studies (terminal ballistics), in-flight projectile imaging, studies of exploding ordnance and characterization of other high-speed phenomena. Current imaging systems exist for these studies, however, none have the ability to do in-barrel characterization (in-bore ballistics) to image kinetics of the moving projectile BEFORE it exits the barrel. The system uses an intensified high-speed CMOS camera coupled to a specially designed scintillator to serve as the X-ray detector. The X-ray source is a sequentially fired portable pulsed unit synchronized with the detector integration window and is able to acquire 3,600 frames per second (fps) with mega-pixel spatial resolution and up to 500,000 fps with reduced pixel resolution. This paper will discuss our results imaging .30 caliber bullets traveling at ~1,000 m/s while still in the barrel. Information on bullet deformation, pitch, yaw and integrity are the main goals of this experimentation. Planned future upgrades for imaging large caliber projectiles will also be discussed.

  10. Gunshot injuries to the head and brain caused by low-velocity handguns and rifles. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C; König, H G; Gehl, H-B

    2004-12-16

    Reconstruction of brain injuries is a basic task of forensic neuropathology. For better understanding of the wound ballistics of gunshot injuries to the brain caused by low-velocity firearms (E(o) 90 min). (1) Imaging procedures provided valuable information on entrance and exit wounds, the missile track and secondary changes. (2) Biometry revealed a destruction zone of ca. 3.6 cm around the permanent track corresponding to the "temporary cavity". (3) Microscopic studies of reactive changes demonstrated axonal injury at sites remote from the permanent cavity that could explain the very early respiratory arrest following low-velocity gunshot injury.

  11. The Rhodesian African Rifles: The Growth and Adaptation of a Multicultural Regiment through the Rhodesian Bush War, 1965-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Banana ,” (the regimental song), or any other song relating to their experience in the war. It was quite common, particularly after some “lubrication...its own chain of command, the army around the RAR was a hollow shell of its former self. Lt. Gen. Walls stayed on briefly but had just resigned as

  12. Leupeptin reduces impulse noise induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriel Haim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to continuous and impulse noise can induce a hearing loss. Leupeptin is an inhibitor of the calpains, a family of calcium-activated proteases which promote cell death. The objective of this study is to assess whether Leupeptin could reduce the hearing loss resulting from rifle impulse noise. Methods A polyethelene tube was implanted into middle ear cavities of eight fat sand rats (16 ears. Following determination of auditory nerve brainstem evoked response (ABR threshold in each ear, the animals were exposed to the noise of 10 M16 rifle shots. Immediately after the exposure, saline was then applied to one (control ear and non-toxic concentrations of leupeptin determined in the first phase of the study were applied to the other ear, for four consecutive days. Results Eight days after the exposure, the threshold shift (ABR in the control ears was significantly greater (44 dB than in the leupeptin ears (27 dB. Conclusion Leupeptin applied to the middle ear cavity can reduce the hearing loss resulting from exposure to impulse noise.

  13. Theoretical modeling of the MILES hit profiles in military weapon low-data rate simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Smith, C. A.; Belichki, S. B.; Crabbs, R.; Cofarro, J. T.; Fountain, W.; Tucker, F. M.; Parrish, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    Math modeling of a low-data-rate optical communication system is presented and compared with recent testing results over ranges up to 100 m in an indoor tunnel at Kennedy Space Center. Additional modeling of outdoor testing results at longer ranges in the open atmosphere is also presented. The system modeled is the Army's Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) that has been used as a tactical training system since the early 1980s. The objective of the current modeling and testing is to obtain target hit zone profiles for the M16A2/M4 rifles and establish a data baseline for MILES that will aid in its upgrade using more recently developed lasers and detectors.

  14. 水下突击步枪枪机运动分析%Motion Analysis of Firearm Bolt in Underwater Assault Rifle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 王昌明

    2006-01-01

    采用实验和计算相结合的方法确定水下突击步枪枪机的运动规律.在实验装置上安装感应测速传感器和应变式测压传感器,和其他测量仪器组成测量系统,分别测定运动构件(实验装置中模拟枪机的构件)的速度和气室压力;在不同阶段,列出水下突击步枪枪机的运动方程,利用实验数据,获得理论运动曲线.

  15. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora R McGuinness

    Full Text Available Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  16. The camera, the rifle and the analytical criticism. A review of Cámaras en trance, of Ignacio del Valle Dávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro de Sousa e Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to make a critical reading of the booK Cámaras en trance and map the main lines of argument, the main contributions to the movement of studies known as Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano and research possibilities that the reading of the work provides.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Authorized Activities for Maneuver Training Area Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flying (Range Control scheduling and Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) required) Model boating Orienteering Sport...) Orienteering Sport parachuting Organized rifle and pistol competition (Range Control scheduling required) Scout... Walking, distance running Model boating Orienteering Organized rifle and pistol competition (Range...

  18. August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria (Leavenworth Papers, Number 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Army 1919-(Nov) Uvarov Partisan Detachment in Irkutsk. Commanded rifle platoon. 1942-(Sep) commander, 5th Guards Rifle Corps (Veliki- luki operation...GGth Rifle Division on the right would cross the river west of Pavlo -Federovka, overcome .Jap- anese outposts east of Lake Khanka, and spearheaded by...The 363d Rifle Division of 35th Army operated on the Linkou axis, employing the !25th Tank Brigade (:railed from Pavlo -Federovka by way of Iman) as

  19. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Air Flowing Across Bundles of Rifled and Bare Tubes in Aligned Arrangement%空气横掠顺列螺旋槽管和光管管束的传热特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆国栋; 周强泰; 田茂诚; 程林; 俞小莉

    2005-01-01

    以横向管距、纵向管距以及管子的几何参数为研究对象,对顺列光管和螺旋槽管管束进行了横向冲刷换热及阻力试验研究,得出了换热和阻力关联式,为顺列布置的卧式螺旋槽管空气预热器的应用,尤其是为循环流化床锅炉的空气预热器提供了设计依据.

  20. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  1. Viet Cong Logistics,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-06-01

    Machinegun Recoil spring 4 Safety pin 1 30 MAS Safety pin 4 Garand rifle Extractor 10 Connecting pin 7 CKC rifle Firing pin 10 Tripod lock 12...1 Machine gun Safety pin 11 Safety lever 11 ? Extractor 10 Carbine Sight 16 RPD Sub- machinegun Bolt latch release lock 12 Wooden stock 24

  2. Diagnosis and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana Daga

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The determination of AKI using the pRIFLE and AKIN criteria yielded different results. pRIFLE appears to be more sensitive in VLBW infants. A high CRIB II score was recorded for AKI. Future studies are necessary to develop a uniform definition and identify the risk factors to improve the outcomes in this population.

  3. Crossing the River: A Conceptual Framework for Response to Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the Florida Highway Patrol, rifle training was provided and officers bought their own rifles, says Ayoob. The LAPD also added ballistic Kevlar ...emerge from small discoveries . New York: Free Press, 2011. Print. United Airlines. Crew resource management CRM/TEM 8.15.1. Manual. Washington, D.C

  4. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  5. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  6. Entrance and exit wounds of high velocity bullet: An autopsy analysis in the event of dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Wongwichai, Sompong; Thapon, Arisa; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2016-11-01

    Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket. For exit wounds, there were various sizes and shapes depending on which section of wound ballistics presented when the bullet exited the body. If a bullet exited in the section of temporally cavity formation, there would be a large size exit wound in accordance with the degree of bullet yaw. This is different from civilian bullets whereby the shape looks like a cylindrical round nose and at low velocity that causes entrance wounds with a similar size to the bullet diameter and is usually round or oval shape with collar abrasion. The temporary cavity is not as large as in a HVB so exit wounds are not quite as large and present a ragged border compared to a HVB. We also reported 9 out of 32 shots (28.13%) of atypical entrance wounds that had various characteristics depending on site of injury and destabilization of bullets. These findings may be helpful to forensic pathologists and to give physicians, who need to diagnose HVB wounds, more confidence.

  7. New Image Operator and Its Application in the Inner Surface Detection of Artillery Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 徐春广; 肖定国; 张建民

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at the image detection on the ablation wearing, scrape wearing and rifling angle of the artillery body pipe, the character of the inner surface image of the pipe is discussed, the model for rifling, ablation wearing and scrape wearing is brought up, and a new image operator is proposed for these detection. This operator can detect the rifling angle in a high precision, and tell the ablation wearing from scrape wearing in the image, therefore the degree of ablation wearing and scrape wearing can be detected efficiently. This is useful for the artillery body pipe's producing process and life evaluation.

  8. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  9. Lower Spine Screening in the Shooting Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volski, Robert V.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire and screening test for posture and flexibility were designed and administered to 80 rifle and pistol shooters. Findings indicated that 78 percent had eperienced low back pain during competition and 63 percent afterward. (MT)

  10. Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce the enormous growing burden of AKI and its consequences. ... and middle income countries, which have many contrasts ... business travel, tourism and world warming. ..... therapeutic intervention and progression of RIFLE class.

  11. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  12. Camp Sherman, Ohio: History of a World War I Training Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    non-commissioned officers have put in their first week of helping along with the training. The rudiments of the automatic ERDC/CERL TR-15-25 37...individual weapons on home ranges. Plans were made for firing the carbine, rifle, automatic rifle, sub-machine gun and pistol.117 An article in the...included an orchard of 600 fruit trees. During the 1920s, the old YMCA building was remodeled into a building for occupational therapy purposes; a band

  13. After Saddam: Prewar Planning and the Occupation of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    supporting plan.19 In October 2002, the classification of OPLAN 1003V was down- graded to Secret and a larger number of the CFLCC planning staff gained...listed above. It concluded that the admini- stration earned “a mixed grade on its planning and preparations, which have been significant in certain...June 14, Iraqis had forfeited “123 pistols, 76 semiautomatic rifles and shotguns, 435 automatic rifles, 46 machine guns, 162 anti- tank rocket

  14. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    officers, it can be assumed that these senior field grade officers represented views of enlisted Soldiers familiar to them. Military Innovation...Field Grade Officers” (speech to the Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, April 29, 2016). Lieutenant General Brown assisted with...inability to field an adequate semiautomatic rifle. The rifles that were adequate for combat such as the Springfield Model 1903 (M1903) required its

  15. Automatic Weapons, Machineguns, Hand and Shoulder Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-21

    to manually operate the trigger) Headspace Barrel length Length of rifled bore Direction and twist of rifling Number of lands and grooves Diameter...guns (cal .50 class and larger), with the rear sight elevated to the respective m merking for the ranges to be fired. NOTE: 1) The "zeroing-in" phase is...described in applicable technical manuals , require- ments documents, or manufacturer’s literature. Review all special warnings and safety SOP’s before testing

  16. Is it necessary to stent renal artery stenosis patients before cardiopulmonary bypass procedures?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; YAN Hong-bing; LIU Rui-fang; CHENG Shu-juan; WANG Jian; ZHAO Han-jun; SONG Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor prognosis after cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass has beneficial effect on development of AKI in renal artery stenosis (RAS) patients.Methods In this retrospective study, patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine (SCr, >106 μmol/L) were not included. Included patients (n=69) were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 31 RAS patients receiving no stent implantation before cardiopulmonary bypass. Group 2 included 38 RAS patients having received stent implantation just before cardiopulmonary bypass. To assess AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass, serum urea nitrogen, SCr and creatinine clearance were recorded at baseline, at the end of operation, during the first and second postoperative 24 hours.Results Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Serum urea nitrogen, SCr, creatinine clearance before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were also similar class groups. Incidence of AKI in group 1 was not significantly different from group 2. In group 1, AKI defined by RIFLE between occurred in 7 (22.6%) patients: 5 (16.1%) with RIFLE-R,2 (6.5%) with RIFLE-I, and no patients with RIFLE-F. In group 2, 10 patients (26.3%) had an episode of AKI during hospitalization: 6 (15.8%) had RIFLE-R, 4 (10.5%) had RIFLE-I, and no patients had RIFLE-F.Conclusions There are no data suggesting that it is necessary to stent RAS patients with normal SCr before cardiopulmonary bypass. However, it cannot be concluded that RAS is not associated with AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  17. [A clinical study on organ protective effect of early high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cheng; Qian, Ke-jian; Wang, Lian-qun; Liu, Fen; Zeng, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Feng; Xia, Liang; Zhan, Yi-an

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the organ protective effect of early continuous HVHF in patients with MODS complicated by AKI. 117 patients requested HVHF in ICU due to MODS/AKI were enrolled from June 2006 to June 2011 for clinical data collection. The patients were categorized, by RIFLE scale (R-risk of renal dysfunction, I-injury to the kidney, F-failure of kidney, L-loss of kidney function, E-end stage kidney disease), into three groups: RIFLE-R (n = 15), RIFLE-I (n = 23) and RIFLE-F (n = 79). The values of their serum creatinine (SCr), oxygenation index (PaO(2) /FiO(2) ), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), blood lactic acid (Lac), prothrombin time (PT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score were recorded, at the beginning of, and within 72 hours after HVHF. The 90-day survival rate in each group was calculated. No significant difference was found between RIFLE-R and RIFLE-I group, within 72 hours after HVHF, in SCr, PaO(2) /FiO(2) , EVLWI, Lac, PT, AST, or APACHE II score. The mean values of SCr, EVLWI, Lac, PT, AST, APACHE II score, within 72 hours after HVHF in the RIFLE-F group were significantly higher in comparison with RIFLE-R, and RIFLE-I group [SCr (μmol/L): 260.50±35.51 vs. 83.61±21.07, 89.71±23.81 ; EVLWI (ml/kg): 12.18±2.11 vs. 10.94±1.50,10.76±1.92; Lac (mmol/L): 2.40±0.56 vs. 1.58±0.27, 1.68±0.35; PT (sec): 14.14±1.50 vs. 12.67±1.18, 12.51±0.94; AST (U/L): 96.19±18. 84 vs. 47.91±12.85, 56.39±13.44; APACHE II score: 20.17±2.61 vs. 17.79±2.65, 18.53±2.87, P 0.05). Early HVHF has protective effect against organs injury in patients with MODS and AKI.

  18. Blyfri riffelammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    -effective in hunting are available in most calibers. This study focuses on the extent to which non-lead rifle ammunition is available to Danish hunters in the retail sector of Denmark. The study is based on an electronic survey of Danish hunting stores, supplemented by market research via the Internet and telephone...... contact with a number of shops. We conclude that non-lead rifle ammunition is largely available in Danish hunting stores at prices comparable to equivalent lead products. The weakest range is seen in the small calibers (..., but is clearly increasing. Focus from regulatory authorities and hunting organizations via a plan to phase out lead rifle ammunition could strengthen development and increase the supply of non-lead types....

  19. NATIONAL SURGICAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM UNDERESTIMATES THE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MILD AND MODERATE POSTOPERATIVE ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihorac, Azra; Brennan, Meghan; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Bozorgmehri, Shahab; Efron, Philip A.; Moore, Frederick A.; Segal, Mark S; Hobson, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a single-center cohort of surgical patients we assessed the association between postoperative change in serum creatinine (sCr) and adverse outcomes and compared the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP)’s definition for acute kidney injury (NSQIP-AKI) with consensus RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney) and KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) definitions. Design Retrospective single center cohort. Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Patients 27,841 adult patients with no previous history of chronic kidney disease undergoing major surgery. Intervention RIFLE defines AKI as change in sCr greater than or equal to 50% while KDIGO uses 0.3 mg/dl change from the reference sCr. Since NSQIP defines AKI as sCr change > 2mg/dl, it may underestimate the risk associated with less severe AKI. Measurements The optimal discrimination limits (ODL) for both percent and absolute sCr changes were calculated by maximizing sensitivity and specificity along the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for postoperative complications and mortality. Main Results Although prevalence of RIFLE-AKI was 37%, only 7% of RIFLE-AKI patients would be diagnosed with AKI using the NSQIP definition. In multivariable logistic models patients with RIFLE or KDIGO-AKI had a 10 times higher odds of dying compared to patients without AKI. The ODLs for change in sCr associated with adverse postoperative outcomes were as low as 0.2 mg/dl while the NSQIP discrimination limit of 2.0 mg/dl had low sensitivity (0.05 – 0.28). Conclusion Current ACS NSQIP definition underestimates the risk associated with mild and moderate AKI otherwise captured by the consensus RIFLE and KDIGO criteria. PMID:23928835

  20. Preempting Mass Murder: Improving Law Enforcement Risk Assessments of Persons with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    shotgun, a rifle, and a semi- automatic handgun. Alexis proceeded to shoot 16 people, killing 12 of them before he was finally shot and killed by...his neighbors. An AR-15 rifle and a semi- automatic handgun were seized from Tom’s bedroom and taken for “safekeeping.” Furthermore, Tom was taken...m black 34 Jacob Allen Bennett 9/11/13 4 Crab Orchard , TN robbery unk - long criminal history m white 26 Daniel Green 8/14/13 4 oklahoma city, OK

  1. A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A novel surface-repairing technique for gun bore was investigated, which was combined with the merits such as anti-erosion wear, damage-repairing, and etc. It was accomplished by adhering a special rare earth nanocom posite evenly to the micro-surface of gun bore. The effectiveness of this technique was approved by the target-firing using a domestic automatic rifle with chromium-coated bore. Its characteristics were discussed based on the surface analyses of the rifle bore by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  2. Acoustic Directivity Patterns for Army Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    were plotted. This was done to: 1. Facilitate spotting errors in data recording and/or in the transcriptior or reduction of data. 2. Support this...white bag charge was not plotted because of indications of excess attenuation caused by the C-weighting. +The stand.-d error is a measure of the...11:53:48 CALIBRACION 5.80 LBS.516 27 11:56:.11 106 MM 1I)(OILESS RIFLE M40AI 3000 517 27 11:57:22 106 .4 RIt.OII.ESS RIFLE M40AI 3000 518 27 1:5,8:)3

  3. More Inaccurate Specifications of Ballistic Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-02

    The rifles used in the study were all Remington 700s with factory barrels. The 223 Remington , 308 Winchester, and 30-06 were all ADLs with...Berger 62 grain flat base varmint bullet. This bullet demonstrates excellent accuracy (0.5 MOA) in the Remington 700 test rifle out to 300 yards and...factor. The earlier paper (Courtney and Courtney 2009) reported a BC of 0.308 +/- 0.010 for the 125 grain Nosler Ballistic Tip from the Remington

  4. Gunshot wounds: A review of ballistics related to penetrating trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Stefanopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civilian gunshot injuries from handgun and rifle ammunition vary in severity depending on the anatomic location involved and the different effects from the ballistic properties of the penetrating projectiles. Ballistic factors such as the impact velocity and energy should not be considered in isolation, as their specific effects are determined by the interaction between the projectile and tissues. Increased tissue damage can result from tumbling of non-deforming rifle bullets and deformation of expanding bullets. Both of these mechanisms increase substantially the energy transfer to the wound and its diameter, also producing a pulsating temporary cavity associated with pressure changes within tissue.

  5. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  6. Battlefield Flame/Thermal Threats or Hazards and Thermal Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Thermobaric Magnesium >2000 weapon) Zirconium >2000 Isopropyl 2500 Artillery, mortar , rocket, nitrate shoulder-fired flame launcher /magnesium 2000...6 Incendiary Weapon ................................................... 8 Fuel Air Explosive (FAE, Thermobaric ) ................. 9 Chapter 4. Flame...munitions, such as air-delivered bombs , artillery rounds, shoulder-fired rounds, hand and rifle grenades, and mines. Table 1 shows the agents, bum

  7. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-07

    raiding the premises at 3281 Heroes de la Concepcion, in the El Salto section, they confiscated AKA-47 rifles which, according to an official account...in the struggle against the dictatorship, with quite a bit of internal verticalism , although with many expressions of political and party life in

  8. Tyske våben og øvrige udrustning i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel Rasmussen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of Denmark. So when peace came in spring 1945 the Danish Army was without any weapons and more or less without any foreign currency to buy new weapons. The destruction took its start in late summer 1945; guns, tanks, rifles, machine-guns, helmets etc. were turned into scrap by the Army´s Technical corps...

  9. U.S. Marine Corps Enlisted Retention: An Analysis of Stakeholder Incentives for the Retention of Tier 1 First-Term Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Marine Corps Martial Arts Program MMEA Enlisted Assignments branch MOS military occupational specialty MPP Manpower Plans and Policy M&RA Manpower...proficiency and conduct markings, rifle scores, and Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) belt attainment, and meritorious promotion occasions

  10. 国外文献摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    IWC.2008.32杜克能源公司的战略、项目实施及初步经验William Kennedy, Orion Engineering,PLLC (Charlotte, NC, USA); Robert Wylie& Richard Baker, Duke Energy(Charlotte, NC, USA); Michael Rifle & BrianHeimbigner, Siemens Water Technologies Corp.

  11. Recording the Great War: military archives and the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ian van der Waag

    Keywords: First World War, historiography, war memory, military archives, official ..... section, under the direct control of the Secretary for Defence, was established with effect from 1 August ... Serial Category of personnel record ..... He was appointed to the command of the Southern Mounted Rifles in 1905, a position he held.

  12. Engaging the Borderlands: Options for the Future of U.S.-Mexican Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    Trafficking and the Southwest Border, “drug cartels reportedly are buying semiautomatic versions of AK-47 and AR-15 style assault rifles, and other...29, 2009 edition of Narcosphere, “Legal U.S. Arms Exports May Be Source of Narco Syndicates Rising Firepower”, which suggests that military- grade

  13. Local Jurisdictions and Active Shooters: Building Networks, Building Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    military- grade explosive, steel ball bearings and a timer with instructions inscribed in Urdu (Sengupta, 2009). The police were armed with riot gear of...barrels shortened, a 9 mm semiautomatic assault pistol, a 9 mm semiautomatic carbine rifle, and an abundant supply of ammunition for all the firearms

  14. American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    inside the Nissan Pathfinder was crudely constructed. It consisted of three 20-gallon propane tanks, 152 M- 88 (consumer- grade ) fireworks, one 4-foot...sight, an SKS assault rifle,473 and a Lorcin L380 semiautomatic handgun.474 The 24-year-old Little Rock resident and Muslim convert who changed his

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Simulation for M4 Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    interests include cognition , human performance measurement, resilience, skill development, and team training...change the appearance of the target; for example, by using a plain white or orange target. Most marksmanship simulators have an authoring function ...and rifle marksmanship during live and simulator firing with and without caffeine consumption. Technical Report 2003-003. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC

  16. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-24

    Pakistani officials drove them towards extremism and distributed very harmful literature . Replying to a question from a Pakistani correspondent, Mr Gandhi...Soviet Klashnikovs carried by the dacoits and the Chinese rifles of Sind Police shook the entire Block ’I’ locality where the high noon thriller was wit

  17. 27 CFR 479.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bore designed or redesigned to fire a fixed shotgun shell, weapons with combination shotgun and rifle... well as a natural person. Pistol. A weapon originally designed, made, and intended to fire a projectile... the trigger, and shall include any such weapon which may be readily restored to fire a fixed...

  18. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) AN/PAS-13 diffractive optics designed for producibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. Steven; Chen, Chungte W.; Spande, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program is a manportable 3-5 micrometer forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) rifle sight. The manportable nature requires that the optics modules be lightweight, low cost and compact while maximizing performance. These objectives were met with diffractive optics. TWS promises to be the first FLIR sensor to incorporate kinoform surfaces in full scale production.

  19. JPRS Report: East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    through the ages we have been historically determined to display our Polishness. This allowed us to endure. Romantic literature strength- ened this...reasonably rapid disar- mament offers an opportunity to Poland and Europe. Stanislavsky, the eminent theorist of theatre , claimed that if a rifle

  20. Panamanian Politics: The Legacy of Torrijismo and Prospects for Demilitarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Torrijos will also revive military determination to play a greater role in the political process as the guardian of social progress. In time, an...and the 3rd Rifle Company, " Diablos Rojos," both assigned to patrolling the Costa Rican border in Chiriqui province. 97 The typically military

  1. Comparison and clinical suitability of eight prediction models for cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Boogaard, M.H.W.A. van den; Schoenmakers, M.C.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Swieten, H.A. van; Heemskerk, S.; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) results in increased morbidity and mortality. Different models have been developed to identify patients at risk of CS-AKI. While models that predict dialysis and CS-AKI defined by the RIFLE criteria are available, their predictive powe

  2. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    in the Transcarpa- thian Military District, an article in a Soviet military journal states: A model of a populated point of a city type with a center...guns designated for firing by direct lay and also firn of motorized rifle pndraelLaniy*E lay passages in enemy obstacles. (s p. 43) Thi attached

  3. Historical Simulation and the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    serious casualties and ultimately in with- drawal anyway. Game-turn three ended with the Confederate Army moving up to the vicinity of the Bushong ...their first volley at Bushong House during turn four.25 However, when fired at medium range, as they were here, the characteristics of the Belgian rifle

  4. Simplified Resiliency Analysis of U.S. Army TOE (Table of Organization and Equipment) Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    CAL 0’ " -’ 5 4S CAL PISTOL ’,($(D£ISI)) 0’- 7 ’ 6 MIUA1 RIFLE ’.(U( DFIG ])) C "C’-’ 7 M203 GRENAUE L. ’ ,(T[DF[?2)I 7 1’ 8 M243 SMOKE L. ’,($(Dr[H

  5. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Number 11-12, November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Wahayshi Interview. Also, for details on the attack, see Hassan Fattah, “Suicide Attacks Foiled at 2 Oil Sites, Yemen Says,” New York Times, September 16...and Jamal Naji , “3 Marines Among Dead in Attack on Iraqi Tribal Leaders,” McClatchy Newspapers, June 26, 2008; Sam Dagher, “SUVs and Rifles,” New

  6. Vasopressin, Sepsis, and Renal Perfusion - A VASST Deficit in Our Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    analysis of the VASST trial (8) using creatinine-based Risk, Injury, Failure , Loss, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria (5) demonstrated that in...Workgroup: Acute renal failure - definition, outcome mea- sures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: The Second...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing

  7. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured From Detailed Military Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    published an investigation into ‘Bullet Resisting Alloys’ where, utilizing a Japanese Army service rifle and a ballistic pendulum , he examined numerous...materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc. 15...selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved

  8. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  9. Eestis on visiidil Wessexi krahvinna Sophie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Eestisse saabus kahepäevasele visiidile Suurbritannia kuningliku perekonna liige, Wessexi krahvinna Sophie. Muuhulgas külastab krahvinna, kes on Suurbritannia jalaväe rügemendi 5 Rifles aukolonel, rügemendi sõdureid, kes teenivad Tapal NATO lahingugrupi koosseisus

  10. Annual National Small Business Conference (5th) Held in San Diego, California on May 19-21, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-21

    Systems Solutions u Mr. James Lasswell, President & CEO, INDUS Technology u Ms. Patricia Mercado , San Diego Area Manager and Senior Principal, SRA...Department of Labor ; HK MP-5 Sub-Machine Gun Instructor; HK Tactical Rifle Instructor; Diversionary Devise Instructor; Law Enforcement Chemical Agent

  11. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  12. Fort Belvoir’s Engineer Replacement Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    investing in permanent buildings of brick and tile. Makers of concrete and cinder blocks, cement siding, structural steel, and asbestos sheeting...Soldier carried a rifle, carbine, or pistol; field jacket; helmet; canvas leggings; gas mask; and cartridge belt with a first aid pack, canteen

  13. Friction Effects of Lead-Based and Lead-Free Primers in 5.56mm NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    imported and marketed under the PMC, Wolf, and Tula brands. The authors contacted ATK, Winchester, and Remington to request component DDNP based primers... Remington 700 in 5.56mm NATO with a 1 in 12” twist. * designates a Savage 25 test rifle in .222 Remington with 1 in 14” twist. Table A1 compiles all

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Method for Basic Marksmanship Training on an Australian Army Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    and has conducted human factors studies in support to various Australian Army and Special Forces projects. His research interests include cognition ...comparison of target detection and rifle marksmanship during live and simulator firing with and without caffeine consumption. Technical Report 2003- 003

  15. Deciding What Has to Be Done: General William E. DePuy and the 1976 Edition of FM 100-5, Operations (Leavenworth Paper, Number 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    infantry brigades and acquired the Hispano- Suiza 30-a fighting vehicle, not a carrier-as the rifle squad’s transportation. General DePuy became...they had acquired an infantry fighting vehicle, the Marder, successor to the Hispano- Suiza 30, with which to execute the con- cept. This thorough

  16. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... smaller, rifles firing .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, or archery equipment. 6. All youth hunters age 15..., you may archery hunt in the portions of the refuge that are open for deer hunting during the archery... smaller, .22 caliber rimfire, or legal archery equipment. 10. We allow you to use dogs during the...

  17. Om at blive skudt med hagl. En "Crime Scene Investigation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Jensen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Rifle contra shotgun shots are considered in relation to an X-mas goose and shooting accident. Depending on the size of shots, material and velocity, the effect in the body may vary considerably. Myocardial infarction, secondary to accidental shotgun shot, may be caused by 1) thrombosis secondary...

  18. Modern weapons and military equipments for issue 1-2017 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 1-2017 / Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 1-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš M. Jevtić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardi izrade modernih kundaka; O kriterijumima konstrukcija kundaka pri različitim kategorijama modernog pešadijskog naoružanja. / Standards development of modern rifle; The criteria structure of the stock in the various categories of modern infantry weapons.

  19. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C

    2015-01-01

    underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without concomitant procedures was conducted. AKI was defined using the RIFLE criteria. Data on arterial pressure and use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were entered in a binary logistic regression model to control for possible perioperative...

  20. Acute kidney injury in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christof

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of septua- and octogenarians undergo cardiac surgery. Acute kidney injury (AKI still is a frequent complication after surgery. We examined the incidence of AKI and its impact on 30-day mortality. Methods A retrospective study between 01/2006 and 08/2009 with 299 octogenarians, who were matched for gender and surgical procedure to 299 septuagenarians at a university hospital. Primary endpoint was AKI after surgery as proposed by the RIFLE definition (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease. Secondary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Perioperative mortality was predicted with the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE. Results Octogenarians significantly had a mean higher logistic EuroSCORE compared to septuagenarians (13.2% versus 8.5%; p -1 × 1.73 m-2. In contrast, septuagenarians showed a slightly higher median body mass index (28 kg × m-2 versus 26 kg × m-2 and were more frequently active smoker at time of surgery (6.4% versus 1.6%, p The RIFLE classification provided accurate risk assessment for 30-day mortality and fair discriminatory power. Conclusions The RIFLE criteria allow identifying patients with AKI after cardiac surgery. The high incidence of AKI in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery should prompt the use of RIFLE criteria to identify patients at risk and should stimulate institutional measures that target AKI as a quality improvement initiative for patients at advanced age.

  1. Is there a risk of permanent renal dysfunction after primary total hip and knee joint replacements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Dessau, Ram Benny; Sahlström, Arne

    2016-01-01

    primary total hip and knee joint replacements. METHODS: Long-term postoperative renal dysfunction was analyzed in a retrospective study of 1301 consecutive primary total hip and knee joint replacements performed between January 2009 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased serum...

  2. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  3. Joe Camel with Feathers. How the NRA with Gun and Tobacco Industry Dollars Uses Its Eddie Eagle Program To Market Guns to Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Susan; Sugarmann, Josh

    The National Rifle Association (NRA) has developed its Eddie Eagle program as a school-based curriculum that claims to teach gun safety to children in preschool through grade six. The program uses a four-part message for children to follow when they see a gun, admonishing them to stop, not touch it, leave the area, and tell an adult. The NRA has…

  4. 50 CFR 32.60 - South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... legal sunset. 2. We allow nonmotorized boats and boats with electric motors. We allow boats with... rifles or shotguns. 4. Access into all refuge hunt areas for hunting and scouting is by foot or bicycle... require personal identification at check-in. 3. Any movement within the refuge must be by foot or bicycle...

  5. Experimental determination of drag coefficients in low-density polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M L

    2006-04-18

    coefficient in the lower density foam targets is less than in the larger density foam target. This result is corroborated by firing range experiments with M855 NATO bullets (with diameter 5.56 [mm], mass 4.1 [g], and initial velocity {nu}{sub 0} {approx} 800 [m/s]) fired from an M16 rifle, i.e., c{sub d} = 0.3 (c{sub d} = 0.6) in the 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}] (0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]) target. We propose future 1/3 scale gun experiments using a passive velocity diagnostic with increased spatial resolution as well as simple spherical projectiles with 0.5 and 1.0 [cm] diameters.

  6. Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

  7. Physics of Armour penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampooran Singh

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available When a “Shaped-Charge” projectile is spin-stabilized during its flight, its penetration is greatly reduced, hence such a projectile is fin-stabilized and consequently the range is less and accuracy is poor. Attempts are being made to combine the penetrating power of a bazooka, and range and accuracy of rifled weapon. Just as the introduction of fire-arms brought about the extinction of the armour knights because a bullet could easily penetrate the kind of armour that the knights could put on; similarly “Shaped-Charge” projectiles having the range and accuracy of a rifled weapon will seriously affect the tactical use of amour in the battle-field.

  8. Development of a low-cost, unmanned surface vehicle for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of an USV (Unmanned Surface Vehicle) prototype that serves as an educational platform and can be use for coastal patrol and operations in the jungle. The USV length is less than 2 m and range of 5000 m. It's composed by the following modules: propulsion, power, motor driver, CPU, sensor suite, camera system, communication and weapon system. The weapon system is formed by an experimental assault rifle and a rocket launcher with a fire control system. The assault rifle haven't got mechanical moving parts, the bullets (7.62x51mm round) are electronically ignited. The CPU is an FPGA development kit. The USV can be operate in remote mode or fully autonomous. Results of some systems from laboratory and sea trials are show.

  9. Predatory violence during mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J R

    1997-03-01

    A case of mass murder by a 35-year old male is reported. Following a week of separation from his spouse and temporary loss of custody of his son, the subject went to his wife's worksite and murdered her and the store manager, wounded a passerby in a car, and murdered a police officer arriving on the scene. Weapons used were a .32 caliber revolver, a 9-mm pistol, a 7.62-mm assault rifle, and a .50-caliber rifle. The fact pattern of the case is shown to be quite consistent with a predatory mode of aggression-violence that is planned, purposeful, emotionless, and not preceded by autonomic arousal. The forensic importance of considering mode of violence, whether predatory or affective, independently of psychiatric diagnosis, is emphasized.

  10. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear.

  11. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a military patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Charlotte; Johnston, A McD

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old serviceman on overseas deployment who presented with a painful, swollen arm. Investigations showed an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) of the right arm with an associated asymptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was treated with warfarin anticoagulation. Further investigation identified positional obstruction at the thoracic outlet, and the patient was diagnosed with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. He underwent elective resection of the first rib, and has now returned to normal duties. After review of the literature on UEDVT, it is suggested that in this military patient, the occurrence of an anatomical variant put him at risk of upper limb venous thrombosis, which was probably potentiated by the occupational factor of carrying a rifle. The external compression of the subclavian vein from the rifle butt and hypertrophied muscles, in addition to the anatomical variation, caused repetitive microtrauma of the vessel intima, which precipitated venous thrombosis.

  12. Two genes, rif15 and rif16, of the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Amycolatopsis mediterranei likely encode a transketolase and a P450 monooxygenase,respectively, both essential for the conversion of rifamycin SV into B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yuan; Wei Zhao; Yi Zhong; Jin Wang; Zhongiun Qin; Xiaoming Ding; Guo-Ping Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Amycolatopsis mediterranei produces an important antibiotic rifamycin,the biosynthesis of which involves many unusual modifications.Previous work suggested a putative P450 enzyme encoded by rif16 within the rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster (rif) was required for the conversion of the intermediate rifamycin SV into the end product rifamycin B.In this study,we genetically proved that a putative transketolase encoded by rif15 is another essential enzyme for this conversion.Expression of merely rif15 and rif16 in a rif cluster null mutant ofA.mediterranei U32 was able to convert rifamycin SV into B.However,this Rifl5- and Rifl6-mediated conversion was only detected in intact cells of A.meidterranei,but not in Streptomyce coelicolor or Mycobacterium smegmatis,suggesting that yet-characterized gene(s) in A.mediterranei other than those encoded by the rif cluster should be involved in this process.

  13. La Mécanisation de l’Armurerie Militaire (1855-1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Brun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, the manufacture of military small arms (rifles and pistols cannotstay out of the progress of the Industrial Revolution. It is therefore, quite logically, to be a process ofmechanization, which is also a human adventure. In fact, from 1850 to 1870, is almost the SecondEmpire, which actually marks the entry of France into the modern era, the military and politicalleaders face a double challenge: to equip the army of a modern rifle, as we were in a period of intensetechnological innovation, and move from a largely manual production, provided by qualifiedgunsmiths, a mechanized production, in which the systematic use of machine tools enable realinterchangeability of parts. This is the mark of a modern industrial manufacturing.

  14. ESTCP Munitions Response Live Site Demonstrations, Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas Demonstration Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    1942. Items tested at the facility included 250-pound and 500-pound bombs ; mines; 60mm and 81mm mortars ; hand and rifle grenades; 20mm, 37mm, 40mm...90mm, and 105mm projectiles; and 81mm mortars . The objective for the advanced classification process for this demonstration is to correctly classify...these demonstrations because of the greater diversity of munitions, including 60mm, 81mm, and 4.2-inch mortars and 2.36-inch rockets. Three

  15. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  16. Tensor Invariant Processing of Multistatic EMI Data for Target Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    items in blue. .........................................8 Figure 7. Decision metric distributions for a data set from the Pole Mountain demonstration...rifle grenade, Right (anomaly 1030) is a small piece of wire. If the data can support inversion , principal axis polarizabilities are calculated using a...signal to noise ratio (SNR) weighted [7] inversion algorithm. The principal axis polarizabilities are the basis for classification. Figure 5 Shows

  17. Cost Estimate for Gun Liner Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    forge to near net outer diameter shape: 85-in long 3. Heat treat: quench and temper 4. Straighten to 0.005 in runout 5. Stress relieve 6. Grind ...steady rest 7. Cylindrically grind outer diameter (tapered) 8. Gun drill breech 9. Gun drill barrel inner diameter Detonation Velocity, Vd Gun...1.25-in inner diameter. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is already being employed to rifle M242 steel barrels by Alliant Techsystems (ATK). With this

  18. Can cortisol be used to assess acute stress in moose?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundstein, Line Gertrud

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the serum concentration of cortisol was measured in 78 hunted moose (Alces alces) shot by rifle. All animals died within 5 minutes after being shot and blood samples were collected. Blood levels of cortisol have been used to assess acute stress and evaluate animal welfare in wild animals, but the animals have been influenced by people during physical or chemical restraint. Little is known about physiology of cortisol in free-ranging moose, and studying these animals without dis...

  19. Two-Dimensional, Two-Phase Modeling of Multi-Increment Bagged Artillery Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    flowing gas, and the deposition of copper on the tube wall by the rotating band of the projectile. We also illustrate a bag of flash sup- pressant sewn...RESFUN Purpose: Function to compute bore resistance exerted on projectile due to interference of rotating band with tube rifling. Calls; None... FLOSS FR C27 C42 Local value of FLOIG. Plotting parameter. 143 Variable Common B FRES FILL FS C20 FZ C42 G C04 GAFACl C53 Definition GAM

  20. The Development and Trial Evaluation of Alternate Programs for Unit Training Managers and Trainers. Appendix D. Directed Practice Program for the TO and E Unit Training Manager Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    APPENDIX P. DIRECTED PRACTICE PROGRAM FOR THE; TO&E UNIT TRAINING MANAGER COURSE! William H. Welching Mark F. Brennani Jacklyn E...Controlling Otllct) rjJ William H./Melching, Mark F./Brennan, [^ Jacklyn E./Hungerla.id, Morris/Showel,! : ei John E.; Taylor RE,\\D...obstacle Barbed wire obst £.ole w/noiser.akers attached Rifle and helmet for each student 1 instructor 1/2 hour Put a telephone TA 312/PT into

  1. Joint Operational Fires in the Offense: The Southwest Pacific Campaign to Isolate Rabaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    machine gun, the rifle, tommy-gun, grenade and knife are the weapons carried by men who fly to war, jump in parachutes , are carried in gliders and who...Operation Iraqi Freedom PIR Parachute Infantry Regiment POA Pacific Ocean Areas PT Patrol Torpedo (Boat) RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RCT Regimental...peninsula would require two Australian divisions and the American 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR). The 503rd would parachute directly onto

  2. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  3. Preparing for the Cyber Battleground of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    career fields. A transition from the current force-development system towards one that acknowledges the unique relationship between space and cyberspace...erized rifles, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is developing pack- mule robots , and the Navy is creating its own autonomous drones...specific to the mission requirements that 1B and 3D Airmen will encounter. The 3D career fields should not be left out of the operationalization of the

  4. Comparing U.S. Army Systems with Foreign Counterparts: Identifying Possible Capability Gaps and Insights from Other Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    75 7.1. World War II U.S. Army Rifle Squad ................................................................................... 78...since the Vietnam War in the 1960s, when thousands of helicopters were used. Today the U.S. Army has helicopter units in aviation brigades that are...Helicopter to Algerian Air Forces,” RussianAviation.com, June 20, 2012; “Chapter Five: Russia and Eurasia,” 2013. 54 If we compare the CH-47F

  5. That’s Not What I Joined to Do, Sir -- Understanding Military Culture and Ethos is Critical for the Correct Use of the Military Instrument of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    Foreign Service Journal (September 2009). 13 U.S Army, Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad, Field Manual 7-8. 33 patriotism, and romanticism , continues...we have come to exercise romanticism when setting up the Armed Forces as a mirror to the heart of a nation and the executors of just and legitimate...in combat.‖ 19 It seems, therefore, that the West today evokes patriotism and romanticism in relation to military service while forgetting its

  6. Field Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs. Revision of Combat Ration Ten Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Ex Tasman Link; marine fish were readily caught and rocks were encrusted with edible molluscs . The occasional fresh coconut was also available, washed...LONDON SE1 9NO United Kingdom 2 MALAYSIA Director Librarian Defence Research Centre ARC Meat Research Institute Ministry of Defence Langford Rifle Range...Road BRISTOL BS1S 7DY KUALA LUMPUR United Kingdom I Malaysia 3 27 OVERSEAS ESTABLISHMENTS Contd No. OF REPORTS NEW ZEALAND Assistant Chief Defence

  7. Cognitive Performance and Physiological Changes under Heavy Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    alcohol consumption 8 hours prior to each of the sessions, and caffeine and nicotine products 3 hours prior to the sessions. To insure proper...comfort and exam performance. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33 (4), 308–320. Borg G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain...R., et al. (1997). The use of caffeine to enhance cognitive performance, reaction time, vigilance, rifle marksmanship and mood states in sleep

  8. The Credibility of America’s Extended Nuclear Deterrent: The Case of the Republic of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    include • credibility of NATO, EU, and US support for Turkish security; • Kurdish Workers Party ( PKK ) terrorism; • Kurdish activism in Iraq supporting...used to wipe out women and children and unarmed people, and not for military uses. So we have got to treat this differently from rifles and cannons...fight against the terrorist-labeled PKK . Shortly after the meeting, President Bush sent an agreement for US-Turkish civilian nuclear coop- eration to

  9. Improved Target Detection in Urban Structures Using Distributed Sensing and Fast Data Acquisition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    targets. Height information may allow discrimination between people and animals such as household pets, since radar cross - section alone can be unreliable...interest, such as a human or a rifle, which have relatively small radar cross sections (RCS). This makes imaging of stationary targets behind walls...measurement setup. A small trihedral corner reflector with pentagonal panel 12 geometry is used as a point target behind tiie wall, as shown in Fig

  10. Stunning Swarms: An Airpower Alternative to Collateral Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    moving, giving priority to those it sensed were holding abnormally hot items (rifles recently fired). With the insurgents‘ guns silenced, the AU...the drones fail—this must be a more energetic approach than the drones use in the sense that the injection mechanism must be able to apply more...fentanils (or fentanyls ), and could be modified (e.g., with ethyl groups) to produce a less powerful compound that is more tailored to human use

  11. Active Shooters: Is Law Enforcement Ready for a Mumbai Style Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    encouragement, for your competition over grades , and for keeping me grounded with, “Dad how would you like to lose at a game of basketball.” To my...pack, containing an AK-56 rifle, a 9-millimeter pistol, ammunition, hand grenades, a bomb containing a military- grade explosive, and a timer with...Glock: America’s Gun. New York: Crown Publishing Group. Barron, J. (2012, December 15). “Children were all shot multiple times with a semiautomatic

  12. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Iraq, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    CH-46 Sea Knight medium helicopters received light­ weight armor kits and infrared jammer (IR) up­ grades beginning in July and April, respectively...shelters for satellite ter- minal 10 MTVR trailers 20 Semiautomatic sniper rifle 18 Tactical photo reproduction capability 4 Bed netting 25,000...general in their new commands and Brigadier General Natonski was promoted to the grade of major general after as­ suming command of 1st Marine

  13. SWAD: small arms fire warning and direction finding system: a passive IR concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahler, Moti; Danino, Meir

    2007-04-01

    A passive IR approach for stationary system is introduced providing protection to high value infrastructure and strategic areas by detecting and warnings against fire shot from rifles, carbines, sub-machines and various other small arms - SWAD. SWAD provides protected surroundings in which it remotely detects small arms fire. By analyzing their patterns, including duration and intensity, SWAD classifies the type of weapon being used.

  14. An analysis of the transition of the Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) from advanced technology demonstration to acquisition program

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Erik C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The OICW is envisioned to be a lightweight, shoulder-fired weapon having a dual munitions capability and an advanced day/night fire control. The OICW is expected to provide substantial improvements in lethality over the predecessor rifle and carbine families of weapons. The Office of the Program Manager for Small Arms assessed the OICW Advanced Technology Demonstration process and program progress in 1998 and concluded the ATD process ...

  15. Allies of a Kind: Canadian Army-US Army Relations and the Korean War, 1950-1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Trade as part of its Faculty Research Program (United States of America) of the Understanding Canada- Cana - dian Studies Program. The fellowship...staff. The Cana - dian infantry sections kept their M4 Enfield rifles, Bren light machine guns, and Sten submachine guns because of their ammunition...the end of the year the Cana - dian service units within the war zone included: 57th Independent Field Squadron (Royal Canadian Engineers) 25th

  16. Proceedings, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Seminar on Water Project Financing Held at Fort Belvoir, Virginia on 16-17 May 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    LIST I Rifle and Pistol Trap and Skeet Multiple Use Hand Court Areas Softball Complex Golf Course Equestrian Area Food and Boat Rental, Train Audubon...Nature Area Model Flying/Boating RV Campground Archery Military Museum - nonprofit Handicapped Trail - Miller supporting Small Water Slide Portable Food ...addition on a cost-reimbursable basis as the Federal Engiener . At a project where Federal power is authorized, traditionally we would design and construct

  17. How Do Leaders Enable Performance in Adverse Conditions Leadership in Defense of the Alcazar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    of rifles ammunition, but only a few machine guns (10-12) and a handful of sub-machine guns , which were kept at the Academy as instructional samples...ammunition or small arms either. They also had machine guns , flamethrowers, tanks, armored cars, heavy artillery and bombing planes and dynamite. The... religion of the regiment,”63 but more specifically when used here, it refers to the maintenance of general military discipline, law and order and

  18. Broken Mirrors: Tracing Issues in Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    towards other religions . Buddhists, who comprised a large portion of the country, responded with open defiance to the law, waving Buddhist flags during a...equipping them with more light machine guns and a comparable amount of mortar systems as U.S. divisions maintained.72 Reliance on firepower...systems including the Ak-47 rifle and PKM machine guns necessitated a viable source. Donor supplies from neighboring countries, weapons acquired

  19. Potential Effects of Permanent Neutrality on Mongolia’s Defense Foreign Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to the diversity of the population, religion , politics, and economics, causes instability in the region and transnational threats among the states... gun , SIG SAUER series of semi-automatic pistols and rifles, military trucks made by SAURER MOTORS, and MOWAG PIRANHA family of armored fighting...including terrorism, extremism, and religion -based radicals, and threats from its two powerful neighboring countries. Yet, it is still vulnerable and

  20. An Archeological Survey at Fort Devens, Massachusetts and Its Off-Base Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Valley was famous for its rifles, machinery, axes, waffle irons, augers, and bits, all of which found their way to a national market (LeBlanc 1969:73...testing method Is illustrated in Table 13; sampling densities are given In the cells for each level of sensitivity and disturbance among the columns ...Plate 22. Facility 1, Area G, Fort Devens, Mass. Old building site at the northern end of area G. The concrete slab on which this building was built is

  1. Facilitating the Transition from Bright to Dim Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    four different clothing patterns, and an AiR-15 rifle. These objects possessed defined visual characteristics of size, shape, and contrast and...system on or off was both a performance decrement and a distraction with respect to individual responsiveness; thus, the potential operational cost of...standard acquisition matrix of cost , schedule, and performance, then the less expensive option, with fewer secondary field issues (e.g., no battery

  2. Shooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2005-01-01

    @@ Shooting with the rifle, pistol and shotgun2 has been practiced in many countries since the Middle Ages. During the 19th century, however,shooting also developed into a sport: associations, federations,councils, confederations, unions or organizations were formed in some countries, using different words to describe the alliance3 of shooters in clubs or the alliance clubs in local, regional or national organizations.

  3. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: An analysis of 165 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, E.; Puri, S.; Varma, V.; Madhyastha, P. R.; Bande, S.; Gurudev, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) contributes to 3–7% of overall acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of PRAKI and risk factors associated with renal injury and maternal mortality. One hundred and sixty-five patients with PRAKI, seen at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College between 2005 and 2014, were included in this, observational study. AKI was analyzed in terms of maximal stage of renal injury attained as per Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Outcomes included requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT), maternal, and fetal mortality. Incidence of PRAKI was 1.56%, and the mean age of the study population was 25 years. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with PRAKI during their first pregnancy. PRAKI was observed most commonly in the postpartum period (60%), followed by third trimester (32%); as per RIFLE criteria, failure was seen in 36% and injury in 34%. Thirty percent of cases required RRT. Sepsis (59%), pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (56%) were the leading causes of PRAKI, while sepsis was the leading cause of maternal mortality. Maternal and fetal mortality were 20% and 22%, respectively. In univariate analysis, shock, hemorrhage requiring transfusion of >5 units packed red blood cells, oliguria, and “Loss” category of RIFLE were significantly associated with mortality. Majority of the patients (57%) required Intensive Care Unit care with a mean duration of admission at 7.3 days, and 75% was diagnosed with AKI at the time of admission. We report the lowest incidence of PRAKI in contemporary Indian literature. PRAKI was associated with high maternal and fetal mortality, with sepsis being the leading cause. No association was noted between mortality and initial stages of RIFLE criteria. PMID:28356662

  4. Proceedings of the Tri-Service Gun Tube Wear and Erosion Symposium, ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ, 29-31 March 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    sequently released when the fibers were dissolved to form the lacquer in the hardening process. The presence of acidic materials in the finished...introduced a rifle-type ablative ammunition employing beeswax as the ablator in 1948 with some success but it was not until the last 10 years that...elevated temperatures, as elemental hafnium and columbium oxidize preferentially. The Hf2 then dissolves in the columbium oxide Cb 0 to form 611f0-Cb2 0

  5. The Full Cost of Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    enlisted member for each Service  This may not accurately reflect marginal cost  Variation in mix of ranks. A rifle company is relatively cheap...keep people with marketable skills 4 Indirect military personnel costs are high ($M 2007) Medical Support 8,029 Schools for Dependents 1,586...hand  Indirect costs are important  Personnel cost much more than is generally recognized  Much of the cost is deferred  Some is not in the DoD

  6. Definition and Classification of Acute Kidney Injury:Contributions and Problems in the Clinical Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-pu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Definition and Classification of Acute Kidney Injury Before the RIFLE classification system of acute renal failure (ARF) was proposed in the Second Conference of Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI, an international volunteer organization mainly composed of intensivists and nephrologists in developed countries) in 2002, there were more than 35 diagnostic criteria of ARF in different literatures, which led to confusion in clinical practice and epidemiological investigation(1).

  7. Methodology for teaching technical pattern of lying, sport shooting. Mistakes often.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaydel Avila Gómez; Víctor Manuel Martín Betancourt

    2011-01-01

    The next album we set out a summary of the key technical elements for a good development of the prone position, bearing in mind that sometimes violate some methodological steps for teaching the same in athletes who play sports Shooting sports Rifle mode, which creates bad habits in the teaching of the position are difficult to eradicate later. We proceeded to perform the following steps. Criteria for experts to determine methodological steps to be taken into account in the teaching of technic...

  8. Generation of Combat Power by Insurgents: An Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Massif, I could clearly see the vivid flashes of six mortar tubes leaping into the night, dramatically illuminating their concealed baseplate positions...Nearer, from the Jebel Ali, the muzzle flashes of incoming machinegun (sic) and rifle fire sparked white-hot gloom . . . Green tracer from an RPD... boys , the Taliban drive a wedge between the population and the GIROA. If the trend continues, it is likely that the Taliban will accomplish its

  9. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  10. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972. Volume 8. Casualties and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-18

    The 9 provln.:cs w,.iich aecount..,,a ]or about 7"" of the US deahs durlig tnh- T-ast two months are sh,,nn in Tablr. ;. All fi’i’ I CML/ prtvincr.s...MACV compound in Binh Thuan province, 6 IA . "Named large unit operations, 23 KIA Small unit operations, 17 KIA JulYl 3 - L9 (80 MI) * Two rifle

  11. China Needs to Continue Its Drive of Reform and Opening up——On the lOth anniversary of China's entry into the WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Sun Zhenyu, president of China Society for World Trade Organization Studies delivered a speech rifled Review and Outlook on the lOth Anniversary ofChina's Entry into the WTO at the Third'In- ternational Business Development Forum held in May. He reviewed and analyzed China's tenyears in WTO, pointing out that China needs to continue its drive of reform and opening up. "Ihe ~ollowing is an abstract of Sun's speech.

  12. Improving Virtual / Constructive Training and Experimentation with Human Adjudication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    most common situations involve modeling errors. They may also involve secondary effects of those errors. One such example would be if a rifle shoots ...player requests an adjudication to reconstitute 15 members of his unit because "an enemy soldier appeared out of nowhere and began shooting ." When...Aviation EAE – Fort Rucker NOSC, NEAE – Fort Gordon SMDC - Redstone Models, Tools and Systems OneSAF CES CRA -P Network Timeserver Representation: COMMS

  13. A Business Case Analysis of the M4/AR-15 Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    market . The market analysis was conducted to fill missing gaps on the M4/AR-15 market size, customer demographics , and supplier base. Data was collected...Wesson, 2012). The article also provides data on the rapid growth in the modern sporting rifle market segment . Peters (2012) cites a Freedom Group...types of products generally manufactured in each market . The four main market segments are Small Arms (which will be considered the “Gun segment

  14. Maximising Acute Kidney Injury Alerts--A Cross-Sectional Comparison with the Clinical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sawhney

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is serious and widespread across healthcare (1 in 7 hospital admissions but recognition is often delayed causing avoidable harm. Nationwide automated biochemistry alerts for AKI stages 1-3 have been introduced in England to improve recognition. We explored how these alerts compared with clinical diagnosis in different hospital settings.We used a large population cohort of 4464 patients with renal impairment. Each patient had case-note review by a nephrologist, using RIFLE criteria to diagnose AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD. We identified and staged AKI alerts using the new national NHS England AKI algorithm and compared this with nephrologist diagnosis across hospital settings.Of 4464 patients, 525 had RIFLE AKI, 449 had mild AKI, 2185 had CKD (without AKI and 1305 were of uncertain chronicity. NHS AKI algorithm criteria alerted for 90.5% of RIFLE AKI, 72.4% of mild AKI, 34.1% of uncertain cases and 14.0% of patients who actually had CKD.The algorithm identified AKI particularly well in intensive care (95.5% and nephrology (94.6%, but less well on surgical wards (86.4%. Restricting the algorithm to stage 2 and 3 alerts reduced the over-diagnosis of AKI in CKD patients from 14.0% to 2.1%, but missed or delayed alerts in two-thirds of RIFLE AKI patients.Automated AKI detection performed well across hospital settings, but was less sensitive on surgical wards. Clinicians should be mindful that restricting alerts to stages 2-3 may identify fewer CKD patients, but including stage 1 provides more sensitive and timely alerting.

  15. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: An analysis of 165 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI contributes to 3–7% of overall acute kidney injury (AKI cases in Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of PRAKI and risk factors associated with renal injury and maternal mortality. One hundred and sixty-five patients with PRAKI, seen at M. S. Ramaiah Medical College between 2005 and 2014, were included in this, observational study. AKI was analyzed in terms of maximal stage of renal injury attained as per Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE criteria. Outcomes included requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT, maternal, and fetal mortality. Incidence of PRAKI was 1.56%, and the mean age of the study population was 25 years. Fifty percent of the patients were diagnosed with PRAKI during their first pregnancy. PRAKI was observed most commonly in the postpartum period (60%, followed by third trimester (32%; as per RIFLE criteria, failure was seen in 36% and injury in 34%. Thirty percent of cases required RRT. Sepsis (59%, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (56% were the leading causes of PRAKI, while sepsis was the leading cause of maternal mortality. Maternal and fetal mortality were 20% and 22%, respectively. In univariate analysis, shock, hemorrhage requiring transfusion of >5 units packed red blood cells, oliguria, and “Loss” category of RIFLE were significantly associated with mortality. Majority of the patients (57% required Intensive Care Unit care with a mean duration of admission at 7.3 days, and 75% was diagnosed with AKI at the time of admission. We report the lowest incidence of PRAKI in contemporary Indian literature. PRAKI was associated with high maternal and fetal mortality, with sepsis being the leading cause. No association was noted between mortality and initial stages of RIFLE criteria.

  16. Comparación de los sistemas de clasificación del fracaso renal agudo en la sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusiones: Un porcentaje elevado de pacientes con sepsis grave desarrolla FRA que se puede clasificar según los distintos métodos propuestos. Los estadios de las clasificaciones RIFLE, AKIN y KDIGO se relacionan con un mayor riesgo de muerte intrahospitalaria. Por el contrario, la nueva definición de CK no se relaciona con una mayor mortalidad y no se debería usar en estos pacientes con sepsis grave sin confirmar su utilidad en estudios posteriores.

  17. Powder Lot Variations: A Case Study with H4831 - Hodgdon Extreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. 14. ABSTRACT Small arms propellant manufacturer Hodgdon claims that rifle powders in its Extreme line...ballistics, variation, powder lot, nitrocellulose 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...States Air Force Academy, 2354 Fairchild Drive, USAF Academy, CO, 80840 Michael_Courtney@alum.mit.edu Abstract Small arms propellant manufacturer

  18. Buying Influence: The Relationship of Incentives and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Stereotypes About Women and Men,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 18, no. 3 (1982): 277. 31 Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology...reassemble from across the country, flooding the bazaar with revelers and music . The music had fallen silent in 2006, as the Taliban regained control...Aziz’s dining room then drove towards the bazaar with our escorts. The music , cheering, and interminable snapping of celebratory rifle fire grew

  19. Battle of Manila: Offensive, Deliberate Attack, MOUT, January-February 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    the ordinary street fighting most principles, used were orthod &-ax." (26) Further, the 37th Divison had implemented special training for its rifle...34 ,~~~~~~~~~~~~...................,...............-..-.-........,...,............ . .. .. .......... >.>.’.. ... ,...>. .-.--.-. , ,... Duabachi, ordered the defense of the city. By his word choice...River, two Filipino scouts brought word that 4,000 American and other Allied prisoners were interned at Santo Tomas University. These two scouts then

  20. Where are the Infantry Sergeants? An Examination of the Marine Corps’ Policies and Processes That Adversely Affected the Availability of Infantry Sergeants to Serve as Squad Leaders in the Operating Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    platoon broke down into two half platoons led by Sergeants. Lacldng their own tables or organization, Marine * Appendix C graphically depicts the Table...availability of infantry Sergeants. t Appendix C graphically depicts ,the Table of Organization of the US Marine Corps Rifle Company of 1944 8 h...affect enlisted ’staffing in recent conflicts. . Operation Desert Shielcl/ Deseli StC?rm was too brief to have had significant impact on manpower

  1. Rules - In a Knife Fight? A Study of Rules of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    which made up the Haitian armed forces, including the Forces Armees D’Haiti ( FADH ) and the national police had discarded their uniforms for civilian...in public armed with crew served weapons, automatic weapons, or rifles are members of the FADH , National Police, or paramilitary groups, and...the forced entry transformed into a permissive landing and in effect had the FADH and the task force working cooperatively. Enemy forces the day before

  2. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  3. Prognosis and serum creatinine levels in acute renal failure at the time of nephrology consultation: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Irala Jokin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between acute serum creatinine changes in acute renal failure (ARF, before specialized treatment begins, and in-hospital mortality, recovery of renal function, and overall mortality at 6 months, on an equal degree of ARF severity, using the RIFLE criteria, and comorbid illnesses. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1008 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed as having ARF, and had been admitted in an university-affiliated hospital over 10 years. Demographic, clinical information and outcomes were measured. After that, 646 patients who had presented enough increment in serum creatinine to qualify for the RIFLE criteria were included for subsequent analysis. The population was divided into two groups using the median serum creatinine change (101% as the cut-off value. Multivariate non-conditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results A ≥ 101% increment of creatinine respect to its baseline before nephrology consultation was associated with significant increase of in-hospital mortality (35.6% vs. 22.6%, p Conclusion In this cohort, patients who had presented an increment in serum level of creatinine of ≥ 101% with respect to basal values, at the time of nephrology consultation, had increased mortality rates and were discharged from hospital with a more deteriorated renal function than those with similar Liano scoring and the same RIFLE classes, but with a

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1725 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1725 ref|YP_002842679.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Sulfolobus isla...ndicus M.16.27] ref|YP_002913978.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Sulfolobus islandicus M.16.4...] gb|ACP54634.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Sulfolobus islandicus M.16.27] gb|ACR41310.1| major fa...cilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Sulfolobus islandicus M.16.4] YP_002842679.1 1.7 28% ...

  5. Modeling the Impact of Biogeochemical Hotspots and Hot Moments on Subsurface Carbon Fluxes from a Flood Plain Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C. I.; King, E.; Conrad, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical hotspots and hot moments are known to account for a high percentage of carbon and nutrient cycling within flood plain environments. To quantify the impact of these hotspots and hot moments on the carbon cycle, a 2D reactive transport model was developed for the saturated-unsaturated zone of a flood plain site in Rifle, CO. Previous studies have identified naturally reduced zones (NRZs) in the saturated zone of the Rifle site to be hotspots and important regions for subsurface biogeochemical cycling. Wavelet analysis of geochemical concentrations at the site suggested that hydrologic and temperature variations are hot moments and exert an important control on biogeochemical conditions in the Rifle aquifer. Here, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that couples hydrologic and biogeochemical processes to microbial functional distributions inferred from site-specific 'omic' data. The model includes microbial contributions from heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic processes. We use Monod based formulations to represent biomass formation and consider energy partitioning between catabolic and anabolic processes. We use this model to explore community emergence at the Rifle site and further constrain the extent and rates of nutrient uptake as well as abiotic and biotic reactions using stable carbon isotopes. Results from 2D model simulations with only abiotic reactions predict lower CO2 partial pressures in the unsaturated zone and severely underpredict (~200%) carbon fluxes to the river compared to simulations with chemolithoautotrophic pathways. δ13C-CO2 profiles also point to biotic sources for the locally observed high CO2 concentrations above NRZs. Results further indicate that groundwater carbon fluxes from the Rifle site to the river are underestimated by almost 180% (to 3.3 g m-2 d-1) when temperature fluctuations are ignored in the simulations. Preliminary results demonstrate the emergence of denitrifiers at specific depths

  6. Prevalence, risk factors, clinical course, and outcome of acute kidney injury in Chinese intensive care units: a prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ying; JIANG Li; XU Yuan; QIAN Chuan-yun; LI Shu-sheng; QIN Tie-he; CHEN Er-zhen

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been recognized as a major healthcare problem affecting millions of patients worldwide.However,epidemiologic data concerning AKI in China are still lacking.The objectives of this study were to characterize AKI defined by RIFLE criteria,assess the association with hospital mortality,and evaluate the impact of AKI in the context of other risk factors.Methods This prospective multicenter observational study enrolled 3,063 consecutive patients from 1 July 2009 to 31 August 2009 in 22 ICUs across mainland China.We excluded patients who were admitted for less than 24 hours (n=1623),younger than 18 years (n=127),receiving chronic hemodialysis (n=29),receiving renal transplantation (n=1) and unknown reasons (n=28).There were 1255 patients in the final analysis.AKI was diagnosed and classified according to RIFLE criteria.Results There were 396 patients (31.6%) who had AKI,with RIFLE maximum class R,I,and F in 126 (10.0%),91 (7.3%),and 179 (14.3%) patients,respectively.Renal function deteriorated in 206 patients (16.4%).In comparison with non AKI patients,patients in the risk class on ICU admission were more likely to progress to the injury class (odds ratio (OR) 3.564,95% confidence interval (CI) 1.706-7.443,P =0.001],while patients in the risk class (OR 5.215,95% CI 2.798-9.719,P <0.001) and injury class (OR 13.316,95% CI 7.507-23.622,P <0.001) had a significantly higher probability of deteriorating into failure class.The adjusted hazard ratios for 90-day mortality were 1.884 for the risk group,3.401 for the injury group,and 5.306 for the failure group.Conclusions The prevalence of AKI was high among critically ill patients in Chinese ICUs.In comparison with non-AKI patients,patients with RIFLE class R or class I on ICU admission were more susceptibility to progression to class I or class F.The RIFLE criteria were robust and correlated well with clinical deterioration and mortality.

  7. Mineralogical Controls on Carbon Cycling in a Floodplain Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Dwivedi, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Spycher, N.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.

    2016-12-01

    With the overarching goal of understanding mineral-organic-microbe interactions on carbon and nutrient cycles, we are developing a reactive transport model that includes carbon (C) pools and transformations, a realistic treatment of protected C pools, multiple decomposition pathways, and radiocarbon (14C) dynamics. The objective of the modeling is to understand the impact of mineralogy on carbon turnover and residence times in a floodplain site in Rifle, CO. Previous studies have identified naturally reduced zones (NRZs) in the saturated zone of the Rifle site to be C hotspots and regions characterized by diffusion-limited transport and high rates of microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions. Detailed characterization of the soil organic matter in both the NRZ and non-NRZ sediments at the Rifle site including radiocarbon dating, and extraction and chemical characterization of mineral-bound pool of organic matter, is used to inform the modeling. In this study, we describe the development of a coupled unsaturated-saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport model of the Rifle site along a two-dimensional cross-section (parallel to groundwater flow). The biogeochemical reaction network includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, archetypal polymer and monomer carbon substrate groups, kinetic and equilibrium mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, and aqueous and surface complexation. We use this model to explore fungal and bacterial community emergence at the site and compare organo-mineral interactions across NRZ and non-NRZ regions. Observed 14C profiles suggest that sediment-associated carbon in NRZ locations is much older than both the depositional age of the floodplain sediments and dissolved organic carbon in the groundwater. Model simulations were able to capture the observed soil organic matter (SOM) and ∆14C profiles across the Rifle site. Modeling results show higher lignin content in the NRZ sediments and greater Fe

  8. Parental Control of the Personal Domain and Adolescent Symptoms of Psychopathology: A Cross-National Study in the United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Yuki; Nucci, Larry; Nucci, Maria S.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred seventy U.S. (M=16.1 years) and 125 middle-class Japanese (M=16.6 years) adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) controls the personal, conventional, prudential, and overlapping domain behaviors of the adolescent. Participants also completed an inventory assessing self-reported…

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1129 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1129 ref|YP_002844690.1| hypothetical protein M1627_2809 [Sulfolobus isla...ndicus M.16.27] gb|ACP56645.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Sulfolobus islandicus M.16.27] YP_002844690.1 0.053 25% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1336 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1336 ref|YP_002843628.1| hypothetical protein M1627_1705 [Sulfolobus isla...ndicus M.16.27] gb|ACP55583.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Sulfolobus islandicus M.16.27] YP_002843628.1 0.054 22% ...

  11. Incidência de insuficiência renal aguda na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital paulista Incidencia de insuficiencia renal crónica aguda en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de Sao Paulo Incidence of acute renal failure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a incidência de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admissão de pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de um hospital paulista, e o uso da classificação de RIFLE na alocação destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: Levantamento de prontuários no período de 04 a 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: Das 19 admissões de neonatos por diagnósticos diversos, 10% foram geradas por IRA (RIFLE, sendo os pacientes encaminhados à programas de diálise. CONCLUSÃO: Este levantamento realizado, com um número reduzido de indivíduos, demonstrou que a IRA representou 10% das causas de internação primária em UTIN. Maior tempo de observação seria importante para avaliar a progressão para IRA dos outros diagnósticos. Trabalhos com maior número de indivíduos e maior tempo de observação seriam importantes para se obter a real incidência desta complicação como causa de internação em UTIN.OBJETIVOS: Verificar la incidencia de insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA como motivo de admisión de pacientes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN de un hospital de Sao Paulo, y el uso de la clasificación de RIFLE en la asignación de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un levantamiento de historias clínicas en el período comprendido ente el 04 al 25/04/2008. RESULTADOS: De las 19 admisiones de neonatos por diversos diagnósticos, el 10% fueron generadas por IRA (RIFLE, siendo los pacientes encaminados a los programas de diálisis. CONCLUSIÓN: Este levantamiento realizado, con un número reducido de individuos, demostró que la IRA representó el 10% de las causas de internamiento primario en la UCIN. Sería importante un mayor tiempo de observación para evaluar el progreso de los otros diagnósticos hacia la IRA. Trabajos con mayor número de individuos así como de mayor tiempo de observación serían importantes para obtenerse la incidencia real de esta complicación como causa de internamiento en la UCIN

  12. Development and evaluation of an integrated emergency response facility location model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Dong Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and compare the performance of the “two” robust mathematical models, the Robust Integer Facility Location (RIFL and the Robust Continuous Facility Location (RCFL models, to solve the emergency response facility and transportation problems in terms of the total logistics cost and robustness. Design/methodology/approach: The emergency response facilities include distribution warehouses (DWH where relief goods are stored, commodity distribution points (CDP, and neighborhood locations. Authors propose two robust models: the Robust Integer Facility Location (RIFL model where the demand of a CDP is covered by a main DWH or a backup CDP; the Robust Continuous Facility Location (RCFL model where that of a CDP is covered by multiple DWHs. The performance of these models is compared with each other and to the Regular Facility Location (RFL model where a CDP is covered by one main DWH. The case studies with multiple scenarios are analyzed. Findings: The results illustrate that the RFL outperforms others under normal conditions while the RCFL outperforms others under the emergency conditions. Overall, the total logistics cost and robustness level of the RCFL outperforms those of other models while the performance of RFL and RIFL is mixed between the cost and robustness index. Originality/value: Two new emergency distribution approaches are modeled, and evaluated using case studies. In addition to the total logistics cost, the robustness index is uniquely presented and applied. The proposed models and robustness concept are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of disaster logistics management.

  13. Progress in understanding uranium(IV) speciation and dynamics in biologically reduced sediments: Research at molecular to centimeter scales by the SLAC SFA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Campbell, K. M.; Stubbs, J. E.; Suvorova, E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Alessi, D.; Stylo, M.; Handley, K. M.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Cerrato, J.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Giammar, D.; Long, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical and physical forms of U(IV) in reduced sediments, as well as the biogeochemical processes by which they form and transform, profoundly influence the stability of reduced U(IV) species and the behavior of uranium in biostimulated aquifers. Obtaining such information in field sediments is important because biogeochemical field conditions and their time dependence are difficult to replicate in the laboratory. The majority of contaminated aquifers in which bioremediation is of potential interest, including the Old Rifle, CO IFRC site, exhibit relatively low uranium sediment concentrations, i.e., study U(IV) species and evolving microbial communities in the Old Rifle aquifer and to correlate them with changes in trace and major ion groundwater composition during biostimulation treatments. Sediments were examined using x-ray and electron microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and chemical extractions. XAS analysis showed that U(IV) occurred predominantly or exclusively as monomeric U(IV) complexes coordinated to oxo (or similar N/C) neighbors, and is associated with biomass or Fe sulfides. Even in the latter case, U(IV) was not coordinated directly to S neighbors. Sediment-hosted monomeric U(IV) complexes were found to partially transform into uraninite in the aquifer over a subsequent 12 month period. This work establishes the importance of monomeric U(IV) complexes in subsurface sediments at the Old Rifle site and provides a conceptual framework in which previously observed U(IV) reduction products can be related. These experiments also establish that U(IV) species are dynamic in aquifers and can undergo non-oxidative transformation reactions. These new results have important implications for uranium reactive transport models, long-term assessment of remediation technologies, and understanding natural uranium reduction in aquifers.

  14. Using complex resistivity imaging to infer biogeochemical processes associated with bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, A. Flores; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Kemna, A.

    2011-04-01

    Experiments at the Department of Energy's Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site near Rifle, Colorado (USA) have demonstrated the ability to remove uranium from groundwater by stimulating the growth and activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment. Prolonging the activity of these strains in order to optimize uranium bioremediation has prompted the development of minimally-invasive and spatially-extensive monitoring methods diagnostic of their in situ activity and the end products of their metabolism. Here we demonstrate the use of complex resistivity imaging for monitoring biogeochemical changes accompanying stimulation of indigenous aquifer microorganisms during and after a prolonged period (100+ days) of acetate injection. A thorough raw-data statistical analysis of discrepancies between normal and reciprocal measurements and incorporation of a new power-law phase-error model in the inversion were used to significantly improve the quality of the resistivity phase images over those obtained during previous monitoring experiments at the Rifle IRFC site. The imaging results reveal spatiotemporal changes in the phase response of aquifer sediments, which correlate with increases in Fe(II) and precipitation of metal sulfides (e.g., FeS) following the iterative stimulation of iron and sulfate reducing microorganism. Only modest changes in resistivity magnitude were observed over the monitoring period. The largest phase anomalies (>40 mrad) were observed hundreds of days after halting acetate injection, in conjunction with accumulation of Fe(II) in the presence of residual FeS minerals, reflecting preservation of geochemically reduced conditions in the aquifer - a prerequisite for ensuring the long-term stability of immobilized, redox-sensitive contaminants, such as uranium.

  15. Reactive transport of uranium in a groundwater bioreduction study: Insights from high-temporal resolution 238U/235U data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, A. E.; Johnson, T. M.; Lundstrom, C. C.; Laubach, P. G.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a detailed investigation of U isotopes in conjunction with a broad geochemical investigation during field-scale biostimulation and desorption experiments. This investigation was carried out in the uranium-contaminated alluvial aquifer of the Rifle field research site. In this well-characterized setting, a more comprehensive understanding of U isotope geochemistry is possible. Our results indicate that U isotope fractionation is consistently observed across multiple experiments at the Rifle site. Microbially-mediated reduction is suggested to account for most or all of the observed fractionation as abiotic reduction has been demonstrated to impart much smaller, often near-zero, isotopic fractionation or isotopic fractionation in the opposite direction. Data from some time intervals are consistent with a simple model for transport and U(VI) reduction, where the fractionation factor (ε = +0.65‰ to +0.85‰) is consistent with experimental studies. However, during other time intervals the observed patterns in our data indicate the importance of other processes in governing U concentrations and 238U/235U ratios. For instance, we demonstrate that departures from Rayleigh behavior in groundwater systems arise from the presence of adsorbed species. We also show that isotope data are sensitive to the onset of oxidation after biostimulation ends, even in the case where reduction continues to remove contaminant uranium downstream. Our study and the described conceptual model support the use of 238U/235U ratios as a tool for evaluating the efficacy of biostimulation and potentially other remedial strategies employed at Rifle and other uranium-contaminated sites.

  16. Fatores de risco associados à lesão renal aguda em pacientes tratados com polimixina B em um hospital terciário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fuchs Bahlis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: O uso de polimixinas foi praticamente abandonado nos anos 1970 devido as altas taxas de nefropatia. Entretanto, foram reintroduzidas na prática médica devido a sua ação contra bactérias gram negativas resistentes a carbapenemicos. A literatura recente sugere uma taxa de nefropatia mais baixa do que a historicamente reportada. Objetivo: Determinar a incidência de nefropatia associada ao uso de polimixina utilizando os critérios de RIFLE. Métodos: Foi realizada coorte retrospectiva de todos pacientes adultos que receberam polimixina B no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição de dezembro de 2010 até março de 2011. Resultados: 61 pacientes (43% preencheram os critérios de rifle para injúria renal e 28 (13,7% necessitaram de diálise. Preditores independentes para nefrotoxicidade foram hipotensão (OR, 2.79; CI 1.14-5.8; p = 0.006 e uso concomitante de vancomicina (OR, 2.86; CI, 1.27-6.4; p = 0.011. Conclusão: Nessa coorte retrospectiva, nefrotoxicidade (definida pelos criterios de RIFLE ocorreu em 43% dos pacientes tratados com polimixina B. O uso concomitante de vancomicina e hipotensão foram fatores de risco independentes para desenvolvimento de nefropatia. Mais estudos são necessarios, particularmente com polimixina B, para esclarecer se as caracteristicas dessa droga e da colistina são sobreponíveis.

  17. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  18. Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in medical, surgical, and intensive care unit: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine, 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively ( P < 0.0001. There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward ( P = 0.001. RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2% and ICU (50% wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%. Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU ( P = 0.043. Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%, whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively. Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively ( P = 0.003. Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different ( P = 0.007. This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings.

  19. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters′ Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years, and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%, while 23/202 (11% exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19% had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%, had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  20. Determining the Incidence of Drug-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Steven M.; Cheung, Pui Wen; Culley, Colleen M.; Perera, Subashan; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Kellum, John A.; Marcum, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is well-studied in the acute care setting, investigation of AKI in the nursing home (NH) setting is virtually nonexistent. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of drug-associated AKI using the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function or End-Stage kidney disease) criteria in NH residents. Design/Setting/Participants/Measurements We conducted a retrospective study between February 9, 2012 and February 8, 2013 for all residents at four UPMC NHs located in Southwest Pennsylvania. The TheraDoc™ Clinical Surveillance System, which monitors laboratory and medication data and fires alerts when patients have a sufficient increase in serum creatinine, was used for automated case detection. An increase in serum creatinine in the presence of an active medication order identified to potentially cause AKI triggered an alert, and drug-associated AKI was staged according to the RIFLE criteria. Data were analyzed by frequency and distribution of alert type by risk, injury, and failure. Results Of the 249 residents who had a drug-associated AKI alert fire, 170 (68.3%) were female, and the mean age was 74.2 years. Using the total number of alerts (n=668), the rate of drug-associated AKI was 0.35 events per 100 resident-months. Based on the RIFLE criteria, there were 191, 70, and 44 residents who were classified as AKI risk, injury, and failure, respectively. The most common medication classes included in the AKI alerts were diuretics, ACEIs/ARBs, and antibiotics. Conclusion Drug-associated AKI was a common cause of potential adverse drug events. The vast majority of the cases were related to the use of diuretics, ACEIs/ARBs and antibiotics. Future studies are needed to better understand patient, provider and facility risk factors as well as strategies to enhance the detection and management of drug-associated AKI in the NH. PMID:24814042

  1. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  2. The Impact of Deep Versus Moderate Hypothermia on Postoperative Kidney Function After Elective Aortic Hemiarch Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Bavaria, Joseph E; Sultan, Ibrahim; Siki, Mary; Naidu, Suveeksha; Milewski, Rita K; Williams, Matthew L; Hargrove, W Clark; Desai, Nimesh D; Szeto, Wilson Y

    2016-10-01

    There remains concern that moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) may provide suboptimal distal organ protection compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). We compared postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in in patients who underwent elective hemiarch repair with either DHCA/RCP or MHCA/ACP. This was a retrospective review of all patients undergoing elective aortic hemiarch reconstruction for aneurysmal disease between 2009 and 2014. Patients were stratified according to the use of DHCA/RCP versus MHCA/ACP. The primary outcome was the occurrence of AKI at 48 hours, as defined by the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage (RIFLE ) criteria. A multivariable logistic regression identified risk factors for AKI. One hundred eighteen patients who underwent ACP and 471 patients who underwent RCP were included. The mean lowest temperature was 26.4°C in patients who underwent MHCA/ACP and 17.5°C in patients who underwent DHCA/RCP. Baseline demographics were similar except that patients who underwent DHCA/RCP were more likely to have peripheral arterial disease or bicuspid aortic valves. Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were shorter in the MHCA/ACP group. AKI occurred in 19 (16.2%) patients who underwent MHCA/ACP and 67 (14.3%) patients who underwent DHCA/RCP. Four (0.8%) patients who underwent DHCA/RCP required postoperative dialysis. In-hospital mortality tended to increase with increasing RIFLE classification (RIFLE class-0 (No AKI) = 0.41%; Risk = 1.35%, and Injury = 10.0%; p = 0.09). On multivariable analysis, the lowest temperature and cerebral perfusion strategy were not significant predictors of AKI. Lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), lower preoperative ejection fraction, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were independently associated with higher AKI. We applied the sensitive RIFLE criteria to examine AKI in

  3. Controlled-Release Personal Use Arthropod Repellent Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-25

    deodorant , or other cosmetic enhancers, and rinsed with 70% ethanol. For each subject control site, (5 cm in diameter), anG two test sites, 6 x 16.7 cm...Camouflage 0-1 c) Polyurethane Rifle Stocks 51 Metals S-1 a) Aluminum General Equipeent 6) Natural Products -- I a) Leather Boots 7) Textiles T-1 a...The area was slightly tacky to touch and a definite loss of gloss was noted. * e. metals Aluminum was not visibly affected by all three solutions. f

  4. Development of U isotope fractionation as an indictor or U(VI) reduction in uranium plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Craig [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Johnson, Thomas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-02-16

    This is the final report for a university research project that advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of uranium contamination in groundwater at the Rifle Field Challenge site. Reduction changes mobile hexavalent uranium into immobile U(IV). The stable isotope ratio (238U/235U) measurements of U using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry were performed to understand the chemical reduction and sorption processes during various field experiments. In addition laboratory experiments were performed to better understand the isotopic fractionations. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  5. Fort England as a military base.

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Sally

    1980-01-01

    • Opsomming: Tans is Fort England in Grahamstad ʼn sielsieke-inrigting. Dit het oorspronklik bekend gestaan as die East Barracks en was die brandpunt van die vroegste nedersetting op die Kaapse Oosgrens. Fort England was trouens die bakermat en vesting van die militêre eenheid wat later die Cape Mounted Rifles geword het. Ofskoon dit in werklikheid sIegs as barakke gedien het, is die naam Fort England in 1832 aan hierdie kompleks gegee. Die 'fort' was vir 'n halfeeu die militêre hoofkwartie...

  6. Shortchanging the Joint Fight? An Airman’s Assessment of FM 3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Other factors (e.g., organization, training, and spirit ) may offset technological deficiencies. For example, the AK-47 assault rifle remains an...twentieth century it became “abundantly clear,” when compared to its “rival” Christendom , the “world of Islam had become poor, weak, and ignorant.”196...Franks that the gunship is “a famous airplane … [its] guns have destroyed the spirit of the Taliban and the Arabs.”266 These capabilities capture one

  7. Building the Case Toward a Definitive Clinical Trial: Saline Versus Plasma-Lyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Critical Care Medicine www.ccmjournal.org 1009 Since its first reported use during the cholera pandemic in 1831, the potential pitfalls of sodium...rate of more severe AKI (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End stage kidney disease [RIFLE]-I or F: 83% vs 28%, p < 0.001), and 24-hour survival (55% vs...consistent with known effects of normal saline on the kidney (1, 3–6). The most current Kidney Disease : Improving Global Out- comes (9) and Surviving Sepsis

  8. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  9. Om at blive skudt med hagl. En "Crime Scene Investigation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Jensen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Rifle contra shotgun shots are considered in relation to an X-mas goose and shooting accident. Depending on the size of shots, material and velocity, the effect in the body may vary considerably. Myocardial infarction, secondary to accidental shotgun shot, may be caused by 1) thrombosis secondary...... to intima lesion, 2) stenosis, oedema and haematoma in relation to myocardial lesion; and, in addition, 3) the cumulative energy of many shots may give myocardial contusion with infarction. Pathotechnical and pathophysiological analyses are required to reveal complicated causes and effects and unusual...

  10. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  11. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  12. The Officer’s Handbook; A Soviet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-05-01

    Formation of the Central Aero-Mydrodynamic Institute ( TsAGI )—the center of Soviet aviation science and technology. 1918—Creation, on the initiative of...engined TsAGI -6 aircraft with a payload of 5,000kg, reached an altitude of 8,980m. 1936—Acceptance by the Red Army of the first 7.62mm automatic rifle...Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania , the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. Albania, by virtue of the position taken by its

  13. NO REWARD BUT HONOUR? The British soldier in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van Heerden

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Luitenant-kolonel Sir John Baynes was 21B van die 1ste Battaljon van die Cameronians (Scottish Rifles ten tye van die ontbinding daarvan. Hy was daarna verbonde aan die Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth en Camerons, die Universiteit van Edinburgh en 1ste Battaljon 52 Lowland Volunteers. Nadat hy in 1972 afgetree het, was hy een van die eienaars van 'n hotel in Wallis. Deesdae wy hy hom aan skryfwerk en is tans besig met 'n biografie oor die lewe van generaalmajoor R E Urquart.

  14. Liam Hemsworth Australian actor,starring as Gale in The Hunger Games%利亚姆·海莫斯沃斯(在《饥饿游戏》中出演盖尔的澳洲党员)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    “我的叔叔说我是一个小坏蛋。我那时总是脾气不好,生气时会拿着气枪钻进森林风景点惹麻烦。现在,我会告诫不成熟的自己要保持冷静。”%"My uncle called me devil child. I'd fly intoa temper all the time,and I'd go out in the forest with an air rifle and get into trouble.Now I tell my younger self to chill out."

  15. Ballistic Applications of Glass and Kevlar Fibre Vinylester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Panda

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Void-free E-glass and Kevlar-49 fibre reinforced vinylester laminates prepared under compression moulding were found to have Charpy impact strength of 576 KJlm2 and 304 KJlm2, respectively. Ballistic immunisation tests carried out on the glass reinforced vinylester laminates with thickness ranging from 12 mm to 54 mm against 7.62 mm rifle bullets produced an exponential relationship between the per cent attenuation in bullet velocity and the areal density of the laminates; whereas the relationship was linear for 9 mm carbine fire with laminate thicknessvarying from 5.5 mm to 12 mm .

  16. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlaine A Menezes; Monique Van Sluys; Angélica F. Fontes; Carlos F. D Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used ...

  17. Cold Steel, Weak Flesh: Mechanism, Masculinity and the Anxieties of Late Victorian Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael

    2017-03-15

    This article considers the reception and representation of advanced military technology in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Britain. It argues that technologies such as the breech-loading rifle and the machine gun existed in an ambiguous relationship with contemporary ideas about martial masculinities and in many cases served to fuel anxieties about the physical prowess of the British soldier. In turn, these anxieties encouraged a preoccupation in both military and popular domains with that most visceral of weapons, the bayonet, an obsession which was to have profound consequences for British military thinking at the dawn of the First World War.

  18. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and that are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 µg/L or 0.126 µmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influences plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences

  19. Small Wars Manual (Reprint of 1940 Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    by local artisans in the theater of operations. e. Grenade carriers of leather or heavy canvas similar in design to the Browning automatic rifle... spider rings (at lower part of SWM 3-32 TRANSPORTATION quarter straps), or the quarter strap D-rings to hold the load down. 3–32. Pack equipment.—a...protective covering-such as ponchos or canvas . (15) During hot weather, bulls cannot be worked in the heat of the day. A good schedule to follow at

  20. Correlacao do EuroSCORE com o surgimento de lesao renal aguda pos-operatoria em cirurgia cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bastos de Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se há correlação entre valores do EuroSCORE e o risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado em hospital terciário, em pacientes consecutivos com indicação para abordagem cirúrgica cardíaca (valvares, isquêmicas e congênitas entre outubro de 2010 a julho de 2011. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados cem pacientes. Destes, seis foram excluídos (cinco por doença renal ou terapia dialítica prévias e um devido a informações incompletas no prontuário médico. As principais indicações cirúrgicas foram revascularização miocárdica em 55 pacientes (58,5% dos casos e trocas valvares em 28 pacientes (29,8%. Conforme o EuroSCORE, 55 pacientes foram classificados como risco alto (58,5%, 27 pacientes como risco médio (28,7% e 12 pacientes como risco baixo (12,8%. No período pós-operatório, 31 pacientes (33% evoluíram com aumento da creatinina sérica (18 (19,1% RIFLE "R"; 7 (7,4% RIFLE "I"; e 6 (6,5% RIFLE "F". Na amostra considerada de alto risco pelos critérios do EuroSCORE, 24 pacientes (43,6% apresentaram comprometimento renal agudo. Nos pacientes classificados como de médio e de baixo risco, ocorreu lesão renal aguda em 18,5 e 16,6% dos casos, respectivamente. A associação entre a estratificação de risco (baixo, médio e alto do EuroSCORE e o escore do RIFLE pós-operatório foi estatisticamente significante (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: Na população estudada, houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre o EuroSCORE e o risco de desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca.

  1. Taser-Related Testicular Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Katherine; Slater, Rick; Hale, Nathan

    2016-02-01

    The Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle (Taser) is an electrical weapon designed as a nonlethal means to subdue violent or fleeing subjects. Several reports have been published on the safety and efficacy of, as well as injury profile from, police Tasers. Documented urologic involvement is rare. The sequela of an electrical current from a Taser gun to the testis in regard to both short- and long-term functions is unknown. Herein we present a case of penetrating trauma to the scrotum from a Taser dart.

  2. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  3. Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Scott J.; Yu, Haini; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Blake, Diane A.

    2008-10-02

    An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.

  4. Proceedings of the U.S. Army Symposium on Gun Dynamics (6th) Held in Tamiment, Pennsylvania on 15-17 May 1990. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Sorenson In the case of the test round the polar moment of inertia is 630.91 lb. in.2 vs 587.46 lb. in.2 for the tactical round. This is a 7.4% increase...set back mass I = polar moment of inertia K = rifling constant r = radius to friction surface for the shell body = .0515(177.63) = .12 25.96(2.94...USET,GPDT,EST,,,,SWRI1,,,,,,,///11//, $ DUMMOD3 SWRI1.GUNTUBE,PRJCTL,FRICT,TUBSUP,,,,SWFI2,,,,., $ ALTER 125,󈧝 DUMMOD! CASEXX.TRL,SWRI2,DIT,KDD, BDD

  5. Data Center Optimization Initiative Strategic Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — On August 1, 2016, the Office of Management and Budget issued memorandum M-16-19, establishing the Data Center Optimization Initiative (DCOI). The DCOI, as described...

  6. AcEST: DK944038 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 5' end sequence. DK944038 CL2989Contig1 Show DK944038 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0004_M16 Library YMU02 Length ...579 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_M16. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94403...cleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK944038|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_M16, ...tabase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK944038|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clo...YMU02A01NGRL0004_M16 579 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_M1

  7. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Miletto, Marzia; Williams, Kenneth H.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lovely, Derek R.; Long, Philip E.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  8. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT) ammunition accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. CORRIVEAU; C. FLORIN PETRE

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT) ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  9. Conceptual design of an advanced water/steam central solar receiver, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, F. T.; Payne, H. M.; Jones, B. O.; Snyder, T. K.; Davidson, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    A drum type boiler with forced circulation evaporator using rifled tubing can be designed for the high heat flux of a North field collector without the problems associated with departure of nuclear boiling. Existing boiler technology and materials can be used to design an advanced water/steam receiver. Rifled tubing was shown by test data to provide protection to evaporator panels at peak heat flux levels 30 percent greater than the design point of these receivers. Estimated budgetary type costs of these receivers vary from $10 per pound of steam for the large receiver to $13 per pound of steam for the smaller units. Fatigue life was conservatively calculated to be 30,000 full strain range cycles. This is adequate for the diurnal cycling, plus some cloud over a 30 year period. It is possible that the allowable creep fatigue cycles may be increased to 40,000 - 50,000 by an inelastic stress analysis. This analysis was recommended for future work and is required to resolve the cyclic lifetime of these receivers. Additional analysis is also needed to resolve receiver and plant control systems.

  10. CORRELATION PROCESSING OF DIGITAL OPTICAL IMAGES FOR SOLVING CRIMINALISTIC PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Kozlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation processing of optical digital images of expert research objects is promising to improve the quality, reliability and representativeness of the research. The development of computer algorithms for expert investigations by using correlation analysis methods for solving such problems of criminology, as a comparison of color-tone image parameters impressions of seals and stamps, and measurement of the rifling profile trace of the barrel on the bullet is the purpose of the work. A method and software application for measurement of linear, angular and altitude characteristics of the profile (micro relief of the rifling traces of the barrel on the bullet for judicial-ballistic tests is developed. Experimental results testify to a high overall performance of the developed program application and confirm demanded accuracy of spent measurements. Technique and specialized program application for the comparison of color-tone image parameters impressions of seals and stamps, reflecting degree and character of painting substance distribution in strokes has been developed. It improves presentation and objectivity of tests, and also allows to reduce their carrying out terms. The technique of expert interpretation of correlation analysis results has been offered. Reliability of the received results has been confirmed by experimental researches and has been checked up by means of other methods.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Determinants for Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajniti; Mishra, Om P

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Acute kidney injury (AKI) in P. falciparum malaria infection is an important morbidity in children. The purpose of the present study was done to observe the renal involvement, associated morbidities and outcome. ♦ Out of 156 patients with severe P. falciparum malaria, diagnosed on the basis of compatible clinical presentations and positive malarial parasites in the peripheral blood smear and/or histidine rich protein 2 antigen, 31 had AKI at presentation and were analyzed. ♦ Of 31 (19.9%) patients with AKI, 4 were classified at risk, 11 injury, and 16 failure stage, as per pRIFLE criteria (pediatric version of RIFLE [R = risk, I = injury, F = failure, L = loss E = end-stage kidney disease]). Mean age of children with AKI was 7.7 ± 3.2 years. A significantly higher proportion of patients with AKI had hypoglycemia (41.9%), pulmonary edema (32.2%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (29.0%) compared to those without AKI (18.4%, 4.8%, and 3.2%, respectively). Twelve patients (38.7%) required peritoneal dialysis (PD), 8 (25.8%) died, and all were in failure stage. The non-survivors had significantly higher blood urea (p = 0.005) and serum creatinine levels (p = 0.042), lower glomerular filtration rate (p falciparum malaria is one of the severe systemic complications. Duration of illness and presence of comorbidities adversely affected the outcome. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition; proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Michael J; Callister, Stephen J; Miletto, Marzia; Williams, Kenneth H; Nicora, Carrie D; Lovley, Derek R; Long, Philip E; Lipton, Mary S

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  13. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  14. Shot through the heart-firepower and potential lethality of air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Strinovic, Davor; Mayer, Davor

    2014-11-01

    Although certain air weapons attain muzzle velocities comparable to some firearms, their successful use for committing suicide is rarely seen. Herein, we report a case of a young female died shortly after urgent admission to the hospital with penetrating gunshot wound to the chest. The autopsy revealed perforation of the pericardium and two perforative defects to the right heart ventricle. Injury was inflicted by a 0.177 caliber pellet, fired from an air rifle found near her body. Investigation ruled the death as suicide. The used air rifle fired the pellet with the energy density of 1.9 J/mm(2) , substantially above the threshold for inflicting injury. The pellet penetrated through two layers of cotton fabric and several layers of tissue to inflict fatal injury to the heart. In addition, we provide an insight into the wounding potential of air weapons, which illustrates the need for greater caution in handling those devices. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. salvadoran gang weapons: analysis of lethality, firepower, and implications for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since they surfaced during the final phase of the Internal Conflict in El Salvador, gangs have always used the firearms that were available on the formal and illegal markets. Once the war concluded, and despite new regulations regarding possession of firearms, gang members were able to access them through two means: purchasing on the commercial market, and creating them themselves.This initial acquisition of firearms evolved to acquisition of heavier firepower; particularly assault rifles, and guns that are able to shoot shotgun shells, as well as traditional gauges (9x19 mm, .45, and .38. The cause of this could be directly linked to two factors. On the one hand, the war between two main gangs, the “MS” and the “Barrio 18” –as could be expected– increased the need for greater firepower. On the other hand, there was greater availability of firearms on the market, such as assault rifles, and machine guns, as a result of the war.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1558

  16. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  17. Gun storage patterns in US homes with children. A pediatric practice-based survey. Pediatric Practice Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturia, Y D; Christoffel, K K; Donovan, M

    1996-03-01

    To describe gun storage patterns in gun-owning families with children. Survey of parents attending participating offices. Twenty-nine urban, suburban, and rural pediatric practices in Chicago, Ill; New Jersey; Houston, Tex; Utah; Georgia; Iowa; and South Carolina. Parents of children attending offices for well- or sick-child care. Consecutive sample of families seen during the 1-week study period. MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSES: Logistic regression models were constructed to identify sociodemographic factors associated with keeping guns loaded. Of 5233 surveys, 1682 (32%) indicated ownership of at least one powder firearm. Of the gun-owning families, 61% reported at least one gun unlocked, and 15% reported at least one gun loaded. Rifles were more often stored unlocked (62% rifles vs 52% handguns, Pvs 27% handguns, Pbest-fit logistic regression model for keeping a gun loaded identified four predictor variables: owning a gun for self-protection, work-related gun ownership, owning a handgun, and no men in the home. Because most gun-owning families store guns loaded, unlocked, or both, anticipatory guidance should address gun storage in all such families. Interventions designed to alter the way work guns are dealt with after work, and to provide safe and effective means of self-protection might affect these storage patterns.

  18. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys.

  19. Methodology for teaching technical pattern of lying, sport shooting. Mistakes often.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaydel Avila Gómez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The next album we set out a summary of the key technical elements for a good development of the prone position, bearing in mind that sometimes violate some methodological steps for teaching the same in athletes who play sports Shooting sports Rifle mode, which creates bad habits in the teaching of the position are difficult to eradicate later. We proceeded to perform the following steps. Criteria for experts to determine methodological steps to be taken into account in the teaching of technical pattern prone position; query bibliographic elements of the sport, the explanation of the basic technical elements; survey a group of coaches in the form of Rifle for the determination of the most common mistakes in the process of teaching the technical pattern of the prone position. It came to the conclusion that teaching the correct technical pattern that position must be taken into account methodological steps which do not allow making any error that would create a dynamic stereotype wrong in athletes who subsequently would be difficult to resolve.

  20. Personal noise exposure assessment from small firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Murphy, William J.; Willson, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted noise exposure evaluations of law-enforcement personnel during firearms training at indoor and outdoor firing ranges. A representative cross section of weapons used by officers was measured. Shooters participated in live-fire exercise at an indoor firing range using three different weapons: a Beretta .400 caliber pistol, a Remington 12-gauge shotgun, and an M4 .223-caliber assault rifle. Indoor and outdoor measurements were obtained for the Smith and Wesson .357 pistol and Colt .450 and 9-mm pistols, the Glock .400 pistol, and the Heckler and Koch and Colt AR15 .223 rifles. Impulses were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer 4136 1/4-in. microphone and TASCAM digital audio tape recorder. Relevant impulse noise metrics were calculated. Peak levels ranged from 155 to 168 dB SPL. A-weighted equivalent levels ranged from 124 to 128 dBA. The contributions of the secondary weapon firings were approximately 1 to 9 dBA. Other parameters such as A/B durations, number and mixture of impulses, spectral content, energy, kurtosis, temporal spacing, and hearing protectors' effectiveness were examined. Comparisons of applicable damage risk criteria are presented. Further studies are needed to establish an occupational impulse noise damage risk criterion.

  1. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwell, Amy; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Prugue, Rodrigo; Spear, John R; Hering, Amanda S; Maxwell, Reed M; Carroll, Rosemary W H; Williams, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial "hotspots") in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach.

  2. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  3. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenić Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 14 pigs were wounded in the gluteofemoral region by the bullet M67, initial velocity of 720 m/s. All wounded animals were surgically treated according to the principles of the warsurgery doctrine. Seven wounds were closed with primary delayed suture four days after the primary surgical treatment (traditional approach. Fibrin glue with antibiotics was introduced in seven wounds during the primary surgical treatment and primary delayed suture was done after 24 h. The macroscopic appearance and the clinical assessment of the wound were done during the primary surgical treatment and during its revision after 24 h, as well as histopathological findings at the days 4 and 7 after wounding. Results. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, and treated with fibrin glue with antibiotics after primary surgical management, were closed with primary delayed suture after 24 h. In further wound evolution there were no complications. Conclusion. Uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds caused by an automatic M70AB2 rifle may be closed primarily with delayed suture without the risk of developing complications if on revision, 24 h after primary surgery, there were no present necrotic tissues, hematoma, and any signs of infection when fibrin glue with antibiotics

  4. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  5. Correlative Cryo-Tem Cryo-Stxm and Cryo-Shxm Investigation of Selenium Bioreduction in a Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, S.; Luef, B.; Tyliszczak, T.; Castelle, C. J.; Mullin, S. W.; Hug, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Marcus, M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate mapping of the composition and ultrastructure of minerals and cells is key to understanding biogeochemical process in contaminated environments. Here we developed two apparatus that allow correlation of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron hard X-ray microprobe (SHXM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) datasets. These cryogenic methods enabled precise determination of the distribution, valence state and structure of selenium in intact biofilms sampled during a biostimulation experiment in a contaminated aquifer near Rifle, CO, USA. Results were replicated in the laboratory via anaerobic selenate-reducing enrichment cultures. 16S rRNA analyses of field-derived biofilm indicated the dominance of Betaproteobacteria from the Comamonadaceae family, and uncultivated members of the Simplicispira genus. The major product in field and culture-derived biofilms consists of ~25-300 nm red amorphous Se0 aggregates of colloidal nanoparticles. Correlative analyses of the cultures provided direct evidence for microbial dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV) to Se0. X-ray diffraction and Se K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed red amorphous Se0 with a first shell Se-Se interatomic distance of 2.339 ± 0.003 Å. STXM showed that these aggregates are strongly associated with a protein-rich biofilm matrix containing acidic polysaccharides. From Rifle groundwater, we isolated a strain that shares 98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Dechloromonas aromatica RCB and grows anaerobically by oxidizing acetate and reducing selenate. We refer to this isolate as Dechloromonas selenatis strain RGW99. 3D cryo-electron tomography showed that Se0 particles do not form inside the cytoplasm but rather originate in the cell membrane. The end product of selenate reduction by D. selenatis is 240 ± 66 nm diameter red amorphous Se0 colloidal aggregates. This product was found to be stable for months. Overall

  6. Finite-element time-history analysis for dynamic response of small-caliber guns with projectile-barrel coupling%小口径火炮弹炮耦合动态响应有限元时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏忠亭; 徐达; 李晓伟; 韩振飞

    2012-01-01

    The tube vibration of small-caliber guns when projectile moving along a rifling was studied with finite element method and cantilever beam theory based on moving load idea. Firstly the tube structure was discretized into normal sector elements in cylindrical coordinate system numbered according to the moving process along a rifling of concave parts and bulge ones of projectile rotating band. Then, the moving process along a rifling was separated to three phases, considering driving band squeezing process and transient collision laws between rigid front band and inside barrel, and taking projectile rotating band as elastoplastics, concave part as a linear simplified model, bulge one as a Dubowsky model and tube as a flexible non-uniform cantilever beam. Finally, the time-variant dynamic equations of the tube radial vibration subjected to a moving projectile were set up with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Ignoring the influence of recoil, cradle and barbette, the projectile-barrel coupling model was proved to be a better one close to the reality by comparing with the tube vibration test data.%基于移动荷载思想应用有限单元法和悬臂梁理论研究了小口径火炮弹丸膛内运动过程中的身管振动情况.应用圆柱坐标系将身管结构离散为标准的扇形单元,依据弹带凹槽部和凸起部沿膛线运动过程对各单元进行编号,将弹带视为弹塑性体,凹槽部应用线性简化模型,凸起部应用Dubowsky模型,身管简化为柔性变截面悬臂梁,考虑弹带挤进过程和刚体前定心部对内膛的瞬态碰撞规律,将弹丸膛内运动过程分为三个阶段,根据工程梁理论建立了移动弹丸作用下身管径向振动的时变动力学方程.将计算结果与炮口振动实验数据相比较,可知在忽略火炮后坐、摇架、炮塔等结构影响下,弹炮耦合模型比较准确.

  7. Variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a uranium bioremediation field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, Steven B; Fang, Yilin; Williams, Kenneth H; Murray, Christopher J; Ward, Andy L; Dayvault, Richard D; Waichler, Scott R; Newcomer, Darrell R; Spane, Frank A; Long, Philip E

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional, coupled variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a 2008 in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment is used to better understand the interplay of transport and biogeochemical reactions controlling uranium behavior under pulsed acetate amendment, seasonal water table variation, spatially variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. While the simulation of the 2008 Big Rusty acetate biostimulation field experiment in Rifle, Colorado was generally consistent with behaviors identified in previous field experiments at the Rifle IFRC site, the additional process and property detail provided several new insights. A principal conclusion from this work is that uranium bioreduction is most effective when acetate, in excess of the sulfate-reducing bacteria demand, is available to the metal-reducing bacteria. The inclusion of an initially small population of slow growing sulfate-reducing bacteria identified in proteomic analyses led to an additional source of Fe(II) from the dissolution of Fe(III) minerals promoted by biogenic sulfide. The falling water table during the experiment significantly reduced the saturated thickness of the aquifer and resulted in reactants and products, as well as unmitigated uranium, in the newly unsaturated vadose zone. High permeability sandy gravel structures resulted in locally high flow rates in the vicinity of injection wells that increased acetate dilution. In downgradient locations, these structures created preferential flow paths for acetate delivery that enhanced local zones of TEAP reactivity and subsidiary reactions. Conversely, smaller transport rates associated with the lower permeability lithofacies (e.g., fine) and vadose zone were shown to limit acetate access and reaction. Once accessed by acetate, however, these same zones limited subsequent acetate dilution and provided longer residence times that resulted

  8. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  9. Keep your Sox on: Community genomics-directed isolation and microscopic characterization of the dominant subsurface sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in a sediment aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, S. W.; Wrighton, K. C.; Luef, B.; Wilkins, M. J.; Handley, K. M.; Williams, K. H.; Banfield, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Community genomics and proteomics (proteogenomics) can be used to predict the metabolic potential of complex microbial communities and provide insight into microbial activity and nutrient cycling in situ. Inferences regarding the physiology of specific organisms then can guide isolation efforts, which, if successful, can yield strains that can be metabolically and structurally characterized to further test metagenomic predictions. Here we used proteogenomic data from an acetate-stimulated, sulfidic sediment column deployed in a groundwater well in Rifle, CO to direct laboratory amendment experiments to isolate a bacterial strain potentially involved in sulfur oxidation for physiological and microscopic characterization (Handley et al, submitted 2012). Field strains of Sulfurovum (genome r9c2) were predicted to be capable of CO2 fixation via the reverse TCA cycle and sulfur oxidation (Sox and SQR) coupled to either nitrate reduction (Nap, Nir, Nos) in anaerobic environments or oxygen reduction in microaerobic (cbb3 and bd oxidases) environments; however, key genes for sulfur oxidation (soxXAB) were not identified. Sulfidic groundwater and sediment from the Rifle site were used to inoculate cultures that contained various sulfur species, with and without nitrate and oxygen. We isolated a bacterium, Sulfurovum sp. OBA, whose 16S rRNA gene shares 99.8 % identity to the gene of the dominant genomically characterized strain (genome r9c2) in the Rifle sediment column. The 16S rRNA gene of the isolate most closely matches (95 % sequence identity) the gene of Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1, a genome-sequenced deep-sea sulfur oxidizer. Strain OBA grew via polysulfide, colloidal sulfur, and tetrathionate oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Strain OBA also grew heterotrophically, oxidizing glucose, fructose, mannose, and maltose with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Over the range of oxygen concentrations tested, strain OBA was not

  10. Small Arms Handbook WS - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    single and multiple moving targets. sound targets And a combination of sound and multipla mc~ving targets. Tests are conducted at tile end of these...therefore, are Lalled "active" syste ms . ’A~.tve ’ nfrarcd systents are ous~.e;stible to dote~~tion by a properly equipped enemy. d. Filtered infrared tight...Sim u e nt n% ,IiI withl the d vic’ how i it’ F iu re 5. ms ytmI*n isdI -rhis ~oxwit M.14 or M. Rifle $-anl be ugcq an all Rifie sqa~i TA"I’w c of F

  11. Three-dimensional Structure of a Viral Genome-delivery Portal Vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Olia; P Prevelige Jr.; J Johnson; G Cingolani

    2011-12-31

    DNA viruses such as bacteriophages and herpesviruses deliver their genome into and out of the capsid through large proteinaceous assemblies, known as portal proteins. Here, we report two snapshots of the dodecameric portal protein of bacteriophage P22. The 3.25-{angstrom}-resolution structure of the portal-protein core bound to 12 copies of gene product 4 (gp4) reveals a {approx}1.1-MDa assembly formed by 24 proteins. Unexpectedly, a lower-resolution structure of the full-length portal protein unveils the unique topology of the C-terminal domain, which forms a {approx}200-{angstrom}-long {alpha}-helical barrel. This domain inserts deeply into the virion and is highly conserved in the Podoviridae family. We propose that the barrel domain facilitates genome spooling onto the interior surface of the capsid during genome packaging and, in analogy to a rifle barrel, increases the accuracy of genome ejection into the host cell.

  12. The Insight of Industrialised Building System (IBS By Bumiputera Construction Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad W. M. N. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Industrialised Building System (IBS is widely recognised by construction players in Malaysia since its first implementation since 1960s for IBS pilot projects of Pekeliling Flats and Rifle Range Flats. The aim for the implementation is to promote better system in delivering construction end-products which offers efficiency and effectiveness. At the same time, Bumiputera construction players are the majority of parties in construction industry especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the perception and awareness of IBS implementation among Bumiputera players. It is found that, Bumiputera construction players have sound knowledge on the IBS and optimistic towards further implementation for future projects. Nonetheless, issues on payment methods and coordination of IBS project delivery are found to be the negative perceptions which are considered as hindrance for Bumiputera construction players’ involvement in IBS project.

  13. A Rare Suicidal Method:Succinylcholine Chloride Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Succinylcholine is a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug which is used for intubating the patient in dosage of 1-1.5 mgr/kgr. Nowadays, it is also sold for rifles as an injector form to capture the stray dogs. The introduction of the field of veterinary medicine has increased the availability of succinilcolin. In this study, a case was introduced who injected to his left arm a 3 ml (60 mg pharmaceutical product whose active substance was succinylcholine and applied to the emergency service one hour later with non-specific complaints such as fatigue and abdominal pain. The significance of having knowledge of succinylcholine by emergency doctors owing to severe systemic effects, particularly respiratory depression is emphasized.

  14. Sedation and renal impairment in critically ill patients: a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Thomas; Johansen, Rasmus R.; Prahl, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    an increased urine output in the group receiving no sedation compared to the sedated control group (1.15 ml/kg/hour (0.59 - 1.53) vs. 0.88 ml/kg/hour (0.052 - 1.26), P = 0.03). In addition we saw a decrease in the number of patients with renal impairment according to the RIFLE classification in the group...... receiving no sedation compared to the sedated control group (25 (51%) vs. 41 (76%), P = 0.012). The difference in the two groups with respect to mean arterial blood pressure, fluid balance and use of vasoactive drugs was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: A no sedation strategy to patients undergoing mechanical...

  15. Temporal Approach to Removal of a Large Orbital Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; de Souza Dias, Tasiana Guedes; Grempel, Rafael Grotta; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José de Holanda

    2014-01-01

    Accidents with firearms can result in extensive orbital trauma. Moreover, gun parts can come loose and impale the maxillofacial region. These injuries can cause the loss of visual acuity and impair eye movements. Multidisciplinary treatment is required for injuries associated with this type of trauma. Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction is useful for determining the precise location and size of the object lodged in the facial skeleton, thereby facilitating the planning of the correct surgical approach. The temporal approach is a fast, simple technique with few complications that is indicated for access to the infratemporal fossa. This article describes the use of the temporal approach on a firearm victim in whom the breech of a rifle had impaled orbital region, with the extremity lodged in the infratemporal fossa. PMID:26269733

  16. Staining in firearm barrels after experimental contact shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Bauer, K; Brünig, J; Courts, C; Madea, B

    2017-02-10

    After contact shots to the head biological traces inside firearm barrels can be found. This study was conducted to simulate and to evaluate such staining. Five current handguns of four inch barrel length in the calibre .22 long rifle, 7.65mm Browning, 9mm Luger and .38 special were used to perform 24 contact shots on silicone coated, gelatine filled box models using the triple contrast method. The staining was documented by endoscopy and swabs gathered from both ends of the barrel were analysed by quantitative PCR. With the exception of the .22 revolver, all firearms showed distinct staining which decreased from the muzzle to the rear end of the barrel. The pattern was varied, showing droplets, elongated forms or stripes. In 14 of 24 shots, staining reached the chamber. The staining results were comparable to real suicide cases.

  17. Surgical advances during the First World War: the birth of modern orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M

    2016-02-01

    The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Slant hole completion test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.

  19. Air gun injury with deadly aftermath--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Muric, Nedzat; Dwork, Andrew J; Cakar, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    In Republic of Macedonia the use of air guns is quite widespread. They are used mainly for target practice. They are regulated by the Law of Arms, where they are defined as pneumatic weapons. There is no legal limit on type or quantity of ammunition that one may possess. Our Institute performs at least 90% of the forensic autopsies in Macedonia. In this report we describe the only fatality by pneumatic weapon to come to our attention over the past 10 years. A 6-year-old girl was accidentally wounded by her brother when he and his father were trying a new air gun, a 4.5mm single shot, break barrel, spring piston air rifle manufactured in China under the brand "Westlake". She died within minutes. Autopsy showed cardiac tamponade due to penetration of the aorta. A 0.5g metal projectile, 4.5mm in diameter, with a pointed, conical shape, was recovered from the pericardial sac.

  20. Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blast waves, muzzle velocities, and ignition delay are presented after environmental conditioning (150 days) for two lead based and two DDNP based primers under cold and dry (-25 deg C,0% relative humidity), ambient (20 deg C, 50% relative humidity), and hot & humid (50 deg C, 100% relative humidity) conditions in 5.56 mm NATO. Taken together, these results indicate that DDNP based primers are not sufficiently reliable for service use.

  1. Hostile fire indicator threat data collection for helicopter-mounted applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; De Mezzo, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper briefly describes the set-up of the sensors and the instrumentation deployed by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) during the last NATO/ACG3/SG2 HFI Threat Data Collection (Trial PROTEUS which has been conducted during the summer 2012 in Slovenia). The main purpose of this trial was the measurements of weapon and ammunition signatures for threat warning and hostile fire indicator (HFI) system development. The used weapons vary from small caliber rifles to anti-tank rockets in ground-to-ground shooting configurations. For the ISL team, the objectives consisted in measuring the acoustic signals for detection and localization of weapon firing events. Experimental results of sound localization obtained by using ground based sensors are presented and analyzed under various conditions.

  2. Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karmarkar

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The rockets of World War II represented, not the invention of a new weapon, but the modernization of a very old one. As early as 1232 A.D, the Chinese launched rockets against the Mongols. About a hundred years later the knowledge of ledge of rockets was quite widespread and they were used to set fire to buildings and to terrorize the enemy. But as cannon developed, rockets declined in warfare. However rockets were used occasionally as weapons till about 1530 A.D. About this time improvements in artillery-rifled gun barrel and mechanism to absorb recoil-established a standard of efficiency with which rockets could not compare until World War II brought pew conditions

  3. Geologic and production characteristics of the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myal, F.R.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Kukal, G.C.; Abadie, P.A.; Riecken, C.C.

    1989-07-01

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This study provides a critical comparison of the geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of existing Mesaverde gas producing areas within the basin to those same characteristics at the MWX site near Rifle, Colorado. As will be discussed, the basin has been partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Stimulation techniques have been reviewed for each partitioned area to determine the most effective stimulation technique currently used in the Mesaverde. This study emphasizes predominantly the southern Piceance Basin because of the much greater production and geologic data there. There may be Mesaverde gas production in northern areas but because of the lack of production and relatively few penetrations, the northern Piceance Basin was not included in the detailed parts of this study. 54 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. 望山与表尺--古今瞄准具名称对比%“Wangshan” and “Rear Sight”-Comparing Analysis between Ancient and Modern Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涤非

    2014-01-01

    “Wangshan” is one of the components of the ancient sight. lt served a same purpose to the rear sight of modern rifles and machine guns. As a result of paraphrase, “biaochi”( rear sight ) is more accurate and connotational than word-for-word translation. Paraphrase always has the advantages of the translation of the foreign terminology through contrast on ancient terminology and modern terminology.%望山是古代瞄准具的一个组成部分,相当于现代步、机枪上的表尺,两者的功用基本相同。将英文的rear sight意译为表尺比直译为后瞄准具要准确并更具内涵。

  5. Ibuprofen - a Safe Analgesic During Cardiac Surgery Recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qazi, Saddiq Mohammad; Sindby, Eske Jesper; Nørgaard, Martin Agge

    2015-01-01

    , in a short term post-cardiac surgery setting. Particular attention was given to the rate of myocardial infarction, sternal healing, gastro-intestinal complications, renal failure and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This was a single-centre, open label parallel design randomised controlled study. Patients, who...... of sternal healing, postoperative myocardial infarction or gastrointestinal bleeding. The preoperative levels of creatinine were found to increase by 100% in nine patients (9.6%) in the ibuprofen group, resulting in an acute renal injury (in accordance with the RIFLE-criteria). Eight of these patients...... returned to normal renal function within 14 days. The levels of creatinine in patients in the oxycodone group were not found to increase to the same magnitude. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that patients treated postoperatively, following cardiac surgery, are at no greater risk of harm...

  6. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  7. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  8. Lightweight engine containment. [Kevlar shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. T.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar fabric styles and weaves were studied, as well as methods of application for advanced gas turbine engines. The Kevlar material was subjected to high speed impacts by simple projectiles fired from a rifle, as well as more complex shapes such as fan blades released from gas turbine rotors in a spin pit. Just contained data was developed for a variety of weave and/or application techniques, and a comparative containment weight efficiency was established for Kevlar containment applications. The data generated during these tests is being incorporated into an analytical design system so that blade containment trade-off studies between Kevlar and metal case engine structures can be made. Laboratory tests and engine environment tests were performed to determine the survivability of Kevlar in a gas turbine environment.

  9. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  10. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia as a life-threatening complication of antibiotic treatment of 'chronic Lyme disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Maarten; Speeckaert, Marijn; Callens, Rutger; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    'Chronic Lyme disease' is a controversial condition. As any hard evidence is lacking that unresolved systemic symptoms, following an appropriately diagnosed and treated Lyme disease, are related to a chronic infection with the tick-borne spirochaetes of the Borrelia genus, the term 'chronic Lyme disease' should be avoided and replaced by the term 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.' The improper prescription of prolonged antibiotic treatments for these patients can have an impact on the community antimicrobial resistance and on the consumption of health care resources. Moreover, these treatments can be accompanied by severe complications. In this case report, we describe a life-threatening ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia with an acute kidney injury (RIFLE-stadium F) due to a pigment-induced nephropathy in a 76-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with a so-called 'chronic Lyme disease.'

  11. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  12. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  13. The effect of firearm muzzle gases on the backspatter of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Epstein, Barton P; Zamzow, Dan S; Baldwin, David P

    2011-09-01

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as "backspatter." Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  14. The Effect of Firearm Muzzle Gases on the Backspatter of Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.C.; Laber, T.L.; Epstein, B.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Baldwin, D.P.

    2010-05-12

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as 'backspatter.' Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  15. Human death caused by a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Reckziegel, Guilherme C; Neto, Domingos G; Pimentel, Fábio L

    2014-12-01

    The fatal outcome of a defensive attack by a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is reported. The attack occurred while the victim was hunting, and his dogs cornered the adult anteater, which assumed an erect, threatening position. The hunter did not fire his rifle because of concern about accidentally shooting his dogs. He approached the animal armed with a knife, but was grabbed by its forelimbs. When his sons freed him, he had puncture wounds and severe bleeding in the left inguinal region; he died at the scene. Necroscopic examination showed femoral artery lesions and a large hematoma in the left thigh, with death caused by hypovolemic shock. A similar case is cited, and recommendations are made that boundaries between wildlife and humans be respected, especially when they coinhabit a given area.

  16. A study of gunshot suicides in Northern Ireland from 1989 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A

    1996-01-01

    A study of 104 gunshot suicides, including six women, in Northern Ireland over a 5-year period. Forty-five suicides in the security forces are compared with 59 which took place in the civilian population. The former were commonly associated with marital problems and overwhelmingly occurred in young males under the age of 40, whereas the civilian deaths were predominantly associated with mental ill health, with a wider age range distribution. The security forces used rifled weapons in 44 cases, whereas civilians used shotguns in 46 cases. Twelve out of the 45 were witnessed, compared to one in the civilian population. The security forces favoured the head as site of entry in 40 cases compared to 35 in the civilian population. Alcohol consumption was involved in 23 of the security forces suicides and 18 civilian. Of the 6 women, one was in the security forces and 4 had a history of mental illness.

  17. Effect of Humic Substances on the Trapping and Transformations of U(VI) by Ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublet, G.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Janot, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Old Rifle DOE site in Colorado was a major site for milling uranium ore. U concentrations up to 1.8 uM persist in the Rifle aquifer, even after 'cleaning' the waste source of contaminations [1]. Understanding the behavior of U(VI) in this anthropogenically perturbed system is crucial for controlling the level of U contamination. Direct investigations of U speciation at this site have shown that U is associated with a wide variety of minerals as well as with natural organic matter (NOM) [2]. NOM has multiple functional groups which can be highly reactive with respect to aqueous metal ions, including actinides. Such interactions result in the formation of organo-mineral-metal (ternary) complexes and catalyze redox transformations; in addition, they can enhance mineral dissolution and metal transport [3,4,5]. In the complex soil/sediment system, aqueous, mineral, and organic phases are intimately mixed and their interactions are difficult to characterize by direct investigation [1]. The nanoparticulate iron hydroxide ferrihydrite (Fh), which is ubiquitous in many natural soils and highly reactive toward metal ions, is expected to significantly influence the fate of U in natural soils and is abundant in the subsurface at the Rifle site. NOM is also abundant at this site; however, little is known about the effect of NOM associated with ferrihydrite on the fate of U in such subsurface environments. To date, simple model systems composed mainly of two components (Fh and NOM) [6], (U and NOM or simple organic molecules) [7], or (Fh and U) [8,9], and more rarely composed of three components [10,11] have been studied in an effort to understand interactions among these components. In order to extend this earlier work to ternary systems, we have carried out batch reactions of U, a humic acid standard - Eliott soil humic acid (ESHA), and Fh under conditions that mimic those in the subsurface at Rifle. We have used U L3- and Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy coupled

  18. Customization Product Design Based on User's Emotion and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Chun; ZHANG Chun-lin; LIU Wen-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a design method that ensures the ingenuity of the product form as well as the whole and exact expression of user's needs. The key idea is to establish an automatic design system which can transform the users language needs into the product features in real-time. A rifle was taken as a research instance and soldiers were chosen as evaluation customers. The theory of fuzzy set and semantic difference are adopted to evaluate the relationship between user's needs and product features as well as their alternatives. FAHP (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process) is utilized to judge the users satisfactory forms. This method can also be applied to other product form designs.

  19. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  20. Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Case

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU has increased during the past decade due to increased acuity as well as increased recognition. Early epidemiology studies were confounded by erratic definitions of AKI until recent consensus guidelines (RIFLE and AKIN standardized its definition. This paper discusses the incidence of AKI in the ICU with focuses on specific patient populations. The overall incidence of AKI in ICU patients ranges from 20% to 50% with lower incidence seen in elective surgical patients and higher incidence in sepsis patients. The incidence of contrast-induced AKI is less (11.5%–19% of all admissions than seen in the ICU population at large. AKI represents a significant risk factor for mortality and can be associated with mortality greater than 50%.

  1. Comparação de critérios diagnósticos de insuficiência renal aguda em cirurgia cardíaca Comparison of diagnostic criteria for acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Campos Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há grande controvérsia quanto ao diagnóstico de Insuficiência Renal Aguda (IRA, existindo mais de 30 diferentes definições. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência e os fatores de risco para desenvolvimento de IRA no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca de acordo com os critérios RIFLE, AKIN e KDIGO, e comparar o poder prognóstico desses critérios. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal que incluiu 321 pacientes (62 [53 - 71] anos, 140 homens consecutivamente submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca entre junho de 2011 e janeiro de 2012. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 30 dias, com vistas ao desenvolvimento de um desfecho composto (mortalidade, necessidade de diálise e internação prolongada. RESULTADOS: A incidência de IRA variou de 15% - 51%, conforme o critério diagnóstico adotado. Enquanto a idade se associou ao risco de IRA nos três critérios, houve variação nos demais determinantes. Durante o acompanhamento, 89 pacientes apresentaram o desfecho e todos os critérios se associaram ao risco aumentado na análise Cox univariada e após o ajuste para idade, sexo, diabetes e tipo de cirurgia. Contudo, após novo ajuste para tempo de circulação extracorpórea e presença de baixo débito cardíaco, apenas o diagnóstico de IRA pelo critério KDIGO manteve esta associação significativa (HR= 1,89 [95% IC: 1,18 - 3,06]. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência e os fatores de risco para IRA pós-cirurgia cardíaca têm grande variação de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos utilizados. Em nossa análise, o critério KDIGO se mostrou superior ao AKIN e ao RIFLE quanto ao seu poder prognóstico.BACKGROUND: There is considerable controversy regarding the diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, and there are over 30 different definitions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AKI following cardiac surgery according to the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria, and compare the prognostic power of these criteria

  2. Quantifying warfighter performance in a target acquisition and aiming task using wireless inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Steven P; Cain, Stephen M; McGinnis, Ryan S; Vitali, Rachel R; Perkins, Noel C; McLean, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    An array of inertial measurement units (IMUS) was experimentally employed to analyze warfighter performance on a target acquisition task pre/post fatigue. Eleven participants (5M/6F) repeated an exercise circuit carrying 20 kg of equipment until fatigued. IMUs secured to the sacrum, sternum, and a rifle quantified peak angular velocity magnitude (PAVM) and turn time (TT) on a target acquisition task (three aiming events with two 180° turns) within the exercise circuit. Turning performance of two turns was evaluated pre/post fatigue. Turning performance decreased with fatigue. PAVMs decreased during both turns for the sternum (p performance after fatigue. Similar methodologies can be applied to many movement tasks, including quantifying movement performance for load, fatigue, and equipment conditions.

  3. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, Kirk [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  4. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  5. In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Brett, R.; Peacock, Aaron, D.; Resch, Charles, T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda, N.; Pfiffner, Susan; Gan, M.; McKinley, James, P.; Long, Philip, E.; White, David, C.

    2008-03-28

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.

  6. Complete Blood Cell and HCO3 as a Predictor of Developing Acute Kidney Injury in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefichaijan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Acute kidney injury (AKI due to hypovolemia and gastroenteritis is still a common disease, especially among children in developing countries. The risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease (RIFLE classification is used as the estimated indicator of outcomes and incidence of AKI. Leukocytosis may be seen with systemic infectious, inflammatory diseases, and pyelonephritis. However, the cell blood count is unspecific. Some studies have shown the role of complete blood count in AKI as a useful predictive factor for mortality. We aimed at investigating cell blood count indexes and HCO3 in the prognosis of children with RIFLE criteria of AKI. Methods In this prospective study, 206 patients with AKI, who were admitted to Amir-Kabir emergency department, were investigated. The complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum HCO3, and electrolytes of the patients were measured and compared. All patients were followed monthly for 4 months for renal function test and clinical manifestation. Data analysis was performed by SPSS Version 18 (IBM Corp., NY, US.. Mean, standard deviation, standard error, and frequency were used for descriptive analysis; and t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the 4 groups in white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ESR at baseline (P > 0.05. The number of platelet units was remarkably higher, but the number of MPV and HCO3 was considerably lower in patients with loss/ failure criteria. Conclusions MPV is higher in the case of platelets destruction, and this is commonly observed in inflammatory diseases. Metabolic acidosis is related to AKI and may lead to disorders such as hypotension, cardiac dysfunction, and mortality. HCO3, and MPV are likely to act as a predictor of the development of AKI. Conducting a multicenter study with a larger sample size and longer follow-up is suggested

  7. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  8. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  9. Frequency of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Treated With Normal Saline after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sheybani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common postoperative complication of cardiac surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the frequency of postoperative AKI in low risk adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Materials & Methods: All consecutive adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II and III, who were transferred to the post-operative cardiac surgery ICU after off-pump CABG and were low risk for AKI from October 2013 to September 2014 at Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at a teaching hospital. The patients were explored for AKI development, based on risk-injury-failure-loss- end stage kidney disease (RIFLE and acute kidney injury network (AKIN criteria, frequency of metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and length of stay in ICU.Results: According to the results of the present study, 479 patients with the mean age of 60.8±10.75 yrs were included. AKI occurred in 22 (4.4% and23 (4.8% patients, based on both the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively with the highest rate of AKI, reported on the third and fourth post-operative days. Additionally, hyperchloremia and hypernatremia were observed in 71 (14.8% and 76 (15.9% patients, respectively. Only one case of mortality occurred during the study. Metabolic acidosis was reported in 112 (23.4% patients with a high anion gap in 60 (12.5% cases.Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that hypernatremia and metabolic acidosis but not AKI are frequently seen in patients receiving normal saline following off pump CABG with low risk for AKI.

  10. Linking AS, SE, V, and MN Behavior to Natural Biostimulated Uranium Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimowitz, Alison [Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); Ranville, James [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mailloux, Brian [Barnard College, New York, NY (United States); Figueroa, Linda [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The project “Linking As, Se, V, and Mn behavior to Natural and Biostimulated Uranium Cycling” successfully investigated Arsenic cycling the Rifle Colorado IFRC. This project trained undergraduate and graduate students at the Colorado School of Mines, Vassar College, and Barnard College. This resulted in both undergraduate theses and a PhD thesis and multiple publications. The science was highly successful and we were able to test the main hypotheses. We have shown that (H1) under reducing conditions that promote uranium immobilization arsenic is readily mobilized, that (H2) thioarsenic species are abundant during this mobilization, and (H3) we have examined arsenic mobilization for site sediment. At the Rifle IFRC Acetate was added during experiments to immobilize Uranium. These experiments successfully immobilized uranium but unfortunately would mobilize arsenic. We developed robust sampling and analysis methods for thioarsenic species. We showed that the mobilization occurred under sulfate reducing conditions and the majority of the arsenic was in the form of thioarsenic species. Previous studies had predicted the presence of thioarsenic species but this study used robust field and laboratory methods to quantitatively determine the presence of thioarsenic species. During stimulation in wells with high arsenic the primary species were trithioarsenate and dithioarsenate. In wells with low levels of arsenic release thioarsenates were absent or minor components. Fortunately after the injection of acetate ended the aquifer would become less reducing and the arsenic concentrations would decrease to pre-injection levels. In aquifers where organic carbon is being added as a remedial method or as a contaminant the transient mobility of arsenic during sulfidogenesis should be considered especially in sulfate rich aquifers as this could impact downgradient water quality.

  11. Investigating the effect of electro-active ion concentration on spectral induced polarization signatures arising from biomineralization pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) is a proven geophysical method for detecting biomineral formation with promising applications for monitoring biogeochemical products during microbial induced sequestration of heavy metals and radionuclides in soils. SIP has been used to monitor the evolution of bioremediation-induced end-products at the uranium-contaminated U.S. Department of Energy Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado. Although a significant SIP response was detected, the quantitative interpretation is non-trivial as the polarization of metallic minerals depends both on the mineral surface properties and the electrolyte chemistry. In previous experiments SIP mechanisms were studied under complex environments and individual source mechanisms could not be evaluated. Here we examine the role of electrolyte chemistry by comparing the effect of redox active / inactive ions on metallic polarization. In these abiotic experiments magnetite was used as a proxy biomineral and dispersed within columns packed with sand. Parallel columns were saturated with solutions of different concentrations of active (Fe2+) and inactive (Ca2+) ions (0.01mM-10mM) and SIP measurements made (0.1-1000 Hz). Experimental results show small, but detectable, differences in the effect of active ion and inactive ion concentration on the SIP response. To better characterize the effect of electro-active ions on metallic minerals we used a Cole - Cole type relaxation model, to describe the SIP responses. In order to better resolve the relaxation model parameters, we followed a two-step approach whereby we started with a Bayesian based inversion to resolve for the initial parameter estimates, and subsequently used these estimates as a starting model for a deterministic solution. Our results suggest that changes in the active ion concentration, in the presence of magnetite, alone are unlikely to fully explain recent SIP monitoring data from the Rifle site.

  12. Combined hostile fire and optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännlund, Carl; Tidström, Jonas; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2013-10-01

    Snipers and other optically guided weapon systems are serious threats in military operations. We have studied a SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) camera-based system with capability to detect and locate snipers both before and after shot over a large field-of-view. The high frame rate SWIR-camera allows resolution of the temporal profile of muzzle flashes which is the infrared signature associated with the ejection of the bullet from the rifle. The capability to detect and discriminate sniper muzzle flashes with this system has been verified by FOI in earlier studies. In this work we have extended the system by adding a laser channel for optics detection. A laser diode with slit-shaped beam profile is scanned over the camera field-of-view to detect retro reflection from optical sights. The optics detection system has been tested at various distances up to 1.15 km showing the feasibility to detect rifle scopes in full daylight. The high speed camera gives the possibility to discriminate false alarms by analyzing the temporal data. The intensity variation, caused by atmospheric turbulence, enables discrimination of small sights from larger reflectors due to aperture averaging, although the targets only cover a single pixel. It is shown that optics detection can be integrated in combination with muzzle flash detection by adding a scanning rectangular laser slit. The overall optics detection capability by continuous surveillance of a relatively large field-of-view looks promising. This type of multifunctional system may become an important tool to detect snipers before and after shot.

  13. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  14. C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

  15. Genome-scale dynamic modeling of the competition between Rhodoferax and Geobacter in anoxic subsurface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Izallalen, Mounir; Mouser, Paula; Richter, Hanno; Risso, Carla; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Lovley, Derek R

    2011-02-01

    The advent of rapid complete genome sequencing, and the potential to capture this information in genome-scale metabolic models, provide the possibility of comprehensively modeling microbial community interactions. For example, Rhodoferax and Geobacter species are acetate-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducers that compete in anoxic subsurface environments and this competition may have an influence on the in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. Therefore, genome-scale models of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Rhodoferax ferrireducens were used to evaluate how Geobacter and Rhodoferax species might compete under diverse conditions found in a uranium-contaminated aquifer in Rifle, CO. The model predicted that at the low rates of acetate flux expected under natural conditions at the site, Rhodoferax will outcompete Geobacter as long as sufficient ammonium is available. The model also predicted that when high concentrations of acetate are added during in situ bioremediation, Geobacter species would predominate, consistent with field-scale observations. This can be attributed to the higher expected growth yields of Rhodoferax and the ability of Geobacter to fix nitrogen. The modeling predicted relative proportions of Geobacter and Rhodoferax in geochemically distinct zones of the Rifle site that were comparable to those that were previously documented with molecular techniques. The model also predicted that under nitrogen fixation, higher carbon and electron fluxes would be diverted toward respiration rather than biomass formation in Geobacter, providing a potential explanation for enhanced in situ U(VI) reduction in low-ammonium zones. These results show that genome-scale modeling can be a useful tool for predicting microbial interactions in subsurface environments and shows promise for designing bioremediation strategies.

  16. Using complex resistivity imaging to infer biogeochemical processes associated with bioremediation of an uranium-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Orozco, AdriáN.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Kemna, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    Experiments at the Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site near Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated the ability to remove uranium from groundwater by stimulating the growth and activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment. Prolonging the activity of these strains in order to optimize uranium bioremediation has prompted the development of minimally invasive and spatially extensive monitoring methods diagnostic of their in situ activity and the end products of their metabolism. Here we demonstrate the use of complex resistivity imaging for monitoring biogeochemical changes accompanying stimulation of indigenous aquifer microorganisms during and after a prolonged period (100+ days) of acetate injection. A thorough raw data statistical analysis of discrepancies between normal and reciprocal measurements and incorporation of a new power law phase-error model in the inversion were used to significantly improve the quality of the resistivity phase images over those obtained during previous monitoring experiments at the Rifle IFRC site. The imaging results reveal spatiotemporal changes in the phase response of aquifer sediments, which correlate with increases in Fe(II) and precipitation of metal sulfides (e.g., FeS) following the iterative stimulation of iron and sulfate-reducing microorganisms. Only modest changes in resistivity magnitude were observed over the monitoring period. The largest phase anomalies (>40 mrad) were observed hundreds of days after halting acetate injection, in conjunction with accumulation of Fe(II) in the presence of residual FeS minerals, reflecting preservation of geochemically reduced conditions in the aquifer, a prerequisite for ensuring the long-term stability of immobilized, redox-sensitive contaminants such as uranium.

  17. Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions as a Critical Component of Uranium Plume Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Christensen, J. N.; Hobson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Residual contamination of soils, sediments and groundwater by uranium milling operations presents a lingering problem at former mill sites throughout the upper Colorado River Basin in the western USA. Remedial strategies predicated upon natural flushing by low uranium recharge waters have frequently failed to achieve target concentrations set by national and state regulators. Flushing times of tens of years have often yielded negligible decreases in groundwater uranium concentrations, with extrapolated trends suggesting multiple decades or longer may be required to achieve regulatory goals. The U.S. Department of Energy's Rifle, Colorado field site serves as a natural laboratory for investigating the underlying causes for uranium plume persistence, with recent studies there highlighting the important role that surface water-groundwater interactions play in sustaining uranium delivery to the aquifer. Annual snowmelt-driven increases in Colorado River discharge induce 1-2 m excursions in groundwater elevation at the Rifle site, which enables residual tailings-contaminated materials (so-called Supplemental Standards) to become hydrologically connected to the aquifer for short periods of time during peak discharge. The episodic contact between shallow groundwater and residual contamination leads to abrupt 20-fold increases in groundwater uranium concentration, which serve to seasonally replenish the plume given the location of the Supplemental Standards along the upgradient edge of the aquifer. Uranium isotope composition changes abruptly as uranium concentrations increase reflecting the contribution of a temporally distinct contaminant reservoir. The release of uranium serves to potentially replenish organic matter rich sediments located within the alluvial aquifer at downstream locations, which have been postulated to serve as a parallel contributor to plume persistence following the uptake, immobilization, and slow re-oxidation of uranium.

  18. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  19. Urine interleukin-18 in prediction of acute kidney injury: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Yingting; Zha, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) mediates ischemic acute tubular necrosis; it has been proved as a rapid, reliable, and affordable test marker for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its predictive accuracy varies greatly. MEDLINE and EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Ovid, and Springerlink (from inception to November 15, 2013) were searched for relevant studies (in English) investigating diagnostic accuracy of urine IL-18 to predict AKI in various clinical settings. The text index was increasing or increased urine IL-18 level and the main outcome was the development of AKI, which was primarily based on serum creatinine level [using risk, injury, failure, loss and end-stage renal disease (RIFLE), acute kidney injury network, or modified pediatric RIFLE criteria in pediatric patients]. Pooled estimates of diagnostic odds ratio (OR), sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to calculate the measures of accuracy and Q point value (Q*). Remarkable heterogeneity was explored further by subgroup analysis based on the different clinical settings. We analyzed data from 11 studies of 3 countries covering 2,796 patients. These studies were marked by limitations of threshold and non-threshold effect heterogeneity. Across all settings, the diagnostic OR for urine IL-18 level to predict AKI was 5.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.22-8.12], with sensitivity and specificity respectively at 0.51 and 0.79. The area under the ROC curve of urine IL-18 level to predict AKI was 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.83). Subgroup analysis showed that urine IL-18 level in pediatric patients (<18 years) and early AKI predictive time (<12 h) were more effective in predicting AKI, with diagnostic ORs of 7.51 (2.99-18.88), 8.18 (2.19-30.51), respectively. Urine IL-18 holds promise as a biomarker in the prediction of AKI but has only moderate diagnostic value.

  20. Evaluation of acute kidney injury as defined by the risk, injury,failure, loss, and end-stage criteria in critically ill patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jia-ning; LUO Zhe; GUO Da-qiao; XU Xin; CHEN Bin; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Jue

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered as a common and significant complication following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.This study aimed to assess the associated risk factors of AKI in the critically ill patients undergoing AAA repair and to evaluate the appropriate AKI management in the specific population.Methods We retrospectively examined data from all critically ill patients undergoing AAA repairs at our institution from April 2007 to March 2012.Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors associated with postoperative AKI,which was defined by risk,injury,failure,loss and end-stage (RIFLE) kidney disease criteria.The goal-directed hemodynamic optimization (maintenance of optimal hemodynamics and neutral or negative fluid balance) and renal outcomes were also reviewed.Results Of the 71 patients enrolled,32 (45.1%) developed AKI,with 30 (93.8%) cases diagnosed on admission to surgical intensive care unit (SICU).Risk factors for AKI were ruptured AAA (odds ratio (OR)=5.846,95% confidence interval (Cl):1.346-25.390),intraoperative hypotension (OR=6.008,95% CI:1.176 to 30.683),and perioperative blood transfusion (OR=4.611,95% CI:1.307-16.276).Goal-directed hemodynamic optimization resulted in 75.0% complete and 18.8% partial renal recovery.Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.8% AKI was associated with significantly increased length of stay ((136.9±24.5) hours vs.(70.4±11.3) hours)in Surgical Intensive Care Unit.Conclusions Critically ill patients undergoing AAA repair have a high incidence of AKI,which can be early recognized by RIFLE criteria.Rupture,hypotension,and blood transfusion are the significant associated risk factors.Application of goal-directed hemodynamic optimization in this cohort appeared to be effective in improving renal outcome.

  1. "Time-Based Paintings": Jeremy Blakes Winchester Trilogy (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teine, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Winchester, heiress of the rifle fortune, felt that she was cursed by the spirits of the ones who had been killed by the Winchester rifles. She sought out spiritualists who told her to move west and build a house: The sounds of construction should ward off the ghosts. Thus in 1884 she moved to San Jose, purchased a farm house and immediately began spending her $20 million inheritance on renovating the house, with work continuing 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year for the next 38 years. Construction only stopped on the Winchester Mystery House upon her death in 1922, when the workers immediately stopped building. It is now a Disney-like tourist attraction with guided tours through the oddities of the 160-chamber-mansion built in victorian style.Jeremy Blake, a young american artist living in Los Angeles, was fascinated by this story and used it as the basis of one of his latest art works called The Winchester Trilogy. The essay shows how Blake created a multimedia video-sound-installation, which equally enthralls and repells its audience with amazing colors and disturbing pictures. Blake dispensed with plot, instead he put emphasis on our visual memory, which is influenced by the many cowboy-, horror- and wild west Hollywood-movies. Thus the Winchester Trilogy not only is an amazing piece of contemporary art but it is also a statement about the american myth of freedom, which has to be protected by the power of weapons.

  2. Importance of Organic Matter-Uranium Biogeochemistry to Uranium Plume Persistence in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, J.; Janot, N.; Jones, M. E.; Bone, S. E.; Lezama-Pacheco, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that biologically driven redox reactions, fueled by sedimentary lenses enriched in detrital organic matter, play major roles in maintaining the persistent uranium groundwater plume in the subsurface at the U.S. Department of Enery's Rifle, CO field research site. Biogeochemical cycling of C, N, Fe, and S is highly active in these organic-rich naturally reduced zones (NRZs), and uranium is present as U(IV). The speciation of these elements profoundly influences the susceptibility of uranium to be reoxidized and remobiliized and contribute to plume persistence. However, uranim speciation in particular is poorly constrained in these sytems. To better evaluate the importance of NRZs to uranium mobility and plume persistence at the Rifle site, the DOE-BER-funded SLAC SFA team has characterized vertical concentration profiles and speciation of uranium, iron, sulfur, and NOM in well bores at high spatial resolution (4 inch intervals). Up to 95% of the sedimentary uranium pool was found to be concentrated in NRZs, where it occurs dominantly as non-crystalline forms of U(IV). Uranium accumulation and the presence of the short-lived sulfide mackinawite (FeS) at NRZ-aquifer interfaces indicate that NRZs actively exchange solutes with the surrounding aquifer. Moreover, sediment textures indicate that NRZs are likely to be abundant in riparian zones throughout the upper Colorado River basin (U.S.A.), which contains most of the contaminated DOE legacy uranium ore processing sites in the U.S. These results suggest that NRZ-uranium interactions may be important to plume persistence regionally and emphasize the importance of understanding molecular-scale processes.

  3. Influence of hydrological, biogeochemical and temperature transients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Bhavna; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Steefel, Carl I.; Molins, Sergi; Bill, Markus; Conrad, Mark E.; Dong, Wenming; Faybishenko, Boris; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2016-02-01

    Flood plains play a potentially important role in the global carbon cycle. The accumulation of organic matter in flood plains often induces the formation of chemically reduced groundwater and sediments along riverbanks. In this study, our objective is to evaluate the cumulative impact of such reduced zones, water table fluctuations, and temperature gradients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain at Rifle, Colorado located along the Colorado River. 2-D coupled variably-saturated, non-isothermal flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling was applied to improve our understanding of the abiotic and microbially mediated reactions controlling carbon dynamics at the Rifle site. Model simulations considering only abiotic reactions (thus ignoring microbial reactions) underestimated CO2 partial pressures observed in the unsaturated zone and severely underestimated inorganic (and overestimated organic) carbon fluxes to the river compared to simulations with biotic pathways. Both model simulations and field observations highlighted the need to include microbial contributions from chemolithoautotrophic processes (e.g., Fe?2 and S-2 oxidation) to match locally-observed high CO2 concentrations above reduced zones. Observed seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations in the unsaturated zone could not be reproduced without incorporating temperature gradients in the simulations. Incorporating temperature fluctuations resulted in an increase in the annual groundwater carbon fluxes to the river by 170 % to 3.3 g m-2 d-1, while including water table variations resulted in an overall decrease in the simulated fluxes. We conclude that spatial microbial and redox zonation as well as temporal fluctuations of temperature and water table depth contribute significantly to subsurface carbon fluxes in flood plains and need to be represented appropriately in model simulations.

  4. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  5. Acute kidney injury and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sehgal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT is a life-saving procedure for patients with several malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication after HSCT. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence and outcomes of AKI associated with HSCT in our center. Sixty-six HSCT recipients from October 2008 to March 2014 at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, were followed up till July 31, 2014. RIFLE criteria utilizing serum creatinine was used to diagnose and stage AKI. Mortality and AKI were the primary outcomes studied. The risk of AKI in relation to conditioning regimen, type of HSCT (allogeneic and autologous, co-morbidities, graft versus host disease, drug toxicity, and veno-occlusive disease were analyzed. Sixty-five patients were included in the study. Male: Female ratio was 3.6:1 with a median age of 17 years (1.5–62. Forty-nine (75.4% patients had AKI over 3 months, R 17 (26.2%, I 19 (29.2%, and F 13 (20%. AKI occurred at a mean of 19.4 ± 29.2 days after the HSCT. AKI was more commonly observed in patients undergoing allogeneic versus autologous HSCT (85.2% in allogeneic vs. 27.8% in autologous, P = 0.005. Mortality was seen in 20 patients (30.8% in 3 months. AKI in the first 2 weeks (P < 0.016 was a significant risk factor for mortality. Incidence of AKI in HSCT is high and accounts for significant mortality and morbidity. RIFLE classification of AKI has prognostic significance among HSCT patients with an incremental trend in mortality.

  6. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwell, Amy [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis, E-mail: asitchle@mines.edu [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Prugue, Rodrigo [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Spear, John R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hering, Amanda S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Carroll, Rosemary W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  7. Drug-related acute renal failure in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavecchia, Lujan; Cereza García, Gloria; Sabaté Gallego, Mònica; Vidal Guitart, Xavier; Ramos Terrades, Natalia; de la Torre, Judith; Segarra Medrano, Alfons; Agustí Escasany, Antònia

    2015-01-01

    The information available on the incidence and the characteristics of patients with acute renal failure (ARF) related to drugs is scarce. To estimate the incidence of drug-related ARF in hospitalised patients and to compare their characteristics with those of patients with ARF due to other causes. We selected a prospective cohort of patients with ARF during hospital admission (July 2010-July 2011). Information on patients' demographics, medical antecedents, ARF risk factors, ARF severity according to the RIFLE classification and hospital drug administration was collected. We analysed the relationship of drugs with the ARF episodes using Spanish Pharmacovigilance System methods and algorithm. A total of 194 cases had an episode of hospital-acquired ARF. The median age of patients was 72 years [IQR 20]; 60% were men. The ARF incidence during hospitalization was 9.6 per 1,000 admissions. According to the RIFLE classification, a risk of kidney damage or kidney injury was present in 77.8% of cases. In 105 (54.1%) cases, ARF was drug-related; the drugs most frequently involved were diuretics, agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system, immunosuppressants, β-blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, contrast media and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients with drug-related ARF had more multi-morbidity, fewer ARF risk factors and lower mortality. Half of ARF episodes during hospitalisation were drug related. Patients with drug-related ARF had higher cardiovascular morbidity than those with ARF related to other causes, but they had a lower frequency of ARF risk factors and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  9. Biostimulation of Metal-Reducing Microbes at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, A. D.; Anderson, R. T.; Chang, J.; Long, P. E.; White, D. C.

    2002-12-01

    In situ biological treatment strategies are currently being used or considered to address groundwater contamination at hundreds and perhaps thousands of sites in the United States. A key to demonstrating the effectiveness of biological treatment strategies at a site is establishing cause and effect relationships, which provide evidence that the desired bioprocesses are occurring, or are likely to occur. These methods involve directly measuring various biochemical constituents of the bacteria themselves (i.e. "biomarkers"), which are indicative of their metabolic processes, and therefore provide direct, relevant information regarding the environment in which they are growing. These biomarkers include the presence and viability of biomass, the ability of the organisms to degrade or transform target contaminant(s), the presence of nutrients to promote bacterial growth and activity, and the oxidation/reduction (redox) status of the system. Using these tools we monitored an in situ biostimulation test at the field scale at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, a former uranium ore processing facility located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the addition of low concentrations of acetate (approx. 1 millimolar) as an electron donor into the subsurface would create anaerobic conditions that would stimulate growth of metal reducing bacteria capable of reducing soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), respiratory quinone, and DNA data showed that addition of acetate into the subsurface increased the microbial biomass and altered the microbial community structure to one that contained more anaerobic microorganisms (i.e. Geobacter sp.) capable of the reduction of U(VI).

  10. In Situ Community Control of the Stability of Bioreduced Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, David C.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the mechanisms for maintenance of bio-reduced uranium in an aerobic to microaerophylic aquifer under actual field conditions after electron donor addition for biostimulation has ended. Primary Objectives: (1) Determine the relative importance of microbial communities and/or chemical and physical environments mediating uranium reduction/oxidation after cessation of donor addition in an aerobic aquifer. (2) Determine, after cessation of donor addition, the linkages between microbial functions and abiotic processes mediating. Initial Hypotheses: (1) The typical bio-reduced subsurface environments that maintain U(VI) reduction rates after biostimulation contain limited amounts of oxidized iron on mineral surfaces. Therefore, the non sulfate-reducing dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria will move to more conducive areas or be out-competed by more versatile microbes. (2) Microbes capable of sulfate reduction play an important role in the post-treatment maintenance of bio-reduced uranium because these bacteria either directly reduce U(VI) or generate H2S, and/or FeS0.9 which act as oxygen sinks maintaining U(IV) in a reduced state. (3) The presence of bioprecipitated amorphous FeS0.9 in sediments will maintain low U(IV) reoxidation rates under conditions of low biomass, but FeS0.9 by itself is not sufficient to remove U(VI) from groundwater by abiotic reduction. FIELD SCALE EXPERIMENTS: Field-scale electron donor amendment experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado.

  11. Final Report DE-FG02-04ER63719

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek, R.

    2008-03-12

    The studies completed under this grant significantly advanced the understanding and design of strategies for in situ uranium bioremediation. Novel strategies identified show promise to make in situ uranium bioremediation technically simpler and less expensive. As detailed, important findings included: (1) Development of an electron donor delivery strategy to prolong the in situ activity of Geobacter species and enhance the removal of uranium from the groundwater; (2) Demonstration that reproducible year-to-year field experiments were possible at the ERSP study site in Rifle, CO, making hypothesis-driven field experimentation possible; (3) Elucidation of the geochemical and microbiological heterogeneities with the subsurface during in situ uranium bioremediation, which must be accounted for to accurately model the bioremediation process; (4) The discovery that most of the U(VI) contamination at the Rifle site is sediment-associated rather than mobile in the groundwater, as previously considered; (5) The finding that unlike soluble U(VI), sediment-associated U(VI) is not microbially reducible; (6) The demonstration that electrodes may be an effective alternative to acetate as an electron donor to promote microbial U(VI) reduction in the subsurface with the added benefit that electrode-promoted microbial U(VI) reduction offers the possibility of removing the immobilized uranium from the subsurface; and (7) The finding that, after extended acetate inputs, U(VI) continues to be removed from groundwater long after the introduction of acetate into the subsurface is terminated and that this appears to be due to adsorption onto biomass. This potentially will make in situ uranium bioremediation much less expensive than previously envisioned.

  12. Lesão renal aguda em crianças: incidência e fatores prognósticos em pacientes gravemente enfermos Acute kidney injury in children: incidence and prognostic factors in critical ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Machado Souza Freire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Lesão renal aguda caracteriza-se pela redução súbita e, em geral, reversível da função renal com perda da capacidade de manutenção da homeostase do organismo. Em pediatria, as principais causas de lesão renal aguda são sepse, uso de drogas nefrotóxicas e isquemia renal nos pacientes criticamente enfermos. Nesses pacientes, a incidência de lesão renal aguda varia de 20 a 30%, resultando em aumento da taxa de morbi-mortalidade de 40 a 90%. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a incidência de lesão renal aguda nos pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, classificar a gravidade da lesão renal aguda de acordo com o Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage (pRIFLE, analisar a relação entre lesão renal aguda e a gravidade através do Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM e estudar os fatores prognósticos associados. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo entre julho de 2008 a janeiro de 2009 dos pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica do Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão - Florianópolis (SC - Brasil. Todos os pacientes foram analisados diariamente através do débito urinário e creatinina sérica e classificados de acordo com pRIFLE. RESULTADOS: No período de acompanhamento foram internadas 235 crianças. A incidência de lesão renal aguda foi de 30,6%, sendo que o pRIFLE máximo durante a internação foi de 12,1% para R, 12,1% para I e 6,4% para F. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 12,3%. Os pacientes que evoluíram com lesão renal aguda apresentaram risco dez vezes maior de óbito em relação aos não expostos. CONCLUSÃO: Lesão renal aguda é uma entidade comum nos pacientes críticos. O diagnóstico precoce a e instituição imediata de medidas terapêuticas adequadas a cada situação clínica podem alterar o curso e a gravidade do envolvimento renal reduzindo a morbi-mortalidade do paciente.OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is characterized by sudden and generally

  13. EST Table: FS911628 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS911628 E_FL_fufe_23M16_F_0 10/09/28 42 %/180 aa ref|XP_002426758.1| protein singed wings... 2 precursor, putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB14020.1| protein singed wings 2 precursor,

  14. Four weeks of normobaric "live high-train low" do not alter muscular or systemic capacity for maintaining pH and K+ homeostasis during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Siebenmann, C; Jacobs, R A

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated if athletes subjected to 4 wk of living in normobaric hypoxia (3,000 m; 16 h/day) while training at 800-1,300 m ["live high-train low" (LHTL)] increase muscular and systemic capacity for maintaining pH and K(+) homeostasis as well as intense exercise performance. The design wa...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14926-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1426 ) RecName: Full=Actin; &ATAXE(A29877;A54526;S33463) &M16... 340 8e-92 EU128481_1( EU128481 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonubes...957_1( AF200957 |pid:none) Rhynchocypris oxycephalus beta-act... 339 2e-91 EU128482_1( EU128482 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonubes

  16. 78 FR 36643 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16. OMB Control Number: 2900-NEW...

  17. 78 FR 36307 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16. OMB Control Number: 2900-NEW...

  18. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... 17, 2013 (78 FR 36307), inviting the public to comment on a proposed information collection titled ``Wrist Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-16.'' On June 18, 2013 (78 FR 36643... corrects that error by withdrawing the FR notice that published on June 18, 2013 (FR Doc 2013-14412)....

  19. Adolescents' Theories about Economic Inequality: Why Are Some People Poor While Others Are Rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Kim, Taehan; Pykett, Alisa; Finlay, Andrea; Gallay, Erin E.; Pancer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Open-ended responses of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 593 12- to 19-year-olds (M = 16 years old, SD = 1.59) were analyzed to explain why some people in the United States are poor and others are rich. Adolescents had more knowledge and a more complex understanding of wealth than of poverty and older adolescents had more…

  20. Sequence Classification: 740923 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulinase family protein || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/22331173 ... ...Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB TMB >gi|22331173|ref|NP_188548.2| peptidase M16 family protein / ins