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Sample records for m1 pmc sma

  1. Increased SMA-M1 coherence in Parkinson's disease - Pathophysiology or compensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollok, Bettina; Kamp, Daniel; Butz, Markus; Wojtecki, Lars; Timmermann, Lars; Südmeyer, Martin; Krause, Vanessa; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder owing to loss of dopaminergic cells. Akinesia - one of the core symptoms of PD - is associated with exaggerated oscillations at beta frequency (13-30 Hz) within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Thus, enhanced oscillations below 30 Hz are assumed to represent a pathophysiological marker of PD. However, recent data suggest that OFF medication exaggerated beta oscillations within basal ganglia (BG) cortical networks may serve for the compensation of BG dysfunctions. The STN is functionally connected to mesial prefrontal areas like the supplementary motor area (SMA). But, it is still not fully understood how enhanced beta oscillations within the BG exert dominance over the primary motor cortex (M1) thereby yielding motor impairment. The present study, therefore, investigates the effect of dopaminergic state on SMA-M1 functional connectivity using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were recorded in 7 patients suffering from PD with preponderance of akinesia during isometric contraction of the right forearm and during rest. Coherence as a measure of functional connectivity between M1 and SMA was calculated OFF and ON medication and correlated with the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III) and with disease duration. During rest a significant positive correlation between disease duration and SMA-M1 coherence was found ON but not OFF medication. Conversely, during isometric contraction SMA-M1 coherence and UPDRS III were inversely correlated OFF but not ON medication explaining more than 80% of variance. The results favor the hypothesis that OFF medication exaggerated cortical coherence at beta frequency represents a compensatory mechanism rather than a pathophysiological marker per se. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. State-dependent and timing-dependent bidirectional associative plasticity in the human SMA-M1 network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Noritoshi; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Murakami, Takenobu; Bliem, Barbara; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-10-26

    The supplementary motor area (SMA-proper) plays a key role in the preparation and execution of voluntary movements. Anatomically, SMA-proper is densely reciprocally connected to primary motor cortex (M1), but neuronal coordination within the SMA-M1 network and its modification by external perturbation are not well understood. Here we modulated the SMA-M1 network using MR-navigated multicoil associative transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects. Changes in corticospinal excitability were assessed by recording motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude bilaterally in a hand muscle. We found timing-dependent bidirectional Hebbian-like MEP changes during and for at least 30 min after paired associative SMA-M1 stimulation. MEP amplitude increased if SMA stimulation preceded M1 stimulation by 6 ms, but decreased if SMA stimulation lagged M1 stimulation by 15 ms. This associative plasticity in the SMA-M1 network was highly topographically specific because paired associative stimulation of pre-SMA and M1 did not result in any significant MEP change. Furthermore, associative plasticity in the SMA-M1 network was strongly state-dependent because it required priming by near-simultaneous M1 stimulation to occur. We conclude that timing-dependent bidirectional associative plasticity is demonstrated for the first time at the systems level of a human corticocortical neuronal network. The properties of this form of plasticity are fully compatible with spike-timing-dependent plasticity as defined at the cellular level. The necessity of priming may reflect the strong interhemispheric connectivity of the SMA-M1 network. Findings are relevant for better understanding reorganization and potentially therapeutic modification of neuronal coordination in the SMA-M1 network after cerebral lesions such as stroke.

  3. Cure SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources and support programs for Spinraza. 2017 Annual SMA Conference Register now, as we are anticipating our ... your area, or host your own event. Updated SMA Drug Pipeline As the SMA research landscape continues ...

  4. CosmoPMC: Cosmology Population Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbinger, Martin; Cappe, Olivier; Cardoso, Jean-Francois; Fort, Gersende; Prunet, Simon; Robert, Christian P; Wraith, Darren

    2011-01-01

    We present the public release of the Bayesian sampling algorithm for cosmology, CosmoPMC (Cosmology Population Monte Carlo). CosmoPMC explores the parameter space of various cosmological probes, and also provides a robust estimate of the Bayesian evidence. CosmoPMC is based on an adaptive importance sampling method called Population Monte Carlo (PMC). Various cosmology likelihood modules are implemented, and new modules can be added easily. The importance-sampling algorithm is written in C, and fully parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Due to very little overhead, the wall-clock time required for sampling scales approximately with the number of CPUs. The CosmoPMC package contains post-processing and plotting programs, and in addition a Monte-Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) algorithm. The sampling engine is implemented in the library pmclib, and can be used independently. The software is available for download at http://www.cosmopmc.info.

  5. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Print ... treatment for the disease's most troubling symptoms. About SMA Normally, healthy nerve cells in the brain called ...

  6. Electromagnetic Boundaries with PEC/PMC Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2016-01-01

    The most general electromagnetic boundary, defined by linear and local boundary conditions, is defined in terms of conditions which can be called generalized impedance boundary conditions. Requiring that the boundary be equivalent to PEC and PMC boundaries for its two eigen-plane waves, which property is known to exist for many of its special cases, it is shown that the recently introduced Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB (GSHDB) boundary is the most general boundary satisfying this property.

  7. PMC: Select Materialized Cells in Data Cubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Song Li; Hou-Kuan Huang

    2006-01-01

    QC-Tree is one of the most storage-efficient structures for data cubes in an MOLAP system. Although QC-Tree can achieve a high compression ratio, it is still a fully materialized data cube. In this paper, an improved structure PMC is presented allowing us to materialize only a part of the cells in a QC-Tree to save more storage space. There is a notable difference between our partially materialization algorithm and traditional materialized views selection algorithms. In a traditional algorithm, when a view is selected, all the cells in this view are to be materialized. Otherwise, if a view is not selected, all the cells in this view will not be materialized. This strategy results in the unstable query performance. The presented algorithm, however, selects and materializes data in cell level, and, along with further reduced space and update cost, it can ensure a stable query performance. A series of experiments are conducted on both synthetic and real data sets. The results show that PMC can further reduce storage space occupied by the data cube, and can shorten the time to update the cube.

  8. Thermal decomposition of PMC for fiber recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Pomykala, J. A.

    1999-10-22

    This paper describes efforts by Argonne National Laboratory to develop a process to recover carbon fibers from polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. The polymer material in the matrix maybe a thermoplastic or a thermoset. Samples of panels containing PMC fibers were obtained and used in the bench-scale testing program. The authors tested three different methods for recovering these PMC fibers: thermal treatment, chemical degradation, and cryogenic methods (thermal shock treatment). The first two methods were effective in separating the carbon fibers from the polymeric substrate; the third method was not satisfactory. Carbon fibers separated from the polymer substrate using the thermal treatment method were submitted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis and evaluation. The results indicated that the carbon fibers had been cleanly separated from the polymer matrix. Their intrinsic density was 1.8473 g/cm{sup 3} and their electrical resistivity was 0.001847 ohm-cm, compared to an intrinsic density of 1.75--1.9 gm/cm{sup 3} and an electrical resistivity of 0.0002--0.002 ohm-cm for virgin fibers produced from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Although they were not sure that the samples they processed were originally produced from PAN, they used the PAN fibers for comparison. It was also demonstrated that the surface of the recovered fibers could be reactivated to energy levels equivalent to those of reactivated virgin fibers from PAN. A comparison of the mechanical properties of the recovered fibers (without surface treatment) with those of surface-treated virgin fibers from PAN revealed that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation at brake values are about 1/3 the values for the virgin fibers. The modulus for the recycled fibers (31.4 million pounds per square inch [psi]) was about the same as that for the virgin PAN fibers (31.2 million psi). The reason for the lower tensile strength and elongation is not clear; the authors plan to investigate it further

  9. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) A A A What's in this article? ... Outlook en español Atrofia muscular espinal Spinal muscular atrophy, or SMA, is an inherited condition that causes ...

  10. [Technical Representative - Monthly PMC Issues Reports : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of documents contains the Monthly PMC Issues reports for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal compiled by the Technical Representative. Reports in this...

  11. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over supplementary motor area (SMA) but not pre-SMA promotes short-term visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Henning; Conde, Virginia; Sewerin, Sebastian; Taubert, Marco; Sehm, Bernhard; Witte, Otto W; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical excitability and thereby influencing motor behaviour and learning. While there is increasing knowledge about the importance of the primary motor cortex (M1) in short- and long-term motor skill learning, little is known about the role of secondary motor areas such as the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area (SMA/pre-SMA) especially in short-term motor performance. Since SMA but not pre-SMA is directly connected to M1, we hypothesize that anodal tDCS over SMA but not pre-SMA will facilitate visuomotor learning. We applied anodal tDCS (tDCS(anodal)) over left SMA, pre-SMA or M1 (n=12 in each group) while subjects performed a visuomotor pinch force task (VPFT) with their right hand and compared VPFT performance relative to sham (tDCS(sham)). For the first time, we could show that apart from tDCS(anodal) over left M1 also SMA but not pre-SMA stimulation promotes short-term improvements in visuomotor learning relative to tDCS(sham). Our findings provide novel evidence about the role of SMA in short-term visuomotor performance. This knowledge might be beneficial in developing hypothesis-driven clinical studies in neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Observations of PMC Local Time Variations by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite obtains unique measurements for polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) analysis. Its wide cross-track viewing swath and high along-track spatial resolution makes it possible to directly evaluate PMC occurrence frequency and brightness variations between 6S" and 8S' latitude as a function of local time over a 12-14 h continuous period. OMI PMC local time variations are closely coupled to concurrent variations in measurement scattering angle, so that ice phase function effects must be considered when interpreting the observations. Two different phase functions corresponding to bright and faint clouds are examined in this analysis. OMI observations show maximum frequency and albedo values at 8-10 h local time in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreasing amplitude at higher latitudes. Southern Hemisphere values reach a minimum at 18-20 h LT. Larger variations are seen in Northern Hemisphere data. No statistically significant longitudinal dependence was seen.

  13. Direct Observations of PMC Local Time Variations by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite obtains unique measurements for polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) analysis. Its wide cross-track viewing swath and high along-track spatial resolution makes it possible to directly evaluate PMC occurrence frequency and brightness variations between 6S" and 8S' latitude as a function of local time over a 12-14 h continuous period. OMI PMC local time variations are closely coupled to concurrent variations in measurement scattering angle, so that ice phase function effects must be considered when interpreting the observations. Two different phase functions corresponding to bright and faint clouds are examined in this analysis. OMI observations show maximum frequency and albedo values at 8-10 h local time in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreasing amplitude at higher latitudes. Southern Hemisphere values reach a minimum at 18-20 h LT. Larger variations are seen in Northern Hemisphere data. No statistically significant longitudinal dependence was seen.

  14. Ultrasound spectroscopy: application on MMC and PMC materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Ricardo B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vuorinen, Jyki [TAMPERE UNIV TECHNOLOGY; Kuokkala, Veli - Tapani [TAMPERE UNIV TECHNOLOGY

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a simple technique for measuring the second-order elastic constants and ultrasonic attenuation of solids. The technique is based on measuring the spectrum of mechanical resonances for a sample of known shape (usually a sphere, cylinder, or parallelepiped). This spectrum cannot be deconvoluted to deduce the elastic constants. Instead, an approximate spectrum is calculated from the known sample dimensions, its mass, and a set of 'guessed' elastic constants. A multidimensional minimization of the rms difference between the measured and calculated spectra enables us to deduce all the elastic constants of the solid from a single frequency scan. Currently, the technique can be applied to crystals of orthorhombic symmetry (9 elastic constants) or higher using desktop computers and software developed for this purpose. Composite materials, especially fiber composites, can take full advantage of the RUS technique as they typically have low symmetry. In this paper we summarize the RUS technique and provide examples of its application to the elastic characterization of both fiber reinforced MMC's, and fiber reinforced PMC's.

  15. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits.

  16. POST PANCREATITIS SMA SYNDROME : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery (SMA syndrome is a rare acquired disorder in which acute angulation of SMA causes compression of the third part of the duodenum between the SMA and the aorta, leading to obstruction. Loss of fatty tissue as a result of a variet y of debilitating conditions is believed to be the etiologic factor causing the acute angulation. Conditions like increased spinal lordosis, application of a body cast, short ligament of Treitz or unusually low origin of SMA may also precipitate this syndr ome. The diagnosis of SMA syndrome is based on clinical symptoms and radiologic evidence of obstruction. SMA syndrome has been described after rapid or severe weight loss in conditions such as cancer or extensive burn injuries, prolonged bed rest, anorexia , or malabsorption syndromes. Herewith we are reporting a case of post pancreatitis SMA syndrome. KEYWORDS: Post pancreatitis SMA syndrome; superior mesenteric artery syndrome; SMA syndrome.

  17. MICROHARDNESS AND ADHESION STRENGTH OF PMC'S COATINGS BY NiCr ALLOY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aseel A Kareem; Zaina Raheem

    2016-01-01

      The use of polymer matrix composites (PMC's) in the gas flow path of advanced turbine engines offers significant benefits for aircraft engine performance but their useful lifetime is limited by their poor environmental resistance...

  18. Functional Characterization of an Aspergillus fumigatus Calcium Transporter (PmcA) that Is Essential for Fungal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinamarco, Taísa Magnani; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Almeida, Ricardo S.; Brown, Neil Andrew; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a primary and opportunistic pathogen, as well as a major allergen, of mammals. The Ca+2-calcineurin pathway affects virulence, morphogenesis and antifungal drug action in A. fumigatus. Here, we investigated three components of the A. fumigatus Ca+2-calcineurin pathway, pmcA,-B, and -C, which encode calcium transporters. We demonstrated that CrzA can directly control the mRNA accumulation of the pmcA-C genes by binding to their promoter regions. CrzA-binding experiments suggested that the 5′-CACAGCCAC-3′ and 5′-CCCTGCCCC-3′ sequences upstream of pmcA and pmcC genes, respectively, are possible calcineurin-dependent response elements (CDREs)-like consensus motifs. Null mutants were constructed for pmcA and -B and a conditional mutant for pmcC demonstrating pmcC is an essential gene. The ΔpmcA and ΔpmcB mutants were more sensitive to calcium and resistant to manganese and cyclosporin was able to modulate the sensitivity or resistance of these mutants to these salts, supporting the interaction between calcineurin and the function of these transporters. The pmcA-C genes have decreased mRNA abundance into the alveoli in the ΔcalA and ΔcrzA mutant strains. However, only the A. fumigatus ΔpmcA was avirulent in the murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:22649543

  19. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  20. PMC-12, a Prescription of Traditional Korean Medicine, Improves Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Deficits through Modulation of Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PMC-12 is a prescription used in traditional Korean medicine that consists of a mixture of four herbal medicines, Polygonum multiflorum, Rehmannia glutinosa, Polygala tenuifolia, and Acorus gramineus, which have been reported to have various pharmacological effects on age-related neurological diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether PMC-12 improves cognitive deficits associated with decreased neuroinflammation in an amyloid-β-(Aβ- induced mouse model and exerts the antineuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS- stimulated murine BV2 microglia. Intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 in mice resulted in impairment in learning and spatial memory, whereas this was reversed by oral administration of PMC-12 (100 and 500 mg/kg/day in dose-dependent manners. Moreover, PMC-12 reduced the increase of Aβ expression and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the Aβ25-35-injected brain. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data showed that inflammatory mediators were significantly decreased by administration of PMC-12 in Aβ-injected brains. Consistent with the in vivo data, PMC-12 significantly reduced the inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells without cell toxicity. Moreover, PMC-12 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via downregulation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that the protective effects of PMC-12 may be mediated by its antineuroinflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment; accordingly, PMC-12 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  1. SMA Syndrome Treated by Single Incision Laparoscopic Duodenojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Min, Young-Don

    2014-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a mechanical duodenal obstruction by the SMA. The traditional approach to SMA syndrome was open bypass surgery. Nowadays, a conventional approach has been replaced by laparoscopic surgery. But single incision laparoscopic approach for SMA syndrome is rare. Herein, we report the first case of SMA syndrome patient who was treated by single incision laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy.

  2. Two SMA-Actuated Miniature Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Cliff E.

    2005-01-01

    The figures depict two miniature mechanisms actuated by strips made of shape-memory alloy (SMA). A typical SMA is a nickel-titanium alloy known by the trade name "Flexinol" or "Nitinol." In preparation for a typical application, a suitably sized and shaped piece of an SMA is deformed by a predetermined amount at the lower of two operating temperatures, then mounted in a mechanism. When stroking of the mechanism in one direction is desired, the piece of SMA is heated above a transition temperature to make it return to the "remembered" undeformed state. When stroking of the mechanism in the opposite direction is desired, the SMA is cooled below the transition temperature to make it return to the deformed state. Also, the SMA alloy chosen for a specific application is one that has a transition temperature somewhat above the ambient temperature, so that stroking in one direction or the opposite direction can be achieved by heating the SMA, or refraining from heating the SMA, respectively, above the transition temperature. In the present mechanisms as in typical other SMA mechanisms, the heating is effected by electric currents applied via electrical contacts at the ends of the SMA strips. The purpose served by the mechanism of Figure 1 is to lock or release a flexible latch attachment. In preparation for use in this mechanism, two initially straight SMA strips are deformed into curved springs that, when mounted in the mechanism at ambient temperature, clamp the knob at the lower end of the flexible latch attachment. When heated above their transition temperature by an electric current, the SMA strips return to their original straight configuration, thereby releasing the knob. This mechanism is redundant in the sense that as long as at least one of the two SMA strips straightens when commanded to do so, the knob is released. The mechanism of Figure 2 is suited to any of a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a small mechanism that affords

  3. An evaluation of Prospective Motion Correction (PMC for high resolution quantitative MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina F Callaghan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative imaging aims to provide in vivo neuroimaging biomarkers with high research and diagnostic value that are sensitive to underlying tissue microstructure. In order to use these data to examine intra-cortical differences or to define boundaries between different myelo-architectural areas, high resolution data are required. The quality of such measurements is degraded in the presence of motion hindering insight into brain microstructure. Correction schemes are therefore vital for high resolution, whole brain coverage approaches that have long acquisition times and greater sensitivity to motion. Here we evaluate the use of prospective motion correction (PMC via an optical tracking system to counter intra-scan motion in a high resolution (800µm isotropic multi-parameter mapping (MPM protocol. Data were acquired on six volunteers using a 2x2 factorial design permuting the following conditions: PMC on/off and motion/no motion. In the presence of head motion, PMC-based motion correction considerably improved the quality of the maps as reflected by fewer visible artefacts and improved consistency. The precision of the maps, parameterised by the coefficient of variation in cortical sub-regions, showed improvements of 11-24% in the presence of deliberate head motion. Importantly, in the absence of motion the PMC system did not introduce extraneous artefacts into the quantitative maps. The PMC system based on optical tracking offers a robust approach to minimising motion artefacts in quantitative anatomical imaging without extending scan times. Such a robust motion correction scheme is crucial in order to achieve the ultra-high resolution required of quantitative imaging for cutting edge in vivo histology applications.

  4. Functional dissociation of pre-SMA and SMA-proper in temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Michael; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A

    2012-03-01

    The ability to assess temporal structure is crucial in order to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Increasing evidence suggests that the supplementary motor area (SMA) is involved in both sensory and sensorimotor processing of temporal structure. However, it is not entirely clear whether the structural differentiation of the SMA translates into functional specialization, and how the SMA relates to other systems that engage in temporal processing, namely the cerebellum and cortico-striatal circuits. Anatomically, the SMA comprises at least two subareas, the rostral pre-SMA and the caudal SMA-proper. Each displays a characteristic pattern of connections to motor and non-motor structures. Crucially, these connections establish a potential hub among cerebellar and cortico-striatal systems, possibly forming a dedicated subcortico-cortical temporal processing network. To further explore the functional role of each SMA subarea, we performed a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies by contrasting activations according to whether they linked with either sensory, sensorimotor, sequential, non-sequential, explicit, non-explicit, subsecond, or suprasecond temporal processing. This procedure yielded a set of functional differences, which mirror the rostro-caudal anatomical dimension. Activations associated with sensory, non-sequential, and suprasecond temporal processing tend to locate to the rostral SMA, while the opposite is true for the caudal SMA. These findings confirm a functional dissociation of pre-SMA and SMA-proper in temporal processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, O J; Mehta, U; Set, P A K

    2012-08-01

    The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Mean SMA angle was 45.6±19.6° (range 10.6-112.9°), mean LRV distance was 8.6±3.9mm (range 2.0-28.6mm) and mean DD was 11.3±4.8mm (range 3.6-35.3mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R=0.30; pSMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Project Management Consultancy (PMC) procurement approach: Supplier's evaluation and selection dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Azimi, Mohd Azrulfitri; Pozin, Mohd Affendi Ahmad; Osman, Wan Nadri; Anuar, Herman Shah

    2016-08-01

    Project Management Consultancy (PMC) is part of the management oriented procurement method in which a sole consultant is hired by the client to deal with the contactors in place of the client. Appointing contractors in this method or approach looks to be interesting as client could play a pivotal role in evaluating and selecting the supplier/contractor for the work package. In some cases, client gives the authority for the PMC to hire the supplier/contractor of their choice while in some cases the client is the one who made the decision. This research paper seeks to investigate the dilemma arises from this situation and for the purpose of this research, a real case study was studied to assess the impacts of such dilemma to the performance of the project. Recommendations on how to tackle the dilemma will also be addressed in the later part of this research paper.

  7. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) for Advanced Space Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Bowman, Cheryl; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC) reinforced with high thermal conductivity (approx. 1000 W/mK) pitch-based carbon fibers are evaluated for a facesheet/fin structure of large space radiator systems. Significant weight reductions along with improved thermal performance, structural integrity and space durability toward its metallic counterparts were envisioned. Candidate commercial resin systems including Cyanate Esters, BMIs, and polyimide were selected based on thermal capabilities and processability. PMC laminates were designed to match the thermal expansion coefficient of various metal heat pipes or tubes. Large, but thin composite panels were successfully fabricated after optimizing cure conditions. Space durability of PMC with potential degradation mechanisms was assessed by simulated thermal aging tests in high vacuum, 1-3 x 10(exp -6) torr, at three temperatures, 227 C, 277 C, and 316 C for up to one year. Nanocomposites with vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers and exfoliated graphite flakes were attempted to improve thermal conductivity (TC) and microcracking resistance. Good quality nanocomposites were fabricated and evaluated for TC and durability including radiation resistance. TC was measured in both in-plan and thru-the-thickness directions, and the effects of microcracks on TC are also being evaluated. This paper will discuss the systematic experimental approaches, various performance-durability evaluations, and current subcomponent design and fabrication/manufacturing efforts.

  8. Design of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashwin; Reddy, J N

    2015-01-01

    This short monograph presents an analysis and design methodology for shape memory alloy (SMA) components such as wires, beams, and springs for different applications. The solid-solid, diffusionless phase transformations in thermally responsive SMA allows them to demonstrate unique characteristics like superelasticity and shape memory effects. The combined sensing and actuating capabilities of such materials allows them to provide a system level response by combining multiple functions in a single material system. In SMA, the combined mechanical and thermal loading effects influence the functionality of such materials. The aim of this book is to make the analysis of these materials accessible to designers by developing a "strength of materials" approach to the analysis and design of such SMA components inspired from their various applications with a review of various factors influencing the design process for such materials.

  9. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  10. Primary motor cortex activity reduction under the regulation of SMA by real-time fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Zhao, Xiaojie; Li, Yi; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2012-03-01

    Real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) is a new technology which allows human subjects to observe and control their own BOLD signal change from one or more localized brain regions during scanning. Current rtfMRI-neurofeedback studies mainly focused on the target region itself without considering other related regions influenced by the real-time feedback. However, there always exits important directional influence between many of cooperative regions. On the other hand, rtfMRI based on motor imagery mainly aimed at somatomotor cortex or primary motor area, whereas supplement motor area (SMA) was a relatively more integrated and pivotal region. In this study, we investigated whether the activities of SMA can be controlled utilizing different motor imagery strategies, and whether there exists any possible impact on an unregulated but related region, primary motor cortex (M1). SMA was first localized using overt finger tapping task, the activities of SMA were feedback to subjects visually on line during each of two subsequent imagery motor movement sessions. All thirteen healthy participants were found to be able to successfully control their SMA activities by self-fit imagery strategies which involved no actual motor movements. The activation of right M1 was also found to be significantly reduced in both intensity and extent with the neurofeedback process targeted at SMA, suggestive that not only the part of motor cortex activities were influenced under the regulation of a key region SMA, but also the increased difference between SMA and M1 might reflect the potential learning effect.

  11. Dissociable roles of preSMA in motor sequence chunking and hand switching-a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessgens, Diana; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Shitara, Hitoshi; Popa, Traian; Hallett, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Motor chunking, the grouping of individual movements into larger units, is crucial for sequential motor performance. The presupplementary motor area (preSMA) is involved in chunking and other related processes such as task switching, response selection, and response inhibition that are crucial for organizing sequential movements. However, previous studies have not systematically differentiated the role of preSMA in motor chunking and hand switching, thus leaving its relative contribution to each of these processes unclear. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differential role of preSMA in motor chunking and hand switching. We designed motor sequences in which different kinds of hand switches (switching toward the right or left hand or continuing with the right hand) were counterbalanced across between- and within-chunk sequence points. Eighteen healthy, right-handed participants practiced four short subsequences (chunks) of key presses. In a subsequent task, these chunks had to be concatenated into one long sequence. We applied double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over left preSMA or left M1 areas at sequence initiation, between chunks, or within chunks. TMS over the left preSMA significantly slowed the next response when stimulation was given between chunks, but only if a hand switch toward the contralateral (right) hand was required. PreSMA stimulation within chunks did not interfere with responses. TMS over the left M1 area delayed responses with the contralateral hand, both within and between chunks. Both preSMA and M1 stimulation decreased response times at sequence initiation. These results suggest that left preSMA is not necessary for chunking per se, but rather for organizing complex movements that require chunking and hand switching simultaneously.

  12. The Parameters Selection of SMA Optically Activated an Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-min; CHEN Yu-ming; YU Xiao-lei

    2002-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) optically activated is the key technology of optical SMA activator.According to the shape memory mechanism of SMA, researches are done on the activating response time and light wavelength of activating source etc of SMA optically activated to approach the parameters selection of optical activation. SMA has the optimum efficiency in the range of 13 seconds to 27 seconds when SMA is illuminated continuously by wavelength of 675um; The power of light wave has a low effect on SMA; The longer the activating wavelength, the quicker the response time of SMA activated. If the proper activating time and activating wavelength are adopted, and the structure deformation of composite material of SMA imbedded may be actively controlled, an ideal effect will be gotten. The research provides an evidence for the design of optical SMA activator and is of great significance to its application. The research on smart structure has a wide application prospect.

  13. GSM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的数值解%Numeriacl Solution of GSM (m, 1)(m= 1,2)Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 刘炳琪

    2001-01-01

    The prediction accuracy can be improved by using the spline function to correct the residue of GM (m,1)(m=1,2). Numerical Solution of GSM (m,1)(m=1,2)Modle is given.%本文用样条函数对GM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的残差序列进行插值拟合,得到GSM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的数值解.

  14. Cure SMA and our patient community celebrate the first approved drug for SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, J; Lenz, M; Hobby, K; Jarecki, J

    2017-09-01

    Cure SMA is dedicated to the treatment and cure of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-a disease affecting motor neurons, that robs patients of their ability to walk, eat and even breathe. Since 1984, we have directed and invested in comprehensive research that has shaped the scientific community's understanding of SMA. On 23 December, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced approval of Spinraza, a treatment developed by Biogen and Ionis, making it the first-ever approved therapy for SMA. Cure SMA provided early research funding in 2003 leading to the discovery of ISS-N1 sequence, now targeted by Spinraza. We are pleased that our strategy of providing seed funding for research to either identify new therapeutic strategies or de-risk early stage ones, has proven successful with Spinraza's approval. The approval of Spinraza provides great hope to the SMA community and represents decades of hard work and perseverance by families, researchers, pharmaceutical companies and the FDA. Our hope is that Spinraza is the leading edge of a robust drug pipeline, and with our deep expertise in every aspect of SMA, we remain committed to do everything we can to support research and drug development to achieve the greatest possible effect for each and every SMA patient.

  15. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, O.J., E-mail: oja20@owenarthurs.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Mehta, U. [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Set, P.A.K., E-mail: p.set@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 {+-} 19.6 Degree-Sign (range 10.6-112.9 Degree-Sign ), mean LRV distance was 8.6 {+-} 3.9 mm (range 2.0-28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 {+-} 4.8 mm (range 3.6-35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25 Degree-Sign would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  16. Response of porous SMA: a micromechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sepe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately porous shape memory alloys (SMA have attracted great interest as low weight materials characterized by high energy dissipation capability. In the present contribution a micromechanical study of porous SMA is proposed, introducing the simplifying hypothesis of periodic distribution of voids. The mechanical response of the heterogeneous porous medium is derived by performing nonlinear finite element micromechanical analyses considering a typical repetitive unit cell made of a circular hole in a dense SMA matrix and prescribing suitable periodicity and continuity conditions. The constitutive behavior and the dissipation energy capability of the porous Nitinol are examined for several porosity levels. Numerical applications are performed in order to test the ability of the proposed procedure to well capture the overall behavior and the key features of the special heterogeneous material.

  17. New insights into SMA pathogenesis: immune dysfunction and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguise, Marc-Olivier; Kothary, Rashmi

    2017-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration, although defects in multiple cell types and tissues have also been implicated. Three independent laboratories recently identified immune organ defects in SMA. We therefore propose a novel pathogenic mechanism contributory to SMA, resulting in higher susceptibility to infection and exacerbated disease progression caused by neuroinflammation. Overall, compromised immune function could significantly affect survival and quality of life of SMA patients. We highlight the recent findings in immune organ defects, their potential consequences on patients, our understanding of neuroinflammation in SMA, and new research hypotheses in SMA pathogenesis.

  18. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-basedlidar and SuperDARN HF radar over Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Sessai Yukimatu, Akira; Abo, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system had been installed by the 52nd JapaneseAntarctic Research Expedition on February, 2011 at Syowa Station Antarctica(69.0°S, 39.5°E). Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routineoperation. This event is the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station bya lidar. In the same night, SuperDARN HF radar with oblique incidence beamsalso detected Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) during 21:30UT to23:00UT. Although these signals were detected at different times andlocations, PMC motion estimated using horizontal wind velocities obtained bya collocated MF radar strongly suggests that they have a common origin (i.e.ice particle). We consider that this event occurred in the end of PMCactivity period at Syowa Station in the austral summer season (2010-2011),since the lidar did not detected any PMC signals on other days in February,2011. This is consistent with satellite-born PMC observations by AIM/CIPSand atmospheric temperature observations by AURA/MLS instruments.

  19. TMS of supplementary motor area (SMA) facilitates mental rotation performance: Evidence for sequence processing in SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, G; Marino, G; Semenza, C

    2017-02-01

    In the present study we applied online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) bursts at 10Hz to the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex to test whether these regions are causally involved in mental rotation. Furthermore, in order to investigate what is the specific role played by SMA and primary motor cortex, two mental rotation tasks were used, which included pictures of hands and abstract objects, respectively. While primary motor cortex stimulation did not affect mental rotation performance, SMA stimulation improved the performance in the task with object stimuli, and only for the pairs of stimuli that had higher angular disparity between each other (i.e., 100° and 150°). The finding that the effect of SMA stimulation was modulated by the amount of spatial orientation information indicates that SMA is causally involved in the very act of mental rotation. More specifically, we propose that SMA mediates domain-general sequence processes, likely required to accumulate and integrate information that are, in this context, spatial. The possible physiological mechanisms underlying the facilitation of performance due to SMA stimulation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzuo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  1. PENDIDIKAN NILAI KEBANGSAAN MELALUI BUDAYA SEKOLAH DI SMA TARUNA NUSANTARA DAN SMA KOLESE DE BRITTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kus Eddy Sartono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan pola pendidikan nilai kebangsaan hasil sintesis dari pola pendidikan nilai kebangsaan melalui budaya sekolah di SMA Taruna Nusantara dan SMA Kolese De Britto. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif-fenomenologi. Subyek penelitian adalah pengurus yayasan, kepala sekolah, wakil kepala sekolah, guru, siswa, karyawan dan orang tua. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data menggunakan model analisis interaktif, meliputi: reduksi data, penyajian data dan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan dan persamaan pola pendidikan nilai-nilai kebangsaan melalui budaya sekolah antara SMA Taruna Nusantara dengan SMA Kolese De Britto, meskipun demikian penelitian ini menemukan budaya sekolah efektif untuk membentuk karakter kebangsaan siswa. Sintesisnya penggabungan Sistem Among, cara Tutwuri Handayani, budaya kedisiplinan, Paradigma Pedagogi Ignasian, cura personalis dan budaya pendidikan bebas akan meningkatkan penanaman nilai kebangsaan siswa tidak sekedar pada ranah kognitif dan afektif tetapi sampai pada ranah perilaku kebangsaan.

  2. Treatment of severe active systemic lupus erythematosus by PMC therapy combined Langchuang Fuzheng Jiedu capsule: a clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欣伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PMC therapy (Prednisone,Methotrexate,Chloroquine) combined Langchuang Fuzheng Jiedu Capsule (LFJC) ,thus choosing a better therapy of integrative medicine for SLE in the period of glucocorticoid use.Methods Sixty active SLE patients were randomly assigned to two groups,the control group and the treatment group.Those in the control group received PMC therapy (As for Prednisone,it was given at the daily dose of 1 mg/kg till 2weeks after the condition being stable or after 8 weeks of

  3. Population screening and cascade testing for carriers of SMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Melanie; Calabro, Vanessa; Chong, Belinda; Gardiner, Nicole; Cowie, Shannon; du Sart, Desiree

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal-recessive diseases, caused by absence of both copies of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Identification of SMA carriers has important implications for individuals with a family history and the general population. SMA carriers

  4. Analysis list: sma-9 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sma-9 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sma-9.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sma-9.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sma...-9.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/sma-9.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  5. Two-day period fluctuation of PMC occurrence over Syowa Station, Antarctica observed by a ground-based lidar and AIM satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ejiri, M. K.; Tomikawa, Y.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T.; Tsuda, T. T.; Nishiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    A Rayleigh/Raman lidar system has been operated by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) since February, 2011 (JARE 52nd) in Syowa Station Antarctica (69.0S, 39.5E). The lidar system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355nm) as a transmitter and two telescopes with four photo multiplier tubes which are to detect Rayleigh scattered light from low and high atmosphere at 355 nm and N2 Raman emission at 387nm. Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at 22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routine operation. This event was the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station by a lidar [Suzuki et al., Ann. Geophys., 2013]. However, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the PMC event was not so good due to large shot noises from daytime background signals. Moreover, a receiver system was designed mainly for nighttime observations. In this way, observation of PMC during the midnight sun, which also corresponds to most frequent PMC season, was difficult. Thus, to improve SNR of the PMC observation with the lidar during daytime, a narrow band-pass Fabry-Perot etalon unit has been developed and installed in the receiver system on Dec 2013 by JARE 55th. By using this new system, clear PMC signals were successfully detected under daylight condition during the period of summer operation of JARE55th. During this period of 53 days (from 17 Dec. 2013 to 7 Feb. 2014), only 11 days were with a clear sky and suitable for PMC observation. Thus, it was difficult to study temporal variations on a PMC activity only by using the lidar data. Fortunately, NASA's AIM satellite had passed near Syowa Station and provided with complimentary PMC data during observation gap of the lidar. By combining our lidar data with the AIM/CIPS data, nearly continuous monitoring of PMC variability over Syowa Station was achieved for period between 13th and 18th in January 2014. PMC occurrence with an interval of two days over Syowa Station during the period was clearly

  6. Validation of a GPU-based Monte Carlo code (gPMC) for proton radiation therapy: clinical cases study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Schuemann, Jan; Jia, Xun; Dowdell, Stephen; Jiang, Steve; Paganetti, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are recognized as the gold-standard for dose calculation, however they have not replaced analytical methods up to now due to their lengthy calculation times. GPU-based applications allow MC dose calculations to be performed on time scales comparable to conventional analytical algorithms. This study focuses on validating our GPU-based MC code for proton dose calculation (gPMC) using an experimentally validated multi-purpose MC code (TOPAS) and compare their performance for clinical patient cases. Clinical cases from five treatment sites were selected covering the full range from very homogeneous patient geometries (liver) to patients with high geometrical complexity (air cavities and density heterogeneities in head-and-neck and lung patients) and from short beam range (breast) to large beam range (prostate). Both gPMC and TOPAS were used to calculate 3D dose distributions for all patients. Comparisons were performed based on target coverage indices (mean dose, V95, D98, D50, D02) and gamma index distributions. Dosimetric indices differed less than 2% between TOPAS and gPMC dose distributions for most cases. Gamma index analysis with 1%/1 mm criterion resulted in a passing rate of more than 94% of all patient voxels receiving more than 10% of the mean target dose, for all patients except for prostate cases. Although clinically insignificant, gPMC resulted in systematic underestimation of target dose for prostate cases by 1-2% compared to TOPAS. Correspondingly the gamma index analysis with 1%/1 mm criterion failed for most beams for this site, while for 2%/1 mm criterion passing rates of more than 94.6% of all patient voxels were observed. For the same initial number of simulated particles, calculation time for a single beam for a typical head and neck patient plan decreased from 4 CPU hours per million particles (2.8-2.9 GHz Intel X5600) for TOPAS to 2.4 s per million particles (NVIDIA TESLA C2075) for gPMC. Excellent agreement was

  7. Correlating interfacial properties with stress transfer in SMA composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, G.E.; Jonnalagadda, K.; Sottos, N.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires have been proposed as large strain actuators for use in smart structures. SMA wires can be embedded in a host material to alter the stiffness or modal response and provide vibration control. The interaction between the embedded SMA and the host material is critical to applications requiring transfer of loads or strain from the wire to the host. Paine, Jones and Rogers have asserted the importance of interfacial adhesion between embedded SMA wires and the host material. When the SMA wires are actuated, large shear strains are generated at the SMA/host interface. The stronger the interface, the greater the transfer of strain from the actuator to the host material. Although there has been a significant amount of research dedicated to characterizing and modeling the response of SMA alone, little work has been done to understand the behavior of embedded SMA wires. Maximum displacement, load transfer and repeatability of actuation of the embedded wire are particularly critical in assessing the effects of the host material. This work continues to investigate the interaction between SMA wires and a host polymer matrix. High resolution photoelasticity was utilized to study the internal stresses induced during actuation of an embedded shape memory alloy wire in a polymer matrix. The influence of several wire surface treatments on the resulting stresses and load transfer was investigated. Four different surface treatments were considered: untreated, acid etched, hand sanded and sandblasted. Pull-out data indicated that sandblasting of wires increased the SMA/polymer interfacial bond strength while hand sanding and acid cleaning actually decreased the bond strength. Wires with greater adhesion (sandblasted) resulted in higher stresses induced in the polymer while those with lower adhesion transferred less load. Overall, properties of the SMA/polymer interface were shown to significantly affect the performance of the embedded SMA actuator.

  8. Highly-Compact SMA Actuators A Feasibiltiy Study of Fuel-Powered and Thermoelectric SMA Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    TEM top surface TEM DC Power source Finned Heat Sink (FHS) DAQ Thermocouple(s) TEM bottom surface Config 1: single TEM ( Melcor ) Config 2: stacked TEM...strained to 3% before testing. A PWM based actuation control scheme was used to resistively heat the SMA actuator. TEMs were acquired from Melcor and

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Lach, Cynthia L.; Cano, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an effort to fabrication shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) test specimens and characterize the material system are presented in this study. The SMAHC specimens are conventional composite structures with an embedded SMA constituent. The fabrication and characterization work was undertaken to better understand the mechanics of the material system, address fabrication issues cited in the literature, and provide specimens for experimental validation of a recently developed thermomechanical model for SMAHC structures. Processes and hardware developed for fabrication of the SMAHC specimens are described. Fabrication of a SMA14C laminate with quasi-isotropic lamination and ribbon-type Nitinol actuators embedded in the 0' layers is presented. Beam specimens are machined from the laminate and are the focus of recent work, but the processes and hardware are readily extensible to more practical structures. Results of thermomechanical property testing on the composite matrix and Nitinol ribbon are presented. Test results from the Nitinol include stress-strain behavior, modulus versus temperature. and constrained recovery stress versus temperature and thermal cycle. Complex thermomechanical behaviors of the Nitinol and composite matrix are demonstrated, which have significant implications for modeling of SMAHC structures.

  10. Targeting RNA-splicing for SMA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhua; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2012-03-01

    The central dogma of DNA-RNA-protein was established more than 40 years ago. However, important biological processes have been identified since the central dogma was developed. For example, methylation is important in the regulation of transcription. In contrast, proteins, are more complex due to modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, or cleavage. RNA is the mediator between DNA and protein, but it can also be modulated at several levels. Among the most profound discoveries of RNA regulation is RNA splicing. It has been estimated that 80% of pre-mRNA undergo alternative splicing, which exponentially increases biological information flow in cellular processes. However, an increased number of regulated steps inevitably accompanies an increased number of errors. Abnormal splicing is often found in cells, resulting in protein dysfunction that causes disease. Splicing of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene has been extensively studied during the last two decades. Accumulating knowledge on SMN splicing has led to speculation and search for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) treatment by stimulating the inclusion of exon 7 into SMN mRNA. This mini-review summaries the latest progress on SMN splicing research as a potential treatment for SMA disease.

  11. 富士通选用PMC-Sierra的城域网传输半导体器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PMC-Sierra公司(Nasdaq:PMCS)宣布,富士通公司已选取PMC-Sierra的城域传输半导体方案,用于其城域光通信旗舰产品FLASHWAVE 7500可重构光分插复用器(ROADM)和FLASHWAVE 4500多工服务供应平台(MSPP)。FLASHWAVE 7500 ROADM使用PMC—Sierra CHESS Ⅲ芯片组。将完整的SONET分插复用器(ADM)功能集成在一个Flexponder接口卡上,而具互补性的FLASHWAVE 4500 MSPP不仅使用CHESSⅢ芯片组,还用到了PMC-Sierra的CHESS宽带芯片组。CHESS宽带芯片组可实现高容量VT1.5疏导,将数据和TDM流量传送到SONET/SDH支路.以满足下一代MSPP的需求。

  12. APPARENT SMA-I UNLINKED TO 5Q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COBBEN, JM; SCHEFFER, H; DEVISSER, M; BEGEER, JH; MOLENAAR, WM; VANDERSTEEGE, G; BUYS, CHCM; VANOMMEN, GJ; TENKATE, LP

    A proband with a clinical picture indistinguishable from SMA type I is described. The parents are second cousins. On DNA analysis it appeared that the proband and his healthy 2 year old sib had inherited the same haplotypes for DNA markers flanking the SMA locus on 5q. This supports non-linkage of

  13. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James

    2014-01-01

    Develop 2-way switchable thermal systems for use in systems that function in cold to hot temperature ranges using different alloy designs for SMA system concepts. In this project, KSC will specifically address designs of two proof of concept SMA systems with transition temperatures in the 65-95 C range and investigate cycle fatigue and "memory loss" due to thermal cycling.

  14. Investigation on low velocity impact resistance of SMA composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dianyin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Rongqiao; Zhang, Xiaoyong

    2016-04-01

    A method to improve low velocity impact resistance of aeroengine composite casing using shape memory alloy's properties of shape memory(SM) and super-elasticity(SE) is proposed in this study. Firstly, a numerical modeling of SMA reinforced composite laminate under low velocity impact load with impact velocity of 10 m/s is established based on its constitutive model implemented by the VUMAT subroutine of commercial software ABAQUS. Secondly, the responses of SMA composite laminate including stress and deflection distributions were achieved through transient analysis under low velocity impact load. Numerical results show that both peak stress and deflection values of SMA composite laminate are less than that without SMA, which proves that embedding SMA into the composite structure can effectively improve the low velocity impact performance of composite structure. Finally, the influence of SM and SE on low velocity impact resistance is quantitatively investigated. The values of peak stress and deflection of SMA composite based on SM property decrease by 18.28% and 9.43% respectively, compared with those without SMA, instead of 12.87% and 5.19% based on SE. In conclusion, this proposed model described the impact damage of SMA composite structure and turned to be a more beneficial method to enhance the impact resistance by utilizing SM effect.

  15. M$_1$ - M* correlation in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Appodia, B

    1994-01-01

    Photographic F band photometry of a sample of 36 Abell clusters has been used to study the relation between the magnitude M_1 of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M^*. Clusters appear segregated in the M_1-M^* plane according to their Rood \\& Sastry class. We prove on a statistical basis that on average, going from early to late RS classes, M_1 becomes brighter while M^* becomes fainter. The result agrees with the predictions of galactic cannibalism models, never confirmed by previous analyses.

  16. Characterization of coiled SMA actuators for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present modeling and characterization of coiled SMA spring actuators that are fabricated by coiling cylindrical SMA wires on to a threaded screw mandrel and applying heat treatment. Here, we evaluate a theoretical model that describes the actuation behavior of SMA coiled springs based on the constitutive model of SMA. We have experimentally verified the developed theoretical model and analyzed various parameters with respect to temperature change during actuation. The model was coded in Simulink® and the effects of various parameters with respect to temperature change were investigated. Simulations were compared with experiments and good agreement was obtained. We also show, how the high tension winding of SMA on the mandrel help in better performance and understanding of the fabricated coiled SMAs.

  17. Preliminary characterization and modeling of SMA-based textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Arata; Ni, Qing-Qing; Sone, Akira; Zhang, Run-Xin; Yamamura, Takahiko

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we conduct a feasibility study to investigate the future potential of textile composites with shape memory alloys. Two different types of SMA-based textile composites are presented. First, a composite plate with embedded woven SMA layer is fabricated, and the stiffness tuning capability is evaluated by impact vibration tests. The results are not favorable, but may be improved by increasing the volume fraction of SMA, and by controlling the prestrain more accurately during the lamination process. The modeling and analysis methodology for woven SMA-based composites are briefly discussed. Then, the possibility of textile composites with SMA stitching is discussed, that is expected to give the composites multi-functions such as tunable stiffness, shape control and sensing capability, selectively distributed on demand.

  18. Alterations in the ankyrin domain of TRPV4 cause congenital distal SMA, scapuloperoneal SMA and HMSN2C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Olschewski, Andrea; Papic, Lea; Kremer, Hannie; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Uhrig, Sabine; Fischer, Carina; Froehlich, Eleonore; Balint, Zoltan; Tang, Bi; Strohmaier, Heimo; Lochmueller, Hanns; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Senderek, Jan; Krebs, Angelika; Dick, Katherine J.; Petty, Richard; Longman, Cheryl; Anderson, Neil E.; Padberg, George W.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Crosby, Andrew H.; Guelly, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA, also known as hereditary motor neuropathies) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that mutations in the TRPV4 gene cause congenital distal SMA, scap

  19. Alterations in the ankyrin domain of TRPV4 cause congenital distal SMA, scapuloperoneal SMA and HMSN2C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer-Grumbach, M.; Olschewski, A.; Papic, L.; Kremer, J.M.J.; McEntagart, M.E.; Uhrig, S.; Fischer, C.; Frohlich, E.; Balint, Z.; Tang, B.; Strohmaier, H.; Lochmuller, H.; Schlotter-Weigel, B.; Senderek, J.; Krebs, A.; Dick, K.J.; Petty, R.; Longman, C.; Anderson, N.E.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Pieber, T.R.; Crosby, A.H.; Guelly, C.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA, also known as hereditary motor neuropathies) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that mutations in the TRPV4 gene cause congenital distal SMA, scap

  20. How do SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of the SMA protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease with dysfunctional α-motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMA is caused by loss (∼95% of SMA cases) or mutation (∼5% of SMA cases) of the survival motor neuron 1 gene SMN1. As the product of SMN1, SMN is a component of the SMN complex, and is also involved in the biosynthesis of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which play critical roles in pre-mRNA splicing in the pathogenesis of SMA. To investigate how SMA-linked mutations of SMN1 lead to structural/functional deficiency of SMN, a set of computational analysis of SMN-related structures were conducted and are described in this article. Of extraordinary interest, the structural analysis highlights three SMN residues (Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136) with SMA-linked missense mutations, which cause disruptions of electrostatic interactions for Asp44, Glu134 and Gln136, and result in three functionally deficient SMA-linked SMN mutants, Asp44Val, Glu134Lys and Gln136Glu. From the computational analysis, it is also possible that SMN's Lys45 and Asp36 act as two electrostatic clips at the SMN-Gemin2 complex structure interface.

  1. The SMA Trust: the role of a disease-focused research charity in developing treatments for SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Brown, V; Mitchell, J; Talbot, K

    2017-09-01

    SMA is a rare hereditary neuromuscular disease that causes weakness and muscle wasting as a result of the loss of spinal motor neurons. In its most severe form, SMA is the commonest genetic cause of death in infants, and children with less severe forms of SMA face the prospect of lifelong disability from progressive muscle wasting, loss of mobility and limb weakness. The initial discovery of the defective gene has been followed by major advances in our understanding of the genetic, cellular and molecular basis of SMA, providing the foundation for a range of approaches to treatment, including gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide treatments and more traditional drug-based approaches to slow or halt disease progression. The approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Spinraza (nusinersen), the first targeted treatment for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is a historic moment. Disease-focused research charities, such as The SMA Trust (UK), continue to have a crucial role in promoting the development of additional treatments for SMA, both by funding translational research and by promoting links between researchers, people living with SMA and other stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies and healthcare providers.

  2. Alterations in the ankyrin domain of TRPV4 cause congenital distal SMA, scapuloperoneal SMA and HMSN2C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Olschewski, Andrea; Papic, Lea; Kremer, Hannie; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Uhrig, Sabine; Fischer, Carina; Froehlich, Eleonore; Balint, Zoltan; Tang, Bi; Strohmaier, Heimo; Lochmueller, Hanns; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Senderek, Jan; Krebs, Angelika; Dick, Katherine J.; Petty, Richard; Longman, Cheryl; Anderson, Neil E.; Padberg, George W.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Crosby, Andrew H.; Guelly, Christian

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA, also known as hereditary motor neuropathies) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that mutations in the TRPV4 gene cause congenital distal SMA,

  3. The eSMA: description and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Chamberlin, Richard; Tilanus, Remo P J; Gurwell, Mark A; Wilner, Dave J; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroshige; Friberg, Per; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Hughes, A Meredith; Christensen, Robert D; Hills, Richard E; Richer, John S; Curtis, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The eSMA ("extended SMA") combines the SMA, JCMT and CSO into a single facility, providing enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution owing to the increased collecting area at the longest baselines. Until ALMA early science observing (2011), the eSMA will be the facility capable of the highest angular resolution observations at 345 GHz. The gain in sensitivity and resolution will bring new insights in a variety of fields, such as protoplanetary/transition disks, high-mass star formation, solar system bodies, nearby and high-z galaxies. Therefore the eSMA is an important facility to prepare the grounds for ALMA and train scientists in the techniques. Over the last two years, and especially since November 2006, there has been substantial progress toward making the eSMA into a working interferometer. In particular, (i) new 345-GHz receivers, that match the capabilities of the SMA system, were installed at the JCMT and CSO; (ii) numerous tests have been performed for receiver, correlator and baseline calibration...

  4. Hypothalamic germinoma masquerading as superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethakkan, Shireene R; Venugopal, Yogeswari; Tan, Alexander T B; Paramasivam, Sharmila S; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Razak, Rohaya A; Alias, Azmi; Kassim, Fauziah; Choong, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome secondary to hypothalamic germinoma. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, management, and clinical course of a patient admitted with SMA syndrome who was subsequently found to have a hypothalamic germinoma. An adolescent boy was admitted to the surgical ward with progressive weight loss over a 2 year period and postprandial vomiting. He was diagnosed with SMA syndrome based on evidence of proximal duodenal dilatation, extrinsic compression of the distal duodenum, and a narrowed aortomesenteric angle (16°). Investigations performed to exclude thyrotoxicosis unexpectedly revealed secondary hypothyroidism and further evaluation demonstrated evidence of pan-hypopituitarism. Psychiatric evaluation excluded anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a heterogeneously enhancing hypothalamic lesion, but a normal pituitary gland. Hormone replacement with hydrocortisone, desmopressin, testosterone, and thyroxine resulted in weight gain and resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. A transventricular endoscopic biopsy subsequently confirmed a hypothalamic germinoma and he was referred to an oncologist. SMA syndrome secondary to severe weight loss is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. While there have been reports of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and thyrotoxicosis manifesting as SMA syndrome, there are no published reports to date of SMA syndrome secondary to hypothalamic/pituitary disease. Management of SMA syndrome is conservative, as symptoms of intestinal obstruction resolve with weight gain following treatment of the underlying cause. Awareness of this uncommon presentation of endocrine cachexia/hypothalamic disease will prevent unnecessary laparotomies and a misdiagnosis of an eating disorder.

  5. Relationship between input power and power density of SMA spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Ham, Sang Yong; Son, Young Su

    2016-04-01

    The important required characteristics of an artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator are high strain and high power density. From this viewpoint, an SMA (shape memory alloy) spring is a good candidate for the actuator of a robotic manipulator that utilizes an artificial muscle. In this study, the maximum power density of an SMA spring was evaluated with respect to the input power. The spring samples were fabricated from SMA wires of different diameters ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. For each diameter, two types of wires with different transition temperatures were used. The relationship between the transition temperature and maximum power density was also evaluated. Each SMA spring was stretched downward by an attached weight and the temperature was increased through the application of an electric current. The displacement, velocity, and temperature of the SMA spring were measured by laser displacement sensors and a thermocouple. Based on the experimental data, it was determined that the maximum power densities of the different SMA springs ranged between 1,300 and 5,500 W/kg. This confirmed the applicability of an SMA spring to human arm-like robotic manipulators. The results of this study can be used as reference for design.

  6. C. elegans SMA-10 regulates BMP receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Ryan J; Vora, Mehul; Li, Ying; Kane, Nanci S; Liao, Kelvin; Padgett, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Signal transduction of the conserved transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signaling pathway functions through two distinct serine/threonine transmembrane receptors, the type I and type II receptors. Endocytosis orchestrates the assembly of signaling complexes by coordinating the entry of receptors with their downstream signaling mediators. Recently, we showed that the C. elegans type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor SMA-6, part of the TGFβ family, is recycled through the retromer complex while the type II receptor, DAF-4 is recycled in a retromer-independent, ARF-6 dependent manner. From genetic screens in C. elegans aimed at identifying new modifiers of BMP signaling, we reported on SMA-10, a conserved LRIG (leucine-rich and immunoglobulin-like domains) transmembrane protein. It is a positive regulator of BMP signaling that binds to the SMA-6 receptor. Here we show that the loss of sma-10 leads to aberrant endocytic trafficking of SMA-6, resulting in its accumulation in distinct intracellular endosomes including the early endosome, multivesicular bodies (MVB), and the late endosome with a reduction in signaling strength. Our studies show that trafficking defects caused by the loss of sma-10 are not universal, but affect only a limited set of receptors. Likewise, in Drosophila, we find that the fly homolog of sma-10, lambik (lbk), reduces signaling strength of the BMP pathway, consistent with its function in C. elegans and suggesting evolutionary conservation of function. Loss of sma-10 results in reduced ubiquitination of the type I receptor SMA-6, suggesting a possible mechanism for its regulation of BMP signaling.

  7. Deflection of elastic beam with SMA wires eccentrically inserted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamian, S.; Nik Mohamed, N. A.; Ihsan, A. K. A. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Kamarudin, K. A.; Nor, N. H. Muhd

    2017-08-01

    This research is intended to investigate the ability of shape memory alloys (SMA), through its activation, in generating loads to control beam deflection. An elastic beam is formed by sandwiching eccentrically SMA wires between two elastic plates. SMA wires are activated by electrical current from the power supply. Laser displacement meter (LDM) is used to measures deflection of sample. Results show that the deflection of the beam is dependent on the temperature change. The temperature-deflection response also shows the existence of hysteresis.

  8. OPTIMALISASI SUMBER BELAJAR EKONOMI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN EKONOMI DI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Delita Merida

    2016-12-01

    Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan, yaitu dalam mengoptimalisasi sumber belajar ekonomi yang melekat pada siswa di SMA. Terdapat banyak sumber belajar yang dapat digunakan untuk siswa namun siswa dan guru dalam pembelajaran khususnya adalah pembelajaran ekonomi belum dapat memaksimalkan. Hal tersebut menjadi permasalahan dalam penelitian ini. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode Design Based Research (DBR, hasil yang didapatkan yaitu dari validator ahli, praktisi, dan siswa menyatakan valid dan dapat dikembangkan. Hasil tersebut dilakukan di tingkat SMA, yaitu SMA Negeri 1 Tumpang, Kabupaten Malang. Tanggapan siswa dalam pembelajaran juga menunjukkan hasil yang baik dan menginspirasi.

  9. Miniature High-Force, Long-Stroke SMA Linear Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummin, Mark A.; Donakowski, William; Cohen, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Improved long-stroke shape-memory-alloy (SMA) linear actuators are being developed to exert significantly higher forces and operate at higher activation temperatures than do prior SMA actuators. In these actuators, long linear strokes are achieved through the principle of displacement multiplication, according to which there are multiple stages, each intermediate stage being connected by straight SMA wire segments to the next stage so that relative motions of stages are additive toward the final stage, which is the output stage. Prior SMA actuators typically include polymer housings or shells, steel or aluminum stages, and polymer pads between successive stages of displacement-multiplication assemblies. Typical output forces of prior SMA actuators range from 10 to 20 N, and typical strokes range from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. An important disadvantage of prior SMA wire actuators is relatively low cycle speed, which is related to actuation temperature as follows: The SMA wires in prior SMA actuators are typically made of a durable nickel/titanium alloy that has a shape-memory activation temperature of 80 C. An SMA wire can be heated quickly from below to above its activation temperature to obtain a stroke in one direction, but must then be allowed to cool to somewhat below its activation temperature (typically, less than or equal to 60 C in the case of an activation temperature of 80 C) to obtain a stroke in the opposite direction (return stroke). At typical ambient temperatures, cooling times are of the order of several seconds. Cooling times thus limit cycle speeds. Wires made of SMA alloys having significantly higher activation temperatures [denoted ultra-high-temperature (UHT) SMA alloys] cool to the required lower return-stroke temperatures more rapidly, making it possible to increase cycle speeds. The present development is motivated by a need, in some applications (especially aeronautical and space-flight applications) for SMA actuators that exert higher forces, operate

  10. Characterization of Compass M-1 signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauschild, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Sleewaegen, J.-M.; Huisman, L.; Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of observations from China’s first medium earth orbit satellite Compass M-1 is presented, with main focus on the first orbit and clock solution for this satellite. The orbit is computed from laser ranging measurements. Based on this orbit solution, the apparent clock offset is estimated

  11. Tool for Generation of MAC/GMC Representative Unit Cell for CMC/PMC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes a recently developed analysis tool that enhances the resident capabilities of the Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) 4.0. This tool is especially useful in analyzing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), where higher fidelity with improved accuracy of local response is needed. The tool, however, can be used for analyzing polymer matrix composites (PMCs) as well. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The software package has been built around the concept of the generalized method of cells (GMC). The computer code is developed with a user friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermomechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated to increase the user friendliness, as well as to make it more robust in terms of input preparation and code execution. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within the software, wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Thus, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. The primary focus of the current effort is to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) capability that generates a number of different user-defined repeating unit cells (RUCs). In addition, the code has provisions for generation of a MAC/GMC-compatible input text file that can be merged with any MAC/GMC input file tailored to analyze composite materials. Although the primary intention was to address the three different constituents and phases that are usually present in CMCs-namely, fibers, matrix, and interphase-it can be easily modified to address two-phase polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials where an interphase is absent. Currently, the

  12. Sistem Informasi Akademik pada SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin, Ruisya

    2015-01-01

    Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akademik pada SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan ini bertujuan untuk mempermudah proses pencarian atau searching data dan informasi untuk seluruh Siswa SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan yang mengalami kesulitan dalam memperoleh data mengenai masalah Akademik tersebut. Faasilitas yang terdapat dalam aplikasi ini berupa penyediaan data dan informasi mengenai beritaberita terbaru, profil agenda kegiatan, dan data-data yang berguna untuk kelangsungan belajar si...

  13. Fabrication and testing of SMA composite beam with shape control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolvi, Basavaraj; S, Raja; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Mudradi, Varada Raj

    2017-07-01

    Smart materials are the advanced materials that have characteristics of sensing and actuation in response to the external stimuli like pressure, heat or electric charge etc. These materials can be integrated in to any structure to make it smart. From the different types of smart materials available, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is found to be more useful in designing new applications, which can offer more actuating speed, reduce the overall weight of the structure. The unique property of SMA is the ability to remember and recover from large strains of upto 8% without permanent deformation. Embedding the SMA wire/sheet in fiber-epoxy/flexible resin systems has many potential applications in Aerospace, Automobile, Medical, Robotics and various other fields. In this work the design, fabrication, and testing of smart SMA composite beam has been carried out. Two types of epoxy based resin systems namely LY 5210 resin system and EPOLAM 2063 resin system are used in fabricating the SMA composite specimens. An appropriate mould is designed and fabricated to retain the pre-strain of SMA wire during high temperature post curing of composite specimens. The specimens are fabricated using vacuum bag technique.

  14. The effectiveness of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers for solubilisation of integral membrane proteins from SMA-accessible and SMA-resistant membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsbury, David J K; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Foster, Nicholas; van Grondelle, Rienk; Killian, J Antoinette; Jones, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Solubilisation of biological lipid bilayer membranes for analysis of their protein complement has traditionally been carried out using detergents, but there is increasing interest in the use of amphiphilic copolymers such as styrene maleic acid (SMA) for the solubilisation, purification and characterisation of integral membrane proteins in the form of protein/lipid nanodiscs. Here we survey the effectiveness of various commercially-available formulations of the SMA copolymer in solubilising Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centres (RCs) from photosynthetic membranes. We find that formulations of SMA with a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio of styrene to maleic acid are almost as effective as detergent in solubilising RCs, with the best solubilisation by short chain variants (SMA to solubilise RCs gradually declined when genetically-encoded coiled-coil bundles were used to artificially tether normally monomeric RCs into dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric multimers. The ability of SMA to solubilise reaction centre-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complexes from densely packed and highly ordered photosynthetic membranes was uniformly low, but could be increased through a variety of treatments to increase the lipid:protein ratio. However, proteins isolated from such membranes comprised clusters of complexes in small membrane patches rather than individual proteins. We conclude that short-chain 2:1 and 3:1 formulations of SMA are the most effective in solubilising integral membrane proteins, but that solubilisation efficiencies are strongly influenced by the size of the target protein and the density of packing of proteins in the membrane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytic closures for M1 neutrino transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchikova, E. M.; Abdikamalov, E.; Urbatsch, T.

    2017-08-01

    Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in the literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. Given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.

  16. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  17. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Kapaklis, V.; Wilkens, H.; Rats, D.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kirstein, O.; Bentley, Philip

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and therm...

  18. Simulation-Based Design of a Rotatory SMA Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Sascha; Meier, Horst

    2009-08-01

    The design and optimization of a rotatory drive powered by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators is described in this paper. SMA actuators used in technical applications are parameterized by the use of trial-and-error methods, because there is a lack of computer-aided design tools for this active material. A numerical modeling approach was developed to design and optimize the geometry and the load and heating conditions of SMA actuators in a technical system to achieve a good dynamic and a high reliability. The shape memory effect used in most technical systems is the extrinsic two way effect (2WE). This effect can be simulated with the numerical model which was implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The focus of the model is on the activation behavior of the SMA actuator, which defines its rate of heating and cooling. Different load conditions and various actuator geometries and shapes, e.g. wire or spring actuator, are simulated by the calculation of the energetic balance of the whole system. The numerical model can be used to simulate time variant heating currents in order to obtain an optimal system performance. The model was used to design a rotatory SMA-drive system, which is based on the moving concept of a wave drive gear set. In contrast to the conventional system, which is driven by an electric motor, the SMA drive consists of a strain wave gear and SMA wire actuators that are applied circularly to generate a rotatory movement. Special characteristics of this drive system are a high torque density and a high positioning accuracy.

  19. SMA-MAP: a plasma protein panel for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Dione T; Shi, Jing; Stephen, Laurie; Ballard, Karri L; Dewey, Ruth; Mapes, James; Chung, Brett; McCarthy, Kathleen; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Crawford, Thomas O; Li, Rebecca; Plasterer, Thomas; Joyce, Cynthia; Chung, Wendy K; Kaufmann, Petra; Darras, Basil T; Finkel, Richard S; Sproule, Douglas M; Martens, William B; McDermott, Michael P; De Vivo, Darryl C; Walker, Michael G; Chen, Karen S

    2013-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) presents challenges in (i) monitoring disease activity and predicting progression, (ii) designing trials that allow rapid assessment of candidate therapies, and (iii) understanding molecular causes and consequences of the disease. Validated biomarkers of SMA motor and non-motor function would offer utility in addressing these challenges. Our objectives were (i) to discover additional markers from the Biomarkers for SMA (BforSMA) study using an immunoassay platform, and (ii) to validate the putative biomarkers in an independent cohort of SMA patients collected from a multi-site natural history study (NHS). BforSMA study plasma samples (N = 129) were analyzed by immunoassay to identify new analytes correlating to SMA motor function. These immunoassays included the strongest candidate biomarkers identified previously by chromatography. We selected 35 biomarkers to validate in an independent cohort SMA type 1, 2, and 3 samples (N = 158) from an SMA NHS. The putative biomarkers were tested for association to multiple motor scales and to pulmonary function, neurophysiology, strength, and quality of life measures. We implemented a Tobit model to predict SMA motor function scores. 12 of the 35 putative SMA biomarkers were significantly associated (pSMA outcome measures. From these 35 biomarkers, 27 analytes were selected for inclusion in a commercial panel (SMA-MAP) for association with motor and other functional measures. Discovery and validation using independent cohorts yielded a set of SMA biomarkers significantly associated with motor function and other measures of SMA disease activity. A commercial SMA-MAP biomarker panel was generated for further testing in other SMA collections and interventional trials. Future work includes evaluating the panel in other neuromuscular diseases, for pharmacodynamic responsiveness to experimental SMA therapies, and for predicting functional changes over time in SMA patients.

  20. Particle dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A synthesis based on light transmission, PMC, and POC archives (1991 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Gardner, Wilford D.; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Mishonov, Alexey V.; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Christos

    2008-02-01

    During the last two decades light transmission (LT) data have been collected routinely in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, within the framework of several research projects. A procedure was developed to obtain beam attenuation coefficient due to particles ( cp) at 660-670 nm adjusted for variations in mid-depth 'clear' water and instrumental drifts. Data from 3146 stations occupied between 1991 and 2001 were converted to a common format for the analysis of particulate matter (PM) temporal and spatial distribution patterns. The data were separated into 'wet' (December-May) and 'dry' (June-November) periods. The horizontal distribution of beam cp at various depths revealed clearly higher values in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) in the vicinity of river mouths during the 'wet' period, whilst the increase was negligible during the 'dry' period. In contrast, the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL; 1-10 m above bottom) appeared to be turbid throughout the year, particularly on the continental shelves receiving riverine discharge. This feature is attributed to resuspension and advection of recently deposited bottom sediments due to waves and currents. However, the Eastern Mediterranean as a whole is impoverished in PM in the water column, particularly at depths >200 m. The behavior of surface-water cp revealed a strong relationship to mesoscale dynamic features. Cyclonic eddies, which upwell nutrient-rich waters toward the surface, favor primary production, which was identified as elevated beam cp values. Beam cp was correlated with PM concentration (PMC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration obtained by bottle sampling. Although there were regional differences in the correlations, no significant seasonal variations were observed. Two generic equations were generated that can be used for a first-order estimate of PMC and POC from historical LT measurements conducted in the area, provided that data are handled according to the proposed methodology.

  1. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  2. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  3. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me......V. Materials like diamond and Be have higher neutron scattering density than Ni, have smaller absorption cross section and when a neutron is absorbed they emit much less gamma ray and at lower energies. We present results, both theoretically and experimentally, comparing Ni with Be and preliminary results...

  4. FE Simulation of SMA Seal for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Younse, Paulo; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Several NASA rovers and landers have been on Mars and performed successful in-situ exploration. Returning Martian samples to Earth for extensive analysis is of great interest to the planetary science community. Current Mars sample return architecture would require leaving the acquired samples on Mars for years before being retrieved by subsequent mission. Each sample would be sealed securely to keep its integrity. A reliable seal technique that does not affect the integrity of the samples and uses a simple low-mass tool is required. The shape memory alloy (SMA) seal technique is a promising candidate. A study of the thermal performances of several primary designs of a SMA seal for sample tubes by finite element (FE) simulation are presented in this paper. The results show sealing the sample tube by SMA plugs and controlling the sample temperature below the allowed temperature level are feasible.

  5. Nonlinear model accounting for minor hysteresis of embedded SMA actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai; GU Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative index martensite fraction was used to describe the phase transformation degree of shape memory alloy (SMA).On the basis of the martensite fraction,a nonlinear analysis model for major and minor hysteresis loops was developed.The model adopted two exponential equations to calculate the martensite fractions for cooling and heating,respectively.The martensite fractions were derived as the relative parameters were adjusted timely according to continuous,common initial and common limit constraints.By use of the linear relationship between the curvature of embedded SMA actuator and SMA's martensite fraction,the curvature was determined.The results of the simulations and experiments prove the validity and veracity of the model.

  6. Modeling size effect in the SMA response: a gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James G.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) show size effect in their response. The critical stresses, for instance, for the start of martensite and austenite transformations are reported to increase in some SMA wires for diameters below 100 μm. Simulation of such a behavior cannot be achieved using conventional theories that lack an intrinsic length scale in their constitutive modeling. To enable the size effect, a thermodynamically consistent constitutive model is developed, that in addition to conventional internal variables of martensitic volume fraction and transformation strain, contains the spatial gradient of martensitic volume fraction as an internal variable. The developed theory is simplified for 1D cases and analytical solutions for pure bending of SMA beams are presented. The gradient model captures the size effect in the response of the studied SMA structures.

  7. Research on Effect of SMA Damper in Passive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Gang; Fan Jian; Li Li; Tan Jiaxiang

    2003-01-01

    In this article, mechanics model of SMA center tension from damper is developed. According to the theory of Brinson constitutive model and thermodynamics first law, damper thermodynamics non-linear equation has been developed. Dynamics non-linear equation of frame structure under operation of SMA damper and its solution have been worked out; the software of seismic response analysis for frame structure and of damper characteristic analysis have been compiled with MATLAB software, and the examples have been computed with it. The result indicates that SMA damper has obvious damp characteristics and it can provide with obvious restraint effect for seismic response of frame structure. Decreasing rate of displacement and velocity on top of frame structure reaches 50 %-60 %. The result is in accordance with other pundits experimentation results, which indicates that the above methods are correct and useful.

  8. Micromechanical analysis of interaction energy for SMA reinforced composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The energy of the interaction between the matrix and the inclusions in shape memory alloy (SMA) re- inforced composite is one of the most important and complicated parts in thermodynamic constitutive theory. In this paper, the interaction energy is derived based on the classical theory of micromechanics and the thermodynamic theory. The SMA composite is treated as three phases, namely the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase. The interaction among the three phases is analyzed in a way close to the fact. The present expression is used to calculate the interaction energy of a typical SMA composite with attentions paid to understand of the effects of the matrix material, the fiber ge- ometry, and the fiber/matrix volume ratio. It is shown that the method developed in this paper is credible compared with the references. Some useful conclusions are obtained.

  9. Micromechanical analysis of interaction enersy for SMA reinforced composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YuPing; DUI GuanSuo; DUO Liu

    2009-01-01

    The energy of the interaction between the matrix and the inclusions in shape memory alloy (SMA) re-inforced composite is one of the most important and complicated parts in thermodynamic constitutive theory. In this paper, the interaction energy is derived based on the classical theory of micromechanics and the thermodynamic theory. The SMA composite is treated as three phases, namely the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase. The interaction among the three phases is analyzed in a way close to the fact. The present expression is used to calculate the interaction energy of a typical SMA composite with attentions paid to understand of the effects of the matrix material, the fiber ge-ometry, and the fiber/matrix volume ratio. It is shown that the method developed in this paper is credi-ble compared with the references. Some useful conclusions are obtained.

  10. PMC- FISHs in Hybrids of Tetraploid Cultivated and Diploid Wild Gossypium Species%四倍体栽培棉与二倍体野生棉杂种PMC-FISH研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌键; 王坤波; 邹美娟; 宋国立; 王春英; 彭仁海; 刘方; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红

    2009-01-01

    首次将PMC-FISH(花粉母细胞荧光原位杂交)技术应用于四倍体栽培棉与二倍体野生棉杂交所形成的三倍体杂种棉F1中,成功的鉴定了目标染色体中的单价体、双价体、多价体,还发现在非目标染色体上有星状和片段状的杂交信号.在以A组棉基因组DNA作为探针的PMC-FISH中,分别对三倍体杂种棉F1及其母本四倍体栽培棉的减数分裂中期I的染色体构型进行了鉴定.结果显示,四个三倍体杂种棉F1的减数分裂时期染色体的构型分别是:陆地棉(AD)1×雷蒙德氏棉(D5)为1IIIaad + 1IIaa + 4IIad + 7IIdd + 5Ⅰa + 7Ⅰd;海岛棉(AD)2×旱地棉(D4)为1Ⅴaaaad +1IIIadd + 2IIad + 8IIdd + 6Ⅰa + 5Ⅰd;陆地棉(AD)1×澳洲棉(C3)为2IIIadd (adc or acc) + 1IIaa + 9Ⅰa + 4IIcc (dc or dd) + 14Ⅰd (c);陆地棉(AD)1×南岱华棉(C1-n)为:1IIaa + 1IIad (ac)+ 10Ⅰa + 6IIcc (dc or dd) + 13Ⅰd (c).然而,两个四倍体棉染色体的构型都是13IIaa + 13IIdd.上述结果还显示, AD×D的两个杂种组合中,二价体多,单价体少,AD×C的两个杂种组合中,二价体少,单价体多;并且AD×D型杂种中A亚组染色体单体的数目比其在AD×C型杂种中的更少.这说明,与C染色体组相比较,D染色体组与四倍体棉种的亲缘关系更近.同时,我们的结果也证明PMC-FISH技术在分析三倍体杂种棉F1的亲缘关系中起着不可取代的作用.%PMC-FISH (pollen mother cell-fluorescence in situ hybridization) technology was firstly applied to identify probed chromosomes in univalent, bivalent and multivalent, as well as to distinguish star- or fragment-like hybridization signals from non-probed chromosomes in four triploid F1 hybrids produced by cultivated allotetraploid cotton crossed with different diploid cotton species in the genus Gossypium. Using genomic DNA from A genome species as probe, the meiotic chromosome configurations in metaphase Ⅰof four triploid F1 hybrids were identified as 1Ⅲaad + 1Ⅱaa + 4

  11. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-based lidar and SuperDARN HF radar at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suzuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Rayleigh–Raman lidar system was installed in January 2011 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, 39.6° E. Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs were detected by lidar at around 22:30 UTC (LT −3 h on 4 February 2011, which was the first day of observation. This was the first detection of PMCs over Syowa Station by lidar. On the same day, a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN HF radar with oblique-incidence beams detected polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE between 21:30 and 23:00 UTC. This event is regarded as the last PMC activity around Syowa Station during the austral summer season (2010–2011, since no other PMC signals were detected by lidar in February 2011. This is consistent with results of PMC and mesopause temperature observations by satellite-born instruments of AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere/CIPS (Cloud Imaging and Particle Size and AURA/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and horizontal wind measurements taken by a separate MF radar. Doppler velocity of PMSE observed by the HF radar showed motion toward Syowa Station (westward. This westward motion is consistent with the wind velocities obtained by the MF radar. However, the PMSE region showed horizontal motion from a north-to-south direction during the PMC event. This event indicates that the apparent horizontal motion of the PMSE region can deviate from neutral wind directions and observed Doppler velocities.

  12. Simultaneous PMC and PMSE observations with a ground-based lidar and SuperDARN HF radar at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Ogawa, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T. D.; Tomikawa, Y.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Sato, N.

    2013-10-01

    A Rayleigh-Raman lidar system was installed in January 2011 at Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, 39.6° E). Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) were detected by lidar at around 22:30 UTC (LT -3 h) on 4 February 2011, which was the first day of observation. This was the first detection of PMCs over Syowa Station by lidar. On the same day, a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar with oblique-incidence beams detected polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) between 21:30 and 23:00 UTC. This event is regarded as the last PMC activity around Syowa Station during the austral summer season (2010-2011), since no other PMC signals were detected by lidar in February 2011. This is consistent with results of PMC and mesopause temperature observations by satellite-born instruments of AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere)/CIPS (Cloud Imaging and Particle Size) and AURA/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and horizontal wind measurements taken by a separate MF radar. Doppler velocity of PMSE observed by the HF radar showed motion toward Syowa Station (westward). This westward motion is consistent with the wind velocities obtained by the MF radar. However, the PMSE region showed horizontal motion from a north-to-south direction during the PMC event. This event indicates that the apparent horizontal motion of the PMSE region can deviate from neutral wind directions and observed Doppler velocities.

  13. Laying the foundation stone of CERN Building SMA18

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Photo 10 : Le Directeur general du CERN, Luciano Maiani inaugure avec le President du Conseil general de l'Ain, M. Jean Pepin, la 1ere pierre du futur batiment SMA 18 a Prevessin-Moens. Photo 14 : Discours du President du Conseil general de l'Ain, M. Jean Pepin lors de la pose de la 1ere pierre au futur batiment SMA 18. Photo 15 : CERN director-general L. Maiani speaks at the official ceremony to lay the foundation stone of a new CERN building.

  14. Putative PmrA and PmcA are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hechun; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPases are Ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic Ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular Ca(2+) store lumens. In budding yeast, Pmr1 (plasma membrane ATPase related), and Pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-ATPase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. Here, we deleted two putative Ca(2+) pumps, designated AnPmrA and AnPmcA, from Aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants ΔanpmrA and ΔanpmcA, respectively. Then, using ΔanpmrA as the starting strain, the promoter of its anpmcA was replaced with the alcA promoter to secure the mutant ΔanpmrAalcApmcA or its anpmcA was deleted completely to produce the mutant ΔanpmrAΔpmcA. Different from the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double deletion of anpmrA and anpmcA was not lethal in A. nidulans. In addition, deletion of anpmrA and/or anpmcA had produced growth defects, although overexpression of AnPmc1 in ΔanpmrAalcApmcA could not restore the growth defects that resulted from the loss of AnPmrA. Moreover, we found AnPmrA was indispensable for maintenance of normal morphogenesis, especially in low-Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) environments. Thus, our findings suggest AnPmrA and AnPmcA might play important roles in growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in A. nidulans in a different way from that in yeasts.

  15. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  16. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  17. The clinical landscape for SMA in a new therapeutic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, K; Tizzano, E F

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant advances in basic research, the treatment of degenerative diseases of the nervous system remains one of the greatest challenges for translational medicine. The childhood onset motor neuron disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been viewed as one of the more tractable targets for molecular therapy due to a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic basis of the disease. In SMA, inactivating mutations in the SMN1 gene can be partially compensated for by limited expression of SMN protein from a variable number of copies of the SMN2 gene, which provides both a molecular explanation for phenotypic severity and a target for therapy. The advent of the first tailored molecular therapy for SMA, based on modulating the splicing behaviour of the SMN2 gene provides, for the first time, a treatment which alters the natural history of motor neuron degeneration. Here we consider how this will change the landscape for diagnosis, clinical management and future therapeutic trials in SMA, as well as the implications for the molecular therapy of other neurological diseases.

  18. Aplikasi Sistem Pembayaran Administrasi Kesiswaan Di SMA Ya BAKII Kesugihan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Ika Atikah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sekolah sebagai salah satu bentuk organisasi memerlukan pengolahan administrasi yang efektif dan efisien, yaitu berorientasi pada tujuan penggunaan semua sumber daya serta mekanisme pengelolaan sekolah. Salah satu fungsi administrasi sekolah adalah pengelolaan data pembayaran administrasi kesiswaan. Yang terjadi di SMA Ya BAKII Kesugihan yang masih menggunakan sistem manual dalam pengelolaan data pembayaran. Dengan memanfaatkan software komputer kita dapat mengelola data-data pembayaran administrasi kesiswaan dengan lebih mudah.  Dalam kegiatan ini mencakup bagaimana perancangan program basis data tentang pengelolaan data pembayaran sekolah di SMA Ya BAKII Kesugihan dengan menggunakan software Visual Basic 6.0 dan MySQL Server 5.1. Hasil dari perancangan dan pembuatan Aplikasi Sistem Pembayaran Administrasi Kesiswaan di SMA Ya BAKII Kesugihan adalah untuk mengoptimalisasikan pengolahan data pembayaran administrasi kesiswaan. Aplikasi ini dapat menghasilkan laporan-laporan yang dapat digunakan oleh bagian Tata Usaha lain yang berkaitan dengan administrasi kesiswaan. Berdasarkan hasil kegiatan di atas, pihak Sekolah disarankan dapat meningkatkan kualitas dan pengelolaan sekolah terutama bagian pembayaran administrasi kesiswaan di SMA Ya BAKII Kesugihan.

  19. Improvement of Continuous Hydrologic Models and HMS SMA Parameters Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian Zadeh, Mehdi; Zia Hosseinipour, E.; Abghari, Hirad; Nikian, Ashkan; Shaeri Karimi, Sara; Moradzadeh Azar, Foad

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological models can help us to predict stream flows and associated runoff volumes of rainfall events within a watershed. There are many different reasons why we need to model the rainfall-runoff processes of for a watershed. However, the main reason is the limitation of hydrological measurement techniques and the costs of data collection at a fine scale. Generally, we are not able to measure all that we would like to know about a given hydrological systems. This is very particularly the case for ungauged catchments. Since the ultimate aim of prediction using models is to improve decision-making about a hydrological problem, therefore, having a robust and efficient modeling tool becomes an important factor. Among several hydrologic modeling approaches, continuous simulation has the best predictions because it can model dry and wet conditions during a long-term period. Continuous hydrologic models, unlike event based models, account for a watershed's soil moisture balance over a long-term period and are suitable for simulating daily, monthly, and seasonal streamflows. In this paper, we describe a soil moisture accounting (SMA) algorithm added to the hydrologic modeling system (HEC-HMS) computer program. As is well known in the hydrologic modeling community one of the ways for improving a model utility is the reduction of input parameters. The enhanced model developed in this study is applied to Khosrow Shirin Watershed, located in the north-west part of Fars Province in Iran, a data limited watershed. The HMS SMA algorithm divides the potential path of rainfall onto a watershed into five zones. The results showed that the output of HMS SMA is insensitive with the variation of many parameters such as soil storage and soil percolation rate. The study's objective is to remove insensitive parameters from the model input using Multi-objective sensitivity analysis. Keywords: Continuous Hydrologic Modeling, HMS SMA, Multi-objective sensitivity analysis, SMA Parameters

  20. KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL TERHADAP PENDIDIKAN MUSIK SMA PONDOK MODERN SELAMAT KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmila Sari Djau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji konstruksi sosial terhadap pendidikan musik oleh lembaga pendidikan Islam dan peran sekolah dala membangun orientasi musik yang bersifat sekuler pada siswa. Adanya kesenjangan antara konsep pendidikan seni menurut pandangan Islam dengan paham pendidikan musik yang dilaksanakan pada SMA Pondok Modern Selamat selaku lembaga pendidikan berbasis Islam. Melalui bentuk pengajaran musik yang bersifat bebas baik sekuler maupun religi secara tidak langsung dapat membangun orientasi musik yang berbeda di setiap siswa. Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah sosiologi dengan menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian adalah SMA Pondok Modern Selamat yang berada di Kendal. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Konstruksi sosial oleh SMA Pondok Modern Selamat tentang pendidikan musik adalah pendidikan musik dianggap sebagai wadah untuk mengekspresikan diri dan wadah untuk mewariskan budaya bangsa yang tercermin dalam penerapan pembelajaran musik yang bersifat sekuler maupun islami sehingga secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi atau membangun musik pada siswa terhadap suatu jenis musik. The purpose of this study was to examine the social construction of the educational music by Islamic educational institutions and the role of schools dala building orientation secular music to students. The gap between the concept of art education in the view of Islam to understand the music education conducted at SMA Pondok Modern Selamat as the Islamic-based educational institutions. Through teaching form of music that is free both secular and religious can indirectly establish the orientation of different music in each student. This study is sociological approach using qualitative research methods. Location of the study is the high school Pondok Modern Selamat located in Kendal. The results of this study indicate that the social construction by SMA Pondok Modern Selamat on music education music education is

  1. CONFIRMATION OF CLINICAL-DIAGNOSIS IN REQUESTS FOR PRENATAL PREDICTION OF SMA TYPE-I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COBBEN, JM; DEVISSER, M; SCHEFFER, H; OSINGA, J; VANDERSTEEGE, G; BUYS, CHCM; VANOMMEN, GJ; TENKATE, LP

    The recent discovery of a major SMA-locus in the chromosomal region 5q makes it possible to carry out prenatal DNA studies in families in which a child with SMA type I has been born. Since direct mutation analysis is not yet possible, the reliability of prenatal prediction of SMA type I usually

  2. Study on the Compatibility of SMA and Composite Materials by Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhimin

    2000-01-01

    With the help of holographic interferometry a study is conducted on the compatibility of SMA (shape memory alloy) and epoxy resin composite material. The paper gives experiment results and analysis which show that after coupling SMA with the composite material, the flexural rigidity of composite material is somewhat reinforced. Under certain conditions, SMA and the epoxy resin composite material are compatible.

  3. CONFIRMATION OF CLINICAL-DIAGNOSIS IN REQUESTS FOR PRENATAL PREDICTION OF SMA TYPE-I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COBBEN, JM; DEVISSER, M; SCHEFFER, H; OSINGA, J; VANDERSTEEGE, G; BUYS, CHCM; VANOMMEN, GJ; TENKATE, LP

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of a major SMA-locus in the chromosomal region 5q makes it possible to carry out prenatal DNA studies in families in which a child with SMA type I has been born. Since direct mutation analysis is not yet possible, the reliability of prenatal prediction of SMA type I usually depe

  4. The Role of the Supplementary Motor Region in Overt Reading: Evidence for Differential Processing in SMA-Proper and Pre-SMA as a Function of Task Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Hanif, Wahab; Dymouriak-Tymashov, Inna; Anchuri, Kavya; Chiu, Stephanie; Boliek, Carol A

    2017-03-04

    A differentiation in function between the pre-SMA (i.e., cognitive load) and the SMA-proper (i.e., motor execution) has been described (Zhang et al., Cereb Cortex 22:99-111, 2012). These differential SMA functions may be influential in overt reading tasks. The present study examined the relationships between various segments of the SMA and overt reading through the modulation of task demands in an effort to explore the complexity of the print-to-speech network. Skilled reading adults (N = 15) took part in five overt reading tasks: pure regular word reading, pure exception word reading, mixed regular word and exception word reading, go/no-go reading with nonword foils and go/no-go reading with pseudohomophone foils. Five regions of interest that spanned the pre-SMA to the SMA-proper were isolated. Behaviour-function relationships were tested to examine the associations between performance (response time) and brain activity (percent signal change). Further, the coherence between feedforward (SMA) and feedback (supramarginal gyrus) regions were explored to further refine the print-to-speech network. We found that the pre-SMA was related to cognitively demanding tasks (go/no-go with pseudohomophones), whereas the SMA-proper was related to an automatized task (pure regular words). Notably, only those tasks that required information from the feedback system (i.e., mixed word lists, go/no-go tasks) showed connections between SMA regions and the supramarginal gyrus, which is in line with the role of feedback and feedforward systems in the print-to-speech network. Together, these results support the notion that the pre-SMA and SMA-proper are sensitive to reading tasks that differentially invoke higher cognitive resources (mixed word lists, go/no-go) versus automatized articulation (pure lists), respectively. We discuss our findings in the context of print-to-speech neural networks.

  5. Fatigue crack behavior on a Cu-Zn-Al SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Cocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mechanical property of many SMA has improved in order to introduce these alloys in specific field of industry. Main examples of these alloys are the NiTi, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni which are used in many fields of engineering such as aerospace or mechanical systems. Cu-Zn-Al alloys are characterized by good shape memory properties due to a bcc disordered structure stable at high temperature called β-phase, which is able to change by means of a reversible transition to a B2 structure after appropriate cooling, and reversible transition from B2 secondary to DO3 order, under other types of cooling. In β-Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, the martensitic transformation is not in equilibrium at room temperature. It is therefore often necessary to obtain the martensitic structure, using a thermal treatment at high temperature followed by quenching. The martensitic phases can be either thermally-induced spontaneous transformation, or stressinduced, or cooling, or stressing the β- phase. Direct quenching from high temperatures to the martensite phase is the most effective because of the non-diffusive character of the transformation. The martensite inherits the atomic order from the β-phase. Precipitation of many kinds of intermetallic phases is the main problem of treatment on cu-based shape memory alloy. For instance, a precipitation of α-phase occurs in many low aluminum copper based SMA alloy and presence of α-phase implies a strong degradation of shape recovery. However, Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloys characterized by aluminum contents less than 5% cover a good cold machining and cost is lower than traditional NiTi SMA alloys. In order to improve the SMA performance, it is always necessary to identify the microstructural changing in mechanical and thermal conditions, using X-Ray analyses. In this work a Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloy obtained in laboratory has been microstructurally and metallographically characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction and Light

  6. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions.

  7. Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Agama di SMA Katolik Soverdi Kabupaten Badung Bali

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    Mulyani Mudis Taruna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at SMA Catholic Soverdi under umbrella ofCatholic foundation in Badung district Bali Province. Focuses of this study are,implementation of religious education was seen from the aspects of curriculumimplementation, influencing factors of curriculum implementation. Thisis a qualitative research. Finding of the research depicts that developmentof the religious education’s curriculum uses curriculum set by ministry ofeducation. This affects in developing of atmosphere of religious life at school.Substantially, implementation of curriculum on religious education areable to provide services for students, namely giving religious education fitwith students’ religion, and the teacher’s religion is the same as student’s religion.DI SMA KATOLIK SOVERDI KABUPATEN BADUNG BALIKeywords : Relegius education, curiculum

  8. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  9. Testing the ACA Phase Correction Scheme using the SMA

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki

    2010-01-01

    We conducted the observational tests of a phase correction scheme for the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) of the Atacama Large Millimeter and submillimeter Array (ALMA) using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Interferometers at millimeter- and submillimeter-wave are highly affected by the refraction induced by water vapor in the troposphere, which results as phase fluctuations. The ACA is planning to compensate the atmospheric phase fluctuations using the phase information of the outermost antennas with interpolating to the inner antennas by creating a phase screen. The interpolation and extrapolation phase correction schemes using phase screens are tested with the SMA to study how effective these schemes are. We produce a plane of a wavefront (phase screen) from the phase information of three antennas for each integration, and this phase screen is used for the interpolation and extrapolation of the phases of inner and outer antennas, respectively. The interpolation scheme obtains apparently improved results, sugges...

  10. Optimization of SMA layers in composite structures to enhance damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoust, P.; Cinquemani, S.; Lecis, N.; Bassani, P.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of lightweight structures can be severely affected by vibration. New design concepts leading to lightweight, slender structural components can increase the vulnerability of the components to failure due to excessive vibration. The intelligent approach to address the problem would be the use of materials which are more capable in dissipating the energy due to their high value of loss factor. Among the different materials available to achieve damping, much attention has been attached to the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) because of their unique microstructure, leading to good damping capacity. This work describes the design and optimization of a hybrid layered composite structure for the passive suppression of flexural vibrations in slender and light structures. Embedding the SMA layers in composite structure allows to combine different properties: the lightness of the base composite (e.g. fiber glass), the mechanical strength of the insert of metallic material and the relevant damping properties of SMA, in the martensitic phase. In particular, we put our attention on embedding the CuZnAl in the form of thin sheet in a layered composite made by glass fiber reinforced epoxy. By appropriately positioning of the SMA sheets so that they are subjected to the maximum curvature, the damping of the hybrid system can be considerably enhanced. Accordingly analytical method for evaluating the energy dissipation of the thin sheets with different shapes and patterns is developed and is followed by a shape optimization based on genetic algorithm. Eventually different configurations of the hybrid beam structure with different patterns of SMA layer are proposed and compared in the term of damping capacity.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY RECOMBINANTS IN MULTIPLEX SMA FAMILIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; COBBEN, JM; BRAHE, C; OSINGA, J; ZAPPATA, S; SCHEFFER, H; NERI, G; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM; TENKATE, LP

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports have provided evidence that a major gene for autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) resides in a small genetic interval in bands q12-q13 of chromosome 5, a 4-cM region proximally flanked by D5S125 (EF(TG/AG)n) and distally by MAP1B/D5S112 or a 0.7-cM interval

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY RECOMBINANTS IN MULTIPLEX SMA FAMILIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; COBBEN, JM; BRAHE, C; OSINGA, J; ZAPPATA, S; SCHEFFER, H; NERI, G; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM; TENKATE, LP

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports have provided evidence that a major gene for autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) resides in a small genetic interval in bands q12-q13 of chromosome 5, a 4-cM region proximally flanked by D5S125 (EF(TG/AG)n) and distally by MAP1B/D5S112 or a 0.7-cM interval (rang

  13. On the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, complex orthogonal design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Complex orthogonal designs (CODs) are used to construct space-time block codes. COD $\\mathcal{O}_z$ with parameter $[p, n, k]$ is a $p\\times n$ matrix, where nonzero entries are filled by $\\pm z_i$ or $\\pm z^*_i$, $i = 1, 2,..., k$, such that $\\mathcal{O}^H_z \\mathcal{O}_z = (|z_1|^2+|z_2|^2+...+|z_k|^2)I_{n \\times n}$. Adams et al. in "The final case of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 103-122, Jan. 2010, first proved the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, COD. Combining with the previous result that decoding delay should be an integer multiple of $\\binom{2m}{m-1}$, they solved the final case $n \\equiv 2 \\pmod 4$ of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs. In this paper, we give another proof of the nonexistence of COD with parameter $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd. Our new proof is based on the uniqueness of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m-1, \\binom{...

  14. Pengembangan Program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk Pembelajaran Fisika di SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Susilowati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah membuat dan mengevaluasi media pembelajaran fisika SMA menggunakan program Macromedia Flash 8. Subjek coba pada penelitian ini berjumlah 40 orang yang terdiri dari 10 siswa untuk uji coba instrumen penelitian, 10 siswa untuk ujicoba kelompok kecdl, dan 20 siswa untuk uji coba lapangan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengguna­kan kuesioner dan tes fisika (pre-test dan post-test. Evaluasi terhadap program ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran dan aspek media. Kritik dan saran digunakan untuk memperbaiki program. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa program Macromedia Flash 8 untuk pembelajaran fisika di SMA: (1 dirancang sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip desain pembelajaran, (2 terbukti mampu menaikkan skor rerata tes fisika siswa sebesar 55,42%, (3 memiliki efisiensi waktu yang tinggi, (4 ditinjau dari aspek media Hinilai cukup bagus/menarik (dinilai/dikategorikan sedang oleh siswa, (5 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran secara keseluruhan program ini dinilai tinggi/jelas dimengerti oleh siswa, (6 ditinjau dari aspek media dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika, dan (7 ditinjau dari aspek pembelajaran juga dinilai menarik (bagus/kategori tinggi oleh guru fisika. Kata kunci: media pembelajaran fisika diSMA.

  15. ASPIRASI KARIER SISWA SMA BERDASARKAN STATUS SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN GENDER

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    Nunik Widiastuti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Career Aspirations of SMA Students Based Socio-Economic Status and Gender. This research is a descriptive study about career aspirations aimed to describe the career aspirations of students by socio-economic status and gender in SMA Negeri 1 Batujajar. The method used the quantitative descriptive method. Respondents in this study are students of class X SMA Negeri 1 Batujajar that are at the stage of self-orientation. At this stage people start selecting, establishing and looking for alternatives on the planning himself and his work. Selection of the sample using purposive sampling techniques so that the respondents in this study were 234 students. In general, the career aspirations of students 10.3% were in the low category, which is the category of being as much as 63.2%, and 26.5 % At the high category. Based on the socio-economic status of education last seen parents are in the moderate category. Based on parent income in middle category. Meanwhile, based on the gender ratio of the career aspirations of learners battery and men do not have a difference, with a probability value of 0.53.

  16. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures using Commercial Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2004-01-01

    A thermomechanical model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures has been recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilevered beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilevered beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  17. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENENTU KOMITMEN ORGANISASI GURU SMA

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    Tiur Asi Siburian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Factors Determining Organization Commitment of Senior High School Teachers. This survey aims to examine the effects of interpersonal communication, organization culture, job satisfaction, and achievement motivation on the organization commitment of senior high school teachers. Utilizing questionnaires distributed to 150 respondents, this study found that teachers’ organization commitment was directly as well as indirectly affected by the variables of interpersonal communication, organization culture, job satisfaction, and achievement motivation. Abstrak: Faktor-faktor Penentu Komitmen Organisasi Guru SMA. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menguji pengaruh komunikasi interpersonal, budaya organisasi, kepuasan kerja, dan motivasi berprestasi terhadap komitmen organisasi guru SMA Negeri di Kabupaten Humbang Hasundutan. Penelitian memggunakan desain eksplanatif, dan pengambilan data dilakukan melalui survey pada 150 responden yang diambil dengan sampling random proporsional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komitmen or­ganisasi guru SMA dipengaruhi secara langsung dan tidak langsung oleh empat variabel, yaitu komunikasi interpersonal, budaya organisasi, kepuasan kerja, dan motivasi berprestasi. Temuan penelitian menunjuk­kan bahwa keempat variabel tersebut masih perlu ditingkatkan lebih lanjut.

  18. Passive base isolation with superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Han; Song, Gangbing

    2014-06-01

    Seismic isolation of structures such as multi-story buildings, nuclear reactors, bridges, and liquid storage tanks should be designed to preserve structural integrity. By implementing seismic isolation technology, the deformation of superstructures can be dramatically reduced, consequently helping to protect their safety as well. In this paper, an innovative type of passive base isolation system, which is mainly composed of superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs, is developed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, a two-story experimental steel frame model is constructed, and two superelastic SMA helical springs are thermo-mechanically built in the laboratory. To describe the nonlinear mechanical properties of the superelastic SMA helical springs under reciprocating load, a phenomenological model is presented in terms of a series of tensile tests. Afterwards, a numerical model of the two-story frame with the suggested isolation system is set up to simulate the response of the isolated frame subjected to an earthquake. Both the experimental and the numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed base isolation system can remarkably suppress structural vibrations and has improved isolation effects when compared with a steel spring isolation system. Due to the capabilities of energy dissipation as well as fully re-centering, it is very applicable to utilize the suggested isolation system in base isolated structures to resist earthquakes.

  19. Triptolide increases transcript and protein levels of survival motor neurons in human SMA fibroblasts and improves survival in SMA-like mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Yun; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Tsai, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Yu-Ting; An, Li-Mei; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2012-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neuromuscular disease. Since disease severity is related to the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, up-regulated functional SMN protein levels from the SMN2 gene are considered a major SMA drug-discovery strategy. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide purified from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., as a new compound for increasing SMN protein. The effects and mechanisms of triptolide on the production of SMA protein were determined by cell-based assays using the motor neuronal cell line NSC34 and skin fibroblasts from SMA patients. Wild-type (Smn(+/+) SMN2(-/-) , C57BL/6) and SMA-like (Smn(-/-) SMN2) mice were injected with triptolide (0.01 or 0.1 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) , i.p.) and their survival rate and level of change in SMN protein in neurons and muscle tissue measured. In NSC34 cells and human SMA fibroblasts, pM concentrations of triptolide significantly increased SMN protein expression and the levels of SMN complex component (Gemin2 and Gemin3). In human SMA fibroblasts, triptolide increased SMN-containing nuclear gems and the ratio of full-length transcripts (FL-SMN2) to SMN2 transcripts lacking exon 7 (SMN2Δ7). Furthermore, in SMA-like mice, triptolide significantly increased SMN protein levels in the brain, spinal cord and gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, triptolide treatment increased survival and reduced weight loss in SMA-like mice. Triptolide enhanced SMN protein production by promoting SMN2 activation, exon 7 inclusion and increasing nuclear gems, and increased survival in SMA mice, which suggests triptolide might be a potential candidate for SMA therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10/LRIG is a conserved transmembrane protein that enhances bone morphogenetic protein signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L Gumienny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways control an array of developmental and homeostatic events, and must themselves be exquisitely controlled. Here, we identify Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10 as a positive extracellular regulator of BMP-like receptor signaling. SMA-10 acts genetically in a BMP-like (Sma/Mab pathway between the ligand DBL-1 and its receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4. We cloned sma-10 and show that it has fifteen leucine-rich repeats and three immunoglobulin-like domains, hallmarks of an LRIG subfamily of transmembrane proteins. SMA-10 is required in the hypodermis, where the core Sma/Mab signaling components function. We demonstrate functional conservation of LRIGs by rescuing sma-10(lf animals with the Drosophila ortholog lambik, showing that SMA-10 physically binds the DBL-1 receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4 and enhances signaling in vitro. This interaction is evolutionarily conserved, evidenced by LRIG1 binding to vertebrate receptors. We propose a new role for LRIG family members: the positive regulation of BMP signaling by binding both Type I and Type II receptors.

  1. Revised Hammersmith Scale for spinal muscular atrophy: A SMA specific clinical outcome assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Danielle; Scoto, Mariacristina; Mayhew, Anna; Main, Marion; Mazzone, Elena S; Montes, Jacqueline; de Sanctis, Roberto; Dunaway Young, Sally; Salazar, Rachel; Glanzman, Allan M; Pasternak, Amy; Quigley, Janet; Mirek, Elizabeth; Duong, Tina; Gee, Richard; Civitello, Matthew; Tennekoon, Gihan; Pane, Marika; Pera, Maria Carmela; Bushby, Kate; Day, John; Darras, Basil T; De Vivo, Darryl; Finkel, Richard; Mercuri, Eugenio; Muntoni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Recent translational research developments in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), outcome measure design and demands from regulatory authorities require that clinical outcome assessments are 'fit for purpose'. An international collaboration (SMA REACH UK, Italian SMA Network and PNCRN USA) undertook an iterative process to address discontinuity in the recorded performance of the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded and developed a revised functional scale using Rasch analysis, traditional psychometric techniques and the application of clinical sensibility via expert panels. Specifically, we intended to develop a psychometrically and clinically robust functional clinician rated outcome measure to assess physical abilities in weak SMA type 2 through to strong ambulant SMA type 3 patients. The final scale, the Revised Hammersmith Scale (RHS) for SMA, consisting of 36 items and two timed tests, was piloted in 138 patients with type 2 and 3 SMA in an observational cross-sectional multi-centre study across the three national networks. Rasch analysis demonstrated very good fit of all 36 items to the construct of motor performance, good reliability with a high Person Separation Index PSI 0.98, logical and hierarchical scoring in 27/36 items and excellent targeting with minimal ceiling. The RHS differentiated between clinically different groups: SMA type, World Health Organisation (WHO) categories, ambulatory status, and SMA type combined with ambulatory status (all p SMA. Further longitudinal testing of the scale with regards change in scores over 6 and 12 months are required prior to its adoption in clinical trials.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10/LRIG Is a Conserved Transmembrane Protein that Enhances Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumienny, Tina L.; MacNeil, Lesley; Zimmerman, Cole M.; Wang, Huang; Chin, Lena; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Padgett, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways control an array of developmental and homeostatic events, and must themselves be exquisitely controlled. Here, we identify Caenorhabditis elegans SMA-10 as a positive extracellular regulator of BMP–like receptor signaling. SMA-10 acts genetically in a BMP–like (Sma/Mab) pathway between the ligand DBL-1 and its receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4. We cloned sma-10 and show that it has fifteen leucine-rich repeats and three immunoglobulin-like domains, hallmarks of an LRIG subfamily of transmembrane proteins. SMA-10 is required in the hypodermis, where the core Sma/Mab signaling components function. We demonstrate functional conservation of LRIGs by rescuing sma-10(lf) animals with the Drosophila ortholog lambik, showing that SMA-10 physically binds the DBL-1 receptors SMA-6 and DAF-4 and enhances signaling in vitro. This interaction is evolutionarily conserved, evidenced by LRIG1 binding to vertebrate receptors. We propose a new role for LRIG family members: the positive regulation of BMP signaling by binding both Type I and Type II receptors. PMID:20502686

  3. Fatigue of NiTi SMA-pulley system using Taguchi and ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jani, Jaronie; Leary, Martin; Subic, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators can be integrated with a pulley system to provide mechanical advantage and to reduce packaging space; however, there appears to be no formal investigation of the effect of a pulley system on SMA structural or functional fatigue. In this work, cyclic testing was conducted on nickel-titanium (NiTi) SMA actuators on a pulley system and a control experiment (without pulley). Both structural and functional fatigues were monitored until fracture, or a maximum of 1E5 cycles were achieved for each experimental condition. The Taguchi method and analysis of the variance (ANOVA) were used to optimise the SMA-pulley system configurations. In general, one-way ANOVA at the 95% confidence level showed no significant difference between the structural or functional fatigue of SMA-pulley actuators and SMA actuators without pulley. Within the sample of SMA-pulley actuators, the effect of activation duration had the greatest significance for both structural and functional fatigue, and the pulley configuration (angle of wrap and sheave diameter) had a greater statistical significance than load magnitude for functional fatigue. This work identified that structural and functional fatigue performance of SMA-pulley systems is optimised by maximising sheave diameter and using an intermediate wrap-angle, with minimal load and activation duration. However, these parameters may not be compatible with commercial imperatives. A test was completed for a commercially optimal SMA-pulley configuration. This novel observation will be applicable to many areas of SMA-pulley system applications development.

  4. PENGARUH MODEL EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar’atus Sholihah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Experiential Learning models developed by Kolb's theory of the critical thinking skills of high school students. This study uses a quasi experiment conducted in SMA Assa'adah Gresik. The population of students of class X IS second semester of academic year 2015/2016. Samples are 2 classes that are homogeneous. Methods of data collection using test questions and the ability to think critically using observation sheet. Data were analyzed by comparing the average acquisition value of critical thinking skills with experimental class control class. Average value of the critical thinking skills using model Experiential Learning higher at 80.9 while the control class is 71.2. Based on the average it can be concluded that the learning model of Experiential Learning can improve students' critical thinking skills. This study is expected to provide information on the application and benefits of the model Experiential Learning in teaching geography and make it more meaningful for students. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh model Experiential Learning yang dikembangkan oleh teori Kolb terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa SMA. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi experimen yang dilakukan di SMA Assa’adah Gresik. Populasi siswa kelas X IS semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 2 kelas yang bersifat homogen. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan soal tes kemampuan berpikir kritis serta menggunakan lembar observasi. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis dengan membandingkan rata-rata perolehan nilai kemampuan berpikir kritis kelas kontrol dengan kelas eksperimen. Nilai rata rata kemampuan berpikir kritis yang menggunakan model pembelajaran Experiential Learning lebih tinggi, yaitu sebesar 80,9, sedangkan kelas kontrol sebesar 71,2. Berdasarkan nilai rata-rata tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran Experiential Learning dapat

  5. PENDEKATAN PENDIDIKAN MULTIKULTURAL PADA MATA PELAJARAN SOSIOLOGI SMA KELAS XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Wahyu Riyadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan penggunaan pendekatan pendidikan multikultural pada pelajaran Sosiologi SMA kelas XI. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang dilakukan di SMAN 4 Purworejo. Data dikumpulkan melalui metode pengamatan dan wawancara dengan guru Sosiologi SMAN 4 Purworejo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik Pendekatan Pendidikan multikultural yang dilakukan oleh guru sosiologi SMA menekankan pada tiga bentuk: optimalisasi peran rasionalitas bagi siswa, praktek dan pembiasaan perbedaan pendapat. Pendekatan ini tepat dilakukan dalam kegiatan pembelajaran pada materi kelompok sosial dalam masyarakat multikultural. Kendala dalam pelaksanaan pendekatan multikultural di SMA adalah, alokasi waktu pertemuan, konsentrasi siswa dalam menerima materi pelajaran yang berhubungan dengan multikultural, keterbatasan media pembelajaran yang digunakan saat pembelajaran serta minat siswa dalam belajar. Hal ini membuat guru bekerja ekstra untuk membuat variasi dalam pembelajaran agar kegiatan belajar mengajar dapat berhasil dengan baik.The objective of this article is to describe the use of multicultural education approach to the study of sociology for senior high school student class XI. This study is a qualitative study conducted in SMAN 4 Purworejo. Data were collected through a method of observation and interviews with teachers of Sociology. The results show that the characteristics of a multicultural approach to education implemented by high school sociology include three forms: teacher’s emphasis on the optimization of students’ rationality, practice and dissent habituation. This approach is appropriate for the learning activities on material of social groups in multicultural societies. Constraints in the implementation of a multicultural approach in high school include time allocation, student’s concentration, the limitations of instructional media used during the learning process

  6. The conformation of acetylated virginiamycin M1 and virginiamycin M1 in explicit solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chai Ann; Zhao, Wen; Dang, Jason; Bergdahl, Mikael; Separovic, Frances; Brownlee, Robert T C; Metzger, Robert P

    2007-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of acetylated virginiamycin M(1) (acetylated VM1) in chloroform and in a water/acetonitrile mixture (83:17 v/v) have been established through 2D high resolution NMR experiments and molecular dynamics modeling and the results compared with the conformation of the antibiotic VM1 in the same and other solvents. The results indicated that acetylation of the C-14 OH group of VM1 caused it to rotate about 90 degrees from the position it assumed in non-acetylated VM1. The conformation of both VM1 and acetylated VM1 appear to flatten in moving from a nonpolar to polar solvent. However, the acetylated form has a more hydrophobic nature. The acetylated VM1 in chloroform and in water/acetonitrile solution had a similar configuration to that of VM1 bound to 50S ribosomes and to the Vat(D) active sites as previously determined by X-ray crystallography. Docking studies of VM1 to the 50S ribosomal binding site and the Vat(D) gave conformations very similar to those derived from X-ray crystallographic studies. The docking studies with acetylated VM1 suggested the possibility of a hydrogen bond from the acetyl carbonyl group oxygen of acetylated VM1 to the 2' hydroxyl group of ribose of adenosine 2538 at the ribosomal VM1 binding site. No hydrogen bonds between acetylated VM1 and the Vat(D) active sites were found; the loss of this binding interaction partly accounts for the release of the product from the active site.

  7. Study on interface failure of shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforced smart structure with damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili Hu; Ke Xiong; Xinwei Wang

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforced smart structure can be used to make structural shape and strength selfadapted and structural damage self-restrained. Although SMA smart structures without damages were extensively studied,researches on SMA smart structures with damages have rarely been reported thus far. In this paper, thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMA fiber reinforced smart structures with damages are analyzed through a shear lag model and the variational principle. Mathematical expressions of the meso-displacement field and the stress-strain field of a typical element with damages are obtained, and a failure criterion for interface failure between SMA fibers and matrix is established,which is applied to an example. Results presented herein may provide a theoretical foundation for further studies on integrity of SMA smart structures.

  8. Pseudo-elastic Hysteresis Damping Characteristics of SMA Hybrid Composite Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shuangshuang; JIANG Xiance; SUN Guojun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite lamina subjected to longitudinally strain or stress controlled cyclic loading is investigated. The SMA is under pseudo-elastic condition and the fibers are embedded (bonded) to the host material. The influences of temperature, volume fraction of SMA and longitudinal modulus of the host material on the stress-strain relation and energy dissipation of the SMA hybrid composite lamina are discussed. The results indicate that the stress-strain curve of the lamina per cycle shows a hysteresis loop. The hysteresis damping decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing volume fractions of SMA. In addition, the hysteresis damping is nearly independent of the longitudinal modulus of the host material under strain controlled loading. However, it depends dramatically on the longitudinal modulus of the host material under stress controlled loading, which shows the SMA composite lamina has high pseudo-elastic hysteresis damping when the longitudinal modulus of the host material is low.

  9. KONTRIBUSI KONSELOR DALAM MEMBENTUK KARAKTER PESERTA DIDIK SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Slamet Kusmanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan model Pendidikan Holistik Berbasis Karakter, yang memfokuskan pada pembentukan seluruh aspek dimensi manusia, sehingga dapat menjadi manusia yang berkarakter. Kurikulum Holistik Berbasis Karakter ini disusun berdasarkan Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK dan diterapkan dengan menggunakan pendekatan Student Active Learning, Integrated Learning, Developmentally Appropriate Practices, Contextual Learning, Collaborative Learning, dan Multiple Intelligences yang semuanya dapat menciptakan suasana belajar yang efektif dan menyenangkan, serta dapat mengembangkan seluruh aspek dimensi manusia secara holistik. Maka diperlukan peran yang sangat besar dari guru pembimbing (konselor SMA dalam mengembangkan potensi peserta didiknya dalam mengembangkan potensinya dan membentuk karakter individu itu sendiri dan memberikan warna positif dalam suasana pembelajaran.

  10. NASA Keynote at the 2015 Trilateral SMA Conference, Frascati, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate some new directions within NASA's safety and mission function in response to changes in missions, technology, and practices. The presentation lists last year's highlights from NASA's human and robotic spaceflight missions, and discusses anticipated highlights for the coming year taken from existing Agency presentations. It will highlight changes to NASA's mission and the way NASA does business, as described in the 2014 strategic plan. It will then discuss how these changes pose challenges to trusted SMA practices, and provide some examples of initiatives NASA is taking action to address these challenges.

  11. MODEL PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN SEJARAH BERORIENTASI METAKOGNITIF JENJANG SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Budi Utomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of metacognitive based history learning in the high school level as requested in the “curriculum 2013” is the main background of this research. The research is focused to find the model of development of metacognitive based learning through research and development (R&D type research. The results showed an essential component in achieving successful management of metacognitive based history learning in high school education which the curriculum as a core competency analysis and basic competencies, lesson plan development, and the development of assessment tools. Development model of metacognitive based learning at high school education have main characteristic of the inclusion of explicit metacognitive learning goals and assignments and devices equipped with a rubric and assessment questionnaire. Metacognitive based history learning instructional tools that are developed in senior high school level has been carried out as optimally as possible by involving history teachers in the process of development and testing through focus group discussions and questionnaire.Keywords: Model, Instructional tool, Metacognitive, senior high school levelPentingnya orientasi metakognitif dalam perangkat pembelajaran sejarah jenjang SMA sebagaimana yang dikehendaki dalam implementasi kurikulum 2013 merupakan latar belakang utama penelitian ini. Penelitian difokuskan untuk menemukan model pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran berorientasi metakognitif melalui penelitian berjenis riset dan pengembangan (R&D. Metode penelitian R&D dilaksanakan melalui tiga tahap utama yaitu: tahap studi pendahuluan, tahap pengembangan, dan tahap uji publik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komponen esensial dalam mewujudkan keberhasilan penge-lolaan pembelajaran sejarah berorientasi metakognitif pada jenjang pendidikan SMA adalah kurikulum sebagai bahan analisis kompetensi inti dan kompetensi dasar, pengembangan RPP, dan pengembangan perangkat assesmen. Model

  12. Fatigue crack behavior on a Cu-Zn-Al SMA

    OpenAIRE

    V. Di Cocco; Iacoviello, F.; Natali, S.; V. Volpe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, mechanical property of many SMA has improved in order to introduce these alloys in specific field of industry. Main examples of these alloys are the NiTi, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni which are used in many fields of engineering such as aerospace or mechanical systems. Cu-Zn-Al alloys are characterized by good shape memory properties due to a bcc disordered structure stable at high temperature called β-phase, which is able to change by means of a reversible transition to...

  13. Microfabricated Cantilevers Based on Sputtered Thin-Film Ni50Ti50 Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Cory R Knick and Christopher J Morris Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Microfabricated Cantilevers Based on Sputtered Thin-Film Ni50Ti50 Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Cory R Knick and Christopher J Morris Sensors...2014 – 05/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microfabricated Cantilevers Based on Sputtered Thin-Film Ni50Ti50 Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  14. α-SMA overexpression associated with increased liver fibrosis in infants with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui; Luo, Yi; Zheng, Shan

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for increased collagen production and hepatic fibrosis in biliary atresia (BA) remain largely unknown. We evaluated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in liver and the porta hepatis in infants with BA. Immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA and CD68 in the BA liver and porta hepatis was performed. A semiquantitative 3-grade staging system was employed to estimate liver fibrosis. The densities of CD68 in BA liver and the levels of direct bilirubin were assessed in relation to α-SMA expression. α-SMA was found to be overexpressed in epithelial cells and in periductular collagen fibers. The expression in infants with BA was higher than that in the control group (P SMA in BA was positively correlated with liver fibrosis scores (r = 0.549, P = 0.022). The levels of α-SMA in the liver of BA were negatively related with improvements in direct bilirubin levels, 3 months postoperatively (r = -0.653, P = 0.029). The correlation between the α-SMA and CD-68 expression was not significantly different (r = 0.444, P = 0.057). The expression of α-SMA in BA liver is higher than that in contro1 group. α-SMA expression is negatively correlated with the reduction of direct bilirubin, 3 months postoperatively, probably due to fibrosis or cirrhosis affecting the entire biliary system.

  15. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome: an unusual cause of intestinal obstruction in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Chun-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Ying; Au, Ho-Yan; Chan, Man-Lui; Lai, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction and seldom been mentioned in palliative care. Hereby, we reported a case of SMA syndrome who presented with symptoms of upper intestinal obstruction in a 68-year-old patient; subsequent CT findings were classical of SMA syndrome. The patient's history of poliomyelitis and recent significant weight loss were the predisposing factors for SMA syndrome. It also highlights the importance of monitoring signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction in such patients before considering switching to oral feeding.

  16. Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K. Rutta U.S...the originator. UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-15-C-0030 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ER-GLSV11389-001.docx Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal SBIR Phase I: Topic A13-061...Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal Christian Muehfeld Steve Pennala Great Lakes Sound & Vibration, Inc. 47140 North Main Street Houghton, MI 49931 ER...061. The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility of developing an efficient, leak proof plenum seal for the M1 Abrams . It also shows the

  18. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  19. Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  1. A Novel SMA-based Concept for Airfoil Structural Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, S.; Pecora, R.; Lecce, L.; Concilio, A.; Ameduri, S.; Calvi, E.

    2009-08-01

    The adaptive structures concept is of great interest in the aerospace field because of the several benefits which can be accomplished in the fields including noise reduction, load alleviation, weight reduction, etc., at a level in which they can be considered as compulsory in the design of future aircraft. Improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, aeroelastic behavior, stability, and manoeuvrability performance have already been proved through many international studies in the past. In the family of the Smart Materials, Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) seem to be a suitable solution for many static applications. Their high structural integrability in conjunction with actuation capabilities and a favorable performance per weight ratio, allows the development of original architectures. In this study, a morphing wing trailing edge concept is presented; morphing ability was introduced with the aim of replacing a conventional flap device. A compliant rib structure was designed, based on SMA actuators exhibiting structural potential (bearing external aerodynamic loads). Numerical results, achieved through a FE approach, are presented in terms of trailing edge induced displacement and morphed shape.

  2. KESANTUNAN TUTURAN DIREKTIF DALAM INTERAKSI PEMBELAJARAN DI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyah Putri Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Politeness speech in learning interactions in the classroom tend to be effected through a directive speech. Assessment of form directive speech made by using a guide to the theory and analysis based on speech act theory directive Bach and Harnish. This study aims to determine the form of politeness directive in an interaction study in SMA 1 Batu. Forms directive speech in learning interactions are marked with (1 directive requests, (2 directive question, (3 directive command, (4 The prohibition directive, (5 directive licensing, and (6 the directive advice. The results of the analysis of the forms of speech directive shows that teachers do politeness predominantly through commands, prohibitions, permissions, and advice, while the shape of the directive utterances made by teachers and students to consider cultural aspects. Kesantunan tuturan dalam interaksi pembelajaran di dalam kelas cenderung dilakukan melalui bentuk tuturan direktif. Pengkajian terhadap bentuk tuturan direktif dilakukan dengan mengggunakan teori dan panduan analisis berdasarkan teori tindak tutur direktif Bach dan Harnish. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bentuk kesantunan direktif dalam interaksi pembelajaran di SMA 1 Batu. Bentuk tuturan direktif dalam interaksi pembelajaran ditandai dengan (1 direktif permintaan, (2 direktif pertanyaan, (3 direktif perintah, (4 direktif larangan, (5 direktif pemberian izin, dan (6 direktif nasihat. Hasil analisis mengenai bentuk tuturan direktif menunjukkan bahwa guru melakukan kesantunan secara dominan melalui perintah, larangan, izin, dan nasihat, sedangkan bentuk tuturan direktif dilakukan oleh guru dan siswa dengan mempertimbangkan aspek budaya.

  3. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.

    2010-01-01

    publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core...

  4. FoxM1 Regulates Mammary Luminal Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janai R. Carr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer correlates with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype and a negative clinical outcome. However, a role for FoxM1 in regulating mammary differentiation was not known. Here, we identify another function of FoxM1, the ability to act as a transcriptional repressor, which plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of luminal epithelial progenitors. Regeneration of mammary glands with elevated levels of FoxM1 leads to aberrant ductal morphology and expansion of the luminal progenitor pool. Conversely, knockdown of FoxM1 results in a shift toward the differentiated state. FoxM1 mediates these effects by repressing the key regulator of luminal differentiation, GATA-3. Through association with DNMT3b, FoxM1 promotes methylation of the GATA-3 promoter in an Rb-dependent manner. This study identifies FoxM1 as a critical regulator of mammary differentiation with significant implications for the development of aggressive breast cancers.

  5. Experimental verification of the shape memory alloy (SMA spring actuator for application on in-pipe machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kelemen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Shape memory alloy (SMA spring analysis and its possibility for usage as actuator for in-pipe machine. In the paper the inner structure of SMA is introduced. Further, the experimental analysis of SMA contractor and expander was done. From the experiments was found that SMA spring has several disadvantages like long time of cooling and high electric power consumption. Using SMA spring as actuator for in-pipe machine has been obtained average velocity of in-pipe machine roughly 2 mm/min. Advantage of SMA spring as actuator is its good expansibility.

  6. SMA chemical modification for application as diesel oil additive; Modificacao quimica do SMA visando aplicacao como aditivo para oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Zawadzki, Sonia F.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos]. E-mails: rafaelsoldi@hotmail.com, mafco@quimica.ufpr.br

    2003-07-01

    The deposition of paraffinic material during the crude oil and their derivatives production and transportation is one of the principal problems in the petroleum industry. Polymer derivatives obtained from styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (SMA), containing long pendant hydrocarbon segments in the polymeric backbone, are known as efficient polymeric additives to prevent the wax deposition and to reduce the oil pour point. Nevertheless, this application for this class of polymer is not much evaluated in Brazil. In this work, a new procedure was developed for SMA synthesis and chemical modification using stearyl alcohol. The performance of these polymeric materials as pour point depressants were evaluated using a Brazilian diesel oil from REPAR/PETROBRAS. The best results were obtained for the polymeric additives with small amounts of octadecyl ester groups. When it was used only 25 ppm of one of these additives, the oil presented a pour point value of -17 deg C and the diesel oil containing 100 ppm of this same additive presented a pour point value of -30 deg C. This last result indicates a 24 deg C pour point decreasing. (author)

  7. Modeling and Dynamical Behavior of Rotating Composite Shafts with SMA Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamical model is developed for the rotating composite shaft with shape-memory alloy (SMA wires embedded in. The rotating shaft is represented as a thin-walled composite of circular cross-section with SMA wires embedded parallel to shaft’s longitudinal axis. A thermomechanical constitutive equation of SMA proposed by Brinson is employed and the recovery stress of the constrained SMA wires is derived. The equations of motion are derived based on the variational-asymptotical method (VAM and Hamilton’s principle. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to the ordinary differential equations of motion by using the Galerkin method. The model incorporates the transverse shear, rotary inertia, and anisotropy of composite material. Numerical results of natural frequencies and critical speeds are obtained. It is shown that the natural frequencies of the nonrotating shaft and the critical rotating speed increase as SMA wire fraction and initial strain increase and the increase in natural frequencies becomes more significant as SMA wire fraction increases. The initial strain of SMA wires appears to have marginal effect on dynamical behaviors of the shaft. The actuation performance of SMA wires is found to be closely related to the ply-angle.

  8. Mandibular dysfunction as a reflection of bulbar involvement in SMA type 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H Willemijn; Wadman, Renske I; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Leeuw, Maureen; Creugers, Nico; Kalaykova, Stanimira I; van der Pol, W Ludo; Steenks, Michel H

    2016-02-09

    In a cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine (1) the effect of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and 3 on mandibular function reflected as masticatory performance, mandibular range of motion, and bite force and (2) the predictors of mandibular dysfunction. Sixty patients with SMA type 2 and 3 (mean age 32.3 years, SD 17.4 years) and 60 age-matched controls filled out questionnaires about impairments of mandibular function. All participants underwent detailed clinical examination to document the mandibular range of motion including maximal mouth opening, bite force, and masticatory function. All mandibular movements, including mouth opening, lateral range of motion, and protrusion of the mandible, were reduced in patients with SMA type 2 and 3 compared to healthy controls (p SMA type 2 than type 3. The strongest predictive factor was SMA type for impairment of mandibular range of motion (R(2) = 0.82) and weakness of neck muscles for bite force (R(2) = 0.47). Reduced mandibular mobility and bite force are common complications in SMA. SMA type and neck muscle strength are important correlates of these complications. We provide further evidence for clinically relevant bulbar involvement in patients with SMA. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Development of damage suppression system using embedded SMA foil in CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogisu, Toshimichi; Nomura, Masato; Ando, Norio; Takaki, Junji; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Okabe, Tomonaga; Takeda, Nobuo

    2001-07-01

    Some recent studies have suggested possible applications of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) for a smart health monitoring and suppression of damage growth. The authors have been conducting research and development studies on applications of embedded SMA foil actuators in CFRP laminates as the basic research for next generation aircrafts. First the effective surface treatment for improvement of bonding properties between SMA and CFRP was studied. It was certified that the anodic oxide treatment by 10% NaOH solution was the most effective treatment from the results of peel resistance test and shear strength test. Then, CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils were successfully fabricated using this effective surface treatment. The damage behavior of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils was characterized in both quasi-static load-unload and fatigue tests. The relationship between crack density and applied strain was obtained. The recovery stress generated by embedded SMA foils could increase the onset strain of transverse cracking by 0.2%. The onset strain of delmination in CFRP laminates was also increased accordingly. The shear-lag analysis was also conducted to predict the damage evolution in CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils. The adhesive layers on both sides of SMA foils were treated as shear elements. The theoretical analysis successfully predicted the experimental results.

  10. On (2m + 1)-variable symmetric Boolean functions with submaximum algebraic immunity 2m-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    All (2m +1)-variable symmetric Boolean functions with submaximal algebraic immunity 2m-1 are described and constructed. The total number of such Boolean functions is 32 ·22m-3 +3m-2 · 24 - 2 for m≥2.

  11. Artificial heart for humanoid robot using coiled SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Tadesse, Yonas

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have presented the design and characterization of artificial heart using cylindrical shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for humanoids [1]. The robotic heart was primarily designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate blushing or anger by the use of elastomeric substrates for the transport of fluids. It can also be used for other applications. In this paper, we present an improved design by using high strain coiled SMAs and a novel pumping mechanism that uses sequential actuation to create peristalsis-like motions, and hence pump the fluid. Various placements of actuators will be investigated with respect to the silicone elastomeric body. This new approach provides a better performance in terms of the fluid volume pumped.

  12. New Pin Puller Based on SMA Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro

    2014-07-01

    Two different versions of the Pin Puller were designed during this activity, such as one with 100 N and other with 500 N of pull force. The design of both versions is based on spheres which support the pin at the initial position and a compression spring driving once the release takes place by means of the SMA. The mechanical design of the Pin Pullers has been conceived in order to optimize the device's weight, reduce the parts complexity, and achieve a suitable stiffness. A qualification test campaign for the Pin Puller with 500 N of pull force has been developed in order to check the success of the proposed mechanism for space applications. The main performed tests have been thermal-vacuum actuation, thermal-vacuum cycling, sine vibration, and random vibration. The Pin Puller has presented successful results of actuation during the test campaign

  13. Experimental Validation of a Thermoelastic Model for SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from experimental validation of a recently developed model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures, composite structures with an embedded SMA constituent. The model captures the material nonlinearity of the material system with temperature and is capable of modeling constrained, restrained, or free recovery behavior from experimental measurement of fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model and analysis procedures is given, followed by an overview of a parallel effort to fabricate and characterize the material system of SMAHC specimens. Static and dynamic experimental configurations for the SMAHC specimens are described and experimental results for thermal post-buckling and random response are presented. Excellent agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted results, fully validating the theoretical model for constrained recovery behavior of SMAHC structures.

  14. Nonlinear Thermoelastic Model for SMAs and SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2004-01-01

    A constitutive mathematical model has been developed that predicts the nonlinear thermomechanical behaviors of shape-memory-alloys (SMAs) and of shape-memory-alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures, which are composite-material structures that contain embedded SMA actuators. SMAHC structures have been investigated for their potential utility in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for static or dynamic control of the shapes of structures, control of the thermoelastic responses of structures, or control of noise and vibrations. The present model overcomes deficiencies of prior, overly simplistic or qualitative models that have proven ineffective or intractable for engineering of SMAHC structures. The model is sophisticated enough to capture the essential features of the mechanics of SMAHC structures yet simple enough to accommodate input from fundamental engineering measurements and is in a form that is amenable to implementation in general-purpose structural analysis environments.

  15. Energy Dissipation Analysis of Bended SMA Bar in Isothermal State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Gang; LI Li; TAN Jia-xiang

    2004-01-01

    The theory calculation formula is deduced about stress distribution in cross section and changes in Martensite percentages with the section height of random section shape bar under the action of the bending moment according to the Brinson's Constitutive Relation.The bar's energy dissipation capability under circulation of bending moment was analyzed and the calculation theory was set up. By using MATLAB program and the numerical calculation for uniform rectangle cross section bar, the relationships among the maximal stress and strain on cross section edge with bend load, the stress and Martensite percent's with cross section height, the energy dissipation capability with cross section height, and the energy dissipation capability with maximal strain on cross section edge are gained, also those curves are discused. It is put forward that the SMA material can be used for passive structure vibration control to dissipate energy of bend load.

  16. SMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Serpens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Charles; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Qi, Chunhua

    2017-06-01

    The lifetime of disks surrounding pre-main-sequence stars is closely linked to planet formation and provides information on disk dispersal mechanisms and dissipation timescales. The potential for these optically thick, gas-rich disks to form planets is critically dependent on how much dust is available to be converted into terrestrial planets and rocky cores of giant planets. For this reason, an understanding of how dust mass varies with key properties such as stellar mass, age, and environment is critical for understanding planet formation. Millimeter wavelength observations, in which the dust emission is optically thin, are required to study the colder dust residing in the disk’s outer regions and to measure disk dust masses. Hence, we have obtained SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations of 62 Class II sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Serpens star-forming region (SFR). Relative to the well-studied Taurus SFR, Serpens allows us to probe the distribution of dust masses for disks in a much denser and more clustered environment. Only 13 disks were detected in the continuum with the SMA. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Upper Scorpius. We do not find evidence of diminished dust masses in Serpens disks relative to those in Taurus despite the fact that disks in denser clusters may be expected to contain less dust mass due to stronger and more frequent tidal interactions that can disrupt the outer regions of disks. However, considering the low detection fraction, we likely detected only bright continuum sources and a more sensitive survey of Serpens would help clarify these results.

  17. KONSUMSI SUPLEMEN ATLET REMAJA DI SMA RAGUNAN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Q Aliyyan Wijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to investigate consumption of supplement among Ragunan High School Jakarta athletes. The cross sectional study was done with total subjects were 79 students of Ragunan high school who were willing to join the study and they were at school when the study was conducted. There was 92.4% athletes consumed supplement in last one year. All athletes from light and heavy sport category were found consumed supplement. The most popular supplement were vitamin, mineral, and phytonutrition in tablet form. There was 89.0% athletes consumed supplement everyday. Moreover, the main reason for supplementation was to meet a nutrition requirement. The source of information about food supplement was mostly from coach advisor. More than half of athletes got supplement for free from any sources. There was a significant correlation between category of sport and number of supplement used (p<0.05.Keywords: adolescent, athlete, high school, supplementABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah menggambarkan konsumsi suplemen pada atlet remaja di SMA Ragunan Jakarta. Desain penelitian ini menggunakan cross sectional dengan total subjek sebanyak 79 siswa SMA Ragunan yang bersedia mengikuti penelitian dan berada di sekolah saat penelitian dilakukan. Sebanyak 92,4% atlet mengaku mengonsumsi suplemen dalam satu tahun terakhir. Atlet dari kategori olahraga ringan dan berat sekali semuanya mengonsumsi suplemen. Suplemen vitamin, mineral, dan fitonutrisi dalam bentuk tablet merupakan jenis dan bentuk suplemen yang paling banyak dikonsumsi. Sebanyak 89,0% dari atlet mengonsumsi suplemen setiap hari. Alasan utama atlet mengonsumsi suplemen adalah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan gizi. Pelatih merupakan sumber infomasi tentang suplemen yang paling banyak dipilih oleh atlet. Lebih dari 50,0% atlet mendapatkan suplemen dengan cara diberi. Kategori olahraga dan jumlah suplemen yang dikonsumsi menunjukkan hubungan positif signifikan (p<0,05.Kata kunci: atlet, remaja

  18. Study on loss mechanism of SMA tracheal stent subjected to cough excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Li, Xinmiao; Xu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    A kind of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) hysteretic nonlinear model is developed, and the loss mechanism of a SMA tracheal stent subjected to cough excitation is studied in this paper. Nonlinear differential items are introduced to express the hysteretic phenomena of Ti-Ni SMA, and the fitting effect of the SMA constitutive model on the experimental data is proved by the partial least-square regression method. The nonlinear dynamic model of a Ti-Ni SMA tracheal stent subjected to cough excitation is developed, and the system's dynamic response is obtained. The numerical results show that the system's vibration is little in weak excitation, becomes large with the increase of the stochastic excitation, and finally becomes little again with the further increase of the stochastic excitation; the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs in the process, which may cause stent fracture or loss.

  19. An Investigation on the Use of a Laser Ablation Treatment on Metallic Surfaces and the Influence of Temperature on Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Co-Cured Metal-PMC Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Palmieri, Frank; Truong, Hieu; Ochoa, Ozden; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid composite laminates that contain alternating layers of titanium alloys and carbon fabric reinforced polyimide matrix composites (PMC) are excellent candidates for light-weight, high-temperature structural materials for high-speed aerospace vehicles. The delamination resistance of the hybrid titanium-PMC interface is of crucial consideration for structural integrity during service. Here, we report the first investigations on the use of laser ablation in combination with sol-gel treatment technique on Ti/NiTi foil surfaces in co-cured hybrid polyimide matrix composite laminates. Mode-I and mode-II fracture toughness of the hybrid Ti/NiTi-PMC interface as a function of temperature were determined via experimental testing and finite element analysis.

  20. SMA-SH: Modified Styrene-Maleic Acid Copolymer for Functionalization of Lipid Nanodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhoud, Simon; Carvalho, Vanessa; Pronk, Joachim W; Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

    2016-04-11

    Challenges in purification and subsequent functionalization of membrane proteins often complicate their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Purification of membrane proteins generally involves replacing the lipids surrounding the protein with detergent molecules, which can affect protein structure and function. Recently, it was shown that styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMA) can dissolve integral membrane proteins from biological membranes into nanosized discs. Within these nanoparticles, proteins are embedded in a patch of their native lipid bilayer that is stabilized in solution by the amphipathic polymer that wraps the disc like a bracelet. This approach for detergent-free purification of membrane proteins has the potential to greatly simplify purification but does not facilitate conjugation of functional compounds to the membrane proteins. Often, such functionalization involves laborious preparation of protein variants and optimization of labeling procedures to ensure only minimal perturbation of the protein. Here, we present a strategy that circumvents several of these complications through modifying SMA by grafting the polymer with cysteamine. The reaction results in SMA that has solvent-exposed sulfhydrils (SMA-SH) and allows tuning of the coverage with SH groups. Size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that SMA-SH dissolves lipid bilayer membranes into lipid nanodiscs, just like SMA. In addition, we demonstrate that, just like SMA, SMA-SH solubilizes proteoliposomes into protein-loaded nanodiscs. We covalently modify SMA-SH-lipid nanodiscs using thiol-reactive derivatives of Alexa Fluor 488 and biotin. Thus, SMA-SH promises to simultaneously tackle challenges in purification and functionalization of membrane proteins.

  1. Revised Hammersmith Scale for spinal muscular atrophy: A SMA specific clinical outcome assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoto, Mariacristina; Mayhew, Anna; Main, Marion; Mazzone, Elena S.; Montes, Jacqueline; de Sanctis, Roberto; Dunaway Young, Sally; Salazar, Rachel; Glanzman, Allan M.; Pasternak, Amy; Quigley, Janet; Mirek, Elizabeth; Duong, Tina; Gee, Richard; Civitello, Matthew; Tennekoon, Gihan; Pane, Marika; Pera, Maria Carmela; Bushby, Kate; Day, John; Darras, Basil T.; De Vivo, Darryl; Finkel, Richard; Mercuri, Eugenio; Muntoni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Recent translational research developments in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), outcome measure design and demands from regulatory authorities require that clinical outcome assessments are ‘fit for purpose’. An international collaboration (SMA REACH UK, Italian SMA Network and PNCRN USA) undertook an iterative process to address discontinuity in the recorded performance of the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded and developed a revised functional scale using Rasch analysis, traditional psychometric techniques and the application of clinical sensibility via expert panels. Specifically, we intended to develop a psychometrically and clinically robust functional clinician rated outcome measure to assess physical abilities in weak SMA type 2 through to strong ambulant SMA type 3 patients. The final scale, the Revised Hammersmith Scale (RHS) for SMA, consisting of 36 items and two timed tests, was piloted in 138 patients with type 2 and 3 SMA in an observational cross-sectional multi-centre study across the three national networks. Rasch analysis demonstrated very good fit of all 36 items to the construct of motor performance, good reliability with a high Person Separation Index PSI 0.98, logical and hierarchical scoring in 27/36 items and excellent targeting with minimal ceiling. The RHS differentiated between clinically different groups: SMA type, World Health Organisation (WHO) categories, ambulatory status, and SMA type combined with ambulatory status (all p < 0.001). Construct and concurrent validity was also confirmed with a strong significant positive correlation with the WHO motor milestones rs = 0.860, p < 0.001. We conclude that the RHS is a psychometrically sound and versatile clinical outcome assessment to test the broad range of physical abilities of patients with type 2 and 3 SMA. Further longitudinal testing of the scale with regards change in scores over 6 and 12 months are required prior to its adoption in clinical trials. PMID:28222119

  2. Diverse Effects on M1 Signaling and Adverse Effect Liability within a Series of M1 Ago-PAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Abe, Masahito; Cho, Hyekyung P; Nance, Kellie D; Luscombe, Vincent B; Adams, Jeffrey J; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Engers, Darren W; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-10

    Both historical clinical and recent preclinical data suggest that the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is an exciting target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive and negative symptom clusters in schizophrenia; however, early drug discovery efforts targeting the orthosteric binding site have failed to afford selective M1 activation. Efforts then shifted to focus on selective activation of M1 via either allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While M1 PAMs have robust efficacy in rodent models, some chemotypes can induce cholinergic adverse effects (AEs) that could limit their clinical utility. Here, we report studies aimed at understanding the subtle structural and pharmacological nuances that differentiate efficacy from adverse effect liability within an indole-based series of M1 ago-PAMs. Our data demonstrate that closely related M1 PAMs can display striking differences in their in vivo activities, especially their propensities to induce adverse effects. We report the discovery of a novel PAM in this series that is devoid of observable adverse effect liability. Interestingly, the molecular pharmacology profile of this novel PAM is similar to that of a representative M1 PAM that induces severe AEs. For instance, both compounds are potent ago-PAMs that demonstrate significant interaction with the orthosteric site (either bitopic or negative cooperativity). However, there are subtle differences in efficacies of the compounds at potentiating M1 responses, agonist potencies, and abilities to induce receptor internalization. While these differences may contribute to the differential in vivo profiles of these compounds, the in vitro differences are relatively subtle and highlight the complexities of allosteric modulators and the need to focus on in vivo phenotypic screening to identify safe and effective M1 PAMs.

  3. Broad analgesic activity of a novel, selective M1 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael W; Martino, Giovanni; Coupal, Martin; Lindberg, Mattias; Schroeder, Patricia; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Valiquette, Manon; Sandin, Johan; Widzowski, Daniel; Laird, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Although the muscarinic receptor family has long been a source of potentially compelling targets for small molecule drug discovery, it was difficult to achieve agonist selectivity within the family. A new class of M1 muscarinic agonists has emerged, and these compounds have been characterized as agonists that activate the receptor at an allosteric site. Members of this class of M1 agonists have been shown to be selective across the muscarinic receptors. However, upon introduction of a novel pharmacologic mechanism, it is prudent to ensure that no new off-target activities have arisen, particularly within the context of in vivo experiments. Reported here, is the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel M1 agonist tool compound, PPBI, and demonstrations that the primary biological effects of PPBI are mediated through M1. PPBI reverses d-amphetamine locomotor activity, but fails to do so in transgenic mice that do not express M1. PPBI also reverses a natural deficit in a rat cognition model at a level of exposure which also activates cortical circuitry. Most notably, PPBI is analgesic in a variety of rat and mouse models and the analgesic effect of PPBI is reversed by an M1-preferring antagonist and an M1-selective toxin. Finally, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures of PPBI are compared across multiple endpoints which highlights that activity in models of psychosis and pain require higher exposures than that required in the cognition model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Selectivity of oxomemazine for the M1 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Woo, C W; Kim, J G

    1994-12-01

    The binding characteristics of pirenzepine and oxomemazine to muscarinic receptor were studied to evaluate the selectivity of oxomemazine for the muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat cerebral microsomes. Equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate([3H]QNB) determined from saturation isotherms was 64 pM. Analysis of the pirenzepine inhibition curve of [3H]QNB binding to cerebral microsome indicated the presence of two receptor subtypes with high (Ki = 16 nM, M1 receptor) and low (Ki = 400 nM, M3 receptor) affinity for pirenzepine. Oxomemazine also identified two receptor subtypes with about 20-fold difference in the affinity for high (Ki = 84 nM, OH receptor) and low (Ki = 1.65 microM, OL receptor) affinity sites. The percentage populations of M1 and M3 receptors to the total receptors were 61:39, and those of OH and OL receptors 39:61, respectively. Both pirenzepine and oxomemazine increased the KD value for [3H]QNB without affecting the binding site concentrations and Hill coefficient for the [3H]QNB binding. Oxomemazine had a 10-fold higher affinity at M1 receptors than at M3 receptors, and pirenzepine a 8-fold higher affinity at OH receptors than at OL receptors. Analysis of the shallow competition binding curves of oxomemazine for M1 receptors and pirenzepine for OL receptors yielded that 69% of M1 receptors were of OH receptors and the remaining 31% of OL receptors, and that 29% of OL receptors were of M1 receptors and 71% of M3 receptors. However, M3 for oxomemazine and OH for pirenzepine were composed of a uniform population. These results suggest that oxomemazine could be classified as a selective drug for M1 receptors and also demonstrate that rat cerebral microsomes contain three different subtypes of M1, M3 and the other site which is different from M1, M2 and M3 receptors.

  5. Cervical Spinal Cord Atrophy Profile in Adult SMN1-Linked SMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the topography of motor deficits in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA remain unknown. We investigated the profile of spinal cord atrophy (SCA in SMN1-linked SMA, and its correlation with the topography of muscle weakness.Eighteen SMN1-linked SMA patients type III/V and 18 age/gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Patients were scored on manual muscle testing and functional scales. Spinal cord was imaged using 3T MRI system. Radial distance (RD and cord cross-sectional area (CSA measurements in SMA patients were compared to those in controls and correlated with strength and disability scores.CSA measurements revealed a significant cord atrophy gradient mainly located between C3 and C6 vertebral levels with a SCA rate ranging from 5.4% to 23% in SMA patients compared to controls. RD was significantly lower in SMA patients compared to controls in the anterior-posterior direction with a maximum along C4 and C5 vertebral levels (p-values < 10-5. There were no correlations between atrophy measurements, strength and disability scores.Spinal cord atrophy in adult SMN1-linked SMA predominates in the segments innervating the proximal muscles. Additional factors such as neuromuscular junction or intrinsic skeletal muscle defects may play a role in more complex mechanisms underlying weakness in these patients.

  6. SMA carrier testing: a meta-analysis of differences in test performance by ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William Kim; Hamilton, David; Kuhle, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs in about one in every 10 000 births. Prenatal carrier testing is available for SMA, and the utility of universal screening is actively debated. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of SMA genotype frequency, carrier frequency, and carrier test performance in different ethnic groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature for studies on SMA carrier screening test performance. Ethnicity-specific allele frequencies, carrier rates, and screening test performance were determined from data of 169 000 individuals in 14 published studies. Pooled estimates were calculated for each ethnic group using a random effects meta-analysis. The detection rate of SMA screening in the non-Black population was 87-95%; however, detection rates fell to 71% among the Black population. These results highlight that although SMA carrier testing generally performs well and could be considered as a routine prenatal screen, SMA testing should be used cautiously in the Black population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Bulbar muscle MRI changes in patients with SMA with reduced mouth opening and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Renske I; van Bruggen, H Willemijn; Witkamp, Theo D; Sparreboom-Kalaykova, Stanimira I; Stam, Marloes; van den Berg, Leonard H; Steenks, Michel H; van der Pol, W Ludo

    2014-09-16

    We performed a study in patients with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to determine the prevalence of reduced maximal mouth opening (MMO) and its association with dysphagia as a reflection of bulbar dysfunction and visualized the underlying mechanisms using MRI. We performed a cross-sectional study of MMO in 145 patients with SMA types 1-4 and 119 healthy controls and used MRI in 12 patients to visualize mandibular condylar shape and sliding and the anatomy of muscle groups relevant for mouth opening and closing. We analyzed associations of reduced MMO with SMA severity and complaints of dysphagia. Reduced MMO was defined as an interincisal distance ≤ 35 mm and was found in none of the healthy controls and in 100%, 79%, 50%, and 7% of patients with SMA types 1, 2, 3a, and 3b/4, respectively. MRI showed severe fatty degeneration of the lateral pterygoid muscles that mediate mouth opening by allowing mandibular condylar sliding but relatively mild involvement of the mouth closing muscles in patients with reduced MMO. Reduced MMO was associated with SMA type, age, muscle weakness, and dysphagia (p SMA types 1-3a and is mainly caused by fatty degeneration of specific mouth opening muscles. Reduced MMO is a sign of bulbar dysfunction in SMA. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Review of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) for Prenatal and Pediatric Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Amanda; Empey, Candice

    2016-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular condition with degeneration of the anterior horn cells in the spinal column. Five SMA subtypes exist with classification dependent upon the motor milestones achieved. Study of the SMN1 (survival motor neuron) and SMN2 genes as well as the concepts of the "2 + 0" carriers, gene conversion, de novo mutations and intragenic mutations allow for a better understanding of SMA. Detailing the carrier and diagnostic testing options further deepens the genetic counselor's knowledge of SMA. A review of care guidelines and research options is included as this information gives a patient a well-rounded view of SMA. Although SMA is most commonly associated with the SMN1 gene, a number of spinal muscular atrophies not caused by genetic changes in this gene may be included as differential diagnoses until confirmatory testing can be completed. SMA is a complex condition requiring a detailed knowledge on the genetic counselor's part in order to explain the disorder to the patient with clarity thus facilitating increased communication and decision making guidance with the patient.

  9. Characterization of behavioral and neuromuscular junction phenotypes in a novel allelic series of SMA mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Melissa; Gomez, Daniel; Feng, Zhihua; McEwen, Corissa; Beltran, Jose; Cirillo, Kim; El-Khodor, Bassem; Lin, Ming-Yi; Li, Yun; Knowlton, Wendy M; McKemy, David D; Bogdanik, Laurent; Butts-Dehm, Katherine; Martens, Kimberly; Davis, Crystal; Doty, Rosalinda; Wardwell, Keegan; Ghavami, Afshin; Kobayashi, Dione; Ko, Chien-Ping; Ramboz, Sylvie; Lutz, Cathleen

    2012-10-15

    A number of mouse models for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been genetically engineered to recapitulate the severity of human SMA by using a targeted null mutation at the mouse Smn1 locus coupled with the transgenic addition of varying copy numbers of human SMN2 genes. Although this approach has been useful in modeling severe SMA and very mild SMA, a mouse model of the intermediate form of the disease would provide an additional research tool amenable for drug discovery. In addition, many of the previously engineered SMA strains are multi-allelic by design, containing a combination of transgenes and targeted mutations in the homozygous state, making further genetic manipulation difficult. A new genetic engineering approach was developed whereby variable numbers of SMN2 sequences were incorporated directly into the murine Smn1 locus. Using combinations of these alleles, we generated an allelic series of SMA mouse strains harboring no, one, two, three, four, five, six or eight copies of SMN2. We report here the characterization of SMA mutants in this series that displayed a range in disease severity from embryonic lethal to viable with mild neuromuscular deficits.

  10. Cervical Spinal Cord Atrophy Profile in Adult SMN1-Linked SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Lenglet, Timothée; Stojkovic, Tanya; Behin, Anthony; Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Le Forestier, Nadine; Laforêt, Pascal; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Benali, Habib; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the topography of motor deficits in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) remain unknown. We investigated the profile of spinal cord atrophy (SCA) in SMN1-linked SMA, and its correlation with the topography of muscle weakness. Eighteen SMN1-linked SMA patients type III/V and 18 age/gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Patients were scored on manual muscle testing and functional scales. Spinal cord was imaged using 3T MRI system. Radial distance (RD) and cord cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in SMA patients were compared to those in controls and correlated with strength and disability scores. CSA measurements revealed a significant cord atrophy gradient mainly located between C3 and C6 vertebral levels with a SCA rate ranging from 5.4% to 23% in SMA patients compared to controls. RD was significantly lower in SMA patients compared to controls in the anterior-posterior direction with a maximum along C4 and C5 vertebral levels (p-values SMA predominates in the segments innervating the proximal muscles. Additional factors such as neuromuscular junction or intrinsic skeletal muscle defects may play a role in more complex mechanisms underlying weakness in these patients.

  11. A multi-source approach to determine SMA incidence and research ready population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, Ingrid E C; Robertson, Agata; Leary, Rebecca; McMacken, Grace; König, Kirsten; Kirschner, Janbernd; Jones, Cynthia C; Cook, Suzanne F; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2017-07-01

    In spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), degeneration of motor neurons causes progressive muscular weakness, which is caused by homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. Available epidemiological data on SMA are scarce, often outdated, and limited to relatively small regions or populations. Combining data from different sources including genetic laboratories and patient registries may provide better insight of the disease epidemiology. To investigate the incidence of genetically confirmed SMA, and the number of patients who are able and approachable to participate in new clinical trials and observational research, we used both genetic laboratories, the TREAT-NMD Global SMA Patient Registry and the Care and Trial Sites Registry (CTSR). In Europe, 4653 patients were genetically diagnosed by the genetic laboratories in the 5-year period 2011 to 2015, with 992 diagnosed in 2015 alone. The data provide an estimated incidence of SMA in Europe of 1 in 3900-16,000 live births. Patient numbers in the national patient registries and CTSR were considerably lower. By far, most patients registered in the national patient registries and the CTSR live in Europe and are reported to have SMA type II. Considerable differences between countries in patient participation in the registries were observed. Our findings indicate that not all patients with SMA are accessed by specialist healthcare services and these patients may not have access to research opportunities and optimal care.

  12. Analysis and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of SMA Actuators for Prosthetic Hand Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Kevin T.; McGrath, Mark M.; Coyle, Eugene

    2009-08-01

    It is widely acknowledged within the biomedical engineering community that shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit great potential for application in the actuation of upper limb prosthesis designs. These lightweight actuators are particularly suitable for prosthetic hand solutions. A four-fingered, 12 degree-of-freedom prosthetic hand has been developed featuring SMA bundle actuators embedded within the palmar structure. Joule heating of the SMA bundle actuators generates sufficient torque at the fingers to allow a wide range of everyday tasks to be carried out. Transient characterization of SMA bundles has shown that performance/response during heating and cooling differs substantially. Natural convection is insufficient to provide for adequate cooling during elongation of the actuators. An experimental test-bed has been developed to facilitate analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the appropriately sized SMA bundle actuators for use within the prosthetic hand design. Various modes of heat sinking are evaluated so that the most effective wire-cooling solution can be ascertained. SMA bundles of varying size will be used so that a generalized model of the SMA displacement performance under natural and forced cooling conditions can be obtained. The optimum cooling solution will be implemented onto the mechanical hand framework in future work. These results, coupled with phenomenological models of SMA behavior, will be used in the development of an effective control strategy for this application in future work.

  13. M1.3--a small scaffold for DNA origami .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hassan; Schüller, Verena J; Eber, Fabian J; Wege, Christina; Liedl, Tim; Richert, Clemens

    2013-01-07

    The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed "M1.3" as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3 origami with globally modified staples is affordable. As a proof of principle, two origami structures with globally 5'-capped staples were prepared and were shown to give higher UV-melting points than the corresponding assembly with unmodified DNA. M1.3 has the size of a gene, not a genome, and may function as a model for gene-based nanostructures. Small origami with M1.3 as a scaffold may serve as a workbench for chemical, physical, and biological experiments.

  14. Surface properties of new virginiamycin M(1) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Katherine; Paquot, Michel; Dufour, Samuel; Eeman, Marc; Deleu, Magali

    2009-03-01

    Three kinds of derivatives of the M(1) factor of virginiamycin have been synthesised: esters with long chain fatty acids, oximes with modified polar amino acids and bis-derivatives with both the ester and oxime function. The study of the surface tension time dependence of M(1) and its derivatives has shown that it is necessary to enhance simultaneously the hydrophobicity and the hydrophilicity of M(1) to render M(1) surface-active. A structure/function relationship study of the surface-active bis-derivatives has shown that enhancing the hydrophobicity of the molecule led to slower adsorption kinetics, higher stability of the monolayers formed and a better capacity to penetrate a membrane model. The repulsive electrostatic forces due to the presence of charges on the amino acids linked to M(1) lead to higher surface tensions, a greater molecular area at the interface and lower penetration into a membrane model. This study has demonstrated that modifying systematically the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of a non surface-active molecule allows the production of surface-active derivatives.

  15. Genomic characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Friis

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308 is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core genome comprised 1,295 gene families, or about two-thirds of the gene content of the average of the sequenced C. jejuni genomes. Various comparison and visualization tools were applied to the 13 C. jejuni genome sequences, including a species pan- and core genome plot, a BLAST Matrix and a BLAST Atlas. Trees based on 16S rRNA sequences and on the total gene families in each genome are presented. The findings are discussed in the background of the proven virulence potential of M1.

  16. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN BERKARYA MUSIK KONTEMPORER NUSANTARA KELAS XI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarot Agung Pambudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untk memperoleh produk perangkat pembelajaran berkarya musik kontemporer Nusantara yang valid dan efektif. Jenis penelitian ini adalah pengembangan. Model pengembangan yang digunakan adalah 4-D dengan empat tahap yaitu tahap pendefinisian (define, tahap perancangan (design, tahap pengembangan (develop, dan tahap penyebaran (disseminate yang dalam penelitian ini tidak dilakukan karena keterbatasan waktu penelitian. Metode yang digunakan untuk menilai perangkat adalah validasi dan uji coba. Uji coba dilakukan terbatas dengan eksperimen. Populasi pada peneltian ini adalah siswa kelas XI SMA N 1 Bumiayu. Dengan teknik clusster random sampling ditetapkan dua kelas sebagai sampel yaitu kelas XI IPA 3 sebagai kelas eksperimen, dan kelas XI IPA 1 sebagai kelas kontrol. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui lembar validasi, lembar pengamatan, angket, dan tes prestasi belajar. Secara keseluruhan perangkat yang dibuat adalah valid. Implementasi perangkat yang valid dalam pembelajaran dapat tercapai. Ini ditunjukkan oleh: (1 tercapainya ketuntasan prestasi belajar siswa secara individual lebih dari atau sama dengan 75 dan klasikal lebih dari atau sama dengan 75%; (2 rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas uji coba perangkat lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol.Saran yang diharapkan pada pembelajaran adalah peran serta guru dalam proses siswa mencari sumber bunyi untuk dijadikan alat musik perlu ditingkatkan.This research aims to obtain validity and effectiveness of the product of teaching preparation program of the Nusantara contemporary music. This research is a development. The development model used 4 – D.. The method used to assess this learning devices are validity and try out. The try out is done limitedly by using experiments. The population of the research are the eleven grade students of SMA N 1 Bumiayu. By using cluster random sampling technique two classrooms, XI IPA 1 and XI IPA 3 are chosen. The student of class XI

  18. EVALUASI DAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN SMA INDONESISCH NERDERLANDSCHE SCHOOL (INS KAYUTANAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengevaluasi SMA INS Kayutanam dan (2 menyusuan strategi pengembangan SMA INS Kayutanam berdasarkan hasil evaluasi tersebut. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Sumber data dalam penelitian ini adalah 50 siswa kelas X dan XI, satu kepala sekolah, empat wakil kepala sekolah, 30 guru, dua pembina asrama dan dua orang dari pemerintahan. Hasil penelitian dibagi dalam dua kelompok yaitu hasil evaluasi dan strategi pengembangan. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi ditemukan bahwa ada beberapa komponen yang perlu perbaikan yaitu kurikulum, kompetensi pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, fasilitas, peran serta masyarakat, dana dan organisasi. Strategi pengembangan terdiri dari: (1 perumusan kurikulum terintegrasi yang memuat tujuan dan sasaran pendidikan yang diprakarsai oleh Sjafei; (2 perumusan metode mengajar yang sesuai dengan tujuan dan sasaran pendidikan yang diprakasai Sjafei; (3 pengelolaan aset produktif dengan pemanfaatan modal sosial; (4 pemanfaatan basis alumni; (5 membangun kerja sama dengan instansi terkait seperti sekolah lain, pemerintah daerah, dan pihak swasta. Kata kunci: evaluasi, strategi pengembangan   THE EVALUATION AND THE STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPING INDONESISCH NEDERLANDSCHE SCHOOL (INS KAYUTANAM SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Abstract The study was to: (1 evaluate the development of INS Kayutanam Senior High School; and (2 design the strategy to develop INS Kayutanam Senior High School based on the results of the evaluation. The approach used of in the study was quantitative and qualitative. The data source in the study was 50 students from the X grade and the XI grade, one principal, four vice principals, 30 teachers, two dormitory advisors and two government representatives. The results of the study were divided into two groups namely the evaluation results and the development strategies. Based on the results of the study, the researcher found that there were several

  19. The effects of addition of mononucleotides on Sma nuc endonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Julia; Filimonova, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Examination of the effects of mononucleotides on Sma nuc endonuclease originated from Gram negative bacterium Serratia marcescens displayed that any mononucleotide produced by Sma nuc during hydrolysis of DNA or RNA may regulate the enzyme activity affecting the RNase activity without pronounced influence on the activity towards DNA. The type of carbohydrate residue in mononucleotides does not affect the regulation. In contrast, the effects depend on the type of bases in nucleotides. AMP or dAMP was classified as a competitive inhibitor of partial type. GMP, UMP, and CMP were found to be uncompetitive inhibitors that suggest a specific site(s) for the nucleotide(s) binding in Sma nuc endonuclease.

  20. Piecewise Linear Analysis for Pseudo-elasticity of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-dong; DU Xiao-wei; SUN Guo-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Brinson constitutive model of SMA, a piecewise linear model for the hysteresis loop of pseudo-elasticity is proposed and applied in the analysis of responses of an SMA-spring-mass system under initial velocity activation. The histories of displacement and velocity of the mass, and the response of stress of SMA are calculated with Brinson's model and the piecewise linear model. The difference of results of the two models is not significant. The calculation with piecewise-linear model needs no iteration and is highly efficient.

  1. Klasifikasi dan Klastering Penjurusan Siswa SMA Negeri 3 Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sulistyo Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SMA N 3 Boyolali merupakan salah satu sekolah menengah di kota Boyolali yang saat ini telah memiliki 2 jurusan yaitu IPA dan IPS. Penjurusan siswa ini dapat mengarahkan peserta didik agar lebih fokus dalam mengembangkan kemampuan diri dan minat yang dimiliki. Pemilihan jurusan yang tidak tepat bisa sangat merugikan siswa terhadap minat dan karir mereka di masa mendatang. Dengan penjurusan tersebut diharapkan dapat memaksimalkan potensi, bakat atau talenta individu, sehingga dapat memaksimalkan nilai akademisnya. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut, maka dengan menerapkan teknik data mining diharapkan dapat membantu siswa untuk menentukan jurusan yang tepat sesuai dengan kriteria yang ditetapkan. Adapaun teknik data mining yang digunakan dalam penentuan jurusan ini menggunakan 3 buah metode yaitu Algoritma C4.5, Naive Bayes dan Algoritma K-Means. Sedangkan atribut yang digunakan terdiri dari Gender, Minat, Rata-rata nilai IPA, Rata-rata nilai IPS, nilai Psikotest IPA, nilai Psikotest IPS, Asal Sekolah dan Jurusan. Analisis dilakukan dengan bantuan aplikasi RapidMiner 5 untuk mengetahui nilai-nilai perbandingan terhadap metode yang digunakan. Hasil penelitian menggunakan perbandingan 3 metode menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan nilai precision, metode naive bayes lebih baik dibandingkan dengan metode yang lain dengan nilai 77,51%. Sedangkan berdasarkan nilai recall dan accuracy, decision tree lebih baik dibandingkan dengan metode yang lain dengan nilai recall sebesar 90,80% dan nilai accuracy sebesar 79,14%. Variabel yang paling berpengaruh dalam menentukan penjurusan yaitu rata-rata nilai IPA sehingga perlu dijadikan pertimbangan bagi pihak sekolah untuk menentukan jurusan siswa.

  2. SMA imaging of protostars within the northern OMC-1 filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paula Stella; Takahashi, Satoko; Zapata, Luis; Ho, Paul

    2013-07-01

    We report Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3mm observations of the OMC1 northern filaments (previously identified from SCUBA JCMT 850 micron continuum and VLA ammonia observations). We find 24 compact sources along an extent of ~3' within the filaments. The sources range in mass from 0.5 to 2.8 MSun and 3 of them are driving CO molecular outflows. The millimeter emission may be arising from the inner part of the envelope and circumstellar disk; these compact sources are therefore in the Class 0/I evolutionary phase. The spatial analysis of the protostars shows that these are divided into small groups that are separated by a quasi-equidistant length of 30' (0.06pc), consistent with the Jeans length, and therefore indicating the filament underwent thermal fragmentation. Within the protostellar groups, the typical separation is ~7'' (2800au). The protostars within OMC-1n show similar masses and sizes to those in OMC2/3, however their spatial separations are distinctly different and may point to how fragmentation propagated through the integral-shaped filament in Orion A.

  3. SMA applications in an innovative multishot deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, D.; Pedrazzoli, G.; Secci, G.; Portelli, C.

    1991-01-01

    An innovative Deployment and Retraction hinge Mechanism (DARM) in the frame of a technological program is examined. The mechanism includes two restraint/release devices, which enable it to be stable in its stowed or deployed position while sustaining all associated loads, and to carry its payload by remote command. The main characteristics of the DARM are as follows: deployment and retraction movements are spring actuated; the available amount of functional sequences is almost unlimited; and no use of electrical motors is made. These features were accomplished by: the application of a special kinematic scheme to the mechanical connection between the spring motor and the swivel head arm; and the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators for both release and spring recharge functions. DARM is thus a mechanism which can find many applications in the general space scenario of in-orbit maintenance and servicing. In such a frame, the DARM typical concept, which has a design close to very simple one-shot deployment mechanisms, has a good chance to replace existing analog machines. Potential items that could be moved by DARM are: booms for satellite instruments; antenna reflector tips; entire antenna reflectors; and solar panels.

  4. Kondisi Stres Akademik Siswa SMA Negeri di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Taufik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research conduct base from increasing the National Examination standards from recent years, and overload student’s learning activity in Senior High School (SMA. These conditions as triggers stress students, from a long time, its influence on their learning. Based that, the research is to identify level of student academic stress, and differences base gender, and school location. This research use Cluster Random Sampling. Samples are grouped into 3 (three, that’s school is located in downtown, midtown and the Suburbs. Research findings show that there are 15% of student’s stress academic at low levels of, 71,8% experiencing stress academic at medium level, and 13.2% of students experiencing stress academic at high level. There was no significant difference between the academic stress Student SMAN in Padang by location and gender. These research findings can then be an important basic need for guidance and counseling services in order to decrease the level of stress of academic students in Padang city, so that they can learn by making every effort that is optimal.

  5. ALTERNATIF STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING SMA KRISTEN 2 SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Septa Nindiarini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research and development aims to formulate strategic plan to enhancing competitiveness in SMA Kristen 2 Salatiga. Data were gathered by means of Focus Group Discussion (FGD, interview, questionnaire, and documentation study. Fishbone analysis is used to identify the root causes of low school competitiveness. The analysis was categorized based on five factors i.e. reputation, school resources, information and technology, human resource, and partnership. Based on the analysis, the strategies are formulated with educational reengineering approach as follows: 1 reconstructing school image by improving academic and non academic achievement, 2 developing innovative curriculum based on outdoor experience and IT, 3 increasing student discipline, 4optimizing IT usage on promotion and marketing, 5 improving the quality of school programs, 6 developing entrepreneurship programs, 7 improving the quantity and quality school infrastructures, 8 improving teachers’ skill and competence of IT, 9 enhancing the role of school board, 10 maximizing the role of parents, alumnae, and other institution to develop the school programs, and 11 establishing a vocational high school. It is recommended for the school to have cooperation with the stakeholder and the school board to implement the strategic plan so that the competitiveness will enhance in the future.

  6. Concerning the Integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William; Huber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Consider the integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x). In the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables," this integral can require repeated integral evaluations. Enter this integral into your favourite computer algebra system, and the results may be unrecognizable. In this article, we seek to provide a simpler evaluation for integrals of this form. We state up…

  7. Theory of the M = 1 Kink Mode in Toroidal Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.; Schep, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    The energy principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to study the ideal MHD stability of the m = 1 internal kink mode in a toroidal plasma. The equilibrium configurations that are considered allow for a broad region where the safety factor q is close to unity. This region may extend to t

  8. Concerning the Integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William; Huber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Consider the integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x). In the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables," this integral can require repeated integral evaluations. Enter this integral into your favourite computer algebra system, and the results may be unrecognizable. In this article, we seek to provide a simpler evaluation for integrals of this form. We state up…

  9. Disrupting SMA activity modulates explicit and implicit emotional responses: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigari, Alessia; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2014-09-05

    Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) has been considered as an interface between the emotional/motivational system and motor effector system. Here, we investigated whether it is possible to modulate emotional responses using non-invasive brain stimulation of the SMA. 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) trains were applied over the SMA of healthy subjects performing a task requiring to judge the valence and arousal of emotional stimuli. rTMS trains over the SMA increased the perceived valence of emotionally negative visual stimuli, while decreasing the perceived valence of emotionally positive ones. The modulatory effect on emotional valence was specific for stimuli with emotional content, since it was not observed for neutral visual stimuli. The effect was also specific for the site of stimulation, since rTMS of the visual cortex failed to modulate either perceived valence or arousal. These findings provide the first example of neuromodulation of emotional responses based on non-invasive brain stimulation.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin; Xu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of shape memory alloy (SMA) intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads were studied in this paper. Von de Pol item was improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads was developed. The conditions of stochastic stability of the system were obtained in singular boundary theory. The steady-state probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was given, and the stochastic Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system were analyzed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the stability of the trivial solution varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process, which can cause stent fracture or loss. The results of this paper are helpful to application of SMA intravascular stent in biomedical engineering fields.

  11. Optimal design of damping layers in SMA/GFRP laminated hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoust, P.; Cinquemani, S.; Lo Conte, A.; Lecis, N.

    2017-10-01

    This work describes the optimization of the shape profiles for shape memory alloys (SMA) sheets in hybrid layered composite structures, i.e. slender beams or thinner plates, designed for the passive attenuation of flexural vibrations. The paper starts with the description of the material and architecture of the investigated hybrid layered composite. An analytical method, for evaluating the energy dissipation inside a vibrating cantilever beam is developed. The analytical solution is then followed by a shape profile optimization of the inserts, using a genetic algorithm to minimize the SMA material layer usage, while maintaining target level of structural damping. Delamination problem at SMA/glass fiber reinforced polymer interface is discussed. At the end, the proposed methodology has been applied to study the hybridization of a wind turbine layered structure blade with SMA material, in order to increase its passive damping.

  12. Application of martensitic SMA alloys as passive dampers of GFRP laminated composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bocciolone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of SMA (Shape Memory Alloy materials to enhance the passive damping of GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic laminated composite. The SMA has been embedded as reinforcement in the GFRP laminated composite and a SMA/GFRP hybrid composite has been obtained. Two SMA alloys have been studied as reinforcement and characterized by thermo-mechanical tests. The architecture of the hybrid composite has been numerically optimized in order to enhance the structural damping of the host GFRP laminated, without significant changes of the specific weight and of the flexural stiffness. The design and the resultant high damping material are interesting and will be useful in general for applications related to passive damping. The application to a new designed lateral horn of railway collector of the Italian high speed trains is discussed.

  13. Grafting of PEG400 onto the surface of LLDPE/SMA film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gufeng; ZHANG Yi; ZHU Yafei; XU Jiarui

    2007-01-01

    Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)was melt and blended with styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA).The blending films were then immersed in poly(ethylene glycol)400 (PEG400) at room temperature.The surface composition of the blend films was determined by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy coupled with a variable incidence angle attenuated total reflection accessory (ATR-FTIR).Results show that PEG400 can be grafted onto the surface of the films via esterification with SMA.The immersion of PEG promotes the enrichment of SMA onto the surface of the films.The water contact angle data show that grafting of PEG400 onto PE can greatly improve the hydrophilicity of the PE surface.These experiments show that surface functionalization of polyethylene films by blending SMA and then surface grafting of PEG is feasible,which suggest an effective and simple route for PE surface modification via blending and grafting.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiujie; Burton, Deborah; Turner, Travis L.; Brinson, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloy hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions are simulated using finite element analysis. The composite structure is a laminated fiber-polymer composite beam with embedded SMA ribbons at various positions with respect to the neutral axis of the beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating of the SMA ribbons or uniform thermal loads on the beam. The thermomechanical behavior of these composites was simulated in ABAQUS using user-defined SMA elements. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of SMA hybrid composites. Keywords: shape memory alloys, Nitinol, ABAQUS, finite element analysis, post-buckling control, shape control, deflection control, adaptive stiffening, morphing, constitutive modeling, user element

  15. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  16. Analysis and Testing of MR Shear Transmission Driven by SMA Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission method of magnetorheological (MR fluid in cylindrical-type driven by shape memory alloy (SMA spring with the thermal effect was proposed. The torque can change rapidly with temperature. Based on the thermal effect of SMA, the expression for displacement of SMA spring was established. The rheological property of MR fluid under the magnetic fields was described by Bingham model. Based on momentum equation, the shear flow of MR fluid between two cylinders was analyzed and the expressions of flow velocity and torque have been obtained. The experimental results show the output displacement of SMA spring and the transmit torque of MR fluid is directly proportional to the temperature and the applied magnetic field, respectively.

  17. ANALISIS KESULITAN MATEMATIKA SISWA SMA/MA DALAM MENYELESAIKAN SOAL SETARA UN DI KABUPATEN MALUKU TENGAH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Rumasoreng; Sugiman Sugiman

    2014-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan jenis kesulitan siswa SMA/MA Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dalam menyelesaikan soal setara UN dan faktor yang menyebabkannya. Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Populasi penelitian adalah 1819 siswa kelas XII SMA/MA Program IPA dari 53 sekolah di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. Sampel berasal dari tujuh sekolah dengan jumlah siswa sebanyak 95 orang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan tes tulis berbentuk urai-an dan dilengkapi dengan w...

  18. Posterior SMA Syndrome following subcortical stroke: contralateral akinesia reversed by visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Narges; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Spierer, Lucas; Schmidlin, Eric; Mayer, Eugène; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2013-11-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) plays a key role in motor programming and production and is involved in internally-cued movements. In neurological populations, SMA syndrome following a lesion to the "SMA proper" is characterized by transient impairment of voluntary movements and motor sequences. This syndrome is assumed to follow on from an interruption of the motor cortico-subcortical loop, and some case reports indicate that such a syndrome could occur after a brain lesion isolating the SMA from subcortical structures. To characterize the pattern of motor impairments in a patient whose stroke disconnects the SMA from the subcortical motor loop. A patient developed a moderate transient left hemiparesis following a subcortical stroke in the right anterior cerebral artery area, which disconnected the SMA from basal ganglia. Eight days after the stroke, when the hemiparesis had regressed, the patient presented a specific SMA motor disorder of the left hand which manifested as an akinesia and was exacerbated when his visual attention was not directed towards his hand. We assessed finger tapping with left and right hands, eyes closed and open, in the left and right hemispace. We indexed movement speed as the number of taps filmed over 5-s periods. Left motor weakness (grasping strength of right hand: 49 kg and left hand: 41 kg) was resolved in a week. Ideomotor and ideational gestures and motor sequences were preserved. On the tapping task, left-hand tapping was slower than right-hand tapping. Critically, visual feedback improved tapping speed for the left, but not for the right, hand. The hemispace of the task execution had no effect on tapping performance. Our results suggest that SMA-basal ganglia disconnection decreases contralateral movement initiation and maintenance and this effect is partly compensated by visual cues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VPA response in SMA is suppressed by the fatty acid translocase CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbes, Lutz; Heesen, Ludwig; Hölker, Irmgard; Bauer, Tim; Schreml, Julia; Zimmermann, Katharina; Thoenes, Michaela; Walter, Michael; Dimos, John; Peitz, Michael; Brüstle, Oliver; Heller, Raoul; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2013-01-15

    Functional loss of SMN1 causes proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common genetic condition accounting for infant lethality. Hence, the hypomorphic copy gene SMN2 is the only resource of functional SMN protein in SMA patients and influences SMA severity in a dose-dependent manner. Consequently, current therapeutic approaches focus on SMN2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as the short chain fatty acid VPA (valproic acid), ameliorate the SMA phenotype by activating the SMN2 expression. By analyzing blood SMN2 expression in 16 VPA-treated SMA patients, about one-third of individuals were identified as positive responders presenting increased SMN2 transcript levels. In 66% of enrolled patients, a concordant response was detected in the respective fibroblasts. Most importantly, by taking the detour of reprograming SMA patients' fibroblasts, we showed that the VPA response was maintained even in GABAergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) cells. Differential expression microarray analysis revealed a complete lack of response to VPA in non-responders, which was associated with an increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36. The pivotal role of CD36 as the cause of non-responsiveness was proven in various in vitro approaches. Most importantly, knockdown of CD36 in SMA fibroblasts converted non- into pos-responders. In summary, the concordant response from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) to VPA may allow selection of pos-responders prior to therapy. Increased CD36 expression accounts for VPA non-responsiveness. These findings may be essential not only for SMA but also for other diseases such as epilepsy or migraine frequently treated with VPA.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure and dynamics of the response regulator Sma0114 from Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftic, Sarah R; Garcia, Preston P; White, Emma; Robinson, Victoria L; Gage, Daniel J; Alexandrescu, Andrei T

    2012-09-04

    Receiver domains control intracellular responses triggered by signal transduction in bacterial two-component systems. Here, we report the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure and dynamics of Sma0114 from the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the first such characterization of a receiver domain from the HWE-kinase family of two-component systems. The structure of Sma0114 adopts a prototypical α(5)/β(5) Rossman fold but has features that set it apart from other receiver domains. The fourth β-strand of Sma0114 houses a PFxFATGY sequence motif, common to many HWE-kinase-associated receiver domains. This sequence motif in Sma0114 may substitute for the conserved Y-T coupling mechanism, which propagates conformational transitions in the 455 (α4-β5-α5) faces of receiver domains, to prime them for binding downstream effectors once they become activated by phosphorylation. In addition, the fourth α-helix of the consensus 455 face in Sma0114 is replaced with a segment that shows high flexibility on the pico- to nanosecond time scale by (15)N relaxation data. Secondary structure prediction analysis suggests that the absence of helix α4 may be a conserved property of the HWE-kinase-associated family of receiver domains to which Sma0114 belongs. In spite of these differences, Sma0114 has a conserved active site, binds divalent metal ions such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) that are required for phosphorylation, and exhibits micro- to millisecond active-site dynamics similar to those of other receiver domains. Taken together, our results suggest that Sma0114 has a conserved active site but differs from typical receiver domains in the structure of the 455 face that is used to effect signal transduction following activation.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN E-LEARNING MATA PELAJARAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI (TIK) DI SMA NEGERI 3 KUPANG

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyanto S. Helianak; Herman Dwi Surjono

    2014-01-01

    Pengembangan E-learning Mata Pelajaran Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) di SMA Negeri 3 Kupang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) menghasilkan produk e-learning mata pelajaran Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) yang layak digunakan sebagai media pembelajaran bagi siswa SMA Negeri 3 Kupang; (2) mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar siswa setelah menggunakan produk e-learning TIK. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian dan pengembangan (R&D). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) e-learn...

  2. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  3. KONTRIBUSI KEMAMPUAN MEMAHAMI CERPEN TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN MENULIS CERPEN SISWA KELAS XI SMA NEGERI 4 PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    risa yulisna

    2016-10-01

     siswa jarang membaca karya sastra termasuk karya sastra cerpen. Keempat, kemampuan memahami bacaan siswa masih rendah. Kelima, kemampuan memahami cerpen siswa rendah. Siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam menentukan dan memahami unsur-unsur cerpen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan memahami cerpen siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang dan keterampilan menulis cerpen siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang, serta kontribusi kemampuan memahami cerpen terhadap keterampilan menulis cerpen siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang dengan sampel berjumlah 30 orang. Penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dengan metode deskriptif. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui dua jenis tes yaitu tes objektif dan tes unjuk kerja. Tes objektif digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data memahami bacaan cerpen sedangkan tes unjuk kerja digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data kemampuan menulis cerpen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data dan pembahasan disimpulkan hal-hal berikut. Pertama, kemampuan memahami cerpen siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang pada kualifikasi lebih dari cukup (75,33. Kedua, kemampuan menulis cerpen siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri 4 Padang berada pada kualifikasi cukup (63,33. Ketiga, terdapat kontribusi yang signifikan antara kemampuan memahami cerpen terhadap keterampilan menulis cerpen sebesar 61%.

  4. Physical therapy services received by individuals with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, Sally; Montes, Jacqueline; McDermott, Michael P; Martens, William; Neisen, Annie; Glanzman, Allan M; Pasternak, Amy; Riley, Susan; Sproule, Douglas; Chiriboga, Claudia; Finkel, Richard; Tennekoon, Gihan; Darras, Basil; De Vivo, Darryl; Pandya, Shree

    2016-01-01

    The consensus statement for standard of care in SMA recommends multidisciplinary medical care including physical therapy (PT) services. To date there are no reports regarding the implementation of these recommendations and the type of care or services received by individuals with SMA. The purpose of this study is to describe the PT services received by individuals with SMA. Interviews were conducted with patients or their caregivers at the Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research (PNCR) Network sites from October 2011 to September 2012. Questions included information about clinical status of the patient, sociodemographic profile of the patient or caregiver, and PT services received in the past year, including the setting, frequency, duration and type of PT, and therapies administered by caregivers. Eighty-six percent of 105 participants reported receiving PT services, some in multiple settings: 62% in the neuromuscular clinic, 38% at school, 34% at home, and 13% in an outpatient clinic. Greater frequency of PT services received was associated with younger age and inability to walk, but not SMA type. This is the first multicenter study documenting PT services received by patients with SMA. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of PT services on the natural history of SMA.

  5. Pathological impact of SMN2 mis-splicing in adult SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Ling, Karen K Y; Hua, Yimin; Wilkinson, John Erby; Nomakuchi, Tomoki; Rigo, Frank; Hung, Gene; Xu, David; Jiang, Ya-Ping; Lin, Richard Z; Ko, Chien-Ping; Bennett, C Frank; Krainer, Adrian R

    2013-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in SMN1 cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. The related SMN2 gene expresses suboptimal levels of functional SMN protein, due to a splicing defect. Many SMA patients reach adulthood, and there is also adult-onset (type IV) SMA. There is currently no animal model for adult-onset SMA, and the tissue-specific pathogenesis of post-developmental SMN deficiency remains elusive. Here, we use an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to exacerbate SMN2 mis-splicing. Intracerebroventricular ASO injection in adult SMN2-transgenic mice phenocopies key aspects of adult-onset SMA, including delayed-onset motor dysfunction and relevant histopathological features. SMN2 mis-splicing increases during late-stage disease, likely accelerating disease progression. Systemic ASO injection in adult mice causes peripheral SMN2 mis-splicing and affects prognosis, eliciting marked liver and heart pathologies, with decreased IGF1 levels. ASO dose-response and time-course studies suggest that only moderate SMN levels are required in the adult central nervous system, and treatment with a splicing-correcting ASO shows a broad therapeutic time window. We describe distinctive pathological features of adult-onset and early-onset SMA. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  6. Disrupting pre-SMA activity impairs facial happiness recognition: an event-related TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochas, Vincent; Gelmini, Lauriane; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Poulet, Emmanuel; Saoud, Mohamed; Brunelin, Jerome; Bediou, Benoit

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) could be implicated in facial emotion expression and recognition, especially for laughter/happiness. To test this hypothesis, in a single-blind, randomized crossover study, we investigated the impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on performances of 18 healthy participants during a facial emotion recognition task. Using a neuronavigation system based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of each participant, TMS (5 pulses, 10 Hz) was delivered over the pre-SMA or the vertex (control condition) in an event-related fashion after the presentation of happy, fear, and angry faces. Compared with performances during vertex stimulation, we observed that TMS applied over the left pre-SMA specifically disrupted facial happiness recognition (FHR). No difference was observed between the 2 conditions neither for fear and anger recognition nor for reaction times (RT). Thus, interfering with pre-SMA activity with event-related TMS after stimulus presentation produced a selective impairment in the recognition of happy faces. These findings provide new insights into the functional implication of the pre-SMA in FHR, which may rely on the mirror properties of pre-SMA neurons.

  7. Selective vulnerability of spinal and cortical motor neuron subpopulations in delta7 SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Paolo; Boido, Marina; Piras, Antonio; Valsecchi, Valeria; De Amicis, Elena; Locatelli, Denise; Capra, Silvia; Vagni, Francesco; Vercelli, Alessandro; Battaglia, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Loss of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) is responsible for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common inherited cause of infant mortality. Even though the SMA phenotype is traditionally considered as related to spinal motor neuron loss, it remains debated whether the specific targeting of motor neurons could represent the best therapeutic option for the disease. We here investigated, using stereological quantification methods, the spinal cord and cerebral motor cortex of ∆7 SMA mice during development, to verify extent and selectivity of motor neuron loss. We found progressive post-natal loss of spinal motor neurons, already at pre-symptomatic stages, and a higher vulnerability of motor neurons innervating proximal and axial muscles. Larger motor neurons decreased in the course of disease, either for selective loss or specific developmental impairment. We also found a selective reduction of layer V pyramidal neurons associated with layer V gliosis in the cerebral motor cortex. Our data indicate that in the ∆7 SMA model SMN loss is critical for the spinal cord, particularly for specific motor neuron pools. Neuronal loss, however, is not selective for lower motor neurons. These data further suggest that SMA pathogenesis is likely more complex than previously anticipated. The better knowledge of SMA models might be instrumental in shaping better therapeutic options for affected patients.

  8. Experimental and numerical study on hysteretic performance of SMA spring-friction bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Peng; Xue, Suduo; Nie, Pan; Wang, Wenting

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the hysteretic performance of a new type of isolator consisting of shape memory alloy springs and friction bearing called an SMA spring-friction bearing (SFB). The SFB is a sliding-type isolator with SMA devices used for the seismic protection of engineering structures. The principle of operation of the isolation bearing is introduced. In order to explore the possibility of applying SMA elements in passive seismic control devices, large diameter superelastic tension/compression NiTi SMA helical springs used in the SFB isolator were developed. Mechanical experiments of the SMA helical spring were carried out to understand its superelastic characteristics. After that, a series of quasi-static tests on a single SFB isolator prototype were conducted to measure its force-displacement relationships for different loading conditions and study the corresponding variation law of its mechanical performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the SFB exhibits full hysteretic curves, excellent energy dissipation capacity, and moderate recentering ability. Finally, a theoretical model capable of emulating the hysteretic behavior of the SMA-based isolator was then established and implemented in MATLAB software. The comparison of the numerical results with the experimental results shows the efficacy of the proposed model for simulating the response of the SFB.

  9. Experimental characterization of self-sensing SMA actuators under controlled convective cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2013-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are attractive for actuation systems due to their high energy density, light weight and silent operation. In addition, they feature self-sensing capabilities by relating electrical resistance measurements to strain changes. In real world applications SMAs typically operate in non-ambient air and it is imperative to understand an actuator’s behavior under varying convective cooling conditions, especially for smaller diameter wires, where convective effects are amplified. This paper shows that the multi-functionality of SMA actuators can be further extended by related heating power to convective air speed. It investigates the relationship between the normalized excess power needed and corresponding airspeed under controlled, laminar airflow patterns in a small-scale wind tunnel. For each experiment, airflow through the wind tunnel, strain in the SMA wire, and power supplied to the SMA wire were controlled, while the stress and resistance of the wire were measured. The ability to understand and predict an SMA wire’s behavior under various external airflows will aid in the design and understanding of future SMA actuated structures, such as micro-air vehicles, and shows that SMAs can function as self-sensing actuators and airspeed sensors.

  10. Profil Antisipasi Siswa SMA Dalam Memecahkan Masalah Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Yudianto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh sulitnya siswa dalam menyelesaikan masalah integral khusunya luas daerah. Banyak siswa hanya menyelesaikan masalah integral hanya berdasarkan rumus yang sudah disediakan. Siswa jarang mengaitkan konsep-konsep yang saling terkait, dalam hal ini konsep integral subpokokbahasan luas daerah.Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan Profil antisipasi siswa SMA dalam memecahkan masalah integral. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dimanfaatkan oleh guru untuk membantu siswa mengaitkan konsep-konsep yang belum terkait.  Penelitian ini menggunakan metode tes dan wawancara. Tes berupa  tes kemampuan matematika yang diberikan kepada siswa, sehingga diperoleh siswa berkemampuan tinggi dan wawancara diberikan kepada siswa yang bersangkutan untuk menggali dan melihat jaringan konsep yang dimiliki siswa dalam menyelesaikan masalah integral. Subjek dalam penelitian ini termasuk dalam antisipasi terinternasilsasi dikarenakan siswa secara spontan menerapkan rumus integral tanpa menganalisis soal yang diberikan.This research is motivated by the difficulty of students in solving integral problems especially the area. Many students just completed the integral problems just based on a formula that has been provided. Students rarely associate the concepts are interrelated, in this case the integral concept of the area. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile anticipation of high school students in problem solving integrals. The results could be used by teachers to help students link the concepts are not related. This study uses tests and interviews. The tests such as math skills test given to students, in order to obtain a high ability students and interviews given to the student to explore and see the network concept of the students in problem solving integrals. Subjects in this study are included in anticipation terinternasilsasi because students spontaneously apply the integral formula without analyzing the questions

  11. The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.]|[Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    New high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the n {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

  12. The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

    1997-08-01

    The properties of the transition from the nucleon to the {Delta}(1232) serve as a benchmark for models of nucleon structure. To first order, N {r_arrow} {Delta} photo-excitation is dominated by a simple M1 quark spin-flip transition. At higher order, small L = 2 components in the N and {Delta} wavefunctions allow this excitation to proceed via an electric quadrupole transition. Since Nucleon models differ greatly on the mechanisms used to generate these L = 2 components,, the ratio of E2/M1 transitions (EMR) provides a sensitive test for structure models. Here, new high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. Compton scattering has provided two important new constraints on the photo-pion amplitude. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the N {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

  13. The confining effectiveness of NiTiNb and NiTi SMA wire jackets for concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Hong-Taek; Lee, Hacksoo

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the confining effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete. The performance of SMA wire jackets was compared to that of steel jackets. A prestrained martensitic SMA wire was wrapped around a concrete cylinder and then heated by a heating jacket. In the process, a confining stress around the cylinder was developed in the SMA wire due to the shape memory effect; this jacketing method can increase the strength and ductility of the cylinder under an axial compressive load. In this study, NiTi and NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm in diameter were used for the confinement. Recovery tests were conducted on the wires to assess their recovery and residual stress. The confinement by SMA wire jackets increased the strength slightly and greatly increased the ductility compared to the strength and ductility of plain concrete cylinders. The NiTiNb SMA wire jacket showed better performance than that of the NiTi SMA wire jacket. The confining effectiveness of the SMA wire jackets of this study was estimated to be similar to that of the steel jackets. This study showed the potential of the SMA wire jacketing method to retrofit reinforced concrete columns and protect them from seismic risks.

  14. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN AKTIF DENGAN METODE QUESTION STUDENTS HAVE TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR EKONOMI SISWA KELAS XI IPS DI SMA NEGERI 7 DAN SMA NEGERI 8 PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at finding the effect of using the ‘Question students Have’ method to the result of the learning between using the conventional method toward the students’ learning result in the subject of Economy. The research was a quasi-experiment whose population was grade XI IPS students of SMA negeri 7 Padang dan SMA Negeri 8 Padang. The sampling technique used was the purposive sampling. The experimental group was the grade XI IPS students of SMA Negeri 8 and the control group was Grade students of SMA Negeri 7 Padang. The data of the research consisted of two kinds : primary and secondary data. The data were analyzed by using a descriptive method and inductive analysis in the form of the ANOVA. The findings of the research were The students taught with the Question Students Have scored significantly higher than those taught with the conventional method with the significance index (Sig = 0.000 smaller than the value of 0.05 (sig. a. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the teachers use this method or model in the teaching of Economy and always motivate the students.

  15. Skeletal muscle DNA damage precedes spinal motor neuron DNA damage in a mouse model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. The mechanisms by which lack of SMN causes SMA pathology are not known, making it very difficult to develop effective therapies. We investigated whether DNA damage is a perinatal pathological event in SMA, and whether DNA damage and cell death first occur in skeletal muscle or spinal cord of SMA mice. We used a mouse model of severe SMA to ascertain the extent of cell death and DNA damage throughout the body of prenatal and newborn mice. SMA mice at birth (postnatal day 0) exhibited internucleosomal fragmentation in genomic DNA from hindlimb skeletal muscle, but not in genomic DNA from spinal cord. SMA mice at postnatal day 5, compared with littermate controls, exhibited increased apoptotic cell death profiles in skeletal muscle, by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and electron microscopy. SMA mice had no increased cell death, no loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-positive motor neurons, and no overt pathology in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. At embryonic days 13 and 15.5, SMA mice did not exhibit statistically significant increases in cell death profiles in spinal cord or skeletal muscle. Motor neuron numbers in the ventral horn, as identified by ChAT immunoreactivity, were comparable in SMA mice and control littermates at embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 5. These observations demonstrate that in SMA, disease in skeletal muscle emerges before pathology in spinal cord, including loss of motor neurons. Overall, this work identifies DNA damage and cell death in skeletal muscle as therapeutic targets for SMA.

  16. Skeletal muscle DNA damage precedes spinal motor neuron DNA damage in a mouse model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniya Fayzullina

    Full Text Available Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. The mechanisms by which lack of SMN causes SMA pathology are not known, making it very difficult to develop effective therapies. We investigated whether DNA damage is a perinatal pathological event in SMA, and whether DNA damage and cell death first occur in skeletal muscle or spinal cord of SMA mice. We used a mouse model of severe SMA to ascertain the extent of cell death and DNA damage throughout the body of prenatal and newborn mice. SMA mice at birth (postnatal day 0 exhibited internucleosomal fragmentation in genomic DNA from hindlimb skeletal muscle, but not in genomic DNA from spinal cord. SMA mice at postnatal day 5, compared with littermate controls, exhibited increased apoptotic cell death profiles in skeletal muscle, by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and electron microscopy. SMA mice had no increased cell death, no loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT-positive motor neurons, and no overt pathology in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. At embryonic days 13 and 15.5, SMA mice did not exhibit statistically significant increases in cell death profiles in spinal cord or skeletal muscle. Motor neuron numbers in the ventral horn, as identified by ChAT immunoreactivity, were comparable in SMA mice and control littermates at embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 5. These observations demonstrate that in SMA, disease in skeletal muscle emerges before pathology in spinal cord, including loss of motor neurons. Overall, this work identifies DNA damage and cell death in skeletal muscle as therapeutic targets for SMA.

  17. Effect of the radial plasma nonuniformity on the propagation of guided m = + 1 and m = - 1 modes in helicon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical as well as numerical analyses of the full set of Maxwell's equations is carried out to study non-axisymmetric ( m ≠ 0 ) guided modes in radially nonuniform helicon (HE) discharges. Unlike the axisymmetric (m = 0) modes, these modes reveal a non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal direction. We develop the conditions for propagation and non-propagation of the various modes in the helicon parameter range, thereby focussing on the important role of the radial density gradient. Three types of modes occurring in different parameter ranges are described, i.e., the helicon (HE) mode, the electrostatic (ES) or Trivelpiece-Gould mode, and the locally coupled (LC) mode that is characterized by mode coupling (MC) in a certain region of the plasma density profile. In contrast to m = + 1 modes, the parameter range of m = - 1 modes is much more restricted as rather high densities are needed for the propagation of the helicon and LC modes. An important issue of the investigations is the rf power coupling and absorption via the various modes. Computations based on a simple antenna-plasma model show that the axial wavenumber of the antenna determines decisively which type of mode is excited. In case of LC mode excitation, the dominant role of the MC layer for the absorption is demonstrated. Finally, the rf power coupling to helicon modes is studied. The density limit for m = - 1 helicon mode propagation and the narrow magnetic field profiles of these modes are the main reasons why the rf power absorption in helicon discharges occurs via m = + 1 helicon modes.

  18. Electrochemical immunochip sensor for aflatoxin M1 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Charlie O; Lanyon, Yvonne H; Manning, Mary; Arrigan, Damien W M; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2009-07-01

    An investigation into the fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and development of a microelectrode array (MEA) immunosensor for aflatoxin M(1) is presented in this paper. Gold MEAs (consisting of 35 microsquare electrodes with 20 microm x 20 microm dimensions and edge-to-edge spacing of 200 microm) together with on-chip reference and counter electrodes were fabricated using standard photolithographic methods. The MEAs were then characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the behavior of the on-chip electrodes were evaluated. The microarray sensors were assessed for their applicability to the development of an immunosensor for the analysis of aflatoxin M(1) directly in milk samples. Following the sensor surface silanization, antibodies were immobilized by cross-linking with 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (PDITC). Surface characterization was conducted by electrochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay format was developed on the microarray electrode surface using the 3,3,5',5'-tetramethylbenzidine dihyrochloride (TMB)/H(2)O(2) electrochemical detection scheme with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme label. The performance of the assay and the microarray sensor were characterized in pure buffer conditions before applying to the milk samples. With the use of this approach, the detection limit for aflatoxin M(1) in milk was estimated to be 8 ng L(-1), with a dynamic detection range of 10-100 ng L(-1), which meets present legislative limits of 50 ng L(-1). The milk interference with the sensor surface was also found to be minimal. These devices show high potential for development of a range of new applications which have previously only been detected using elaborate instrumentation.

  19. Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity in the ∆7 SMA Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Vicki L; Massoni-Laporte, Aurélie; Wang, Xueyong; Le, Thanh T; Le, Hao T; Beattie, Christine E; Rich, Mark M; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of SMN2. The SMN2 copy number inversely correlates with phenotypic severity and is a modifier of disease outcome. The SMN2 gene essentially differs from SMN1 by a single nucleotide in exon 7 that modulates the incorporation of exon 7 into the final SMN transcript. The majority of the SMN2 transcripts lack exon 7 and this leads to a SMN protein that does not effectively oligomerize and is rapidly degraded. However the SMN2 gene does produce some full-length SMN and the SMN2 copy number along with how much full-length SMN the SMN2 gene makes correlates with severity of the SMA phenotype. However there are a number of discordant SMA siblings that have identical haplotypes and SMN2 copy number yet one has a milder form of SMA. It has been suggested that Plastin3 (PLS3) acts as a sex specific phenotypic modifier where increased expression of PLS3 modifies the SMA phenotype in females. To test the effect of PLS3 overexpression we have over expressed full-length PLS3 in SMA mice. To ensure no disruption of functionality or post-translational processing of PLS3 we did not place a tag on the protein. PLS3 protein was expressed under the Prion promoter as we have shown previously that SMN expression under this promoter can rescue SMA mice. High levels of PLS3 mRNA were expressed in motor neurons along with an increased level of PLS3 protein in total spinal cord, yet there was no significant beneficial effect on the phenotype of SMA mice. Specifically, neither survival nor the fundamental electrophysiological aspects of the neuromuscular junction were improved upon overexpression of PLS3 in neurons.

  20. Succinate causes α-SMA production through GPR91 activation in hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying Hui; Woo, Sung Hoon; Choi, Dae Hee; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2015-08-07

    Succinate acts as an extracellular signaling molecule as well as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. It binds to and activates its specific G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91). GPR91 is present in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but its role in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear. Cultured HSCs treated with succinate showed increased protein expression of GPR91 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), markers of fibrogenic response. Succinate also increased mRNA expression of α-SMA, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and collagen type I. Transfection of siRNA against GPR91 abrogated succinate-induced increases in α-SMA expression. Malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), increased succinate levels in cultured HSCs and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Feeding mice a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet is a widely used technique to create an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HSCs cultured in MCD media showed significantly decreased SDH activity and increased succinate concentration and GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Similarly, palmitate treatment significantly decreased SDH activity and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression. Finally, C57BL6/J mice fed the MCD diet had elevated succinate levels in their plasma. The MCD diet also decreased SDH activity, increased succinate concentration, and increased GPR91 and α-SMA expression in isolated HSCs. Collectively, our results show that succinate plays an important role in HSC activation through GPR91 induction, and suggest that succinate and GPR91 may represent new therapeutic targets for modulating hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The design, hysteresis modeling and control of a novel SMA-fishing-line actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chaoqun; Yang, Hui; Sun, Zhiyong; Xue, Bangcan; Hao, Lina; Asadur Rahoman, M. D.; Davis, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Fishing line can be combined with shape memory alloy (SMA) to form novel artificial muscle actuators which have low cost, are lightweight and soft. They can be applied in bionic, wearable and rehabilitation robots, and can reduce system weight and cost, increase power-to-weight ratio and offer safer physical human-robot interaction. However, these actuators possess several disadvantages, for example fishing line based actuators possess low strength and are complex to drive, and SMA possesses a low percentage contraction and has high hysteresis. This paper presents a novel artificial actuator (known as an SMA-fishing-line) made of fishing line and SMA twisted then coiled together, which can be driven directly by an electrical voltage. Its output force can reach 2.65 N at 7.4 V drive voltage, and the percentage contraction at 4 V driven voltage with a 3 N load is 7.53%. An antagonistic bionic joint driven by the novel SMA-fishing-line actuators is presented, and based on an extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii (EUPI) model, its hysteresis behavior is established, and the error ratio of the EUPI model is determined to be 6.3%. A Joule heat model of the SMA-fishing-line is also presented, and the maximum error of the established model is 0.510 mm. Based on this accurate hysteresis model, a composite PID controller consisting of PID and an integral inverse (I-I) compensator is proposed and its performance is compared with a traditional PID controller through simulations and experimentation. These results show that the composite PID controller possesses higher control precision than basic PID, and is feasible for implementation in an SMA-fishing-line driven antagonistic bionic joint.

  2. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the language and motor white matter pathways of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Peck, Kyung K; Young, Robert J; Brennan, Nicole; Holodny, Andrei I

    2014-12-01

    Accurate localization of anatomically and functionally separate SMA tracts is important to improve planning prior to neurosurgery. Using fMRI and probabilistic DTI techniques, we assessed the connectivity between the frontal language area (Broca's area) and the rostral pre-SMA (language SMA) and caudal SMA proper (motor SMA). Twenty brain tumor patients completed motor and language fMRI paradigms and DTI. Peaks of functional activity in the language SMA, motor SMA and Broca's area were used to define seed regions for probabilistic tractography. fMRI and probabilistic tractography identified separate and unique pathways connecting the SMA to Broca's area - the language SMA pathway and the motor SMA pathway. For all subjects, the language SMA pathway had a larger number of voxels (PSMA pathway. In each patient, the number of voxels was greater in the language and motor SMA pathways than in background pathways (PSMA pathway (degree of connectivity: PSMA pathway (degree of connectivity, PSMA and motor SMA to Broca's area. The language SMA is more significantly connected to Broca's area than is the motor subdivision of the SMA proper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins continue to pose a health concern via human exposure to contaminated food. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), may be found in the milk of dairy cattle and other mammals. In humans, AFM1 is excreted through the feces, urine, and in the case of lactating mothers, also in breast milk after consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food. Concentration of AFM1 in milk is a function of several factors, namely: animal type, milking day, milk yield, season...

  4. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  5. a Comparison of δ13C & pMC Values for Ten Cretaceous-Jurassic Dinosaur Bones from Texas to Alaska USA, China and Europe with that of Coal and Diamonds Presented in the 2003 Agu Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H. R.; Dennett, R.; de Pontcharra, J.; Giertych, M.; Kline, O.; van Oosterwych, M. C.; Owen, H.; Taylor, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is convincing evidence that soft tissue and other biomolecules can survive long periods of fossilization by their interaction with blood iron and/or carbonate absorption. Here are presented the results of investigations showing that ancient biomolecules and their decay products contain significantly more pMC's (% modern 14C) than diamond and coal presented during a poster session held at the AGU 2003 SF convention. The title was: The Enigma of the Ubiquity of 14C in organic samples older than 100,000 K. The given range for five diamonds from Botswana and South Africa ranged from 0.096 to 0.146 pMC. Ten coal specimens from the United States from the Eocene to Pennsylvanian geologic interval yielded 0.1 to 0.46 pMC's. In our extensive field and lab study ten dinosaurs from Texas to Alaska, and China yielded much higher pMC's of 0.76 to 5.59 after pretreatment to remove modern contaminants. When 2g of a Belgium Mosasaur from Europe was pretreated to remove contaminants the pMC was 4.68 or 24,600 RC years on Lund Un AMS in Sweden (Lindgren et al. 2011, PloS ONE, page 9). The endogenous sources of dinosaur pMC's were further enhanced by the δ13C range of -20.1 to -23.8 for collagen, 16.6-28.4 for bulk organic and -3.1 to -9.1 for CO3 fractions. The δ13C values compare favorably to δ13C values of -23 to -27 in a similar study of dinosaur δ13C values from the Judith River formation in Alberta, Canada that (Ostrom et al. 1993, Geology, v. 21). . Diamonds from South America (Taylor-Southon, Nuclear Instruments 2007 ) yielded ages of 66,000 to 80,000 years leaving little doubt that at least the dinosaur ages of 22,020 ± 50 to 39,230 ± 140 were not machine error or a result of contamination anymore than the coal samples. This data explains more clearly why such biomolecules have persisted and therefore should not be ignored as the implications are of utmost importance to science and humanity. Thus the experimental results presented here demonstrate the need for

  6. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIS MEMBRAN POLIMER MATRIK KOMPOSIT(PMC DARI KARBON AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA UNTUK ADSORBSI LOGAM BERAT PADA MINYAK GORENG BEKAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Nurmayanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Minyak goreng yang sudah berulangkali dipanaskan akan berwarna hitam dan mengandung logam-logam berat. Untuk meremajakannya diperlukan teknologi alternatif yang mampu mereduksi logam berat pada minyak goreng bekas. Salah satunya adalah membran PMC yang digunakansebagai filter. Membran di uji sifat fisis (debit aliran, kerapatan, porositas dengan variasi ukuran mesh dan komposisi karbon aktif tempurung kelapa. Matrik berasal dari campuran 0.3 gr PEG, 5 ml PVA, dan 5 ml Aquades. Filler berupa serbuk karbon aktif berasal dari limbah tempurung kelapa. Membran di buat dengan variasi ukuran mesh 60, 100, 120 mesh dan komposisi 1, 3, dan 5 gr. Karbon aktif diperoleh dari tempurung kelapa dengan teknik pemanasan pada temperatur 500o C dan aktifasi kimia dengan larutan H3PO4 5 M. Hasil terbaik ditunjukkan pada membran dengan penambahan karbon aktif  5 gram 120 mesh yang memiliki efektifitas penyaringan paling baik dan adsorbsi logam berat paling maksimal. Debit aliran semakin meningkat dengan nilai 0.0333 (ml/menit dan kerapatan membran semakin kecil 0.95534 (gr/cm dengan porositas 0.39 %. Hasil AAS menunjukan logam Cu mengalami penurunan kadar logam sebesar 0.0819 mg/L dan logam Fe 0.0285 mg/L. Membran ini merupakan membran mikrofiltrasi dengan rata-rata pori-pori 160.4 nm yang mampu mereduksi partikel dan bakteri dengan ukuran 400 nm hingga 2 µm

  7. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  8. [Molecular Features of SMA-related Genes in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients of Han Nationality in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Jin; Wang, Jun; Bai, Meng-Ge; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Wu, Li-Juan; Tang, Si-Shi; Lu, Xiao-Jun; Ying, Bin-Wu

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the molecular features of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) related genes in SMA patients of Han nationality of southwest of China. We collected 62 unrelated patients of SMA and 50 unrelated healthy individuals in this study.The copy numbers of survival motor neuron gene (SMN) and uronal-apoptosis inhibitory protein gene (NAIP) were measured by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Of 62 patients,the copy number of SMA1-4 were 30.65% (19/62),41.94%(26/62),16.13% (10/62),11.29% (7/62),respectively.The deletion of SMN1 exon 7 accounts for 98.38% (61/62).The deletion of SMN1 exon 8 accounts for 82.26% (51/62).Among SMA 1 patients,the homozygous deletion of NAIP exon 5 accounts for 68.42% (13/19) and heterzygous deletion accounts for 26.32% (5/19).Among SMA2-4patients,the homozygous deletion of NAIP exon 5 accounts for 13.95% (6/43) and heterzygous deletion accounts for 62.79% (27/43).Furthermore,68.42% (13/19) patients of SMA1have 1 copy and 2 copies of SMN2 gene,84.62% (22/26) patients of SMA 2 have more than 2 copies of SMN2 gene,90.00% (9/10) SMA3 and 85.71% (6/7) SMA4 have over 2 copies of SMN2 gene and even have 5 and 6 copy of SMN2 gene. The deletion of SMN1 gene is the main cause of SMA,and the change of SMN2 and NAIP copy number can affect the severity of SMA.

  9. Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study of α-SMA, Collagen, and PCNA in Epithelial Ovarian Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggorowati, Nungki; Ratna Kurniasari, Chatarina; Damayanti, Karina; Cahyanti, Titik; Widodo, Irianiwati; Ghozali, Ahmad; Romi, Muhammad Mansyur; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Arfian, Nur

    2017-03-01

    Background: Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is an isoform of actin, positive in myofibroblasts and is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. EMT is a process by which tumor cells develop to be more hostile and able to metastasize. Progression of tumor cells is always followed by cell composition and extracellular matrix component alteration. Increased α-SMA expression and collagen alteration may predict the progressivity of ovarian neoplasms. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyse the characteristic of α-SMA and collagen in tumor cells and stroma of ovarian neoplasms. In this study, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression was also investigated. Methods: Thirty samples were collected including serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes. The expression of α-SMA and PCNA were calculated in cells and stroma of ovarian tumors. Collagen was detected using Sirius Red staining and presented as area fraction. Results: The overexpressions of α-SMA in tumor cells were only detected in serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. The histoscore of α-SMA was higher in malignant than in benign or borderline ovarian epithelial neoplasms (105.3±129.9 vs. 17.3±17.1, P=0.011; mean±SD). Oppositely, stromal α-SMA and collagen area fractions were higher in benign than in malignant tumors (27.2±6.6 vs 20.5±8.4, P=0.028; 31.0±5.6 vs. 23.7±6.4, P=0.04). The percentages of epithelial and stromal PCNA expressions were not significantly different between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusion: Tumor cells of serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma exhibit mesenchymal characteristic as shown by α-SMA positive expression. This expression might indicate that these subtypes were more aggressive. This research showed that collagen and α-SMA area fractions in stroma were higher in benign than in malignant neoplasms. 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.3.667

  10. Decreased Motor Neuron Support by SMA Astrocytes due to Diminished MCP1 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jasmin E; Nguyen, TrangKimberly T; Grunseich, Christopher; Nofziger, Jonathan H; Lee, Philip R; Fields, Douglas; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Foran, Emily

    2017-05-24

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe, often fatal muscle weakness due to loss of motor neurons. SMA patients have deletions and other mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in decreased SMN protein. Astrocytes are the primary support cells of the CNS and are responsible for glutamate clearance, metabolic support, response to injury, and regulation of signal transmission. Astrocytes have been implicated in SMA as in in other neurodegenerative disorders. Astrocyte-specific rescue of SMN protein levels has been shown to mitigate disease manifestations in mice. However, the mechanism by which SMN deficiency in astrocytes may contribute to SMA is unclear and what aspect of astrocyte activity is lacking is unknown. Therefore, it is worthwhile to identify defects in SMN-deficient astrocytes that compromise normal function. We show here that SMA astrocyte cultures derived from mouse spinal cord of both sexes are deficient in supporting both WT and SMN-deficient motor neurons derived from male, female, and mixed-sex sources and that this deficiency may be mitigated with secreted factors. In particular, SMN-deficient astrocytes have decreased levels of monocyte chemoactive protein 1 (MCP1) secretion compared with controls and MCP1 restoration stimulates outgrowth of neurites from cultured motor neurons. Correction of MCP1 deficiency may thus be a new therapeutic approach to SMA.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by the loss of motor neurons, but astrocyte dysfunction also contributes to the disease in mouse models. Monocyte chemoactive protein 1 (MCP1) has been shown to be neuroprotective and is released by astrocytes. Here, we report that MCP1 levels are decreased in SMA mice and that replacement of deficient MCP1 increases differentiation and neurite length of WT and SMN-deficient motor-neuron-like cells in cell culture. This study reveals a novel aspect of astrocyte

  11. Stochastic bifurcation characteristics of SMA intravascular stent subjected to radial and axial excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Wendi; Xu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A kind of shape memory alloy (SMA) hysteretic nonlinear model is developed, and the stochastic bifurcation characteristics of SMA intravascular stents subjected to radial and axial excitations are studied in this paper. A new nonlinear differential item is introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of SMA strain-stress curves, and the dynamic model of SMA intravascular stent subjected to radial and axial stochastic excitations is established. The conditions of the system's stochastic stability are determined, and the probability density function of the system response is obtained. Finally, the stochastic Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system are analyzed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the system stability varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation occurs in the process; there are two limit cycles in the stationary probability density of the system response in some cases, which means that there are two vibration amplitudes whose probability are both very high; jumping phenomena between the two vibration amplitudes appears with the change of conditions, which may cause stent fracture or loss. The results of this paper are helpful for application of SMA intravascular stent in biomedical engineering fields.

  12. Orthopedic Management of Scoliosis by Garches Brace and Spinal Fusion in SMA Type 2 Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Vuillerot, Carole; Vaugier, Isabelle; Leclair, Danielle; Azzi, Viviane; Viollet, Louis; Estournet, Brigitte; Bertini, Enrico; Quijano-Roy, Susana

    2015-11-21

    Scoliosis is the most debilitating issue in SMA type 2 patients. No evidence confirms the efficacy of Garches braces (GB) to delay definitive spinal fusion. Compare orthopedic and pulmonary outcomes in children with SMA type 2 function to management. We carried out a monocentric retrospective study on 29 SMA type 2 children who had spinal fusion between 1999 and 2009. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1-French patients (12 children) with a preventive use of GB; group 2-French patients (10 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve; and group 3-Italian patients (7 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve referred to our centre to perform orthopedic preoperative management. Mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle were significantly lower in the group 1 of proactively braced than in group 2 or 3 (Anova p = 0.03; Kruskal Wallis test p = 0.05). Better surgical results were observed in patients with a minor preoperative Cobb angle (r = 0.92 p SMA type 2. Further prospective studies comparing SMA management are needed to confirm these results. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence (Retrospective comparative study).

  13. Quantitative muscle ultrasound measures rapid declines over time in children with SMA type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kay W; Connolly, Anne M; Zaidman, Craig M

    2015-11-15

    Muscles are small in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is not known if muscle size changes over time in SMA type 1. We quantified changes over time in muscle size and echointensity during two repeated ultrasound examinations of unilateral proximal (biceps brachii/brachialis and quadriceps) and distal (anterior forearm flexors and tibialis anterior) muscles in three children with SMA type 1. We compared muscle thickness (MT) to body weight-dependent normal reference values. Children were 1, 6, and 11months old at baseline and had 2, 2 and 4 months between ultrasound examinations, respectively. At baseline, MT was normal for weight in all muscles except an atrophic quadriceps in the oldest child. MT decreased and echointensity increased (worsened) over time. At follow up, MT was below normal for weight in the quadriceps in all three children, in the biceps/brachioradialis in two, and in the anterior forearm in one. Tibialis anterior MT remained normal for weight in all three children. Muscle echointensity increased over time in all muscles and, on average, more than doubled in two children. In children with SMA type 1, muscle atrophies and becomes hyperechoic over time. Quantitative muscle ultrasound measures disease progression in SMA type 1 that warrants additional study in more children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Rho-kinase inactivation prolongs survival of an intermediate SMA mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Mélissa; Beauvais, Ariane; Anderson, Carrie L; Kothary, Rashmi

    2010-04-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited disease resulting in the highest mortality of children under the age of two. SMA is caused by mutations or deletions in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to aberrant neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development and the loss of spinal cord alpha-motor neurons. Here, we show that Smn depletion leads to increased activation of RhoA, a major regulator of actin dynamics, in the spinal cord of an intermediate SMA mouse model. Treating these mice with Y-27632, which inhibits ROCK, a direct downstream effector of RhoA, dramatically improves their survival. This lifespan rescue is independent of Smn expression and is accompanied by an improvement in the maturation of the NMJs and an increase in muscle fiber size in the SMA mice. Our study presents evidence linking disruption of actin cytoskeletal dynamics to SMA pathogenesis and, for the first time, identifies RhoA effectors as viable targets for therapeutic intervention in the disease.

  15. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS USING EMBEDDED SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY(SMA) WIRE SENSORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zixue; YAO Xingtian; COSTAS Soutis

    2006-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) materials possess completely superelasticity or pseudoelasticity above the austenite finish temperature and many unique mechanical, thermal,thermal-mechanical and electrical properties compared with other conventional materials. Many studies have reported that the superelastic and hysteresis properties of the SMA materials can absorb energies coming from external excitations or sudden impacts. In addition, due to the special electrical properties of NiTi superelastic wires, they can also be used as strain-sensing elemem to monitor structural health conditions. Composite laminated specimens embedded with SMA wire sensors are fabricated and detailed testing system is designed such as multi-parameters measuring for impact and weak signal processing for SMA sensor. Low velocity impact test shows that SMA wire sensors embedded in fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) laminate can be well used to monitor impact responses,such as the location of impact damage, impact degree, and strain distribution. Experimental results and theoretical predictions reveal almost the same. Comparing with other method, a simple, economic and reliable technique method monitoring important engineering structures on line is provided.

  16. Two-Way Bending Properties of Shape Memory Composite with SMA and SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki Tobushi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A shape memory composite (SMC was fabricated with a shape memory alloy (SMA and a shape memory polymer (SMP, and its two-way bending deformation and recovery force were investigated. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1 two kinds of SMA tapes which show the shape memory effect (SME and superelasticity (SE were heat-treated to memorize the round shape. The shape-memorized round SMA tapes were arranged facing in the opposite directions and were sandwiched between the SMP sheets. The SMC belt can be fabricated by using the appropriate factors: the number of SMP sheets, the pressing force, the heating temperature and the hold time. (2 The twoway bending deformation with an angle of 56 degrees in the fabricated SMC belt is observed based on the SME and SE of the SMA tapes during heating and cooling. (3 If the SMC belt is heated and cooled by keeping the bent form, the recovery force increases during heating and degreases during cooling based on the two-way properties of the SMC. (4 The development and application of high-functional SMCs are expected by the combination of the SMA and the SMP with various kinds of phase transformation temperatures, volume fractions, configurations and heating-cooling rates.

  17. Prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi SMA fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams. The SMA fibres were mixed with 1.5% volume content in a mortar matrix with the compressive strength of 50 MPa. The SMA fibres had an average length of 34 mm, and they were manufactured with a dog-bone shape: the diameters of the end- and middle-parts were 1.024 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Twenty mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B × H × L) were prepared. Two types of tests were conducted. One was to investigate the prestressing effect of the SMA fibres, and the beams with the SMA fibres were heated at the bottom. The other was to assess the bending behaviour of the beams prestressed by the SMA fibres. The SMA fibres induced upward deflection and cracking at the top surface by heating at the bottom; thus, they achieved an obvious prestressing effect. The beams that were prestressed by the SMA fibres did not show a significant difference in bending behaviour from that of the SMA fibre reinforced beams that were not subjected to heating. Stress analysis of the beams indicated that the prestressing effect decreased in relation to the cooling temperature.

  18. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  19. Increase of α-SMA(+) and CK (+) cells as an early sign of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcz, Gábor; Sipos, Ferenc; Krenács, Tibor; Molnár, Jeannette; Patai, Arpád V; Leiszter, Katalin; Tóth, Kinga; Wichmann, Barna; Molnár, Béla; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to examine cell transition events by detecting the frequency of intrapithelial α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)(+)/cytokeratin (CK)(+) cells during colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, in relation to E-cadherin expression. Our further aim was to determine the proliferative activity of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) cells. Histologically healthy, adenoma, and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples were taken during routine colonoscopy and were included into tissue microarrays (TMAs). Slides immunostained for Ki-67, α-SMA, E-cadherin and pan-cytokeratin were digitalized and analyzed by using a digital microscope software. The proportion of α-SMA(+)/CK(+) cells was significantly higher in CRC samples (3.34 ± 1.01%) compared to healthy (1.94 ± 0.69%) or adenoma (1.62 ± 0.78%) samples (p SMA(+) cells. The majority of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) cells were in the proliferative phase. During tumor progression, the appearance of dot-like α-SMA staining in CK positive cells may indicate the initial phase of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The high proportion of intraepithelial α-SMA(+) proliferating cells may refer to their increased plasticity compared to differentiated cells. The negative correlation between E-cadherin and intraepithelial α-SMA expression suggests that EMT is facilitated by a loss of epithelial cell contact.

  20. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  2. [The BION-M1 project: overview and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, V N; Ilyin, E A; Yarmanova, E N; Rakov, D V; Ushakov, I B; Kirilin, A N; Orlov, O I; Grigoriev, A I

    2014-01-01

    Biosatellite BION-M1 was launched on April 19 and landed on May 19, 2013. The mission program was largely a continuation of the earlier flown 11 BION projects, FOTON-M2 and FOTON-M3. The biosatellite was inhabited by a great variety of living organisms used for experiments and studies in gravitational physiology, gravitational biology, biotechnology, astrobiology and radiation biology, dosimetry and spectrometry. This was the first time in the history of national biology and physiology when male mice C57bl/6 were chosen for a long-term space experiment focused upon molecular biology investigations. Unfortunately, because of technical failures during the flight a part of the animals were lost. However, the major objectives were attained through reconsideration of biomaterial division among investigators and completion of virtually the total scope of investigations.

  3. Semantic memory retrieval circuit: role of pre-SMA, caudate, and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Maguire, Mandy J; Motes, Michael; Mudar, Raksha Anand; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Womack, Kyle B; Kraut, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    We propose that pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)-thalamic interactions govern processes fundamental to semantic retrieval of an integrated object memory. At the onset of semantic retrieval, pre-SMA initiates electrical interactions between multiple cortical regions associated with semantic memory subsystems encodings as indexed by an increase in theta-band EEG power. This starts between 100-150 ms after stimulus presentation and is sustained throughout the task. We posit that this activity represents initiation of the object memory search, which continues in searching for an object memory. When the correct memory is retrieved, there is a high beta-band EEG power increase, which reflects communication between pre-SMA and thalamus, designates the end of the search process and resultant in object retrieval from multiple semantic memory subsystems. This high beta signal is also detected in cortical regions. This circuit is modulated by the caudate nuclei to facilitate correct and suppress incorrect target memories.

  4. UPAYA PENINGKATAN KARAKTER SISWA SMA DALAM PERMAINAN BOLA BASKET MELALUI MODEL TPSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Nurina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani dalam model TPSR lebih menekankan pada kondisi siswa dan pendekatannya juga berorientasi kepada aktualisasi diri dan rekonstruksi sosial siswa di dalam pembelajaran permainan bola basket. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan karakter tanggung jawab, kerja sama, dan percaya diri siswa putri kelas XI IPS 2 SMA Muhammadiyah 3 Yogyakarta dengan model TPSR dalam pembelajaran permainan bola basket. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Subjek dalam penelitian adalah seluruh siswa putri kelas XI IPS 2 SMA Muhammadiyah 3 yang berjumlah sembilan siswa. Analisis data menggunakan analisis diskriptif, kualitatif, dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran TPSR dapat meningkatkan karakter tanggung jawab dan kerja sama dalam pembel-ajaran permainan bola basket yang berdampak pada kepercayaan diri siswa putri kelas XI IPS 2 SMA Muhammadiyah 3 Yogyakarta yang dapat dilihat dari peningkatan nilai keterampilan psikomotor, kognitif, dan afektif siswa. Kata Kunci: TPSR, karakter, permainan bola basket

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an End Plate Connection with Using Long Shank SMA Bolts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Ma; Yongbing Zhu; Michael CH Yam; Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Superelastic shape memory alloys ( SMAs ) have the ability to recover their original shape after experiencing large strains. End⁃plate connection with using superelastic long shank SMA bolts is proposed in this paper. By using strong beam⁃weak bolt cluster design methodology and special configurations to strength beam ends, a superelastic hinge is expected to form in column flange. To validate the mechanical behavior of the proposed beam⁃to⁃column connection, both quasi⁃static tests and numerical analysis are conducted with cyclic transverse loads applied on the beam ends. The results indicate the connection deformations concentrate on the long shank SMA bolts upon loading and the bolt cluster rotates around the axis near beam flange. By using the super elastic effect, the SMA bolts recover most elongations and the connection recovers to its original shape after experiencing 0�02 rad interstorey drift angle. The connection shows obvious self⁃centering properties.

  6. Pemodelan Enterprise Architecture Sistem Informasi Akademik SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang Dengan Framework Zachman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alfonsa Chintia Dea Prananingrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang belum dapat memanfaatkan teknologi komputer secara optimal karena masih menggunakan cara manual dalam pengelolaan berbagai macam data akademik sehingga memberikan masalah seperti lambatnya dalam pembuatan laporan yang menyulitkan kepala sekolah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Oleh sebab itu, SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang membutuhkan Sistem Informasi Akademik untuk memberikan kemudahan dalam mengelola berbagai macam data akademik secara terintegrasi serta memberikan layanan yang lebih baik kepada siswanya. Sebuah model architecture enterprise Sistem Informasi Akademik dibutuhkan agar meminimalisir kegagalan ketika menerapkan sistem tersebut sekaligus dapat berjalan sesuai kebutuhan di SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang. Metode analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Framework Zachman yang memberikan pondasi dalam membantu menyediakan struktur dasar organisasi sehingga dapat mendukung perancangan dan pengembangan sistem informasi suatu organisasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa blueprint (cetak biru pemodelan Sistem Informasi Akademik. Kata kunci— sistem informasi akademik, architecture enterprise, framework zachman, bluprint

  7. Finite element analysis of seal mechanism using SMA for Mars sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Younse, Paulo

    2014-04-01

    Returning Martian samples to Earth for extensive analysis is of great interest to planetary science community. Current Mars sample return architecture would require leaving the acquired samples on Mars for several years before being retrieved by subsequent mission. Each sample would be sealed securely to keep its integrity. A reliable seal technique that does not affect the integrity of the samples and uses simple low-mass tool is required. The shape memory alloy (SMA) seal technique is a promising candidate. The performances of several primary designs of SMA seal for sample tubes were analyzed by finite element (FE) modeling. The results of thermal heating characteristics had been reported in a previous presentation this paper focus on the preparation and actuation of SMA plugs, the seal pressure, and the stress and strain induced in the sealing procedure with various designs.

  8. Natural Heat-Sinking Control Method for High-Speed Actuation of the SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamio Arai

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methodologies for increasing the actuation speed of the shape memory alloy (SMA actuator in ambient environment. The first method involves the implementation of a simple, light-weight heat sink, which consists only of a combination of an outer metal tube with the silicone grease, but able to cool the heated alloy effectively. The second method describes a high current pulse actuation that actuates the alloy fastly using pulses in the milliseconds order. We hypothesize that a fast actuation of the SMA results in small increase in temperature, due to energy transformation from heat energy to the kinetic energy in the SMA. This new heating method revolutionizes the actuation of the alloy for a significantly faster response.

  9. One-dimensional Incremental Constitutive Relation of SMA Wire Reinforced Smart Composites with Damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili HU; Wanlin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A new Martensitic transformation kinetic model for shape memory alloy (SMA) is proposed based on the phenomenological description of the Martensitic transformation heat flow-temperature curve and on the linear relationship between the partial derivatives of Martensite fraction and of Gbbis free energy with respect to the temperature. A meso-mechanical model is developed to describe the longitudinal stiffness reduction and thermo-dilatation variation of the composites caused by fiber breaking or fiber peeling off the base material.One-dimensional incremental constitutive relation is then established for SMA wire reinforced smart composites with damages by introducing three parameters to respectively describe the extent of fiber breaking, fiber peeling off the base material and interface weakening. The results presented herein may provide a theoretical basis for further studying on SMA smart composites with damages.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN JASMANI OLAHRAGA DAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS KOMPUTER UNTUK SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Cahyati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan produk berupa CD pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani olahraga dan kesehatan berbasis komputer untuk SMA yang valid dan efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Research and Development (R&D. Media yang dikembangkan memuat materi tentang HIV/AIDS. Pengembangan media pembelajaran ini menggunakan software Adobe Flash Cs3 Professional. Media yang telah dikembangkan melalui dua tahap penelitiannya itu validasi ahli dan uji coba lapangan. Berdasarkan validasi ahli dan uji coba lapangan hasil penelitian menunjukkan produk termasuk kriteria “Sangat baik” dengan rerata skor 4,25. Hasil tes siswa mengalami peningkatan dari rerata skor pretest 5,53 dan rerata skor posttest 7,56. Berdasarkan hasil tes tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa media pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani olahraga dan kesehatan efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran di SMA. Kata kunci: Pengembangan media, penjasorkes, SMA

  11. The Effects of Addition of Mononucleotides on Sma nuc Endonuclease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Romanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the effects of mononucleotides on Sma nuc endonuclease originated from Gram negative bacterium Serratia marcescens displayed that any mononucleotide produced by Sma nuc during hydrolysis of DNA or RNA may regulate the enzyme activity affecting the RNase activity without pronounced influence on the activity towards DNA. The type of carbohydrate residue in mononucleotides does not affect the regulation. In contrast, the effects depend on the type of bases in nucleotides. AMP or dAMP was classified as a competitive inhibitor of partial type. GMP, UMP, and CMP were found to be uncompetitive inhibitors that suggest a specific site(s for the nucleotide(s binding in Sma nuc endonuclease.

  12. Perancangan dan Implementasi Presensi Digital Guru dan Karyawan SMA Negeri 9 Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Didot Septiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan surat edaran dari Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Kota Semarang, terhitung mulai Januari 2015 tiap sekolah dihimbau untuk beralih dari sistem presensi manual menjadi digital. Hingga awal Maret ini, presensi guru dan karyawan di SMA Negeri 9 Semarang masih dilakukan secara manual. Maka diperlukan sebuah penelitian untuk merancang dan menerapkan sistem presensi digital bagi SMA Negeri 9 Semarang. Tahapan penelitian meliputi perencanaan, analisis, perancangan, implementasi, pengujian, dan pemeliharaan. Perangkat lunak dibangun dengan framework PHP Phalcon, basis data MySQL, dan aplikasi webserver Nginx pada sistem operasi Ubuntu 14.04. Mesin presensi dengan metode pengenalan wajah dipilih untuk mendapatkan data kehadiran yang bersifat autentik. Pengujian dilakukan dengan metode kotak hitam dan kotak putih. Semua kebutuhan fungsional telah diimplementasikan pada aplikasi web dan kebutuhan non-fungsional pun telah terpenuhi. Sistem presensi digital ini menjadi solusi bagi SMA Negeri 9 Semarang dalam usaha uji coba penggunaan presensi digital.

  13. Fatigue behavior of a thermally-activated NiTiNb SMA-FRP patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahan, M.; Dawood, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the details of an experimental study that was conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior of a thermally-activated shape memory alloy (SMA)/carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) patch that can be used to repair cracked steel members. A total of 14 thermally-activated patches were fabricated and tested to evaluate the stability of the prestress under fatigue loading. The parameters considered in this study are the prestress level in the nickel-titanium-niobium SMA wires and the applied force range. An empirical model to predict the degradation of the prestress is also presented. The results indicate that patches for which the maximum applied loads in a fatigue cycle did not cause debonding of the SMA wires from the CFRP sustained two million loading cycles with less than 20% degradation of the prestress.

  14. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn; Yan, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics and Optimal Control of SMA Composite Wings Subjected to Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of high-aspect-ratio shape memory alloy (SMA composite wing is proposed to reduce the wing’s fluttering. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of the SMA composite wings subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation are investigated where the great bending under the flight loads is considered. The stochastic stability of the system is analyzed, and the system’s response is obtained. The conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are determined, and the probability density of the first-passage time is obtained. Finally, the optimal control strategy is proposed. Numerical simulation shows that the stability of the system varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process; the reliability of the system is improved through optimal control, and the first-passage time is delayed. Finally, the effects of the control strategy are proved by experiments. The results of this paper are helpful for engineering applications of SMA.

  16. Design and modeling of a novel fibrous shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Wang, Guoping

    1994-05-01

    Presented is a novel design of a composite linear actuator utilizing a parallel array of contractile shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires. The fiber bundle of SMA wires is either circumscribed inside a helical compression spring with flat heads or are in parallel with a number of helical compression springs, end-capped by two parallel circular plates with embedded electrodes to which the ends of the SMA wires are secured. Thus, the wires can be electrically heated and subsequently contracted to compress the helical compression spring. Upon cooling the SMA wires expand and allow the helical compression spring to tightly stretch them to their initial length. Design details are first fully described. Steps involved in the fabrication of a number of these composite SMA actuators are then elaborated on. A number of interesting heat transfer phenomena are observed. In essence the dynamic behavior of the actuator depends on the interaction between the current supplied to the wires and the rate of heat transfer from the wires due to convection and radiation. A design model is finally presented for the dynamic response of contractile fiber bundles embedded in or around elastic springs that are either linear helical compression springs, hyperelastic springs such as rubberlike materials, or nonlinear springs such as air. The fiber bundle is assumed to consist of a parallel array of contractile fibers made from contractile shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires. The proposed model considers the temperature- induced contraction of the fibers due to resistive heating of the shape-memory wires. Results of both dynamic computer simulation and dynamics of a prototype model built in our laboratory indicate a fairly good comparison.

  17. Large size superelastic SMA bars: heat treatment strategy, mechanical property and seismic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Cheng; Liu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the mechanical performance of large size superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) bars, with the main focus given to their potential applications for seismic-resistant connections. A series of practical issues, including heat treatment, mechanical property assessment, and connection design/evaluation, were discussed aiming to benefit both material and civil engineering communities. The study commenced with a detailed discussion on the heat treatment strategy for SMA bars and the resulting mechanical properties including strength/stiffness, self-centring ability, energy dissipation, and fractural resistance. It was observed that the mechanical performance of the bars were quite sensitive to both annealing temperature and duration, and size effect was also evident, resulting in different appropriate heat treatment procedures for the bars with varying diameters. The optimally heat-treated SMA bars were machined to the bolt form and were then used for two types of practical self-centring connections, namely, connection with all SMA bars and that with combined angles and SMA bars. Through conducting full-scale tests, both connections were shown to have stable and controllable hysteretic responses till 5% loading drift. Up to 3% drift, the self-centring performance was satisfactory for both connection types, but beyond that the presence of the angles could lead to accumulated residual rotation. Importantly, for both connections, the deformation was accommodated by the SMA bolts or angles, whereas no plastic deformation was observed at any other structural members. This confirmed the feasibility of using such connections for highly resilient structures where minimal repair work is required after earthquakes.

  18. Dissociating the Role of the pre-SMA in Response Inhibition and Switching: A Combined Online and Offline TMS Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Robles, Noemí; Marrón, Elena M; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered to be a key node in the cognitive control of actions that require rapid updating, inhibition, or switching, as well as working memory. It is now recognized that the pre-SMA is part of a "cognitive control" network involving the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and subcortical regions, such as the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. However, two important questions remain to be addressed. First, it is not clear if the main role of the pre-SMA in cognitive control lies in inhibition or switching of actions. From imaging evidence, the right pre-SMA is consistently recruited during inhibition and switching, but the extent to which it participates specifically in either of these processes is unknown. Secondly, the pre-SMA may perform inhibition and switching alone or as part of a larger brain network. The present study used online and offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to dissociate the roles of pre-SMA in cognitive control, but also to investigate the potential contribution of connectivity between the pre-SMA and IFG. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the right IFG before participants performed a stop switching task while receiving single TMS pulses over the right pre-SMA. The results were compared to a sham cTBS session and pulses applied over the vertex region. Significant worsening of inhibition as well as response adaptation during inhibition was found when applying pulses over the pre-SMA. However, no such worsening was observed in switch trials. Additionally, after cTBS over the IFG, inhibition was also delayed, suggesting its critical necessity in stopping of actions. The results reveal a key contribution of the pre-SMA in inhibition and could suggest a dissociative role in the switching of actions. These findings indicate there is an essential union between IFG and pre-SMA during inhibition.

  19. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  20. Group-SMA Algorithm Based Joint Estimation of Train Parameter and State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The braking rate and train arresting operation is important in the train braking performance. It is difficult to obtain the states of the train on time because of the measurement noise and a long calculation time. A type of Group Stochastic M-algorithm (GSMA based on Rao-Blackwellization Particle Filter (RBPF algorithm and Stochastic M-algorithm (SMA is proposed in this paper. Compared with RBPF, GSMA based estimation precisions for the train braking rate and the control accelerations were improved by 78% and 62%, respectively. The calculation time of the GSMA was decreased by 70% compared with SMA.

  1. Development of a Meso-Scale SMA-Based Torsion Actuator for Image-Guided Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jun; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Gullapalli, Rao; Simard, J Marc; Desai, Jaydev P

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of a meso-scale torsion actuator based on shape memory alloy (SMA) for image-guided surgical procedures. Developing a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it opens the possibility of significantly enhancing the robot agility and maneuverability. The proposed torsion actuator is bi-directionally actuated by a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs through alternate Joule heating and natural cooling. The torsion actuator is integrated into a surgical robot prototype to demonstrate its working performance in the humid environment under C-Arm CT image guidance.

  2. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting intronic repressor Element1 improve phenotype in SMA mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Erkan Y.; Miller, Madeline R.; Robbins, Kate L.; Lombardi, Abby M.; Atkinson, Arleigh K.; Brehm, Amanda J.; Lorson, Christian L.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). In all SMA patients, a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 is present, which produces low levels of functional protein owing to an alternative splicing event. To prevent exon-skipping, we have targeted an intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7 using Morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides (E1MO-ASOs). A single intracerebroventricular injection i...

  3. Unstable $m=1$ modes of counter-rotating Keplerian discs

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Mamta; Sridhar, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear $m=1$ counter-rotating instability in a two-component, nearly Keplerian disc. Our goal is to understand these \\emph{slow} modes in discs orbiting massive black holes in galactic nuclei. They are of interest not only because they are of large spatial scale--and can hence dominate observations--but also because they can be growing modes that are readily excited by accretion events. Self-gravity being nonlocal, the eigenvalue problem results in a pair of coupled integral equations, which we derive for a two-component softened gravity disc. We solve this integral eigenvalue problem numerically for various values of mass fraction in the counter-rotating component. The eigenvalues are in general complex, being real only in the absence of the counter-rotating component, or imaginary when both components have identical surface density profiles. Our main results are as follows: (i) the pattern speed appears to be non negative, with the growth (or damping) rate being larger for larger values of the ...

  4. The conformational flexibility of the antibiotic virginiamycin M(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jason; Metzger, Robert P; Brownlee, Robert T C; Ng, Chai Ann; Bergdahl, Mikael; Separovic, Frances

    2005-07-01

    The antibiotic virginiamycin is a combination of two molecules, virginiamycin M(1) (VM1) and virginiamycin S(1) (VS1) or analogues, which function synergistically by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Both VM1 and VS1 dissolve poorly in water and are soluble in more hydrophobic solvents. We have recently reported that the 3D conformation of VM1 in CDCl(3) solution differs markedly from the conformation bound to a VM1 binding enzyme and to 50S ribosomes as found by X-ray crystallographic studies. We now report the results of further NMR studies and subsequent molecular modeling of VM1 dissolved in CD(3)CN/H(2)O and compare the structure with that in CD(3)OD and CDCl(3). The conformations of VM1 in CD(3)CN/H(2)O, CD(3)OD and CDCl(3) differ substantially from one another and from the bound form, with the aqueous form most like the bound structure. We propose that the flexibility of the VM1 molecule in response to environmental conditions contributes to its effectiveness as an antibiotic.

  5. The m=1 amplituhedron and cyclic hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    The (tree) amplituhedron A(n,k,m) is the image in the Grassmannian Gr(k,k+m) of the totally nonnegative part of Gr(k,n), under a (map induced by a) linear map which is totally positive. It was introduced by Arkani-Hamed and Trnka in 2013 in order to give a geometric basis for the computation of scattering amplitudes in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. When k+m=n, the amplituhedron is isomorphic to the totally nonnegative Grassmannian, and when k=1, the amplituhedron is a cyclic polytope. While the case m=4 is most relevant to physics, the amplituhedron is an interesting mathematical object for any m. In this paper we study it in the case m=1. We start by taking an orthogonal point of view and define a related "B-amplituhedron" B(n,k,m), which we show is isomorphic to A(n,k,m). We use this reformulation to describe the amplituhedron in terms of sign variation. We then give a cell decomposition of the amplituhedron A(n,k,1) using the images of a collection of distinguished cells of the totally nonnegative ...

  6. Abundances of Planetary Nebula M1-42

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R; Roellig, T L

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of the planetary nebula M1-42 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of ISO, IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the mid- and far-infrared lines, which are insensitive to electron temperature, are used as the basis for the determination of the composition, which are found to substantially differ from earlier results. High values of neon, argon and sulfur are found. They are higher than in other PN, with the exception of NGC6153, a nebula of very similar abundances. The high values of helium and nitrogen found indicate that the second dredge-up and hot bottom burning has occurred in the course of evolution and that the central star was originally more massive than 4Msun. The present temperature and luminosity of the central star is determined and at first sight may be inconsistent with such a high mass.

  7. Thermoelectric waste heat recovery from an M1 Abrams tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Thomas, Peter M.; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Mantini, Michael J.; Venkatasubramanian, Rama; Barton, Michael D.; Cardine, Christopher V.; Walker, Grayson W.

    2012-06-01

    The addition of advanced sensors, targeting systems and electronic countermeasures to military vehicles has created a strategic need for additional electric power. By incorporating a thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery system to convert available exhaust heat to electricity, increased electric power needs can be met without reducing the energy efficiency of the vehicle. This approach allows existing vehicles to be upgraded without requiring a complete re-design of the engine and powertrain to support the integration of advanced electronic sensors and systems that keep the performance at the state of the art level. RTI has partnered with General Dynamics Land Systems and Creare, Inc. under an Army Research Lab program to develop a thermoelectric exhaust waste heat recovery system for the M1 Abrams tank. We have designed a reduced-scale system that was retrofitted to the tank and generated 80W of electric power on the vehicle operating on a test track by capturing a portion of the exhaust heat from the Honeywell/Lycoming AGT-1500 gas turbine engine.

  8. 基于 SMA 驱动结构的花型机器人设计%Design of SMA actuator of stem structure for flower robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 舒鸫鹏; 罗应娜

    2015-01-01

    The flower robot,a household service robot,has been main focus of our research.Generally,the flow-er robot has the appearance of a common flower which consists of the petal,the stem,and the leafage.Besides having the appearance of a flower,the flower robot has the following functions,such as a moving mechanism,a sensing ability,and a home appliance function.Especially,the moving function is very important function among the various functions.The moving function of flower robot consists of the bending of stem,the blooming of petal and the stirring of the leafage.This paper,focuses on the movement of the flower robot structure.As an actuator for flower structure,coil type Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)is adopted and silicone stem,petal and leafage struc-tures with 6 coil type SMA are proposed.Firstly,using SMA actuator,the flower structure are designed and fabri-cated.Secondly,the kinematic equation such as stem,petal and leafage are derived.Then,through the kinemat-ic equation the control system can be designed to drive the flower robot by Dspace.Finally,through the experi-ment,the feasibility of the system is proven,and its performances are evaluated.%以一种花型的家用服务性机器人的结构运动为研究对象,用硅胶作为花的根部材料,并在其中采用弹簧式的记忆合金作为驱动器,以线圈式 SMA 作为花瓣和叶子的驱动。采用SMA 驱动器,设计并制造了花型机器人构造;通过得到根部、花瓣和叶子的运动方程,由dSPACE 系统设计和控制驱动了花型机器人。通过实验证明了该系统具有可行性。

  9. Crack-closing of cement mortar beams using NiTi cold-drawn SMA short fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun; Jung, Chungsung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crack-closing tests of mortar beams reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) short fibers were performed. For this purpose, NiTi SMA fibers with a diameter of 0.965 mm and a length of 30 mm were made from SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter by cold drawing. Four types of SMA fibers were prepared, namely, straight and dog-bone-shaped fiber and the two types of fibers with paper wrapping in the middle of the fibers. The paper provides an unbonded length of 15 mm. For bending tests, six types of mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B×H×L) were prepared. The SMA fibers were placed at the bottom center of the beams along with an artificial crack of 10 mm depth and 1 mm thickness. This study investigated the influence of SMA fibers on the flexural strength of the beams from the measured force- deflection curves. After cracking, the beams were heated at the bottom by fire to activate the SMA fibers. Then, the beams recovered the deflection, and the cracks were closed. This study evaluated crack-closing capacity using the degree of crack recovery and deflection-recovery factor. The first factor is estimated from the crack-width before and after crack-closing, and the second one is obtained from the downward deflection due to loading and the upward deflection due to the closing force of the SMA fibers.

  10. Severe SMA mice show organ impairment that cannot be rescued by therapy with the HDACi JNJ-26481585.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreml, Julia; Riessland, Markus; Paterno, Mario; Garbes, Lutz; Roßbach, Kristina; Ackermann, Bastian; Krämer, Jan; Somers, Eilidh; Parson, Simon H; Heller, Raoul; Berkessel, Albrecht; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2013-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more potent drugs. Here, we assessed the therapeutic power of the pan-HDACi JNJ-26481585 for SMA, which is currently used in various clinical cancer trials. When administered for 64 h at 100 nM, JNJ-26481585 upregulated SMN levels in SMA fibroblast cell lines, including those from non-responders to valproic acid. Oral treatment of Taiwanese SMA mice and control littermates starting at P0 showed no overt extension of lifespan, despite mild improvements in motor abilities and weight progression. Many treated and untreated animals showed a very rapid decline or unexpected sudden death. We performed exploratory autopsy and histological assessment at different disease stages and found consistent abnormalities in the intestine, heart and lung and skeletal muscle vasculature of SMA animals, which were not prevented by JNJ-26481585 treatment. Interestingly, some of these features may be only indirectly caused by α-motoneuron function loss but may be major life-limiting factors in the course of disease. A better understanding of - primary or secondary - non-neuromuscular organ involvement in SMA patients may improve standard of care and may lead to reassessment of how to investigate SMA patients clinically.

  11. Increased facilitatory connectivity from the pre-SMA to the left dorsal premotor cortex during pseudoword repetition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J

    2013-01-01

    were common to repetition in both modalities. We thus obtained three seed regions: the bilateral pre-SMA, left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and left ventral premotor cortex that were used to test 63 different models of effective connectivity in the premotor network for pseudoword relative to word...... repetition. The optimal model was identified with Bayesian model selection and reflected a network with driving input to pre-SMA and an increase in facilitatory drive from pre-SMA to PMd during repetition of pseudowords. The task-specific increase in effective connectivity from pre-SMA to left PMd suggests...... that the pre-SMA plays a supervisory role in the generation and subsequent sequencing of motor plans. Diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking in another group of healthy volunteers showed that the functional connection between both regions is underpinned by a direct cortico-cortical anatomical connection....

  12. Study of a reinforced concrete beam strengthened using a combination of SMA wire and CFRP plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Hui

    2006-03-01

    Traditional methods used for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, such as bonding of steel plates, suffer from inherent disadvantages. In recent years, strengthening of RC structures using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates has attracted considerable attentions around the world. Most existing research on CFRP plate bonding for flexural strengthening of RC beams has been carried out for the strength enhancement. However, little research is focused on effect of residual deformations on the strengthening. The residual deformations have an important effect on the strengthening by CFRP plates. There exists a very significant challenge how the residual deformations are reduced. Shape memory alloy (SMA) has showed outstanding functional properties as an actuator. It is a possibility that SMA can be used to reduce the residual deformation and make cracks of concrete close by imposing the recovery forces on the concrete in the tensile zone. It is only an emergency damage repair since the SMA wires need to be heated continuously. So, an innovative method of a RC beam strengthened by CFRP plates in combination with SMA wires was first investigated experimentally in this paper. In addition, the nonlinear finite element software of ABAQUS was employed to further simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened through the new strengthening method. It can be found that this is an excellent and effective strengthening method.

  13. Sma3s: A Three-Step Modular Annotator for Large Sequence Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Viguera, Enrique; Claros, M. Gonzalo; Trelles, Oswaldo; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic sequence annotation is an essential component of modern ‘omics’ studies, which aim to extract information from large collections of sequence data. Most existing tools use sequence homology to establish evolutionary relationships and assign putative functions to sequences. However, it can be difficult to define a similarity threshold that achieves sufficient coverage without sacrificing annotation quality. Defining the correct configuration is critical and can be challenging for non-specialist users. Thus, the development of robust automatic annotation techniques that generate high-quality annotations without needing expert knowledge would be very valuable for the research community. We present Sma3s, a tool for automatically annotating very large collections of biological sequences from any kind of gene library or genome. Sma3s is composed of three modules that progressively annotate query sequences using either: (i) very similar homologues, (ii) orthologous sequences or (iii) terms enriched in groups of homologous sequences. We trained the system using several random sets of known sequences, demonstrating average sensitivity and specificity values of ∼85%. In conclusion, Sma3s is a versatile tool for high-throughput annotation of a wide variety of sequence datasets that outperforms the accuracy of other well-established annotation algorithms, and it can enrich existing database annotations and uncover previously hidden features. Importantly, Sma3s has already been used in the functional annotation of two published transcriptomes. PMID:24501397

  14. PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM BOARDING SCHOOL DALAM PEMBINAAN MORAL SISWA DI SMA TARUNA INDONESIA PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriyenti H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIndonesia nowadays faces some moral issues in teenagers scope or adult scope such as the use of drugs, violence, rascality, abortion, persecution, gambling, prostitution, and so on. Those problems are very danger for the country. Therefore, moral education is very important in this situation. The study was done at SMA Taruna Indonesia Palembang by the tittle: “the Implementation of boarding School Program for Students Moral education at SMA Taruna Indonesia Palembang”.Based on the result of the stuy, it was found that the implementation of boarding school program to educate students’moral at SMA Taruna Indonesia Palembang was applied throug dicipline implementation program and religion education program. Those two programs were applied by preventive and currative treatment. Moreover, there were some factors which support students’ moral education at SMA Taruna Indonesia Palembang such as students motivation, advisors dedication, 24 hours education and guidance, good coordination between advisors, teachers, securities, and other staff, and far location of boarding school from city center. As long as the teenager is an unstable period, there weremany difficulties in educate them. Finally,it is hoped that school stakeholders could improve the school management so that those difficulties could be solved and moral education could be applied.  Keywords: boarding school, morality building

  15. A PROVISIONAL TRANSCRIPT MAP OF THE SPINAL MUSCULAR-ATROPHY (SMA) CRITICAL REGION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; DRAAIJERS, TG; GROOTSCHOLTEN, PM; OSINGA, J; ANZEVINO, R; VELONA, [No Value; DENDUNNEN, JT; SCHEFFER, H; BRAHE, C; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    YACs from the region containing the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) locus at 5q12 have been used as probes in a direct screening of cDNA libraries to isolate 8 cDNAs, mapped to different YAC fragments. Three clones showed complete identity to the genes for cyclin B1 (CCNB1), the p44 subunit of the tra

  16. Mandibular dysfunction as a reflection of bulbar involvement in SMA type 2 and 3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Wadman, R.I.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leeuw, M. de; Creugers, N.H.; Kalaykova, S.I.; Pol, W.L. van der; Steenks, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine (1) the effect of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and 3 on mandibular function reflected as masticatory performance, mandibular range of motion, and bite force and (2) the predictors of mandibular dysfunction. METHODS: Sixty patients

  17. The Actin Cytoskeleton in SMA and ALS: How Does It Contribute to Motoneuron Degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Niko; Claus, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping clinical phenotypes based on impaired motoneuron function. However, the pathomechanisms of both diseases are largely unknown, and it is still unclear whether they converge on the molecular level. SMA is a monogenic disease caused by low levels of functional Survival of Motoneuron (SMN) protein, whereas ALS involves multiple genes as well as environmental factors. Recent evidence argues for involvement of actin regulation as a causative and dysregulated process in both diseases. ALS-causing mutations in the actin-binding protein profilin-1 as well as the ability of the SMN protein to directly bind to profilins argue in favor of a common molecular mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton. Profilins are major regulators of actin-dynamics being involved in multiple neuronal motility and transport processes as well as modulation of synaptic functions that are impaired in models of both motoneuron diseases. In this article, we review the current literature in SMA and ALS research with a focus on the actin cytoskeleton. We propose a common molecular mechanism that explains the degeneration of motoneurons for SMA and some cases of ALS.

  18. Bulbar muscle MRI changes in patients with SMA with reduced mouth opening and dysphagia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, R.I.; Bruggen, H.W. van; Witkamp, T.D.; Kalaykova, S.I.; Stam, M.; Berg, L.H. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Pol, W.L. van der

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We performed a study in patients with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to determine the prevalence of reduced maximal mouth opening (MMO) and its association with dysphagia as a reflection of bulbar dysfunction and visualized the underlying mechanisms using MRI. METHODS: We

  19. Metal muscles and nerves—a self-sensing SMA-actuated hand concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, F.; Rizzello, G.; Seelecke, S.

    2017-09-01

    Bio-inspired hand-like grippers actuated by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires represent an emerging new technology with potential applications in many different fields, ranging from industrial assembly processes to biomedical systems. The inherently high energy density makes SMAs a natural choice for compact, lightweight, and silent actuator systems capable of producing a high amount of work, such as hand prostheses or robotic systems in industrial human/machine environments. In this work, a concept for a compact and versatile gripping system is developed, in which SMA wires are implemented as antagonistic muscles actuating an artificial hand with three fingers. In order to combine high gripping force with sufficient actuation speed, the muscle implementation pursues a multi-wire concept with several 0.1 mm diameter NiTi wires connected in parallel, in order to increase the surface-to-volume ratio for accelerated cooling. The paper starts with an illustration of the design concept of an individual 3-phalanx-finger, along with kinematic considerations for optimal placement of SMA wires. Three identical fingers are subsequently fabricated via 3D printing and assembled into a hand-like gripper. The maximum displacement of each finger phalanx is measured, and an average phalanxes dynamic responsiveness is evaluated. SMA self-sensing is documented by experiments relating the wires change in resistance to the finger motion. Several finger force measurements are also performed. The versatility of the gripper is finally documented by displaying a variety of achievable grasping configurations.

  20. A PROVISIONAL TRANSCRIPT MAP OF THE SPINAL MUSCULAR-ATROPHY (SMA) CRITICAL REGION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; DRAAIJERS, TG; GROOTSCHOLTEN, PM; OSINGA, J; ANZEVINO, R; VELONA, [No Value; DENDUNNEN, JT; SCHEFFER, H; BRAHE, C; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    YACs from the region containing the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) locus at 5q12 have been used as probes in a direct screening of cDNA libraries to isolate 8 cDNAs, mapped to different YAC fragments. Three clones showed complete identity to the genes for cyclin B1 (CCNB1), the p44 subunit of the

  1. Towards a Meso-Scale SMA-Actuated MRI-Compatible Neurosurgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mingyen; McMillan, Alan; Simard, J. Marc; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2011-01-01

    Brain tumors are the most feared complications of cancer. Their treatment is challenging due to the lack of good imaging modality and the inability to remove the complete tumor. Facilitating tumor removal by accessing regions outside the “line-of-sight” will require a highly dexterous and MRI compatible robot. We present our work towards the development of a MRI-compatible neurosurgical robot. We used two antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as actuators for each joint. Due to the size limitation of the device, we rely on temperature feedback to control the joint motion of the robot. We have developed a theoretical model based on Tanaka’s model to characterize the joint motion with the change in SMA wire temperature. The results demonstrated that the SMA wire temperature can be used reliably to predict the motion of the robot. We then used a PWM scheme and switching circuit to control the temperature of multiple SMA wires. Experimental results showed that we can actuate the robot reliably and observe joint motion in a gelatin medium. MR images also showed that the robot is fully MRI-compatible and creates no significant image distortion. PMID:22267960

  2. A Metallurgical Characterization and Assessment of SMA, GMA, EB, and LB Welds of HY-130 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    and GMA welds consisted of a large percentage of acicular ferrite with smaller amounts of bainite and martensite; EB and LB welds comprised mostly...martensite and a small percentage of bainite . Strain hardening exponent values for SMA, GMA, and LB welds were appreciably higher than the values

  3. 'The crab', a new cryo magnet transport vehicle, in action in building SMA18

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The crab is used to transport LHC cryo-magnets and their components in the assembly and preparation building, SMA18, and test building, SM18. It has many capabilities that allow CERN staff and contractors transport magnets between the two buildings and to locate them in the right position on the test beds.

  4. Influence of SMA reinforcement on the impact resistance of GFRP composite laminates under different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K PAZHANIVEL; G B BHASKAR; A ELAYAPERUMAL; P ANANDAN; S ARUNACHALAM

    2016-06-01

    Plain glass fibre-reinforced polymeric (GFRP) laminates and GFRP reinforced with randomly oriented short strips of shape memory alloy (SMA) were prepared by hand lay-up method. The SMA strip reinforcement was placed at 0.75 $\\times$ thickness of the laminate with weight fractions of 2, 4 and 6%. The specimens were exposed to drop weight impact test and the experiments were conducted at a constant impact velocity of 2.80 m s$^{−1}$ with different test temperatures such as 303, 333 and 363 K. The impact damage area was evaluated using lighting technique and fracture response was analysed using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. Absorption of impact energyand damage area due to low velocity impact were calculated. It was observed that with the higher temperature, the SMA/GFRP laminates exhibit marginally-enhanced damage resistance compared to the plain GFRP laminates. Also, addition of SMA reinforcement was not contributing much to the impact resistance at higher temperature.

  5. ANALISIS KESULITAN KOGNITIF DAN MASALAH AFEKTIF SISWA SMA DALAM BELAJAR MATEMATIKA MENGHADAPI UJIAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azis Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat dan letak kesulitan belajar matematika siswa pada aspek kognitif dan kategorisasi masalah belajar matematika siswa pada aspek afektif dalam menghadapi Ujian Nasional tahun pelajaran 2013/2014 SMA di Kota Baubau. Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian dengan metode survei. Pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik pengukuran (tes diagnostik, kuisioner, dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kesulitan belajar matematika yang dialami oleh siswa untuk menyelesaikan soal-soal Ujian Nasional berada pada kategori sedang; letak kesulitan belajar matematika siswa pada aspek kognitif dalam menyelesaikan soal-soal Ujian Nasional dilihat dari segi pengetahuan faktual dengan persentase interval kesulitan sebesar, segi pengetahuan konseptual dengan persentase interval kesulitan sebesar, dan segi pengetahuan prosedural dengan persentase interval kesulitan sebesar; dan kategorisasi masalah belajar matematika siswa pada kategori aspek afektif dalam menghadapi Ujian Nasional tahun pelajaran 2013/2014 SMA di Kota Baubau secara umum berada pada kategori rendah. Kata kunci: kesulitan belajar matematika, kognitif, afektif, ujian nasional SMA   AN ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULTY ON COGNITIVE AND PROBLEM ON AFFECTIVE OF SMA STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING FACING NATIONAL EXAMINATION Abstract This study aims to describe the degree of student’s learning difficulty of mathematics on cognitive and categorization of student’s learning problem on affective aspect in accomplishing mathematic items in facing national final exam of SMA Baubau municipality in 2013/2014 academic year. The research type uses survey method. The technique of data collecting made use of diagnostic test that is National final exam items in 2012/2013 academic year which was modified by the researcher, questionnaires, and interviews. The research result indicates that the degree of students’ learning difficulty of mathematics to accomplish

  6. Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.

    2007-04-01

    In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration

  7. Design and fabrication of a three-finger prosthetic hand using SMA muscle wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Filomena; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-inspired hand-like gripper systems based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuation have the potential to enable a number of useful applications in, e.g., the biomedical field or industrial assembly systems. The inherent high energy density makes SMA solutions a natural choice for systems with lightweight, low noise and high force requirements, such as hand prostheses or robotic systems in a human/machine environment. The focus of this research is the development, design and realization of a SMA-actuated prosthetic hand prototype with three fingers. The use of thin wires (100 μm diameter) allows for high cooling rates and therefore fast movement of each finger. Grouping several small wires mechanically in parallel allows for high force actuation. To save space and to allow for a direct transmission of the motion to each finger, the SMA wires are attached directly within each finger, across each phalanx. In this way, the contraction of the wires will allow the movement of the fingers without the use of any additional gears. Within each finger, two different bundles of wires are mounted: protagonist ones that create bending movement and the antagonist ones that enable stretching of each phalanx. The resistance change in the SMA wires is measured during actuation, which allows for monitoring of the wire stroke and potentially the gripping force without the use of additional sensors. The hand is built with modern 3D-printing technologies and its performance while grasping objects of different size and shape is experimentally investigated illustrating the usefulness of the actuator concept.

  8. A novel function for the MAP kinase SMA-5 in intestinal tube stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Florian; Gerhardus, Harald; Carberry, Katrin; Davis, Wayne; Jorgensen, Erik; Richardson, Christine; Bossinger, Olaf; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-12-01

    Intermediate filaments are major cytoskeletal components whose assembly into complex networks and isotype-specific functions are still largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model system to study intermediate filament organization and function in vivo. Its intestinal intermediate filaments localize exclusively to the endotube, a circumferential sheet just below the actin-based terminal web. A genetic screen for defects in the organization of intermediate filaments identified a mutation in the catalytic domain of the MAP kinase 7 orthologue sma-5(kc1) In sma-5(kc1) mutants, pockets of lumen penetrate the cytoplasm of the intestinal cells. These membrane hernias increase over time without affecting epithelial integrity and polarity. A more pronounced phenotype was observed in the deletion allele sma-5(n678) and in intestine-specific sma-5(RNAi) Besides reduced body length, an increased time of development, reduced brood size, and reduced life span were observed in the mutants, indicating compromised food uptake. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that the luminal pockets include the subapical cytoskeleton and coincide with local thinning and gaps in the endotube that are often enlarged in other regions. Increased intermediate filament phosphorylation was detected by two-dimensional immunoblotting, suggesting that loss of SMA-5 function leads to reduced intestinal tube stability due to altered intermediate filament network phosphorylation. © 2016 Geisler et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Development of wound healing models to study TGFβ3's effect on SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Sriniwas; Tran, Jennifer A; Guo, Xiaoqing; Hutcheon, Audrey E K; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Zieske, James D

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) in reducing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in two models-an ex vivo organ culture and an in vitro 3D cell construct-both of which closely mimic an in vivo environment. For the ex vivo organ culture system, a central 6.0 mm corneal keratectomy was performed on freshly excised rabbit globes The corneas were then excised, segregated into groups treated with 1.0 ng/ml TGFβ1 or β3 (T1 or T3, respectively), and cultured for 2 weeks. The corneas were assessed for levels of haze and analyzed for SMA mRNA levels. For the 3D in vitro model, rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RbCFs) were cultured for 4 weeks on poly-transwell membranes in Eagle's minimum essential media (EMEM) + 10% FBS + 0.5 mM vitamin C ± 0.1 ng/ml T1 or T3. At the end of 4 weeks, the constructs were processed for analysis by indirect-immunofluorescence (IF) and RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data showed that SMA mRNA expression in T3 samples for both models was significantly lower (p SMA protein expression than samples treated with T1. These results show that T3 when compared to T1 decreases the expression of SMA in both ex vivo organ culture and in vitro 3D cell construct models. Understanding the mechanism of T3's action in these systems and how they differ from simple cell culture models, may potentially help in developing T3 as an anti-scarring therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Seismic fragility analysis of lap-spliced reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by SMA wire jackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Park, Sun-Hee; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to provide seismic fragility curves of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted by shape memory alloy wire jackets and thus assess the seismic performance of the columns against earthquakes, comparing them with reinforced concrete columns with lap-spliced and continuous reinforcement. For that purpose, this study first developed analytical models of the experimental results of the three types of columns, (1) lap-spliced reinforcement, (2) continuous reinforcement and (3) lap-spliced reinforcement and retrofitted by SMA wire jackets, using the OpenSEES program, which is oriented to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, a suite of ten recorded ground motions was used to conduct dynamic analyses of the analytical models with scaling of the peak ground acceleration from 0.1g to 1.0g in steps of 0.1g. From the static experimental tests, the column retrofitted with SMA wire jackets had a larger displacement ductility by a factor of 2.3 times that of the lap-spliced column, which was 6% larger compared with the ductility of the continuous reinforcement column. From the fragility analyses, the SMA wire jacketed column had median values of 0.162g and 0.567g for yield and collapse, respectively. For the yield damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column had a median value similar to the continuous reinforcement column. However, for the complete damage state, the SMA wire jacketed column showed a 1.33 times larger median value than the continuously reinforcement column.

  11. Orthopedic Management of Scoliosis by Garches Brace and Spinal Fusion in SMA Type 2 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteruccia, Michela; Vuillerot, Carole; Vaugier, Isabelle; Leclair, Danielle; Azzi, Viviane; Viollet, Louis; Estournet, Brigitte; Bertini, Enrico; Quijano-Roy, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is the most debilitating issue in SMA type 2 patients. No evidence confirms the efficacy of Garches braces (GB) to delay definitive spinal fusion. Objective: Compare orthopedic and pulmonary outcomes in children with SMA type 2 function to management. Method: We carried out a monocentric retrospective study on 29 SMA type 2 children who had spinal fusion between 1999 and 2009. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1-French patients (12 children) with a preventive use of GB; group 2-French patients (10 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve; and group 3-Italian patients (7 children) with use of GB after the beginning of the scoliosis curve referred to our centre to perform orthopedic preoperative management. Results: Mean preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle were significantly lower in the group 1 of proactively braced than in group 2 or 3 (Anova p = 0.03; Kruskal Wallis test p = 0.05). Better surgical results were observed in patients with a minor preoperative Cobb angle (r = 0.92 p <  0.0001). Fewer patients in the group 1 proactively braced required trunk casts and/or halo traction and an additional anterior fusion in comparison with patients in the group 2 and 3. Moreover, major complications tend to be less in the group 1 proactively braced. No significant differences were found between groups in pulmonary outcome measures. Conclusions: A proactive orthotic management may improve orthopedic outcome in SMA type 2. Further prospective studies comparing SMA management are needed to confirm these results. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors on jbjs.org for a complete description of levels of evidence (Retrospective comparative study). PMID:27858747

  12. Modulation of Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Applied Over Primary Motor Cortex (M1) by Conditioning Stimulation of the Opposite M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragert, Patrick; Camus, Mickael; Vandermeeren, Yves; Dimyan, Michael A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2009-01-01

    The excitability of the human primary motor cortex (M1) as tested with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) depends on its previous history of neural activity. Homeostatic plasticity might be one important physiological mechanism for the regulation of corticospinal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Although homeostatic plasticity has been demonstrated locally within M1, it is not known whether priming M1 could result in similar homeostatic effects in the homologous M1 of the opposite hemisphere. Here, we sought to determine whether down-regulating excitability (priming) in the right (R) M1 with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) changes the excitability-enhancing effect of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied over the homologous left (L) M1. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups in a sham-controlled parallel design with real or sham R M1 1-Hz TMS stimulation always preceding L M1 iTBS or sham by about 10 min. The primary outcome measure was corticospinal excitability in the L M1, as measured by recruitment curves (RCs). Secondary outcome measures included pinch force, simple reaction time, and tapping speed assessed in the right hand. The main finding of this study was that preconditioning R M1 with 1-Hz rTMS significantly decreased the excitability-enhancing effects of subsequent L M1 iTBS on RCs. Application of 1-Hz rTMS over R M1 alone and iTBS over L M1 alone resulted in increased RC in L M1 relative to sham interventions. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that homeostatic mechanisms operating across hemispheric boundaries contribute to regulate motor cortical function in the primary motor cortex. PMID:19474173

  13. The TNM 8 M1b and M1c classification for non-small cell lung cancer in a cohort of patients with brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, C; Hintz, M; Oehlke, O; Bilger, A; Grosu, A L

    2017-09-01

    According to the recent TNM 8 classification, patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single extrathoracic metastasis should be classified as stage M1b, while those with 2 or more metastases comprise stage M1c. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of this classification in patients with brain metastases. This retrospective study included 172 patients treated with individualized approaches. Actuarial survival was calculated. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Thirty patients (17%) were staged as M1b. Those with squamous cell cancer were more likely to harbor M1b disease (29%, adenocarcinoma 14%, other histology 17%, p = 0.16). Median survival was 5.4 months (8.0 months in case of M1b disease and 4.5 months in case of M1c disease, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the role of M1b stage. M1b patients managed with upfront surgery or radiosurgery had significantly longer median survival than those who received whole-brain irradiation (21.0 vs. 3.5 months, p = 0.0001) and the potential to survive beyond 5 years. We found the M1b classification to provide clinically relevant information. The multivariate analysis suggested that patients with M1b disease, better performance status and younger age have better survival.

  14. [Silica induced α-SMA expression in HBE cell line by targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-ping; Hou, Zhi-guo; Fan, Jing-jing; Ji, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ting; Ni, Chun-hui

    2012-12-01

    To explore the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in silica-induced α-SMA (α smooth muscle actin) expression in HEB (human bronchial epithelial) cell. The cultured HBE cells were divided into 5 groups: control, silica, PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002), both PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002) and silica at the same time and the inhibitor 24 h ahead of silica. The final concentrations of PI3K inhibitor and silica were 10 µmol/L and 100 µg/ml, respectively. Western blots were used to detect protein expressions of Akt, p-Akt, TGF-β and α-SMA. The location and expression of α-SMA were measured by immunofluorescence assay. HBE cell line exposed to silica can induce Akt phosphorylation, in which expressions of p-Akt were up regulated 1 times at 48 and the highest at 72 h. The expressions of TGFβ increased remarkably at 12 h and the peak at 48 h after silica exposure, while the expressions of α-SMA increased at 24 h and the highest at 72 h. However, the PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002) significantly down regulated α-SMA expression. When the cell line exposed to the PI3K inhibitor ahead of silica 24 h, the expressions of p-Akt and α-SMA were more remarkably down regulated which were decreased 1.5 times and 7.6 times respectively compare to silica exposure group. But no significant changes were found for TGFβ expressions. The immunofluorescence assay showed that silica can induce α-SMA expression, which located in cytoplasma, and PI3K inhibitor can decrease the expression. Silica induced α-SMA expression in HBE cell line is by targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway and PI3K inhibitor can repress α-SMA expression.

  15. Generation and Characterization of a genetic zebrafish model of SMA carrying the human SMN2 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie Christine E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal models of human diseases are essential as they allow analysis of the disease process at the cellular level and can advance therapeutics by serving as a tool for drug screening and target validation. Here we report the development of a complete genetic model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA in the vertebrate zebrafish to complement existing zebrafish, mouse, and invertebrate models and show its utility for testing compounds that alter SMN2 splicing. Results The human motoneuron disease SMA is caused by low levels, as opposed to a complete absence, of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN. To generate a true model of SMA in zebrafish, we have generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing the human SMN2 gene (hSMN2, which produces only a low amount of full-length SMN, and crossed this onto the smn-/- background. We show that human SMN2 is spliced in zebrafish as it is in humans and makes low levels of SMN protein. Moreover, we show that an antisense oligonucleotide that enhances correct hSMN2 splicing increases full-length hSMN RNA in this model. When we placed this transgene on the smn mutant background it rescued the neuromuscular presynaptic SV2 defect that occurs in smn mutants and increased their survival. Conclusions We have generated a transgenic fish carrying the human hSMN2 gene. This gene is spliced in fish as it is in humans and mice suggesting a conserved splicing mechanism in these vertebrates. Moreover, antisense targeting of an intronic splicing silencer site increased the amount of full length SMN generated from this transgene. Having this transgene on the smn mutant fish rescued the presynaptic defect and increased survival. This model of zebrafish SMA has all of the components of human SMA and can thus be used to understand motoneuron dysfunction in SMA, can be used as an vivo test for drugs or antisense approaches that increase full-length SMN, and can be developed for drug screening.

  16. PEMANFAATAN MUSEUM BLAMBANGAN SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR SEJARAH DI KELAS X SMA NEGERI KABUPATEN BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Mursidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine: (1 Type of Blambangan Museum collection that can be utilized as a resource for high school students learning history, (2 How to utilize Blambangan Museum collection as a source for high school students learning history, (3 Appreciation of high school students to the Museum Blambangan as a source of high school students learning history, and (4 The constraints faced by students and teachers in utilizing the Museum Blambangan as a source of learning history. Types of collections that can be used as a source to learn the history in SMA is keramologika (jar, filologika (sword, historika (clothing regent, etnografika (ax square, arkeologika (papyrus manuscript, teknologika (phonograph and the fine arts (brick berelief and miniature art infatuated, (2 In accordance with the standards of competence and basic competence as a source of how to utilize the museum to learn history, the learning process can be done is through the method of study tours and home work by teachers to students.   Key words: Blambangan Museum, Learning Resources, Learning History, high school   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (1 Jenis koleksi Museum Blambangan yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber daya untuk siswa SMA belajar sejarah, (2 Bagaimana memanfaatkan koleksi Museum Blambangan sebagai sumber untuk siswa SMA belajar sejarah, (3 Apresiasi siswa sekolah tinggi ke Museum Blambangan sebagai sumber siswa SMA belajar sejarah, dan (4 kendala yang dihadapi oleh siswa dan guru dalam memanfaatkan Blambangan Museum sebagai sumber belajar sejarah. Jenis koleksi yang dapat digunakan sebagai sumber untuk belajar sejarah SMA keramologika (jar, filologika (pedang, historika (pakaian, etnografika (kapak persegi, arkeologika (naskah papirus, teknologika (phonograph dan denda seni (batu bata berelief dan seni miniatur tergila-gila, (2 Sesuai dengan Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar sebagai sumber bagaimana

  17. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S18_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S18 PSEUDO: Unlabeled and labeled Medicago samples for metabolite annotation using ShiftedIonsFind...17_M1), and for Medicago samples labeled by 13C (S05_M1), 15N (S07_M1), 28O (S10_M1), and 34S (S13_M1) are used. SE37_DS4 Labeled peak search by ShiftedIonsFinder ...

  18. Note: A SMA wire actuated extremely long-lifetime release actuator using two ball-lock mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dawei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bai, Haibo; Wang, Xian; Liu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA)-wire actuated release actuator with an extremely long lifetime was designed and validated. To ensure the ability of repeated actuation, two stages of ball-lock mechanisms were adopted to reduce the load in the SMA wire. In addition, a length-increasing design of the SMA wire was employed. Validation tests, including function tests, vibration tests, shock tests, and thermal vacuum tests were conducted on prototypes. According to the test results, the actuator can release a maximum preload of 15 kN and has a lifetime of more than 693 cycles. Furthermore, the actuator can function well, even under severe thermal and vibration environments.

  19. On the SMA pavement construction technology%浅谈SMA路面的施工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2012-01-01

      From the SMA mix of production, transportation, paving, RCC to illustrate the characteristics of SMA pavement construction technology. SMA structure can be summarized as"a little coarse aggregate, slag, asphalt, fine aggregate.%  从SMA混合料的生产、运输、摊铺、碾压等方面来阐述SMA路面施工工艺的特点.SMA的结构组成可概括“三多一少”,即粗集料多、矿粉多、沥青多,细集料少.

  20. Note: A SMA wire actuated extremely long-lifetime release actuator using two ball-lock mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dawei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bai, Haibo; Wang, Xian; Liu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA)-wire actuated release actuator with an extremely long lifetime was designed and validated. To ensure the ability of repeated actuation, two stages of ball-lock mechanisms were adopted to reduce the load in the SMA wire. In addition, a length-increasing design of the SMA wire was employed. Validation tests, including function tests, vibration tests, shock tests, and thermal vacuum tests were conducted on prototypes. According to the test results, the actuator can release a maximum preload of 15 kN and has a lifetime of more than 693 cycles. Furthermore, the actuator can function well, even under severe thermal and vibration environments.

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration/removal response of endodontic instrument made of single crystal Cu-based SMA: comparison with NiTi SMA instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M.; Xolin, P.; Gevrey, A.-M.; Thiebaud, F.; Engels-Deutsch, M.; Ben Zineb, T.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study showing that single crystal shape memory alloy (SMA) Cu-based endodontic instruments can lead to equivalent mechanical performances compared to NiTi-based instruments besides their interesting biological properties. Following a previous finite element analysis (FEA) of single crystal CuAlBe endodontic instruments (Vincent et al 2015 J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 4128-39), prototypes with the determined geometrical parameters were machined and experimentally characterized in continuous rotation during a penetration/removal (P/R) protocol in artificial canals. The obtained mechanical responses were compared to responses of NiTi endodontic files in the same conditions. In addition, FEA was conducted and compared with the experimental results to validate the adopted modeling and to evaluate the local quantities inside the instrument as the stress state and the distribution of volume fraction of martensite. The obtained results highlight that single crystal CuAlBe SMA prototypes show equivalent mechanical responses to its NiTi homologous prototypes in the same P/R experimental conditions.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of SMA Actuated Smart Wing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyyappan Balaguru

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancements in smart actuators, morphing (changing of aircraft wings has been investigated by increasing number of researchers in recent years. In this research article, the concept of morphing is introduced to the conventional aircraft wing model with the utilization of Shape memory alloys (SMAs. An actuating mechanism is developed and built inside the aircraft wing model along with the SMA actuators which is used to morph its shape. The aircraft wing model with the SMA actuating mechanism is known as, ‘the smart wing model’. The aerodynamic characteristics (Lift, Drag, Velocity, and Pressure of the conventional and smart wing model are investigated by using the FLUENT numerical codes. The experimental aerodynamic test is carried out at various angles of incidence in an open circuit subsonic wind tunnel to validate the numerical results.

  3. PEMBINAAN KEBERAGAMAAN SISWA MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN BUDAYA AGAMA DI SMA NEGERI 16 PALEMBANG

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    Ermis Suryana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of the study was to describe the religious development student trought the development of religious culture at SMA Negeri 16 Palembang. The result of the study showed that the implementation of coaching student’s religious through the development of religious culture at SMA 16 Palembang has been going well and programmed, both conducted by the school as an educational institution that is intact with the wisdom which relate to the development of the religious culture in school and community activities undertaken by Rohis (The Spiritual of Islam as a kind of special school extracurricular activities shade other religious activities. This success can be achieved due to the efforts of the principal and the support of the entire school community by showing commitment each of which takes place together and support each other.Keywords: Religious development, Religious culture.

  4. Assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients: development of a new module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper limb function did not always strictly follow the overall gross motor function. These findings suggest that even some of the very weak nonambulant children possess upper limb skills that can be measured.

  5. CT muscle scanning in the evaluation of patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambrook, P.; Rickards, D.; Cumming, W.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    One hundred with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) were assessed by CT scanning using a standardised technique. The spectrum of CT abnormality occurring in SMA was observed and by overall analysis the patients were divided into 4 groups. While the CT appearances of these groups correlated well with clinical assessment of severity of disease, the disease process was usually much more widespread than clinical examination suggested. CT abnormality was first observed in the leg and gluteal muscles, progressing to the posterior spinal, thigh, shoulder girdle and sternomastoid muscles. Hypertrophy of sartorius and gracilis was observed in a significant number of patients. Fascial planes were preserved in involved muscles in over half of the patients, even in late-stage disease. Asymmetrical muscle involvement was seen with increasing frequency as the disease process increased in extent as evaluated by CT scanning. There was no discernible difference in the CT appearances in those patients who clinically had limb-girdle, facioscapulohumeral or scapuloperoneal distribution of weakness.

  6. Investigation of Wafer Level Au-Si Eutectic Bonding of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) with Silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the low temperature gold silicon eutectic bonding of SMA with silicon wafers. The research work was carried out to optimize a bond process with better yield and higher bond strength. The gold layer thickness, processing temperature, diffusion barrier, adhesive layer, and the removal of silicon oxide are the important parameters in determining a reliable and uniform bond. Based on the previous work on Au-Si eutectic bonding, 7 different Si...

  7. THE EFFECT OF BLENDING SEQUENCE ON PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF NYLON 6/ABS/SMA BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation process-dependent phase morphology of blends composed of nylon 6 and acryionitrile-butadienestyrene(ABS)over a composition range of 30-70 wt% using a styrene-maleic anhydride(SMA)copolymer as the compatibilizing agent with a constant content(5phr)was investigated.The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM)observation revealed that compared with the binary blends of nylon 6 and ABS,the existence of SMA caused a composition shift of phase inversion to a higher weight fraction of nylon 6 when ABS was blended with the preblended nylon 6/SMA blend,while the co-continuous structures could be observed over a considerably narrower composition range when nylon 6 was blended with the pre-blended ABS/SMA blend.An examination through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)tests confirmed the results obtained with SEM.It is found that near the phase inversion region a remarkable change in the dynamic storage modulus(G')and the loss tangent(tanδ)appears.Moreover,the influence of blending sequence on the size of dispersed particles has been probed for uncompatibilized and compatibilized blends of nylon 6 and ABS over a wide range of compositions below or beyond the phase inversion points.For the blends of ABS dispersed in a nylon 6 matrix,little discernible effects of blending sequence on particle size could be observed.Furthermore,there exists a significant difference in morphologies of the blends prepared by nylon 6 particles dispersing in a ABS matrix in cases of different blending sequences used.Some possible factors responsible for the above asymmetric behaviors have been proposed.

  8. Hubungan Kecukupan Konsumsi Air Minum Dengan Konsentrasi Belajar Siswa Sma Negeri 5 Binjai

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhami, Fadli

    2016-01-01

    Air merupakan komponen yang yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh tubuh manusia. Sebagian besar tubuh manusia terdiri dari air. Asupan air yang kurang ataupun berlebih akan menimbulkan masalah bagi tubuh. Salah satunya masalah dalam berkonsentrasi. Konsentrasi merupakan faktor yang penting dalam meningkatkan prestasi belajar. Tujuan umum pada penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya hubungan antara kecukupan konsumsi air minum dengan konsentrasi belajar pada siswa SMA Negeri 5 Binjai. Metode pe...

  9. Preparation and Application of a Nanocomposite (MPNS/SMA) in Leather Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A nanocomposite of MPNS/(Styrene-maleic anhydride) was prepared by the polymerization of methacryloxypropyl nano SiO2 (MPNS), styrene (ST) and maleic anhydride (MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator in toluene. The prepared samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Meanwhile, the nanocomposite was applied as a tanning agent in leather making and the results showed that leather treated with MPNS/SMA nanocomposite has excellent quality.

  10. Seismic Performance and Ice-Induced Vibration Control of Offshore Platform Structures Based on the ISO-PFD-SMA Brace System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pall-typed frictional damper (PFD has higher capacity of energy dissipation, whereas shape memory alloy (SMA has excellent superelastic performance. Therefore, combining PFD and SMA together as a brace system has a great prospect in vibration control of structures. This paper investigates the performance of offshore platform with three structural configurations including the SMA brace system, the ISO-SMA (where ISO stands for isolation brace system, and the ISO-PFD-SMA brace system, which are subjected to seismic and ice-induced excitations. In this study, PFD-SMA brace system is installed on the isolation layer of jacket platform, which is under earthquake excitations and ice loading. Then, the reduction of vibration is evaluated by using ANSYS program. The results show that the PFD-SMA brace system is useful in reducing the seismic response and ice-induced response of offshore platform structures; meanwhile, it also demonstrates excellent energy dissipation and hysteretic behavior.

  11. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo.

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    Michael Zhang

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo.

  12. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Suzana A.; Azad, Tej D.; Gholamin, Sharareh; Xu, Chelsea Y.; Liu, Jie; Achrol, Achal S.; Richard, Chase; Sommerkamp, Pia; Schoen, Matthew Kenneth; McCracken, Melissa N.; Majeti, Ravi; Weissman, Irving; Mitra, Siddhartha S.; Cheshier, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo. PMID:27092773

  13. SMA-Based System for Environmental Sensors Released from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pellone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work at hand, a shape memory alloy (SMA-based system is presented. The system, conceived for releasing environmental sensors from ground or small unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV (often named UAS, unmanned aerial system, is made of a door, integrated into the bottom of the fuselage, a device distributor, operated by a couple of antagonistic SMA springs, and a kinematic chain, to synchronize the deployment operation with the system movement. On the basis of the specifications (weight, available space, energy supply, sensors size, etc., the system design was addressed. After having identified the main system characteristics, a representative mock-up was manufactured, featuring the bottom part of the reference fuselage. Functionality tests were performed to prove the system capability to release the sensors; a detailed characterization was finally carried out, mainly finalized at correlating the kinematic chain displacement with the SMA spring temperature and the supplied electrical power. A comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental outcomes showed good agreement.

  14. Minimizing the Moisture Damage and Drain down of Iraqi SMA Mixtures Using Waste Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Hadidy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the viability of using polyester fiber (PF, crumb rubber tire (CRT and cellulose fiber (CF as stabilizing waste additives in producing Iraqi SMA mixtures that sustain drain down phenomenon and moisture damage sensitivity. Different ratios of these additives (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% by weight of aggregate and filler were mixed with 40/50 paving asphalt by means of dry process. Unmodified and modified SMA mixtures were subjected to drain down, Marshall, static indirect tensile strength, tensile stiffness modulus, static compressive strength, tensile strength ratio and index of retained strength tests. A set of regression equations between these tests were established. In addition, an optimization table based on these tests, which can be used to select the type or amount of additive for any field applications has been determined and reported. The results indicated that the inclusion of these additives in SMA mixtures can satisfy the performance requirement of high temperature and much rain zone.

  15. Subcutaneous administration of TC007 reduces disease severity in an animal model of SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Cheng-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. It is caused by the loss of functional Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1. There is a nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, but it is unable to rescue from disease due to an alternative splicing event that excises a necessary exon (exon 7 from the majority of SMN2-derived transcripts. While SMNΔ7 protein has severely reduced functionality, the exon 7 sequences may not be specifically required for all activities. Therefore, aminoglycoside antibiotics previously shown to suppress stop codon recognition and promote translation read-through have been examined to increase the length of the SMNΔ7 C-terminus. Results Here we demonstrate that subcutaneous-administration of a read-through inducing compound (TC007 to an intermediate SMA model (Smn-/-; SMN2+/+; SMNΔ7 had beneficial effects on muscle fiber size and gross motor function. Conclusion Delivery of the read-through inducing compound TC007 reduces the disease-associated phenotype in SMA mice, however, does not significantly extend survival.

  16. Computational design optimization of an SMA-based active steerable needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konh, Bardia; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated needle is currently being developed to assist surgeons/physicians in their percutaneous interventional procedures. The proposed active surgical needle can potentially compensate the possible misplacements of the needle tip in the tissue benefiting from the improved navigation provided by the attached SMA actuators. In this study finite element tools have been utilized in order to maintain an optimum design of the active needle configuration. There are several parameters involved in the design affecting the active needle's applicability and maneuverability; among them are the length, diameter and the maximum residual strain of the SMA wires, the stiffness and diameters of the surgical needle and the offset distance between the needle and the actuator. For analyzing the response of the active needle structure a parametric model was developed in ANSYS. This model was linked to the automated optimization tools for an improved design of the active needle. The most sensitive parameters affecting the active needle's steerability were found to be the offset distance and the length of the needle. Considering the results and the clinical limitations, an improved design of the active needle was presented.

  17. Evaluation of Fatigue Life of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Relationship to Dynamic Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test, dynamic creep (repeated load creep, and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa. Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.

  18. ANALISIS KESULITAN MATEMATIKA SISWA SMA/MA DALAM MENYELESAIKAN SOAL SETARA UN DI KABUPATEN MALUKU TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Rumasoreng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan jenis kesulitan siswa SMA/MA Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dalam menyelesaikan soal setara UN dan faktor yang menyebabkannya. Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Populasi penelitian adalah 1819 siswa kelas XII SMA/MA Program IPA dari 53 sekolah di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. Sampel berasal dari tujuh sekolah dengan jumlah siswa sebanyak 95 orang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan tes tulis berbentuk urai-an dan dilengkapi dengan wawancara terhadap subjek untuk melacak jenis kesulitan; yakni kesulitan fakta, ketrampilan, konsep, dan prinsip serta faktor penyebabnya. Soal yang diujikan sebanyak 10 butir soal yang merupakan soal dengan daya serap rendah berdasarkan hasil UN tahun 2008 hingga 2011. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menghitung banyak kesulitan siswa yang didukung hasil tes dan wawancara, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penarikan kesimpulan.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kesulitan fakta tertinggi dialami sekolah strata rendah diikuti strata sedang kemudian strata tinggi. Urutan tingkat kesulitan tersebut juga terjadi dalam hal kesulitan ketrampilan, konsep, dan prinsip. Sedangkan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kesulitan berdasarkan hasil telaah terhadap jawaban siswa adalah siswa tidak mampu dalam hal penguasaan konsep, perpaduan antarkonsep, ketrampilan dalam menyelesaikan soal turunan dalam trigonometri dan teknik integral, penggunaan perbandingan trigonometri, penentuan banyaknya pilihan dalam menyelesaikan soal kombinasi, penentuan persamaan garis singgung lingkaran, penggunaan aturan kosinus dalam menentukan volume bangun ruang, penggunaan konsep limit baik bentuk aljabar maupun trigonometri, pembuatan model matematika, danpenentuan daerah asal suatu fungsi komposisi. Kata kunci: kesulitan, fakta, konsep, ketrampilan, prinsip, Ujian Nasional SMA/MA.

  19. Testing of SMA-enabled Active Chevron Prototypes under Representative Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Cabell,Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Silcox, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Control of jet noise continues to be an important research topic. Exhaust-nozzle chevrons have been shown to reduce jet noise, but parametric effects are not well understood. Additionally, thrust loss due to chevrons at cruise suggests significant benefit from active chevrons. The focus of this study is development of an active chevron concept for the primary purpose of parametric studies for jet noise reduction in the laboratory and secondarily for technology development to leverage for full scale systems. The active chevron concept employed in this work consists of a laminated composite structure with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). SMA actuators are embedded on one side of the neutral axis of the structure such that thermal excitation, via joule heating, generates a moment and deflects the structure. The performance of two active chevron concepts is demonstrated in the presence of representative flow conditions. One of the concepts is shown to possess significant advantages for the proposed application and is selected for further development. Fabrication and design changes are described and shown to produce a chevron prototype that meets the performance objectives.

  20. PROFIL KESULITAN BELAJAR FISIKA POKOK BAHASAN KELISTRIKAN SISWA SMA DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Rusilowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan profil kesulitan belajar Fisika, khususnya pokok bahasan Kelistrikan yang dialami oleh siswa SMA di kota Semarang. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa SMA kelas X di kota Semarang, diambil secara cluster, dari SMA negeri dan swasta peringkat I, II, dan III, sebanyak 214 siswa. Kesulitan belajar didiagnosis dengan lima pendekatan, yaitu tujuan pembelajaran, pengetahuan prasyarat, profil materi, miskonsepsi, dan pengetahuan terstruktur. Kesulitan belajar Kelistrikan antara lain disebabkan oleh rendahnya penguasaan konsep, lemahnya kemampuan matematis, dan kekurangmampuan mengkonversi satuan. Penyebab kesulitan belajar dalam pengetahuan terstruktur adalah rendahnya kemampuan: verbal, menggunakan skema, membuat strategi pemecahan masalah, dan membuat algoritma. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesulitan belajar Kelistrikan rata-rata terjadi pada sub pokok bahasan: Kuat Arus Listrik, Hukum Ohm, Hambatan Penghantar, Hukum Kirchof II, Energi & Daya Listrik, dan Transformator. Sebagian siswa masih mengalami miskonsepsi terhadap konsep Hukum Ohm dan Hambatan Penghantar. Bagi siswa  sekolah peringkat III mengalami kesulitan belajar di semua aspek dan materi Kelistrikan Kata kunci : profil, kesulitan belajar, kelistrikan

  1. PENGUASAAN KONSEP MATERI KINEMATIKA PADA SISWA SMA KELAS X DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PEMBELAJARAN MULTIREPRESENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustini Purwanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is a mixed methods study aiming at discovering kinematics material concept mastery on X Graders of Senior High School. The subject of this study consisted of 35 students in SMA Negeri 1 Batu. The instrument of this study was multiple choice test amounted to 20 items comprised of three materials which include rectilinear motion, parabolic motion, and circular motion which are represented by representation format. The results showed that the conceptual mastery of the three materials is confirmed improving in the average category. It indicated that multi-representation learning could improve the conceptual mastery on kinematics material. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian mixed methods yang bertujuan mengungkap penguasaan konsep materi kinematika pada siswa SMA kelas X. Subjek penelitian terdiri atas 35 siswa di SMA Negeri 1 di Kota Batu. Instrumen tes berupa soal pilihan ganda sebanyak 20 butir yang terdiri atas 3 materi, yaitu gerak lurus, gerak parabola, dan gerak melingkar yang disajikan dalam berbagai format representasi. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep pada ketiga materi mengalami kenaikan dalam kategori sedang. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pembelajaran multi representasi dapat meningkatkan penguasaan konsep materi kinematika.

  2. A fuzzy PID-controlled SMA actuator for a two-DOF joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhenyun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloy (SMA actuator is a potential advanced component for servo-systems of aerospace vehicles and aircraft. This paper presents a joint with two degrees of freedom (DOF and a mobility range close to ±60° when driven by SMA triple wires. The fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID-controlled actuator drive was designed using antagonistic SMA triple wires, and the resistance feedback signal made a closed loop. Experiments showed that, with the driving responding frequency increasing, the overstress became harder to be avoided at the position under the maximum friction force. Furthermore, the hysteresis gap between the heating and cooling paths of the strain-to-resistance curve expanded under this condition. A fuzzy logic control was considered as a solution, and the curves of the wires were then modeled by fitting polynomials so that the measured resistance was used directly to determine the control signal. Accurate control was demonstrated through the step response, and the experimental results showed that under the fuzzy PID-control program, the mean absolute error (MAE of the rotation angle was about 3.147°. In addition, the investigation of the external interference to the system proved the controllable maximum output.

  3. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelastic constitutive model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures was recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilever beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilever beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  4. Evaluation of Fatigue Life of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Relationship to Dynamic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdel Aziz, Mahrez; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture. PMID:25050406

  5. Analysis on Factors Affecting the Self-Repair Capability of SMA Wire Concrete Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crack expansion of concrete is the initial damage stage of structures, which may cause greater damage to structures subject to long-term loads or under extreme conditions. In recent years, the application of intelligent materials to crack self-repair has become a hotspot among researchers. In order to study the influence of factors on the self-repair capability of shape memory alloy (SMA wire concrete beam, both theoretical and experimental methods were employed for analysis. For the convenience of experiment, composite materials (epoxy cement mortar and silicone polymer clay instead of concrete were used. The SMA wires were externally installed on and internally embedded in epoxy resin cement mortar beams and silicone polymer clay beams. Comparison of crack repair situation between two installation methods turns out that both methods possess their own advantages and disadvantages and should be employed according to the actual situation. The influence of unbonded length on the self-repair capability of embedded type SMA wire beams and the necessary minimum unbonded length to achieve self-repair function were studied. The results state clearly that the longer the unbonded length is, the better the crack repair situation is.

  6. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Akademik Menggunakan Aplikasi Jibas pada SMA Negeri 9 Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SMA Negeri 9 Padang is one of the institutions engaged in the field of education, which requires the design of software to manage and run all school activities, one of which is the Academic Information System (SIA. SIA currently in SMA 9 Padang yet well integrated, so it still has many shortcomings in meeting the needs of the school or institution, in particular to deal with academic problems. Therefore, it needs to be implemented Academic Information System that can overcome the various shortcomings earlier. Implementation of this application starts with a preliminary study. Activities, the introduction of the school as a whole with interviews and observations, identify business processes academically at school is running and then make the proposed system as terkomputerisasinya, which is described by using the tools of Business Process Model Notation (BPMN, as well as the depiction of a working model of the system to be applied using use case diagram. The next stage is to study the literature of various books and journals to find the theoretical basis and related research. Then selecting software for SIA School, after the configuration and customization of the software modules, and the latter carry out the implementation and testing. These results indicate that the software SIA Schools that have been selected and applied that JIBAS applications, which can solve the problems on SMA Negeri 9 Padang

  7. Evaluation of fatigue life of CRM-reinforced SMA and its relationship to dynamic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdel Aziz, Mahrez; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Koting, Suhana

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.

  8. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  9. PROFIL KESULITAN BELAJAR FISIKA POKOK BAHASAN KELISTRIKAN SISWA SMA DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Rusilowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan profil kesulitan belajar Fisika, khususnya pokok bahasan Kelistrikan yang dialami oleh siswa SMA di kota Semarang. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa SMA kelas X di kota Semarang, diambil secara cluster, dari SMA negeri dan swasta peringkat I, II, dan III, sebanyak 214 siswa. Kesulitan belajar didiagnosis dengan lima pendekatan, yaitu tujuan pembelajaran, pengetahuan prasyarat, profil materi, miskonsepsi, dan pengetahuan terstruktur. Kesulitan belajar Kelistrikan antara lain disebabkan oleh rendahnya penguasaan konsep, lemahnya kemampuan matematis, dan kekurangmampuan mengkonversi satuan. Penyebab kesulitan belajar dalam pengetahuan terstruktur adalah rendahnya kemampuan: verbal, menggunakan skema, membuat strategi pemecahan masalah, dan membuat algoritma. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesulitan belajar Kelistrikan rata-rata terjadi pada sub pokok bahasan: Kuat Arus Listrik, Hukum Ohm, Hambatan Penghantar, Hukum Kirchof II, Energi & Daya Listrik, dan Transformator. Sebagian siswa masih mengalami miskonsepsi terhadap konsep Hukum Ohm dan Hambatan Penghantar. Bagi siswa  sekolah peringkat III mengalami kesulitan belajar di semua aspek dan materi Kelistrikan Kata kunci : profil, kesulitan belajar, kelistrikan

  10. SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water using faucet-like valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su

    2017-04-01

    An artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator with high strain and high power density are under development, and an SMA(Shape memory alloy) spring is a good actuator for this application. In this study, an artificial muscle composed of a silicon tube and a bundle of SMA(Shape memory alloy) springs is evaluated. A bundle of SMA springs consists of five SMA springs which are fabricated by using SMA wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and hot and cool water actuates it by heating and cooling SMA springs. A faucet-like valve was also developed to mix hot water and cool water and control the water temperature. The mass of silicon tube and a bundle of SMA springs is only 3.3 g and 2.25 g, respectively, and the total mass of artificial muscle is 5.55 g. It showed good actuating performance for a load with a mass of 2.3 kg and the power density was more than 800 W/kg for continuous valve switching with a cycle of 0.6 s. The faucet-like valve can switch a water output from hot water to cold water within 0.3s, and the artificial muscle is actuated well in response to the valve position and speed. It is also presented that the temperature of the mixed water can be controlled depending on the valve position, and the displacement of the artificial muscle can be controlled well by the mixed water. Based on these results, SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water could be applicable to the human arm-like robot manipulators.

  11. The expression of α-SMA in the painful traumatic neuroma: potential role in the pathobiology of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hede; Gao, Weiyang; Pan, Zhijun; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Cunyi

    2012-12-10

    The exact mechanism of neuroma-associated pain is not yet fully understood, thus contributing to the substantial challenge faced in managing patients with painful neuromas. We aimed to observe the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the painful traumatic neuroma and to investigate its possible roles in the cause of neuroma-associated pain. Its expression is considered to be a useful phenotypic marker for myofibroblast, and may contribute to its increased contractile activity. We collected peripheral neuroma specimens prospectively and subsequently divided them into two groups: painful (n=21) and non-painful (n=27) based on blinded preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. We also harvested normal nerve specimens from the discarded limbs as a control group (n=8). We performed immunohistological studies to observe the expression of α-SMA in each group, and calculated the expression level by a high-resolution pathological image analysis system. There was no positive staining of α-SMA observed in the control group, slight positive staining in the non-painful group, and obviously positive staining in the painful group. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that VAS scores were significantly associated with the expression intensity of α-SMA (R=0.831; pSMA was positively related to the scale of VAS (R(2)=0.691, pSMA may play certain roles in painful traumatic neuroma, either as a direct cause of neuroma-associated pain or as an indirect marker of local mechanical stimuli, and 2) the presence of α-SMA in the painful group may provide rationale for transpositional procedures in the management of traumatic neuroma. The persistent existence of α-SMA in the painful group and the correlation with VAS scores may provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Expertise concerning the request of a basic license for a SMA final repository at Wellenberg; Gutachten zum Gesuch um Rahmenbewilligung fuer ein SMA-Endlager am Wellenberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    In January 1994, the Association for Nuclear Disposal Wellenberg (GNW) sent a request to the Swiss Federal Council for the granting of a basic license for a repository for low- and intermediate-level (SMA) radioactive wastes under the Wellenberg mountain in Wolfenschiessen. SMA wastes are continuously produced during the operation and dismantling of Swiss nuclear power plants, reprocessing of spent fuel assemblies as well as from medicine, industry and research. They have to be safely disposed of. The Federal Agency for the Safety of the Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the project from the point of view of nuclear safety and protection from radioactivity. For its part the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (KSA) has also to state its opinions on the project and on the HSK's report. The project presented is the only one which is foreseen in Switzerland for the storage of already existing radioactive wastes and for those which will be produced during the next decades. The maximum capacity of 150,000 m{sup 3} represents a sufficient reserve; the storage caves, however, will be excavated according to effective needs. The repository serves exclusively to the disposal of radioactive wastes with a very low content of long-life radionuclides. Previously, the HSK recognised the choice of Wellenberg as an appropriate site, which should, however, be more intensively analysed as far as the construction of an SMA final storage repository is concerned. The geographical characteristics of the site are favourable because of the presence of a cantonal road and a railway in the neighbourhood, which should make the transport of heavy loads easy. The Wellenberg site lies in a geologically complex region of the Alps. The geology and hydro-geology of the region were accurately defined as a result of drilling. The present knowledge of the site's properties allows a positive judgement of the projected repository. Many questions still remain

  13. MEDIA FOTO UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN MENULIS DESKRIPSI SISWA SMA NEGERI 2 KEBUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Tri Indrianingrum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan meningkatnya keterampilan menulis deskripsi berbahasa Jawa siswa kelas X SMA N 2 Kebumen dengan menggunakan pendekatan proses dan media foto. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas atau classroom action research. Desain yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah desain penelitian tindakan Kemmis dan Taggart. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dua siklus. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X2 SMA Negeri 2 Kebumen tahun pelajaran 2011/2012 yang berjumlah 32 siswa. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan observasi, catatan lapangan dan tes. Validitas yang digunakan adalah validitas demo-krasi, validitas proses dan validitas dialogis. Teknik yang digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian tindakan ini adalah deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 siswa dapat menemukan ide lebih cepat, (2 siswa dapat membuat kerangka karangan, (3 siswa dapat mengembangkan kerang-ka karangan, (4 siswa dapat berpikir sistematis, (5 siswa semakin antusiasnya dalam mengikuti pembelajaran menulis karangan, (6 siswa paham melakukan proses mengarang. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ PHOTOGRAPH MEDIA TO IMPROVE THE DESCRIPTION WRITING SKILL OF THE STUDENTS AT SMA NEGERI 2 KEBUMEN   Abstract This research is aimed to describe and to explain the improvement in the description writing skill of the tenth grade students at SMA N 2 Kebumen by using  approach process and photography media. This research is classroom action research or classroom action research. The design used in this research was action research design by Kemmis and Taggart. The subject of the research was X2 class students at SMA Negeri 2 Kebumen in the academic year of 2011/2012, consisted of 32

  14. Intraoperative Motor Symptoms during Brain Tumor Resection in the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) without Positive Mapping during Awake Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Riho; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Masashi; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Awake surgery could be a useful modality for lesions locating in close proximity to the eloquent areas including primary motor cortex and pyramidal tract. In case with supplementary motor area (SMA) lesion, we often encounter with intraoperative motor symptoms during awake surgery even in area without positive mapping. Although the usual recovery of the SMA syndrome has been well documented, rare cases with permanent deficits could be encountered in the clinical setting. It has been difficult to evaluate during surgery whether the intraoperative motor symptoms lead to postoperative permanent deficits. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the intraoperative motor symptoms could be reversible, further to provide useful information for making decision to continue surgical procedure of tumor resection. Eight consecutive patients (from July 2012 to June 2014, six men and two women, aged 33-63 years) with neoplastic lesions around the SMA underwent an awake surgery. Using a retrospective analysis of intraoperative video records, intraoperative motor symptoms during tumor resection were investigated. In continuous functional monitoring during resection of SMA tumor under awake conditions, the following motor symptoms were observed during resection of the region without positive mapping: delayed motor weakness, delay of movement initiation, slowness of movement, difficulty in dual task response, and coordination disturbance. In seven patients hemiparesis observed immediately after surgery recovered to preoperative level within 6 weeks. During awake surgery for SMA tumors, the above-mentioned motor symptoms could occur in area without positive mapping and might be predictors for reversible SMA syndrome.

  15. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) resection during pancreatectomy for malignant disease of the pancreas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam; Baltatzis, Minas; Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2017-06-01

    Resection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during pancreatectomy is performed infrequently and is undertaken with the aim of removing non-metastatic locally advanced pancreatic tumours. SMA resection reports also encompass resection of other visceral vessels. The consequences of resection of these different arteries are not necessarily equivalent. This is a focused systematic review of the outcome of SMA resection during pancreatectomy for cancer. A computerized search of the English language literature was undertaken for the period 1st January 2000 through 30th April 2016. The keywords "Pancreatic surgery" and "Vascular resections" were used. Thirteen studies reported 70 patients undergoing pancreatectomy with SMA resection from 10,726 undergoing pancreatectomy. Individual patient-level outcome data were available for 25. Median (range) accrual period was 132 (48-372) months. Reported peri-operative morbidity ranged from 39% to 91%. There were 5 peri-operative deaths in the 25 patients with individual-outcome data. Median survival was 11 months (95% Confidence interval 9.5-12.5 months; standard error 0.8 months). SMA resection during pancreatectomy is undertaken infrequently incurring high peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Median survival is 11 (95% CI 9.5-12.5) months. In contemporary practice there is no evidence to support SMA resection during pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ASAH1 variant causing a mild SMA phenotype with no myoclonic epilepsy: a clinical, biochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosto, Massimiliano; Aureli, Massimo; Castellotti, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Valsecchi, Manuela; Lualdi, Susanna; Mazzotti, Raffaella; Pensato, Viviana; Rota, Silvia; Gellera, Cinzia; Filocamo, Mirella; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    ASAH1 gene encodes for acid ceramidase that is involved in the degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acids within lysosomes. ASAH1 variants cause both the severe and early-onset Farber disease and rare cases of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME), phenotypically characterized by childhood onset of proximal muscle weakness and atrophy due to spinal motor neuron degeneration followed by occurrence of severe and intractable myoclonic seizures and death in the teenage years. We studied two subjects, a 30-year-old pregnant woman and her 17-year-old sister, affected with a very slowly progressive non-5q SMA since childhood. No history of seizures or myoclonus has been reported and EEG was unremarkable. The molecular study of ASAH1 gene showed the presence of the homozygote nucleotide variation c.124A>G (r.124a>g) that causes the amino acid substitution p.Thr42Ala. Biochemical evaluation of cultured fibroblasts showed both reduction in ceramidase activity and accumulation of ceramide compared with the normal control. This study describes for the first time the association between ASAH1 variants and an adult SMA phenotype with no myoclonic epilepsy nor death in early age, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ASAH1-related SMA. ASAH1 molecular analysis should be considered in the diagnostic testing of non-5q adult SMA patients.

  17. S&MA Internship to Support Orion and the European Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Connor

    2016-01-01

    As a University Space Research Association (USRA) intern for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) during the summer 2016 work term, I worked on three main projects for the Space Exploration Division (NC) of the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate. I worked on all three projects concurrently. One of the projects involved facilitating the status and closure of technical actions that were created during European Service Module (ESM) safety reviews by the MPCV Safety & Engineering Review Panel (MSERP). The two main duties included accurately collecting and summarizing qualitative data, and communicating that information to the European Space Agency (ESA) and Airbus (ESA's prime contractor) in a clear, succinct and precise manner. This project also required that I create a report on the challenges and opportunities of international S&MA. With its heavy emphasis on soft skills, this project taught me how to communicate better, by showing me how to present and share information in an easy-to-read and understandable format, and by showing me how to cooperate with and culturally respect international partners on a technical project. The second project involved working with the Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) Working Group to create the first full version of the Orion TPS PFMEA. The Orion TPS PFMEA Working Group met twice a week to analyze the Avcoat block installation process for failure modes, the failure modes effects, and how such failure modes could be controlled. I was in charge of implementing changes that were discussed in meeting, but were not implemented real time. Another major task included creating a significant portion of the content alongside another team member outside the two weekly meetings. This project caused me to become knowledgeable about TPS, heatshields, space-rated manufacturing, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). The project also helped me to become better at working with a small

  18. Trinucleotide insertion in the SMN2 promoter may not be related to the clinical phenotype of SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Yusoff, Surini; Tominaga, Koji; Okinaga, Takeshi; Kitai, Yukihiro; Takarada, Toru; Kubo, Yuji; Saito, Kayoko; Sa'adah, Nihayatus; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Saito, Toshio; Nishio, Hisahide

    2015-08-01

    More than 90% of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients show homozygous deletion of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1). They retain SMN2, a highly homologous gene to SMN1, which may partially compensate for deletion of SMN1. Although the promoter sequences of these two genes are almost identical, a GCC insertion polymorphism has been identified at c.-320_-321 in the SMN1 promoter. We have also found this insertion polymorphism in an SMN2 promoter in an SMA patient (Patient A) who has SMA type 2/3. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the GCC insertion polymorphism in SMA patients, and to evaluate its effect on SMN transcription efficiency. Fifty-one SMA patients, including Patient A, were involved in this study. SMN2 transcript levels in white blood cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Screening of the GCC insertion polymorphism was performed using denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography. The transcription efficiency of the promoter with the insertion mutation was evaluated using a reporter-gene assay. All SMA patients in this study were homozygous for SMN1 deletion. Patient A retained two copies of SMN2, and showed only a small amount of SMN2 transcript in white blood cells. We detected a GCC insertion polymorphism at c.-320_-321 only in Patient A, and not in 50 other SMA patients. The polymorphism had a slight but significant negative effect on transcription efficiency. Patient A was judged to be an exceptional case of SMA, because the GCC insertion polymorphism rarely exists in SMN1-deleted SMA patients. The GCC insertion polymorphism did not enhance the transcriptional efficiency of SMN2. Thus, this GCC insertion polymorphism in the SMN2 promoter may not be associated with the milder phenotype of the patient. Patient A suggests that there are other unknown factors modifying the clinical phenotype of SMA. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PEMAHAMAN NILAI-NILAI DEMOKRASI SISWA MELALUI METODE INQUIRI PADA PEMBELAJARAN PKN DI SMA NEGERI 1 GAMPING SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christopel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: meningkatkan pemahaman nilai demokrasi melalui metode inquiri pada pembelajaran PKn di kelas XA SMA Negeri 1 Gamping Sleman.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK. Subjek penelitian adalah 34 siswa SMA Negeri 1 Gamping Sleman. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri observasi, test skala sikap, dan analisis dokumen. Intrumen penelitian terdiri atas tes sikap, tes hasil belajar, lembar observasi perilaku siswa, catatan lapangan, dan pedoman wawancara. Teknik analisis data kualitatif yang digunakan adalah model Miles & Huberman, sedangkan data yang bersifat kuantitatif dianalisis dengan statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penerapan metode inquiri dapat meningkatkan nilai demokrasi siswa. Pada siklus 1 rerata 67,64, siklus 2 rerata 72,64 dan siklus 3 rerata 78,38. Dengan demikian melalui penerapan metode inquiri dapat meningkatkan pemahaman nilai- nilai demokrasi siswa di SMA Negeri 1 Gamping Sleman.   UNDERSTANDING OF DEMOCRATIC VALUES IN STUDENTS THROUGH THE INQUIRY METHOD OF TEAHING CIVIC EDUCATION IN SMA 1 GAMPINGSLEMAN Asbtract This study aim: to improve students’ democratic through value the application of the inquiry method in civic education learning in the Grade XA of SMA NegeriGampingSleman,This was a classroom action research (CAR, The sesearch subjects 34 grade X SMA Negeri 1 Gamping. The data collecting techniques consisted of observations, an attitude scale test and a document analysis. The research instruments consisted of an attitude test, a learning achievement test, student behavior observation sheets, field notes, and interview guides. The technique to analyze the qualitative data was the Miles &Huberman model, while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result shows that the application of the inquiry method can improve students’ democratic value. In the first cycle the mean was 67.64, in the

  20. Candidate proteins, metabolites and transcripts in the Biomarkers for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (BforSMA clinical study.

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    Richard S Finkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative motor neuron disorder resulting from a homozygous mutation of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene. The gene product, SMN protein, functions in RNA biosynthesis in all tissues. In humans, a nearly identical gene, SMN2, rescues an otherwise lethal phenotype by producing a small amount of full-length SMN protein. SMN2 copy number inversely correlates with disease severity. Identifying other novel biomarkers could inform clinical trial design and identify novel therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel candidate biomarkers associated with disease severity in SMA using unbiased proteomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional single evaluation was performed in 108 children with genetically confirmed SMA, aged 2-12 years, manifesting a broad range of disease severity and selected to distinguish factors associated with SMA type and present functional ability independent of age. Blood and urine specimens from these and 22 age-matched healthy controls were interrogated using proteomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic discovery platforms. Analyte associations were evaluated against a primary measure of disease severity, the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS and to a number of secondary clinical measures. RESULTS: A total of 200 candidate biomarkers correlate with MHFMS scores: 97 plasma proteins, 59 plasma metabolites (9 amino acids, 10 free fatty acids, 12 lipids and 28 GC/MS metabolites and 44 urine metabolites. No transcripts correlated with MHFMS. DISCUSSION: In this cross-sectional study, "BforSMA" (Biomarkers for SMA, candidate protein and metabolite markers were identified. No transcript biomarker candidates were identified. Additional mining of this rich dataset may yield important insights into relevant SMA-related pathophysiology and biological network associations. Additional prospective studies are needed

  1. Staurosporine augments EGF-mediated EMT in PMC42-LA cells through actin depolymerisation, focal contact size reduction and Snail1 induction – A model for cross-modulation

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    Thompson Erik W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A feature of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT relevant to tumour dissemination is the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton/focal contacts, influencing cellular ECM adherence and motility. This is coupled with the transcriptional repression of E-cadherin, often mediated by Snail1, Snail2 and Zeb1/δEF1. These genes, overexpressed in breast carcinomas, are known targets of growth factor-initiated pathways, however it is less clear how alterations in ECM attachment cross-modulate to regulate these pathways. EGF induces EMT in the breast cancer cell line PMC42-LA and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (ST induces EMT in embryonic neural epithelial cells, with F-actin de-bundling and disruption of cell-cell adhesion, via inhibition of aPKC. Methods PMC42-LA cells were treated for 72 h with 10 ng/ml EGF, 40 nM ST, or both, and assessed for expression of E-cadherin repressor genes (Snail1, Snail2, Zeb1/δEF1 and EMT-related genes by QRT-PCR, multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR and immunofluorescence +/- cycloheximide. Actin and focal contacts (paxillin were visualized by confocal microscopy. A public database of human breast cancers was assessed for expression of Snail1 and Snail2 in relation to outcome. Results When PMC42-LA were treated with EGF, Snail2 was the principal E-cadherin repressor induced. With ST or ST+EGF this shifted to Snail1, with more extreme EMT and Zeb1/δEF1 induction seen with ST+EGF. ST reduced stress fibres and focal contact size rapidly and independently of gene transcription. Gene expression analysis by MT-PCR indicated that ST repressed many genes which were induced by EGF (EGFR, CAV1, CTGF, CYR61, CD44, S100A4 and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4. Examination of the public database of breast cancers revealed tumours exhibiting higher Snail1 expression have an increased risk of disease-recurrence. This was not seen for Snail2, and Zeb1/δEF1 showed a reverse

  2. [Effect of two different acellular lung matrices on α-SMA expression in A549 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, Z Y; Weng, J; Wang, Z B; Mei, J; Du, X H; Wang, L

    2017-01-24

    Objective: To explore the effect of acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal group and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)group (n=10 each). The pulmonary fibrosis was induced by Bleomycin. Normal and fibrotic decellularized lungs were made, then sections with 500 μm thick were cut by a standard Vibratome. None scaffold was set as control group. A549 cells were seeded dropwise into different slices (normal and fibrotic scaffolds), and cultured for one week in vitro. The expression of α-SMA was measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: In control group, the expression of α-SMA protein was positive in A549 cells by immunofluorescence staining. However, it expressed weakly both in normal and fibrotic scaffold group, and the fluorescence intensity in fibrotic scaffold group was significant lower than that in normal group (PSMA mRNA in normal and fibrotic scaffold group were (0.70±0.11) and (0.55±0.12), which were significant lower than that of control group (1.28±0.21) (PSMA mRNA in fibrotic scaffold group was decreased compared to that in normal scaffold group (PSMA in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. It may inhibit the movement of A549 cells in acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices, especially in acellular fibrotic lung scaffold.

  3. Profil Problem Emosi/ Perilaku Pada Remaja Pelajar SMP-SMA Di Kota Semarang

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    Annastasia Ediati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to identify the profile of emotional/behavioral problems on adolescents students of junior and senior high school (SMP-SMA in Semarang, Central Java. The subjects comprised 568 students (grade VII and X; males and females, aged between 13-17 years. Data were collected using the Indonesian translation of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The results of data analysis showed that adolescents in the junior high school/SMP reported emotional/behavioral problems more frequently than the adolescents in the senior high school/SMA (t (566 = 2.08, p = .038, especially in terms of social relations (t (566 = 2.92, p = .004, thought problems (t (566 = 2.47, p = .014, somatic complaints (t(566 = 2.98, p = .002, rule-breaking behavior (t (566 = 6.63, p < .001, and externalizing problems (t(566 = 3,37; p = .001. Gender differences was found in the adolescents’ emotional/behavioral problems. In group of junior high school students (SMP, girls reported more emotional problems than boys (t(335 = -3.55; p < .001, particularly in anxiety/depression (t(335 = -6.51; p < .001; withdrawal (t(335 = -4.26; p < .001, somatic complaints (t(335 = -2.86; p = .004; social problems (t(335 = -3.30; p = .001, attention problems (t(335 = -2.39; p = .017; and internalizing problem (t(335 = -5.76; p < .001. In group of senior high school students (SMA, boys reported more externalizing problems (t(229 = 2.10; p = .037 and rule-breaking behavior (t(229 = 4.44; p < .001 than girls. In contrasts, girls reported more somatic complaints than boys (t(229 = -3.09; p = .001. Adolescents’ emotional/behavioral problems should gained more attention. Preventive as well as curative intervention is needed, particularly intervention that sensitive to gender and age, which also involve significant figures for adolescents (parents, school teachers, and peers.

  4. Motion and vibration control of a slewing flexible structure by SMA actuators and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, F. C.; Tusset, A. M.; Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Brasil, R. M. L. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents two approaches to the problem of vibration and positioning control of a flexible structural beam driven by a DC motor. The position is controlled by the current applied to the DC motor armature. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator controls vibrations of the flexible structural beam. The State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique is used to provide a control action which uses sub-optimal control and system local stability search. The robustness of these two controllers is tested by sensitivity analysis to parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  5. Biocompatibility evaluation of NiTi SMA stent via intervenient therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Jing-su; LIU; Kun-peng; KOU; Ya-ming

    2005-01-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) stent with film are the long-term implanted medical devices which could be used in human's organ, such as esophagus, bile duct, urethra-prostate and blood vessel, by intervene therapy. It is very important to have a good biocompatibility for implanted device. According to standard ISO 10993, we completed biocompatibility evaluation of NiTi stent that included following tests: cytotoxicity, sensitization, genotoxicity, hemolysis and acute systemic toxicity, The results of tests qualify the NiTi stent, and provide an optimistic conclusion for the eventual use of NiTi stent as implanted medical devices.

  6. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESS ON THE MARTENSITIC TRANS- FORMATION OF SPUTTER-DEPOSITED SMA THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Wang; D. Xu; B.C. Cai

    2002-01-01

    TiNi thin films were sputter-deposited on circular single-crystal silicon substrates un-der various sputtering parameters. The crystal structure and residual stress of the as-deposited films were determined by X-ray diffraction and substrate-curvature method.The phenomenon of stress-suppressed martensitic transformation was observed. It isconsidered that the residual stresses in SMA thin films based on circular substratesact as balanced biaxial tensile stresses. The status of equilibrant delays the align-ment of self-accommodated variants and the volume shrinkage during the martensitictransformation.

  7. Kemampuan Mahasiswa Pendidikan Fisika dalam Menyelesaikan Soal Ujian Nasional Fisika SMA Ditinjau dari Daerah Sekolah Asal

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    Yoga Budi Bhakti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 untuk mengetahui kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyelesaikan soal UN mata pelajaran Fisika ditinjau dari asal SMA/MA, dan (2 untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan yang berarti antara mahasiswa yang asal SMA/MA yang berbeda dalam menyelesaikan soal UN mata pelajaran fisika. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada mahasiswa Prodi Pendidikan Fisika semester enam. Teknik analisis dilakukan menggunakan analisis deskriptif, sedangkan pengujian hipotesis menggunakan Rumus Kruskal-Wallis. Kesimpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah: (1 Rerata skor kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyelesaikan soal UN mata pelajaran fisika adalah 40,64, Jika ditinjau dari asal SMA/MA yang berada di Kota Jakarta adalah 50,31, di Kota Depok adalah 30,41; Kota Tangerang adalah 34,50; Kota Bekasi adalah 43,41; Kota Karawang adalah 42,50; di Kota Indonesia Timur adalah 37,00 dan di Kota Medan adalah 40,00 dan (2 Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara ketujuh kelompok dalam hal menyelesaikan soal UN mata pelajaran Fisika tingkat SMA/MA. The purpose of this study was: (1 to know the ability of students to solve national examination problems of physics subjects in terms of the origin of schools (2 to know whether there is a significant difference between the students of different school in completing the national exam of subjects physics. Research subject is physics education program student at six semester. Analyzes were performed using descriptive analysis, hypothesis testing while using Kruskal-Wallis formula. Conclusions from the study are: (1 The average score of physical education student's ability to solve national examination problems of physics subjects is 40.64, in terms of the origin of Schools in Jakarta is 50.31; Depok is 30.41; Tangerang is 34.50; Bekasi is 43.41; Karawang is 42.50; City of East Indonesia is 37.00 dan Medan is 40.00 and (2 There is a difference significantly among the seven groups in completing the national examination on

  8. PENGARUH PROJECT BASED LEARNING TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS SISWA KELAS X SMA NEGERI SIDOARJO

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    Nuril Maghfiroh

    2016-08-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran Project Based Learning terhadap keterampilan proses sains siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 4 Sidoarjo. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Quasi Eksperimen dengan rancangan pretest postest non-equivalent control group design. Penentuan sampel mempertimbangkan kemampuan kognitif yang setara antara dua kelas yang menjadi kelompok kontrol dan kelompok eksperimen. Keterampilan proses sains diukur melalui tes tulis yang kemudian dianalisis dengan rubrik penilaian yang sudah disesuaikan untuk setiap aspek keterampilan proses sains. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh pembelajaran Project Based Learning terhadap keterampilan proses sains siswa.

  9. Application of Laguerre based adaptive predictive control to Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Giraud-Audine, C; Patoor, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of an existing adaptive predictive controller to control some Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) linear actuators. The model consists in a truncated linear combination of Laguerre filters identified online. The controller stability is studied in details. It is proven that the tracking error is asymptotically stable under some conditions on the modelling error. Moreover, the tracking error converge toward zero for step references, even if the identified model is inaccurate. Experimental results obtained on two different kind of actuator validate the proposed control. They also show that it is robust with regard to input constraints.

  10. Association between CYP1A1m1 gene polymorphism and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N B; Silva, C T X; Frare, A B; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2014-12-04

    The CYP1A1 gene is related to the generation of secondary metabolites that are capable of inducing DNA damage. The CYP1A1m1 polymorphism has been examined in many studies, and is located in a region near loci that have been linked to glaucoma, including the locus GLC1I. As a result, this polymorphism has been related to several diseases that are influenced by exposure to xenobiotic as well as primary open-angle glaucoma. We compared the prevalence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism in 152 Brazilian patients, 100 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, and 52 normal controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (N = 100) was 16%, for genotype w1/m1, the frequency was 77%, and for m1/m1 it was 7%. Among the control group (N = 52), the frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene was 54%, the frequency of w1/m1 was 46%, and the frequency of m1/m1 was 0%. The presence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism may interfere with xenobiotic metabolism and exacerbate direct or indirect damage to the optic nerve. These CYP1A1m1 polymorphisms may be risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma.

  11. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and Christopher J Morris...Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and Christopher J Morris Sensors and...Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and

  12. SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the invasive front predict extracapsular spread and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, J; Triantafyllou, A; Liloglou, T; Kalirai, H; Lloyd, B; Hanlon, R; Shaw, R J; Sibson, D R; Risk, J M

    2014-11-25

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) in cervical lymph nodes is the single-most prognostic clinical variable in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but diagnosis is possible only after histopathological examination. A promising biomarker in the primary tumour, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) has been shown to be highly prognostic, however, validated biomarkers to predict ECS prior to primary treatment are not yet available. In 102 OSCC cases, conventional imaging was compared with pTNM staging. SERPINE1, identified from expression microarray of primary tumours as a potential biomarker for ECS, was validated through mRNA expression, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray from the same cohort. Similarly, expression of SMA was also compared with its association with ECS and survival. Expression was analysed separately in the tumour centre and advancing front; and prognostic capability determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both SERPINE1 and SMA expression at the tumour-advancing front were significantly associated with ECS (PSMA+/SERPINE1+ expression in combination was highly significantly associated with poor survival (PSMA were superior to MRI for the detection of ECS (sensitivity: SERPINE1: 95%; SMA: 82%; combination: 81%). A combination of SMA and SERPINE1 IHC offer potential as prognostic biomarkers in OSCC. Our findings suggest that biomarkers at the invasive front are likely to be necessary in prediction of ECS or in therapeutic stratification.

  13. Stimulation of the pre-SMA influences cerebral blood flow in frontal areas involved with inhibitory control of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, I; Cho, S S; Antonelli, F; Houle, S; Jahanshahi, M; Ko, J H; Strafella, A P

    2013-09-01

    Selection of the most appropriate response necessitates inhibition of competing or prepotent responses. It is important to characterize which cortical areas are relevant to achieve response inhibition. Using the stop signal task, previous imaging studies revealed consistent activation in the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). However, imaging alone suffers from the limitation that it can only provide neuronal correlates and cannot establish causality between brain activation and behavior. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can be used to temporarily interfere with the function of a cortical area considered to play a specific role in the behavior. Thus, we combined rTMS with H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) scans during the stop signal task, to test whether rTMS-induced changes in excitability of the right pre-SMA influenced response inhibition. We found that rTMS over the pre-SMA increased the efficiency of the inhibitory control over prepotent ongoing responses. A significant interaction was present in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) along with an increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left pre-SMA, left IFG, right premotor and right inferior parietal cortex. These areas best fitted the path analysis model in the effective connectivity model. The results of this study suggest that stimulation of the right pre-SMA, by interfering with its activity, may have a significant impact on response inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Segregation of Central Ventricular Conduction System Lineages in Early SMA+ Cardiomyocytes Occurs Prior to Heart Tube Formation

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    Caroline Choquet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac conduction system (CCS transmits electrical activity from the atria to the ventricles to coordinate heartbeats. Atrioventricular conduction diseases are often associated with defects in the central ventricular conduction system comprising the atrioventricular bundle (AVB and right and left branches (BBs. Conducting and contractile working myocytes share common cardiomyogenic progenitors, however the time at which the CCS lineage becomes specified is unclear. In order to study the fate and the contribution to the CCS of cardiomyocytes during early heart tube formation, we performed a genetic lineage analysis using a Sma-CreERT2 mouse line. Lineage tracing experiments reveal a sequential contribution of early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes to different cardiac compartments, labeling at embryonic day (E 7.5 giving rise to the interventricular septum and apical left ventricular myocardium. Early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes contribute to the AVB, BBs and left ventricular Purkinje fibers. Clonal analysis using the R26-confetti reporter mouse crossed with Sma-CreERT2 demonstrates that early Sma expressing cardiomyocytes include cells exclusively fated to give rise to the AVB. In contrast, lineage segregation is still ongoing for the BBs at E7.5. Overall this study highlights the early segregation of the central ventricular conduction system lineage within cardiomyocytes at the onset of heart tube formation.

  15. Scleraxis modulates bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-Smad1 protein-smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) signal transduction in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideharu; Tominaga, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Takeshi; Abe, Naoko; Kishi, Seiji; Nagai, Kojiro; Murakami, Taichi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Doi, Toshio

    2012-06-08

    Activation of mesangial cells (MCs), which is characterized by induction of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) expression, contributes to a key event in various renal diseases; however, the mechanisms controlling MC differentiation are still largely undefined. Activated Smad1 induced SMA in a dose-dependent manner in MCs. As a direct regulating molecule for SMA, we identified and characterized scleraxis (Scx) as a new phenotype modulator in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-exposed MCs. Scx physically associated with E12 and bound the E-box in the promoter of SMA and negatively regulated the AGE-induced SMA expression. Scx induced expression and secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), thereby controlling the Smad1 activation in AGE-treated MCs. In diabetic mice, Scx was concomitantly expressed with SMA in the glomeruli. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) was further induced by extended treatment with AGE, thereby dislodging Scx from the SMA promoter. These data suggest that Scx and Id1 are involved in the BMP4-Smad1-SMA signal transduction pathway besides the TGFβ1-Smad1-SMA signaling pathway and modulate phenotypic changes in MCs in diabetic nephropathy.

  16. La utilización de la gestión del conocimiento y la toma de decisiones en el área de proceso monitoreo y control de proyecto (PMC de CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Molina Villalobos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XXI se evidencia un elevado interés en la gestión del conocimiento, incluso forma parte de las estrategias utilizadas en la administración de los recursos intangibles con el objetivo de alcanzar ventajas competitivas. La gestión del conocimiento y la gestión de la calidad constituyen áreas imprescindibles para el crecimiento y la mejora económica de la organización. La inexistencia de la gestión de la calidad en las empresas dedicadas al software, el crecimiento de los presupuestos y los atrasos en las entregas pactadas, son algunos de los problemas que existían en el desarrollo del software hasta el surgimiento de Capability Madurity Model Integration, modelo que enseña cuál es el camino a seguir para alcanzar determinado nivel de madurez de la propia organización o de determinadas áreas de procesos. Una de las áreas de procesos de Capability Madurity Model Integration es PMC, que se encarga de la toma de acciones correctivas en presencia de determinadas desviaciones de la planificación. La toma de decisiones inteligentes, a partir de una buena gestión del conocimiento, para la ejecución de acciones correctivas del PMC, contribuye a que estas acciones sean eficientes y generen solo los costos necesarios en dependencia de la magnitud de la desviación analizada.

  17. SAR studies on carboxylic acid series M(1) selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Scott D; Beshore, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence from preclinical and early proof-of-concept studies suggesting that selective modulation of the M1 muscarinic receptor is efficacious in cognitive models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of nonselective M1 muscarinic agonists have previously shown positive effects on cognitive function in AD patients, but were limited due to cholinergic adverse events thought to be mediated by pan activation of the M2 to M5 sub-types. Thus, there is a need to identify selective activators of the M1 receptor to evaluate their potential in cognitive disorders. One strategy to confer selectivity for M1 is the identification of allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators, which would target an allosteric site on the M1 receptor rather than the highly conserved orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. BQCA has been identified as a highly selective carboxylic acid M1 PAM and this review focuses on an extensive lead optimization campaign undertaken on this compound.

  18. M1 Protein Allows Group A Streptococcal Survival in Phagocyte Extracellular Traps through Cathelicidin Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Lauth, Xavier; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; McNamara, Case W; Myskowski, Sandra; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Beall, Bernard; Ghosh, Partho; Richard L Gallo; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    M1 protein contributes to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) systemic virulence by interfering with phagocytosis and through proinflammatory activities when released from the cell surface. Here we identify a novel role of M1 protein in the stimulation of neutrophil and mast cell extracellular trap formation, yet also subsequent survival of the pathogen within these DNA-based innate defense structures. Targeted mutagenesis and heterologous expression studies demonstrate M1 protein promotes resistance...

  19. Preparation and characterization of SMA/S-POSS hybrid membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Erdong; SHI Pengfei; CHANG Young-wook

    2006-01-01

    A novel sulfonated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane(S-POSS) monomer was synthesized successfully in this article. S-POSS acted as a donor of sulfonic acid group and reacted with poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the modification through introduction of peaks characteristic of ester linkages and carboxylic groups. The SMA/S-POSS hybrid membranes were fabricated from different S-POSS contents. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the hybrid membranes were studied with changing S-POSS content from 5wt.% to 30wt.%. It was found that the proton conductivity and the methanol permeability were dependent on the S-POSS content. Both of proton conductivity and methanol permeability properties improve with increasing S-POSS content. The proton conductivities of the hybrid membranes are in the range of 10-3-10-2 S·cm-1,and the range of methanol permeabilities was between 10-8 and 10-7 cm2·s-1. The membranes show good thermal properties characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  20. SMA foil-based elastocaloric cooling: from material behavior to device engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruederlin, F.; Ossmer, H.; Wendler, F.; Miyazaki, S.; Kohl, M.

    2017-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect associated with the stress-induced first order phase transformation in pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) films and foils is of special interest for cooling applications on a miniature scale enabling fast heat transfer and high cycling frequencies as well as tunable transformation temperatures. The focus is on TiNi-based materials having the potential to meet the various challenges associated with elastocaloric cooling including large adiabatic temperature change and ultra-low fatigue. The evolution of strain and temperature bands during tensile load cycling is investigated with respect to strain and strain-rate by in situ digital image correlation and infrared thermography with a spatial resolution in the order of 25 µm. Major design issues and challenges in fabrication of SMA film-based elastocaloric cooling devices are discussed including the efficiency of heat transfer as well as force recovery to enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) on the system level. Advanced demonstrators show a temperature span of 13 °C after 30 s, while the COP of the overall device reaches almost 10% of Carnot efficiency.

  1. PENERAPAN PEER ASSESSMENT DAN SELF ASSESSMENT PADA TES FORMATIF HIDROKARBON UNTUK FEEDBACK SISWA SMA KELAS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwi Siswaningsih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dengan judul “Penerapan Peer Assessment dan Self Assessment Pada Tes Formatif Hidrokarbon Untuk Feedback Siswa SMA Kelas X” ini bertujuan memberikan feedback kepada siswa untuk meningkatkan pengetahuannya serta mendapatkan metode penilaian yang inovatif. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Penerapan peer assessment dan self assessment dilaksanakan melalui enam tahapan. Rincian keterlaksanaan setiap tahapan yaitu tahap pemotivasian siswa (75,44%, tahap pelatihan peer assessment dan self assessment (71,05%, tahap pelaksanaan tes formatif dan pemberian feedback (59,65%, tahap pelaksanaan peer assessment, self assessment dan pemberian feedback (90,35%, tahap keterlaksanaan pengkomunikasian hasil (100%, serta tahap pemanfaatan hasil (78,95%. Subjek penelitian penelitian ini adalah siswa SMA kelas X sebanyak 19 orang. Dalam pelaksanaan peer assessment, sebanyak 47,37% siswa berkategori sangat baik, 31,58% siswa berkategori baik, 15,79% siswa berkategori cukup, dan 5,26% siswa berkategori kurang. Dalam pelaksanaan self assessment, sebanyak 57,89% siswa berkategori sangat baik, 15,79%, berkategori baik, dan 26,32% siswa berkategori cukup. Sebanyak 63,16% siswa merasa puas dengan feedback yang diberikan dengan menggunakan rubrik peer assessment dan self assessment pada tes formatif hidrokarbon. Sebanyak 63,16% siswa merasa memperoleh manfaat berupa feedback dari rubrik peer assessment dan self assessment. Tahap pemotivasian dan pelatihan yang kurang maksimal menyebabkan pelaksanaan peer assessment dan self assessment kurang optimal. Kata Kunci: feedback, hidrokarbon, peer assessment, self assessment

  2. Recent developments on SMA actuators: predicting the actuation fatigue life for variable loading schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2017-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs), due to their ability to repeatably recover substantial deformations under applied mechanical loading, have the potential to impact the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy industries as weight and volume saving replacements for conventional actuators. While numerous applications of SMA actuators have been flight tested and can be found in industrial applications, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components, are not widely implemented and frequently one-off designs, and are generally overdesigned due to a lack of understanding of the effect of the loading path on the fatigue life and the lack of an accurate method for predicting actuator lifetimes. In recent years, multiple research efforts have increased our understanding of the actuation fatigue process of SMAs. These advances can be utilized to predict the fatigue lives and failure loads in SMA actuators. Additionally, these prediction methods can be implemented in order to intelligently design actuators in accordance with their fatigue and failure limits. In the following paper, both simple and complex thermomechanical loading paths have been considered. Experimental data was utilized from two material systems: equiatomic Nickel-Titanium and Nickelrich Nickel-Titanium.

  3. PENYUSUNAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN BERBANTUAN KOMPUTER UNTUK PBL DAN KEEFEKTIFANNYA TERHADAP CTS PESERTA DIDIK SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Kurniawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate: (1 the feasibility of computer-assisted learning media based problem based learning (PBL on Environmental Pollution materials for high school students of class X, and (2 the effectiveness of instructional media for improving of critical thinking skill (CTS learners class X SMA Negeri 5 Magelang. This research was adapted from the ADDIE model of development that includes analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. Products validated by subject matter experts, media experts, educators of Biology, and peer reviewer. Subject of this study is tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang. Collecting data was using questionnaires, observation sheets, and test critical thinking skills. The media according to the validator and the students is classified to the category of good. Instructional media was improved to learners' critical thinking skills effectively, which demonstrated by the significant value of 0:00. This results showed that media computer-assisted learning based PBL is effective for improving of the critical thinking skills of learners.

  4. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Elektrokimia untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII IPA dengan Pendekatan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Fatmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kelayakan, dan keefektifan modul elektrokimia un-tuk siswa SMA kelas XII hasil pengembangan. Modul Elektrokimia hasil pengembangan terdiri dari dua kegiatan belajar, yaitu untuk materi sel Volta dan untuk materi sel elektrolisis. Hasil penilaian oleh dua dosen kimia Universitas Negeri Malang dan dua guru kimia kelas XII sebagai ahli isi/materi pem-belajaran untuk kelayakan isi adalah 92,9%, untuk kelayakan dan kelengkapan penyajian adalah 91,1%, dan untuk kelayakan kebahasaan adalah 92,3%, yang tergolong kriteria sangat layak. Secara keseluruhan rata-rata nilai kelayakan tersebut adalah 92,1. Efektifitas modul hasil pengembangan di-tunjukkan oleh persepsi dan hasil belajar siswa. Persepsi siswa diperoleh dari penilaian siswa terhadap modul hasil pengembangan. Pada ujicoba lapangan terbatas diperoleh nilai rata-rata untuk seluruh aspek adalah 81,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Perolehan rata-rata nilai hasil belajar siswa untuk aspek kognitif adalah 83,3, untuk aspek afektif adalah  82,3, dan untuk aspek psikomotorik adalah 83,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Hasil keseluruhan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Modul Elektrokimia untuk sis-wa SMA Kelas XII IPA hasil pengembangan sangat layak dan sangat efektif digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran.Kata kunci: inkuiri terbimbing, modul elektrokimia, model 4-D

  5. High shape recovery Ni–Ti SMA wire produced from electron beam melted ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul – IFMS, 79.331-040, Corumba, MS (Brazil); Tosetti, J.P.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Otubo, J., E-mail: jotubo@ita.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► It was obtained a remarkable complete shape recovery up to 9% pre-strain. ► Shape recovery higher than 9% was obtained for a pre-strain up to 15%. ► These good results are attributed to a high purity NiTi SMA wire produced from EBM ingot. -- Abstract: Shape recovery of a 2 mm in diameter shape memory alloy (SMA) wire produced from EB melted NiTi ingot is presented. The results indicate complete shape recovery as high as 9% and a shape recovery higher than 9% for a pre-strain between 10 and 15%. These excellent results are attributed to the high purity of starting ingot with carbon content of 0.016 wt%. It was observed no change in reverse martensitic transformation temperature for pre-strain up to 9% and for higher pre-strain there was a 50 °C increase in reverse martensitic transformation peak temperatures indicating some work hardening of the material.

  6. Thermo Vacuum and Vibration Tests on a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuated Release Mechanism for Microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Seen the efforts to find alternative actuation systems to the pyrotechnic devices, our department is developing and testing release mechanisms, for microsatellites, actuated by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires. Following up increasing interest on SMA actuated mechanisms, the author has been developing, in the last few years, a mechanism of which a prototype version has been presented in the last IAF congress. The present work describes the test phase of the mechanism, aimed at proving the capability of the parts of withstanding the severe space environmental conditions. The mechanism task is to open a steel rope loop, replacing a pyrotechnic guillotine. It is activated by three SMA wires that, shrinking, pull a sleeve and separate the two parts of the mechanism where the extremities of the rope are fixed. In the paper, after a short review of the past design and realization activities, we describe the tests conducted and their results. After the room condition tests, the mechanism has been set up for thermo-vacuum tests. In high vacuum condition, 10-10 bar, we validate the thermodynamic model for the SMA alloy. In room condition, free convection around the wires subtracts a large amount of the energy provided to the wires due to Joule effect, and then we have been obliged to actuate the mechanism with a power greater than that needed in vacuum, providing a constant current of 5 Amperes. In the thermo-vacuum chamber of the University we can simulate space environment and we can power the mechanism exactly with the current (3A) that will be actually employed during the mission. Moreover, the environmental control of the chamber allowed us to test the real capability of the mechanism, and of the SMA wires, to operate correctly at different temperatures. Inside the chamber a set of lamps irradiate energy toward the mechanism and heat it, simulating the solar and albedo radiation. Cooling the internal surface of the chamber with liquid nitrogen, we can simulate the

  7. Clarifying the Nature of the Brightest Submillimetre Sources via SMA Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Younger, J D; Peck, A B; Ivison, R J; Biggs, A D; Chapin, E L; Clements, D L; Dye, S; Greve, T R; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Smail, I; Krips, M; Petitpas, G R; Wilner, D; Schael, A M; Wilson, C D

    2008-01-01

    We present high-resolution interferometric imaging of LH850.02, the brightest 850- and 1200-um submillimetre (submm) galaxy in the Lockman Hole, at 890um with the Submillimetre Array (SMA). Our high-resolution submm imaging detects LH850.02 at >6-sigma as a single compact (size <1 arcsec or <8 kpc) point source and yields its absolute position to ~0.2-arcsec accuracy. LH850.02 has two alternative radio counterparts within the SCUBA beam (LH850.02N & S), both of which are statistically very unlikely to be so close to the SCUBA source position by chance. However, the precise astrometry from the SMA shows that the submm emission arises entirely from LH850.02N, and is not associated with LH850.02S (by far the brighter of the two alternative identifications at 24-um). Fits to the optical-infrared multi-colour photometry of LH850.02N & S indicate that both lie at z~3.3, and are therefore likely to be physically associated. At these redshifts, the 24um-to-submm flux density ratios suggest that LH 850.0...

  8. Design, fabrication, and testing of a SMA hybrid composite jet engine chevron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Control of jet noise continues to be an important research topic. Exhaust nozzle chevrons have been shown to reduce jet noise, but parametric effects are not well understood. Additionally, thrust loss due to chevrons at cruise suggests significant benefit from deployable chevrons. The focus of this study is development of an active chevron concept for the primary purpose of parametric studies for jet noise reduction in the laboratory and technology development to leverage for full scale systems. The active chevron concept employed in this work consists of a laminated composite structure with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The actuators are embedded on one side of the middle surface such that thermal excitation generates a moment and deflects the structure. A brief description of the chevron design is given followed by details of the fabrication approach. Results from bench top tests are presented and correlated with numerical predictions from a model for such structures that was recently implemented in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. Excellent performance and agreement with predictions is demonstrated. Results from tests in a representative flow environment are also presented. Excellent performance is again achieved for both open- and closed-loop tests, the latter demonstrating control to a specified immersion into the flow. The actuation authority and immersion performance is shown to be relatively insensitive to nozzle pressure ratio (NPR). Very repeatable immersion control with modest power requirements is demonstrated.

  9. MENGEMBANGKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF DAN KEMANDIRIAN BELAJAR SISWA SMA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyanto A.M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuasi eksperimen dengan desain pretest-posttest kelompok kontrol eksperimental yang dilakukan pada tahun 2014 dengan menggunakan pendekatan Problem Based Learning (PBL untuk menginvestigasi kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis dan kemandirian belajar siswa SMA. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 93  orang siswa kelas 11 pada sebuah SMA di Karawang. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan adalah  tes berpikir kreatif matematis, skala dan sikap tentang kemandirian belajar. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa yang mendapat pendekatan PBL (berada pada level baik  lebih baik daripada siswa yang mendapat pembelajaran  konvensional (berada pada level sedang. Tidak terdapat  perbedaan kemandirian belajar  siswa pada kedua kelompok pembelajaran, dan  keduanya berada pada level cukup baik. Selain itu terdapat asosiasi yang cukup antara kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik dan kemandirian belajar siswa dimana siswa juga menunjukkan persepsi yang positif terhadap pembelajaran berbasis masalah. Kata Kunci : Berpikir kreatif, kemandirian belajar, PBL.

  10. KESIAPAN SISWA SMA MENGIKUTI UJIAN MASUK PERGURUAN TINGGI DAN PERAN KONSELOR SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Anjar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proses menyiapkan untuk mengikuti tes SNMPTN merupakan hal yang sering membuat calon mahasiswa mengalami berbagai masalah. Menyiapkan diri untuk mengikuti seleksi diperlukan baik secara fisik, materi, dan juga psikologis. Penelitian ini diawali dari adanya masalah yang terjadi dalam penyiapan seleksi masuk perguruan tinggi negeri oleh calon mahasiswa yang berasal dari sekolah swasta.. Masalah tersebut seperti tingginya pelanggaran tata tertib sekolah/kurang disiplin, belajar kurang termotivasi untuk belajar. Kondisi ini sangat mempengaruhi kesiapan siswa untuk mencapai kesuksesan lulus SNMPTN. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kesiapan siswa SMA mengikuti ujian masuk perguruan tinggi dan peran guru BK/Konselor sekolah. Populasi penelitian adalah siswa SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Metro sejumah 212 siswa. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kuantitatif, dan angket digunakan sebagai instrumen pengumpul data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa skor rata-rata sebesar 80.53 dengan persentase rata-rata sebesar 26,84 %, berada pada ketegori tidak siap. Peran guru BK dalam menyiapkan siswa pada sekolah swasta yaitu membantu siswa terkait dengan sekolah lanjutan dengan membuat program bimbingan konseling baik secara individual ataupun secara klasikal. Meningkatkan kerjasama dengan sesama guru dan orang tua wali murid untuk pembinaan dan pengembangan potensi anak. Kata Kunci: Kesiapan Siswa, Peran guru BK

  11. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN GENERATIF (MPG UNTUK PELAJARAN MATEMATIKA DI KELAS X SMA NEGERI 8 PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Lusiana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terapan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifan penerapan MPG untuk pelajaran matematika di kelas X SMA Negeri 8 Palembang,  di tinjau dari ketuntasan belajar yang dicapai setelah mengikuti pembelajaran dengan menggunakan MPG, keaktifan siswa selama di terapkan MPG, sikap terhadap penerapan MPG. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian terapan (applied research dengan menggunakan metode eksperimen dan survey. Pengumpulan data dengan observasi, tes, angket serta wawancara . Data yang dikumpulkan dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dengan menggunakan teknik analisa data statistik persentase skor serta tabel keefektifan penerapan model. Dari hasil penelitian  disimpulkan bahwa keefektifan penerapan MPG untuk pelajaran matematika dikelas X SMA Negeri 8 Palembang yang ditinjau dari aktivitas siswa, ketuntasan belajar serta sikap siswa terhadap penerapan MPG adalah 76.32 % dengan kategori ”Efektif” , dengan rincian  keaktifan siswa selama diterapkan MPG tergolong sangat tinggi dengan rata-rata persentase skor 81.8% dan  ketuntasan belajar siswa secara klasikal mencapai   76.32%, serta  Sikap siswa  terhadap penerapan MPG tergolong positif dengan rata-rata persentase skor 76.5%. Kata kunci: Penerapan, MPG, Pelajaran Matematika.

  12. Fabrication of wrist-like SMA-based actuator by double smart soft composite casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Hugo; Wei, Wang; Bhandari, Binayak; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    A new manufacturing method for smart soft composite (SSC) actuators that consists of double casting a SSC actuator to produce an actuator with non-linear shape memory alloy (SMA) wire positioning is proposed. This method is used to manufacture a tube-shaped SSC actuator in which the SMA wires follow the curvature of the tube and is capable of pure-twisting deformations while sustaining a cantilever load. The concept is tested by measuring the maximum twisting angle and a simple control method is proposed to control the twisting angle of the actuator. Then, a soft robotic wrist with a length of 18 cm is built, its load-carrying capability is tested by measuring the cantilever force required for deforming the actuator, and its load-carrying capability during actuation is tested by loading one end with different objects and actuating the actuator. This wrist actuator shows good repeatability, is capable of twisting deformations up to 25° while holding objects weighing 100 g, and can sustain loads above 2 N without undergoing buckling.

  13. Non-viral FoxM1 gene delivery to hepatocytes enhances liver repopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D; Liu, C-C; Wang, M-J; Li, J-X; Chen, F; Yao, H; Yu, B; Lu, L; Borjigin, U; Chen, Y-X; Zhong, L; Wangensteen, K J; He, Z-Y; Wang, X; Hu, Y-P

    2014-05-22

    Hepatocyte transplantation as a substitute strategy of orthotopic liver transplantation is being studied for treating end-stage liver diseases. Several technical hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve the therapeutic liver repopulation, such as the problem of insufficient expansion of the transplanted hepatocytes in recipient livers. In this study, we analyzed the application of FoxM1, a cell-cycle regulator, to enhance the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes. The non-viral sleeping beauty (SB) transposon vector carrying FoxM1 gene was constructed for delivering FoxM1 into the hepatocytes. The proliferation capacities of hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had a higher proliferation rate than wild-type (WT) hepatocytes in vitro. In comparison with WT hepatocytes, the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had an enhanced level of liver repopulation in the recipient livers at both sub-acute injury (fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)(-/-) mice model) and acute injury (2/3 partial hepatectomy mice model). Importantly, there was no increased risk of tumorigenicity with FoxM1 expression in recipients even after serial transplantation. In conclusion, expression of FoxM1 in hepatocytes enhanced the capacity of liver repopulation without inducing tumorigenesis. FoxM1 gene delivered by non-viral SB vector into hepatocytes may be a viable approach to promote therapeutic repopulation after hepatocyte transplantation.

  14. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  15. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  16. MODEL PERMAINAN AKTIVITAS LUAR KELAS UNTUK MENGEMBANGKAN RANAH KOGNITIF, AFEKTIF, DAN PSIKOMOTORIK SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Setyawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan model-model permainan Aktivitas Luar kelas (ALK yang layak digunakan sebagai materi pembelajaran penjas, serta efektif untuk mengembangkan ranah kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotorik siswa SMA. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut: (1 pengumpulan informasi di lapangan, (2 menganalisis informasi yang telah dikumpulkan, (3 mengembangkan produk awal, (4 validasi ahli dan revisi, (5 uji coba skala kecil dan  revisi, (6 uji coba skala besar dan revisi, dan (7 pembuatan produk final. Uji coba skala kecil dilakukan terhadap siswa kelas X-D dan XI-IPA 4 dari SMA N I Prambanan berjumlah 66 orang. Uji coba skala besar dilakukan terhadap siswa kelas X-G, X-H, XI-IPS 3, dan XI-BHS dari SMA N I Prambanan berjumlah 132 orang. Instrumen pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu; (1 pedoman wawancara, (2 skala nilai, (3 pedoman observasi permainan, (4 pedoman observasi keefektifan permainan, (5 pedoman observasi terhadap guru pelaku uji coba, dan (6 rubrik penilaian siswa. Teknik analisis data dengan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian berupa tujuh model permainan yang layak dan efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran penjas, hal ini dibuktikan dengan perolehan persentase sebesar 100% dari data hasil kuesioner skala nilai, observasi model permainan, observasi keefektifan permainan, dan observasi guru pelaku uji coba. Model permainan juga efektif untuk mengembangkan ranah kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotorik, yang dibuktikan dengan terjadinya peningkatan persentase nilai rata-rata siswa sebesar 21%. Kata kunci: model, permainan, aktivitas luar kelas, kognitif, afektif, psikomotorik THE OUTDOOR ACTIVITY GAME MODEL TO DEVELOP THE ASPECT OF COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE, AND PSYCHOMOTOR OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Abstract This study aims at producing outdoor activity game models which are proper to be used for physicall education learning and developing cognitive, affective, and

  17. Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Expression of SMN in Peripheral Blood of SMA Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Czech

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2 copy numbers. Here, we report the results of a biomarker study characterizing SMA patients of varying disease severity. SMN copy number, mRNA and Protein levels in whole blood of patients were measured and compared against a cohort of healthy controls. The results show differential regulation of expression of SMN2 in peripheral blood between patients and healthy subjects.

  18. Pengembangan Modul Fisika Pokok Bahasan Hukum Newton bagi Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (Tunanetra Di Kelas Inklusi SMA/MA Kelas X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriany Yudistia R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Siswa tunanetra SMA Muhammadiyah 4 Yogyakarta, MAN Maguwoharjo dan SMAN 1 Sewon belum memiliki sumber belajar mandiri berupa modul Braille khususnya pada materi Hukum Newton. Berdasarkan kenyataan ini maka dibutuhkan sebuah sumber belajar yang didesain khusus bagi siswa tunanetra di kelas Inklusi yakni modul Braille pada pokok bahasan Hukum Newton.Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk: (1 mengembangkan modul fisika pokok bahasan Hukum Newton untuk siswa tunanetra SMA/MA kelas X sebagai sumber belajar mandiri, (2 mengetahui kualitas modul fisika Braille materi Hukum Newton untuk siswa tunanetra SMA/MA kelas X, (3 mengetahui respon siswa terhadap modul fisika Braille yang telah dikembangkan.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian R & D dengan model prosedural yang mengadaptasi dari pengembangan perangkat model 4-D, yakni Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate. Instrumen penelitian berupa angket kualitas modul yaitu menggunakan skala Likert yang dibuat dalam bentuk checklist. Instrumen untuk siswa berupa angket respon siswa yaitu menggunakan skala Guttman yang dibuat dalam bentuk checklist. Modul dinilai kualitasnya oleh 3 ahli materi, 1 ahli media, dan 2 guru fisika SMA/MA. Kelayakan modul berdasarkan respon siswa pada uji coba terbatas sebanyak 2 siswa dan uji coba luas sebanyak 8 siswa.Hasil penelitian berdasarkan penilaian dari ahli materi, ahli media dan guru fisika SMA/MA modul memiliki kategori sangat baik (SB. Persentase keidealan menurut ahli materi adalah 87,88%; persentase keidealan menurut ahli media adalah 90,00% dan persentase keidealan menurut guru Fisika SMA/MA adalah 75,00%. Respon siswa terhadap modul fisika Braille pada uji coba terbatas diperoleh persentase 97,22%; sedangkan pada uji coba luas diperoleh persentase 89,58%. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa modul layak dijadikan sebagai salah satu sumber belajar mandiri bagi siswa tunanetra.

  19. The DcpS inhibitor RG3039 improves survival, function and motor unit pathologies in two SMA mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliotti, Rocky G.; Cardona, Herminio; Singh, Jasbir; Bail, Sophie; Emery, Carina; Kuntz, Nancy; Jorgensen, Michael; Durens, Madel; Xia, Bing; Barlow, Courtenay; Heier, Christopher R.; Plasterer, Heather L.; Jacques, Vincent; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Jarecki, Jill; Rusche, James; DiDonato, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein due to the functional loss of the SMN1 gene and the inability of its paralog, SMN2, to fully compensate due to reduced exon 7 splicing efficiency. Since SMA patients have at least one copy of SMN2, drug discovery campaigns have sought to identify SMN2 inducers. C5-substituted quinazolines increase SMN2 promoter activity in cell-based assays and a derivative, RG3039, has progressed to clinical testing. It is orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant and has been shown to be an inhibitor of the mRNA decapping enzyme, DcpS. Our pharmacological characterization of RG3039, reported here, demonstrates that RG3039 can extend survival and improve function in two SMA mouse models of varying disease severity (Taiwanese 5058 Hemi and 2B/− SMA mice), and positively impacts neuromuscular pathologies. In 2B/− SMA mice, RG3039 provided a >600% survival benefit (median 18 days to >112 days) when dosing began at P4, highlighting the importance of early intervention. We determined the minimum effective dose and the associated pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure relationship of RG3039 and DcpS inhibition ex vivo. These data support the long PK half-life with extended pharmacodynamic outcome of RG3039 in 2B/− SMA mice. In motor neurons, RG3039 significantly increased both the average number of cells with gems and average number of gems per cell, which is used as an indirect measure of SMN levels. These studies contribute to dose selection and exposure estimates for the first studies with RG3039 in human subjects. PMID:23736298

  20. Expression of Muscle-Specific MiRNA 206 in the Progression of Disease in a Murine SMA Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Valeria; Boido, Marina; De Amicis, Elena; Piras, Antonio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease, the most common in infancy, and the third one among young people under 18 years. The major pathological landmark of SMA is a selective degeneration of lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive skeletal muscle denervation, atrophy, and paralysis. Recently, it has been shown that specific or general changes in the activity of ribonucleoprotein containing micro RNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the development of SMA. Additionally miRNA-206 has been shown to be required for efficient regeneration of neuromuscular synapses after acute nerve injury in an ALS mouse model. Therefore, we correlated the morphology and the architecture of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of quadriceps, a muscle affected in the early stage of the disease, with the expression levels of miRNA-206 in a mouse model of intermediate SMA (SMAII), one of the most frequently used experimental model. Our results showed a decrease in the percentage of type II fibers, an increase in atrophic muscle fibers and a remarkable accumulation of neurofilament (NF) in the pre-synaptic terminal of the NMJs in the quadriceps of SMAII mice. Furthermore, molecular investigation showed a direct link between miRNA-206-HDAC4-FGFBP1, and in particular, a strong up-regulation of this pathway in the late phase of the disease. We propose that miRNA-206 is activated as survival endogenous mechanism, although not sufficient to rescue the integrity of motor neurons. We speculate that early modulation of miRNA-206 expression might delay SMA neurodegenerative pathway and that miRNA-206 could be an innovative, still relatively unexplored, therapeutic target for SMA.

  1. PMC Control Design Principle and Program Implementation of Auxiliary Function M Commands in CNC Machine Tool Based on FANUC Oi Mate-MD System%基于FANUC Oi Mate-MD 系统的数控辅助功能M指令的PMC控制设计原理和程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼刚义; 杨新刚; 杨鹏

    2013-01-01

    数控机床辅助功能指令由CNC和PMC共同处理,但其具体运算处理过程国内还未见文献系统报道。用一具体实例对冷却液M指令的运行机制、PMC程序设计及加载、辅助功能M指令机床验证进行了详细阐述,有助于更好地使用、维护机床和利用系统提供的PMC梯形图来快速诊断故障,特别是对理解PMC程序、扩展开发机床控制功能提供了参考。%CNC machine tool auxiliary function commands are handled by CNC and PMC,but their concrete operation processes have not been reported in domestic literature system. Based on the specific examples,the operation mechanism of coolant M instruc-tion,the design and load of PMC program,the auxiliary function commands machine validation,were elaborated in detail. This will contribute to a better use and maintenance,and using PMC ladder diagram interface of NC system to diagnose fault quickly,especially it provides reference for understanding the PMC program,extending the development of machine control function.

  2. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA in 107,611 pregnant women during the period 2005-2009: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common neuromuscular autosomal recessive disorder. The American College of Medical Genetics has recently recommended routine carrier screening for SMA because of the high carrier frequency (1 in 25-50 as well as the severity of that genetic disease. Large studies are needed to determine the feasibility, benefits, and costs of such a program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009. A three-stage screening program was used: (1 pregnant women were tested for SMA heterozygosity; (2 if the mother was determined to be heterozygous for SMA (carrier status, the paternal partner was then tested; (3 if both partners were SMA carriers, prenatal diagnostic testing was performed. During the study period, a total of 2,262 SMA carriers with one copy of the SMN1 gene were identified among the 107,611 pregnant women that were screened. The carrier rate was approximately 1 in 48 (2.10%. The negative predictive value of DHPLC coupled with MLPA was 99.87%. The combined method could detect approximately 94% of carriers because most of the cases resulted from a common single deletion event. In addition, 2,038 spouses were determined to be SMA carriers. Among those individuals, 47 couples were determined to be at high risk for having offspring with SMA. Prenatal diagnostic testing was performed in 43 pregnant women (91.49% and SMA was diagnosed in 12 (27.91% fetuses. The prevalence of SMA in our population was 1 in 8,968. CONCLUSION: The main benefit of SMA carrier screening is to reduce the burden associated with giving birth to an affected child. In this study, we determined the carrier frequency and genetic risk and provided carrier couples with genetic services, knowledge, and genetic counseling.

  3. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S19_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S19 PSEUDO: Unlabeled and labeled Medicago samples for flavonoid annotation using ShiftedIonsFinde...03_M1) and for a blank sample (S16_M1 to S16_M3) are used. Import file name is unlabeling SE37_DS5 Flavonoid like peak search by ShiftedIonsFinder ...

  4. Radioiodinated ganglioside G/sub M1/: A potential tracer for neurological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Gallagher, P.; Magistretti, P.L.; Ghidoni, R.

    1985-05-01

    Ganglioside G/sub M1/ is a glycosphingolipid which appears to be involved in the regeneration of damaged neuronal tissue. In addition, it is being investigated clinically in the treatment of various neuropathies. If labeled with the appropriate isotope, G/sub M1/ might be useful as a probe of these processes, particularly if it accumulates preferentially in cerebral infarcts. The G/sub M1/ -tyr derivative was labeled with I-125 in 75% yield using the Iodogen method and at micellar concentration was isolated using gel chromatography. Binding of I-125 (G/sub M1/ -tyr) to rat neuronal membranes was measured at concentrations of 5,50, and 500 nM. The amount bound (8,26, and 158 pmol/gm membrane) was similar to that reported for H-3(G/sub M1/). The biodistribution of I-125(G/sub M1/ -tyr) in mice at both micellar and monomeric concentrations was also similar to that of H-3(G/sub M1/). However, at monomeric concentrations, thyroid uptake of I-125 was about 10 times higher than at micellar concentrations, suggesting differential dehalogenation of the two forms. Initial studies in the gerbil stroke model suggest that the uptake of I-125(G/sub M1/ -tyr) in damaged brain is twice that in normal tissue.

  5. CONDITIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF MUSCARINIC M(1) RECEPTORS IN VAGALLY MEDIATED CONTRACTION OF GUINEA-PIG BRONCHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBERGE, REJ; ROFFEL, AF; ZAAGSMA, J

    The involvement of ganglionic muscarinic M(1) receptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of the M(1)-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on vagus nerve (VNS, preganglionic) and electrical field

  6. A note on predicting recessions in the euro area using real M1

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Boysen-Hogrefe

    2012-01-01

    Real M1 is a renowned leading indicator used to forecast real economic activity. This note provides evidence that real M1 is also a suitable recession indicator that gave a clear and early signal for the Great Recession as long as changes in money demand are controlled for.

  7. Analytical Method (M): SE37_S18_M1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37_S18_M1 This is a pseudo metadata prepared for integrated analyses of multiple ...datasets. The raw data obtained from LC-Orbitarp MS analyses for Medicago samples and a blank sample (S17_M1

  8. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5,...

  9. Experimental Conditions: SE19_S2_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE19_S2_M1_D1 SE19 Grobal triacylglycerol analysis in mouse liver and white adipose... tissue (WAT) by high resolution LC/ESI-QTOF MS/MS SE19_S2 Mouse white adipose tissue (WAT) SE19_S2_M1 20 ug

  10. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Brás, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, H.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  11. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Bras, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, J.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  12. Nanometre-accurate form measurement machine for E-ELT M1 segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    To enable important scientific discoveries, ESO has defined a new ground-based telescope: the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The baseline design features a telescope with a 39-m-class primary mirror (M1), making it the largest and most powerful telescope in the world. The M1 consists of

  13. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  14. The luminosity function of cluster galaxies relations among M$_{1}$, M* and the morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Appodia, B

    1996-01-01

    A study of the luminosity function of 36 Abell clusters of galaxies has been carried out using photographic plates obtained with the Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt telescope. The relation between the magnitude M_1 of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M* has been analyzed. A positive correlation between M* and M_1 is found. However clusters appear segregated in the M_1-M* plane according to their Rood & Sastry class in such a way that on average M_1 becomes brighter while M* becomes fainter going from late to early Rood & Sastry and also Bautz & Morgan classes. Also a partial correlation analysis involving the magnitude M_10 of the 10th brightest galaxy, shows a negative intrinsic correlation between M_1 and M*. These results agree with the cannibalism model for the formation of brightest cluster members, and provide new constraints for theories of cluster formation and evolution.

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  16. RELEVANSI KURIKULUM PRODI PENDIDIKAN SOSIOLOGI ANTROPOLOGI DENGAN KEBUTUHAN MENGAJAR GURU SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Rochana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Materi pembelajaran  Sosiologi dan Antropologi yang diajarkan di SMA senantiasa mengalami perubahan. Sementara  kurikulum Program Studi Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi FIS UNNES tidak banyak mengalami perubahan. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis membahas bagaimana relevansi antara Kurikulum Prodi Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi FIS UNNES dengan kebutuhan mengajar bagi guru Sosiologi dan Antropologi SMA Negeri di Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan  bersifat kasus, pengumpulan data menggunakan metode wawancara tertutup dan terbuka, dan analisis data  menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian  disimpulkan bahwa kurikulum  Program Studi Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi FIS UNNES, masih relevan dengan materi pembelajaran Sosiologi dan Antropologi yang diajarakan di SMA. Saran yang diajukan adalah: perlu diselenggarakan penataran-penataran/diklat-diklat peningkatan penguasaan materi pembelajaran Sosiologi dan Antropologi bagi guru-guru Sosiologi dan Antropologi yang bukan berlatar belakang Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi. Pengangkatan CPNS Guru Sosiologi dan Antropologi perlu diprioritaskan dari lulusan Prodi Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi. Pengembangan kurikulum Program Studi Pendidikan Sosiologi dan Antropologi tetap mengacu pada relevansinya dengan kebutuhan di lapangan.Sociology and Anthropology instructional materials taught in high school are constantly changing, though the curriculum of Sociology and Anthropology FIS Unnes does not change much. In this study, the author discusses the relevance of the curriculum of Sociology and Anthropology of Education Unnes FIS to the needs of teaching for teachers of Sociology and Anthropology Senior high school in Central Java. The method used in this study is a qualitative approach using descriptive methods. Based on the results of the study it is concluded that the curriculum of Sociology and Anthropology

  17. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR GEOGRAFI BERBASIS CERITA LEGENDA NUSANTARA DI KELAS X SMA NASIMA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Deni Aryani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pembelajaran konsep Geografi di kelas X Semester 1 SMA Nasima tahun 2013-2014menunjukkan adanya hambatan berupa rendahnya minat siswa terhadap pembelajaran.Materi ini tingkat kesulitannya tinggi, serta bahan ajar kurang mendukung.Pemilihan bahan ajar cerita legenda memiliki alasan (1 desainnya menarik; (2berisi nilai karakter Indonesia sesuai visi misi SMA Nasima; (3 merupakan latarsuatu tempat, yang merupakan ruang lingkup Geografi yang dapat dikaji dengankonsep esensial Geografi. Bahan ajar diwujudkan dalam bentuk buku Nonteks Pelajaran/buku suplemen/ pendamping yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan aktivitasbelajar siswa dalam pembelajaran. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan metodepenelitian pengembangan dengan tehnik analisis SPSS Uji T dua sampel berpasangan.Efektifitas penggunaan bahan ajar terhadap peningkatan aktivitas siswadalam belajar penguasaan konsep esensial geografi dengan membandingkan datahasil belajar siswa sebelum dan sesudah memakai bahan ajar tersebut. Hasil penelitianmengatakan pada kelompok eksperimen terbukti efektif yaitu Ha diterima, adaperbedaan nilai sebelum dengan sesudah perlakuan. Hasil uji T ini didukung olehhasil pengamatan sikap dengan nilai rata – rata baik pada semua aspek sikap yangdiamati. Namun ada korelasi yang tidak signifikan sebesar 0,175 karena selisih nilaiyang rendah antara sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Learning concept of Geography in Semester 1 class X SMA Nasima 2013-2014 showed somebarriers in the form of students’ low interest towards learning. This material was categorizedas a high degree of difficulty, and the teaching materials was less supportive. There weremany reasons of selecting the teaching materials of legends; (1 it had attractive design; (2 itcontained the value of the Indonesia character according to the vision and mission of NasimaHigh School; (3 it had background of some places, in which the Geography scope could bestudied with Geography essential concepts. Instructional

  18. PENGEMBANGAN BUDAYA SEKOLAH BERPRESTASI: STUDI TENTANG PENANAMAN NILAI DAN ETOS BERPRESTASI DI SMA KARANGTURI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yuliono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan bentuk budaya sekolah berprestasi, proses penanaman nilai dan etos berprestasi kepada peserta didik dan mengetahui implikasi dari pengembangan budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bentuk budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi mencakup empat poin yaitu: keseimbangan antara pembinaan akademik dan nonakademik, penanaman karakter melalui pelajaran, budaya mencintai almamater dan pentingnya nilai kerokhanian. Penanaman nilai dan etos berprestasi pada peserta didik dilakukan melalui kegiatan orientasi sekolah, proses pembelajaran, evaluasi belajar, ekstrakurikuler, penghargaan prestasi, kecintaan terhadap almamater, keteladanan guru, kerjasama dengan orangtua peserta didik dan seragam patriot sebagai media penanaman budaya berprestasi. Implikasi penanaman pengembangan budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi terdapat dalam input (penerimaan siswa baru dan pencarian siswa berpotensi, proses (pengembangan program sekolah serta pengembangan kerjasama dan output (prestasi akademik dan nonakademik serta jumlah alumni yang melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi. The objective of this study is to describe a model of school achievement culture, the cultivation of values ​​and ethos of achievement to students and know the implications of the development of school culture on students’ achievement in Karangturi high school. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Techniques of collecting data were observation, interviews and documentation. This study uses sources and methods triangulation for data validation. The results show that the  school achievement culture in Karangturi high school contains four pillars, namely: a balance between academic and non-academic achievement, building character

  19. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS PROBLEM BASED LEARNING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA DALAM MENYUSUN LAPORAN SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the validity, practicality and effectifity of the development of  learning tools through the test of control class, test of treatment class  and the effectivity test in order to produce biology learning tools based PBL (problem based learning that valid, practical and effective to improve performance in prepared a report to 11th grade of high school students. The development of the learning tools refers to a Borg and Gall development model. Data was collected using observation sheets, validation sheet, questionnaire, and test. Methods of data analysis done by quantitative descriptive analysis of the needs analysis, the validity and practicality of the learning tools. The effectifity of the learning is done by pretest posttest. Effectifity of learning tools analyzed by paired t-test. Results showed that the learning tools otherwise (1 very valid with a percentage of 98.91%, (2 practical with a percentage of 84,68%, and (3 effective with Tvalue amounting to 3,51 (Tvalue> Ttable at significance level of 5%. Based on the results of this study concluded that the PBL Based Learning has met the criteria perfectly valid, prractical, and effective way to improve performance in preparing the reports of students through learning biology in high school, so it can be used in a broader scope. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kebutuhan guru, kelayakan, kepraktisan dan keefektifan dalam pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis Problem Based Learning untuk meningkatkan kinerja dalam menyusun laporan siswa SMA kelas XI Tahun Pembelajaran 2016/2017. Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran mengacu pada model pengembangan Borg and Gall. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan lembar observasi, lembar validasi, angket, dan tes. Metode analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif terhadap analisis kebutuhan, validitas dan kelayakan perangkat pembelajaran. Efektivitas perangkat pembelajaran dilakukan dengan pretest

  20. DETERMINAN KESIAPAN GURU EKONOMI SMA DALAM IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM 2013 DI KABUPATEN PURBALINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Tri Astuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan observasi awal, diketahui bahwa 75% guru ekonomi SMA belum siap dalam mengimplementasikan kurikulum 2013. Selain itu, terdapat kendala dalam implementasi kurikulum 2013 yakni kurangnya fasilitas yang mendukung dan kurangnya pelatihan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh kompetensi guru, pelatihan, fasilitas sekolah, kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan peran pengawas sekolah terhadap kesiapan guru ekonomi SMA dalam implementasi kurikulum 2013 di Kabupaten Purbalingga. Populasi penelitian ini adalah guru ekonomi SMA di Kabupaten Purbalingga yang berjumlah 36 guru. Penelitian ini termasuk dalam penelitian sensus dikarenakan jumlah populasi yang sedikit. Metode yang digunakan dalam pengambilan data adalah angket. Data variabel dianalisis dengan statistik deskriptif dan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian ini secara statistik menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh kompetensi guru, pelatihan, fasilitas sekolah, kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan peran pengawas sekolah secara simultan sebesar 74,5%. Secara parsial kompetensi guru berpengaruh sebesar 14,82%, pelatihan berpengaruh sebesar 30,36%, fasilitas sekolah berpengaruh 15,13% dan kepemimpinan kepala sekolah berpengaruh sebesar 12,74%, sedangkan peran pengawas sekolah tidak berpengaruh terhadap kesiapan guru ekonomi dalam implementasi kurikulum 2013. Based on the beginning observation, it is known that 75% of high school economics teacher is not ready to implement curriculum 2013. Besides, there were obstacles in implementing curriculum 2013 such as the lack of supporting facilities and training. This study investigates whether there are influences of teacher competence, training, school facilities, principal leadership and supervisory roles on senior high school economics teachers in implementing curriculum 2013 in Purbalingga regency. The population of this research was the senior high school economics teachers in Purbalingga regency consisted of 36

  1. EVALUASI KINERJA GURU FISIKA, BIOLOGI DAN KIMIA SMA YANG SUDAH LULUS SERTIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusrizal Yusrizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan (1 mengembangkan instrumen evaluasi kinerja guru yang valid dan reliabel, (2 mengevaluasi kinerja guru Fisika, Biologi, dan Kimia SMA yang sudah terser-tifikasi/menerima tunjangan profesi. Populasi penelitian yaitu seluruh guru Fisika, Biologi dan Kimia SMA tersertifikasi/pene-rima tunjangan profesi yang berada di Kota Banda Aceh, Kabupaten Aceh Besar dan Kabupaten Pidie. Validitas konstruk instrumen yang dikembangkan dibuktikan melalui analisis fak-tor, dan reliabilitasnya diestimasi dengan rumus alpha Cron-bach. Analisis tingkat kinerja ditentukan dengan persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 instrumen yang dikembang-kan terdiri atas 33 butir pernyataan, dan memiliki koefisien reliabilitas konsistensi internal sebesar 0,953; (2 kinerja guru Fisika, Biologi, dan Kimia SMA yang sudah lulus sertifikasi dan sudah menerima tunjangan belum seluruhnya berkinerja tinggi; (3 kinerja guru Kimia relatif lebih baik dari pada kinerja guru Biologi dan guru Fisika. Kata kunci: evaluasi, kinerja guru, validitas, reliabilitas ______________________________________________________________ AN EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CERTIFIED SCIENCE TEACHERS (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Abstract This study was aimed at (1 developing a valid and reliable performance evaluation instruments for teachers, and (2 evaluating the level of Physics, Biology and Chemistry teachers of senior high schools who have been certified and received theprofession allowance. The population of this study included all certified Physics, Biology and Chemistry teachers of senior high schools who have received profession allowance in Banda Aceh, Aceh Besar, and Pidie. The construct validity of the instrument developed was assessed through factor analysis, and the reliability was estimated by using Cronbach’s Alpha formula. The level of teachers’performance was analyzed by the percentage. The result of the research shows that (1 the

  2. A SUBLOCUS OF THE MULTICOPY MICROSATELLITE MARKER CMS1 MAPS PROXIMAL TO SPINAL MUSCULAR-ATROPHY (SMA) AS SHOWN BY RECOMBINANT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; COBBEN, JM; OSINGA, J; SCHEFFER, H; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    The critical region containing the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene is flanked by the 5q11-q13 markers, D5S435 and D5S557, as determined by linkage analysis. Here we present the results of an analysis of a Dutch SMA family with the multicopy microsatellite marker CMS1. A crossover is revealed in

  3. JNK1 and JNK2 regulate α-SMA in hepatic stellate cells during CCl4 -induced fibrosis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Park, Sang-Joon; Goo, Moon-Jung; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2013-10-01

    Following liver injuries, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) express α-SMA. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways mediate α-SMA expression in distinct cell types. However, the regulation of α-SMA expression by MAPKs in HSCs has been rarely studied. We aimed to study the role of MAPKs in the activation of HSCs during liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis of rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride. HSC-T6 cells, murine embryonic fibroblasts, JNK1(-/-) and JNK2(-/-) cells were used for in vitro studies. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used. We have found that the expression of JNK and α-SMA co-localized in HSCs during liver fibrosis, but ERK and p38 expressed in macrophages. The expression of α-SMA was up-regulated by JNK1 and JNK2 in non-stress condition. Under TGF-β stimulation, however, the level α-SMA expression was increased by only JNK1, but not significantly changed by JNK2. We suggest that JNKs are responsible for α-SMA regulation, and especially JNK1 has a major role in up-regulation of α-SMA expression in HSCs under stress condition induced by TGF-β during liver fibrosis. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  5. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises, how this model could explain the oscillation of universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of BIonic system. In this model, $M0$-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of $M1$-anti-$M1$-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of $M1$ and the bulk leading to an expansion of $M1$-branes. When $M1$-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To removes these states, $M1$...

  6. Effect of Rubberized Bitumen Blending Methods on Permanent Deformation of SMA Rubberized Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herda Yati Katman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at comparing the permanent deformation of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA rubberized asphalt mixtures produced by the wet process. In this study, rubberized binders were prepared using two different blending methods, namely, continuous blend and terminal blend. To study the creep behaviour of control and rubberized asphalt mixtures, the dynamic creep test was performed using Universal Materials Testing Apparatus (UMATTA at different temperatures and stress levels. Zhou three-stage creep model was utilized to evaluate the deformation characteristics of the mixtures. In all test conditions, the highest resistance to permanent deformation is showed by the rubberized mixtures produced with continuous blend binders. This study also reveals that the permanent deformation of rubberized mixtures cannot be predicted based on the characteristics of the rubberized binders.

  7. Finite element modeling and fabrication of an SMA-SMP shape memory composite actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souri, Mohammad

    Shape memory alloys and polymers have been extensively researched recently because of their unique ability to recover large deformations. Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are able to recover large deformations compared to shape memory alloys (SMAs), although SMAs have higher strength and are able to generate more stress during recovery. This project focuses on procedure for fabrication and Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of a shape memory composite actuator. First, SMP was characterized to reveal its mechanical properties. Specifically, glass transition temperature, the effects of temperature and strain rate on compressive response and recovery properties of shape memory polymer were studied. Then, shape memory properties of a NiTi wire, including transformation temperatures and stress generation, were investigated. SMC actuator was fabricated by using epoxy based SMP and NiTi SMA wire. Experimental tests confirmed the reversible behavior of fabricated shape memory composites. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRESS-INDUCED TRANSFORMATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION IN Cu-BASED SMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng; Xingyao Wang; Yongzhong Huo

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is closely related to the formation and evolution of its microstructures. Through theoretical analysis and experimental ob-servations, it was found that the stress-induced martensitic transformation process of single crys-tal Cu-based SMA under uniaxial tension condition consisted of three periods: nucleation, mixed nucleation and growth, and merging due to growth. During the nucleation, the stress dropped rapidly and the number of interfaces increased very fast while the phase fraction increased slowly.In the second period, both the stress and the interface number changed slightly but the phase fraction increased dramatically. Finally, the stress and the phase fraction changed slowly while the number of interfaces decreased quickly. Moreover, it was found that the transformation could be of multi-stage: sharp stress drops at several strains and correspondingly, the nucleation and growth process occurred quasi-independently in several parts of the sample.

  9. Surface grain refinement mechanism of SMA490BW steel cross joints by ultrasonic impact treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-lin He; Lei Xiong; Ming-ming Jiang; Ying-xia Yu; Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) is a postweld technique for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints. This technique makes use of ultrasonic vibration to impact and plastically deform a weld toe and can achieve surface grain refinement of the weld toe, which is considered as the main reason for the improvement of fatigue strength. In this paper, the microstructure of the surface of a treated weld toe was observed by metallographic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that UIT could produce severe plastic deformation on the surface layer of the weld toe and the maximum depth of plastic deformation extended to approximately 260 μm beneath the treated surface. Repeated processing could exacerbate the plastic deformation on the surface layer, resulting in finer grains. We can conclude that the surface grain refinement mechanism of SMA490BW welded joints is related to the high density of dislocation tangles and dislocation walls.

  10. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA. It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  11. SMA Submillimeter Observations of HL Tau: Revealing a compact molecular outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Lumbreras, Alba M

    2014-01-01

    We present archival high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 2$''$) $^{12}$CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast and southwest orientation (P.A. = 50$^\\circ$), and that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 $\\mu$m continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of $\\sim$ 200 $\\times$ 70 AU with a P.A. $=$ 145$^\\circ$, and a dust mass of around 0.1 M$_\\odot$. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related with the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  12. Synthesis and study of MPNS/SMA nano-composite tanning agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Pan; Mei Qi; Zhi Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA),styrene (ST) with the vinyl groups introduced onto the surface of the nano-sized silica via solution polymerization method was developed.The methacryloxypropyl nano-sized silica (MPNS) was used as macromonomer and polymerized with maleic anhydride and styrene by initiating with BPO in toluene.The structure and properties of MPNS/SMA nano-composite were characterized by FT-IR spectra and TEM.Meanwhile,it was applied as tanning agent compared with the traditional styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in leather.It was found that the applied leather had better quality characteristics with the addition of the nano-sized silica.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL EVALUASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA JAWA SMA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN INTEGRATIF-KOMUNIKATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Sudi Utami

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is an important parth of the teaching process. In Javanese language teaching, the focus of evaluation is the students competence in communication. Further more, the evaluation must be able to assest the communicative competence in the test items which to be developed based on communicative-integrative aproach.The goal of this first research is to discribe the developing on evaluation in Javanese learning by the teachers of SMA  Semarang. The research design is Research and Development. The data are the test series, was made by the teachers of Javanese language in SMA Semarang. The documentation was used to collecting the data. Interractive analyzes was used in this research. The Results are (1 The Javanese learning evaluation is not integrative by means that test items is still in diskret test. (2 The evaluation is not enough communicative (less than 25%. (3 The deviation or less propper not untill 505 more. Keywords : Javanese learning evaluation

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of aflatoxin M1 based on magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M. K.; Ivanova, N. V.; Godjevargova, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles (Method A) for the quantitative determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk was developed. This immunoassay was based on the immobilization of monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-NH2). It was observed that for each mg of the MNPs, 25 µg of antibody was immobilized. Both aflatoxin M1 in the sample and aflatoxin M1-BSA-peroxidase conjugate competed for the immobilized antibody. The proposed Method A was compared with other method (B). The Method B was based on the immobilization of aflatoxin M1-BSA conjugate on the MNPs-NH2, which competed with the aflatoxin M1 in the sample for binding to the added mAb. The binding of mAb to the aflatoxin M1-BSA-MNPs-NH2 was detected using a target secondary IgG-peroxidase antibody. The analytical characteristics of the two methods were compared. Real milk samples were investigated for present of aflatoxin M1. Two methods were based on the use of MNPs as a solid support for covalently immunoreagents immobilization. A comfortable separation of bound and free fraction of the tracer can be performed only through a simple collection of the MNPs by a permanent magnet. The application of MNPs helps to eliminate non-specific binding and to retain higher activity of bound biomolecules. The development of a MNPs-based ELISA for determination of aflatoxin M1 has a great potential to supersede the traditional ELISA for aflatoxin M1 diagnosis.

  15. Pengaruh Model PMK Terhadap Disposisi Matematis dalam Pembelajaran Matematika Tingkat SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Nasrullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pengaruh model pembelajaran pemecahan masalah kreatif (PMK terhadap disposisi matematis siswa sekolah menengah atas, dan membandingkannya dengan model pembelajaran langsung (PL. Penelitian ini tergolong eksperimen semu (quacy experiment dimana subjek penelitian siswa di SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Unismuh. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak berubahnya disposisi matematis siswa seiring perubahan model pembelajaran disebabkan kurangnya keaktifan siswa untuk terlibat dalam membangun kompetensi strategis. Skor disposisi matematis antara model PMK dan PL secara bersama-sama termasuk dalam kategori sedang, tetapi dengan skor 57,89% yang dicapai oleh model PL mengungguli model PMK dengan skor 42,11%. Dengan kata lain, sebagian besar siswa masih cenderung tertarik dengan model lama. Namun, dengan model PMK justru mampu mendongkrak hasil belajar matematika siswa ditunjukkan dengan besar persentase yaitu 74%, sedangkan dengan model PL sebesar 58,33%.This study aims to understand how far the influence of model of learning creative problem solving (CPS toward mathematical disposition of students in senior secondary school, and compared with model of direct teaching (DT. This research is kind of quacy experiment in which students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Unismuh as the research subject. The result of research show that unchangeably mathematical disposition in line with learning model is caused by the lack of students’ activeness getting involved in constructing strategic competence. The score of mathematical disposition between CPS together with DT is in the same of middle category, but the score of DT is 57,89% higher than that of PMK with 42,11%. In the other words, majority of students tend to be interested in the old one. However, CPS model is really able to boost students’ achievement indicated by the score of percentage, that is 74%, whereas the percentage of DT is 58,33%.

  16. PENGARUH KOMPETENSI MANAJERIAL KEPALA SEKOLAH, LINGKUNGAN, MOTIVASI GURU, TERHADAP PRESTASI SISWA SMA MUHAMMADIYAH KOTA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Jamali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan: (1 pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa melalui motivasi berprestasi guru; (2 pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung antara lingkungan sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa melalui motivasi berprestasi guru; (3 pengaruh langsung antara motivasi berprestasi guru dengan prestasi belajar siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ex-post facto, dengan populasi 318 guru SMA Muhammadiyah Kota Yogyakarta dan sampel 200 orang yang dipilih dengan teknik proportional sampling. Instrumen pengumpulan data berupa kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis jalur untuk menguji hipotesis penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat pengaruh langsung dan tak langsung kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa, dengan sumbangan efektif 5,52% dengan prestasi belajar siswa melalui motivasi berprestasi guru, (sumbangan efektif sebesar 32,09%; (2 tidak terdapat pengaruh langsung antara lingkungan sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa; (3 terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung antara lingkungan sekolah dengan prestasi belajar siswa melalui motivasi berprestasi guru, (sumbangan efektif sebesar 1,04%; (4 terdapat pengaruh langsung antara motivasi berprestasi guru dengan prestasi belajar siswa, (sumbangan efektif sebesar 47,06%. Jadi secara keseluruhan sumbangan yang diberikan oleh kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah, lingkungan sekolah, motivasi berprestasi guru baik secara langsung maupun tidak terhadap prestasi belajar siswa sebesar 85,71%. Hal ini berarti jika kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah, lingkungan sekolah dan motivasi berprestasi guru ditingkatkan kualitasnya maka akan berkontribusi positif terhadap peningkatan prestasi belajar siswa SMA Muhammadiyah Kota Yogyakarta. Kata Kunci: kompetensi manajerial kepala sekolah, lingkungan sekolah

  17. HUBUNGAN KETERPAPARAN MEDIA MASSA, PERAN TEMAN SEBAYA TERHADAP TINDAKAN SEKSUAL DI SMA AN-NAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rika istawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Masa remaja merupakan masa peralihan antara tahap anak dan dewasa dimana pada masa ini mereka sangat rentan terpapar informasi dari media massa dan teman sebaya terutama seks bebas. Data SKRRI mempunyai teman yang pernah berhubungan seksual pada usia 14-19 tahun dengan persentasi perempuan 37,7% dan laki-laki 30,9% dan Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informasi menyebut 62,1% siswa mengaku penah melakukan hubungan seks. Observasi yang di lakukan oleh peneliti di SMA AN-NAAS Pekanbaru diketahui adanya 2 siswa  yang tertangkap menyimpan dan menonton video porno di handphone dan melalui wawancara peneliti dengan 8 siswi mereka mengatakan adanya 1 siswi yang hamil diluar nikah dan 2 siswi diantaranya mengaku sering datang ketempat yang berisiko terhadap tindakan seksual. Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan keterpaparan media massa dan peran teman sebaya terhadap tindakan seksual. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional, populasi penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas SMA AN-NAAS Pekanbaru yaitu 123 responden. Sampel penelitian 94 orang dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah angket, data diolah menggunakan komputer. Analisa data secara univariat dan bivariat dengan uji chi square dengan ketentuan α (0,5. Hasil penelitian didapatkan uji statistik menunjukkan adanya hubungan keterpaparan media massa dengan tindakan seksual dimana nilai p value 0,000 < 0,05, terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara peran teman sebaya dengan tindakan seksual, dimana p value  0,001 < 0,05. Bagi pihak sekolah diharapkan untuk meningkatkan kegiatan di sekolah seperti ekstrakurikuler dan guru membimbing serta memberi pengawasan yang ketat terhadap siswanya.   

  18. Feasibility study of the dual-chamber SMART (SMA ReseTtable) lift device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntz, Jonathan E.; Brei, Diann; Ypma, Joe; Young, Jonathan R.; Radice, Joshua; Johnson, Nancy L.; Browne, Alan L.; Strom, Kenneth A.

    2007-04-01

    Pedestrian protection is a major focus of automotive crashworthiness with new regulations taking effect worldwide. While there are many approaches to reducing the head-injury-criteria (HIC), a leading approach is to actively lift the hood to increase the crush distance to rigid underhood components. Most current lift devices are single-use, requiring the hood to be manually returned to a drivable position, and may damage the hood during lift due to inappropriate lift rates. This paper addresses these issues with an alternative approach using stored energy marrying conventional (pneumatic) and smart materials (Shape Memory Alloy) actuation. The SMART (SMA ReseTtable) hood lift device comprises a dual chamber cylinder which releases stored pneumatic energy via an ultra-fast SMA exhaust valve, raising a piston attached to the hood. The device can be automatically reset and rearmed through pressurization of the chambers and the energy dissipated for service by evacuating both chambers. This approach is unique in that several design parameters such as pressure and valve opening/timing profile can be altered in the field to compensate for temperature, added mass (such as snow) or platform changes. This paper presents the concept of this device and the parametric design of the pneumatic cylinder and valve orifice based on an analytical performance model. Two valve concepts are presented: direct and indirect, where the direct valve is simpler and more controllable, but the indirect valve can provide larger orifices (and therefore faster lift times) with reduced actuation requirements. Using a combination of analytical model-based and experimental methods, the SMART lift device with each valve approach was designed, and a full-scale prototype built and experimentally characterized validating the model and successfully demonstrating feasibility of each system to meet and exceed the pedestrian protection specifications. This new set of technologies enables the hood lift

  19. PROSES BELAJAR SISWA DALAM MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS MATA PELAJARAN EKONOMI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Nuraini Surasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is: (1 Know the process of students in the learning economy. (2 Determine the efforts of students to improve students' critical thinking skills on economic subjects. (3 Know the teachers' efforts in motivating students to think critically on economic subjects. The research results have been obtained in the field said that the students of class XI IPS in SMAN 5 Malang and in high school Malang Panjura have critical thinking skills are diverse and differ in the learning process in schools, especially in economy class learning. The results of the interview obtained the opinion that the students' critical thinking skills are the attitudes of students in thinking reflex that responds to the subject matter of economics. for something that is not as usual, not in general, and not as routine. It means that something is not the same and the addition of new innovations to show it's creativity. Tujuan penelitan ini adalah (1 mengetahui proses belajar siswa dalam pembelajaran ekonomi; (2 mengetahui upaya yang dilakukan siswa untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa pada mata pelajaran ekonomi; (3 mengetahui usaha guru dalam memberikan motivasi siswa untuk mampu berpikir kritis pada mata pelajaran ekonomi. Hasil penelitian yang telah diperoleh di lapangan menyebutkan bahwa siswa kelas XI IPS di SMA Negeri 5 Malang maupun di SMA Panjura Malang memiliki kemampuan berpikir kritis yang berbeda dalam proses pembelajaran Ekonomi di sekolah, khususnya dalam pembelajaran kelas. Hasil wawancara diperoleh pendapat bahwa kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa adalah sikap siswa dalam berpikir secara reflek yang merespon materi pelajaran Ekonomi, untuk sesuatu yang tidak seperti biasa, tidak pada umumnya, dan tidak seperti rutinitas. Maksudnya bahwa sesuatu yang tidak sama dan adanya tambahan inovasi baru menunjukkan kreativitas.

  20. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANDRAGOGI SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN KREATIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA SMA RSBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umriyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Andragogi merupakan teori pembelajaran orang dewasa. Konsep pembelajaran orang dewasa merupakan pembelajaran yang berpola non otoriter. Berdasarkan ciri-ciri biologis maupun psikologis sebagian besar siswa SMA telah memasuki usia dewasa, sehingga pendekatan andragogi agaknya lebih sesuai. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yaitu mengembangkan bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, bertujuan untuk memperoleh bahan ajar yang dapat meningkatkan kreativitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa  kelas X-2 SMA Islam Sudirman Ambarawa tahun pelajaran 2010/2011. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode dokumentasi, observasi dan  test hasil belajar.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan digunakannya bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, skor kreativitas  dan hasil test kognitif siswa rata-rata meningkat.Andragogy is adult learning theory. Adult learning concept is learning activity that gets to pattern non authoritarian. Based on biological characteristics and also psychological a large part Senior High School students  have entered adult age, so pedagogy approach (education for children was not suitable anymore for them, it seems that andragogy (education for adult is more suitable. This research is development research which develop learning material in andragogy approach, has an aim to get a learning material that can develop creativity and studying result. The research is executed in X2 class at Sudirman Islamic Senior High School of Ambarawa, academic year 2010 / 2011 which is chosen bases random sampling. Data taking is done by documentation method, observation and learning result test.  Data analysis  indicate   an  improving  of average  value  in creativity and learning result.

  1. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANDRAGOGI SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN KREATIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA SMA RSBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umriyah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Andragogi merupakan teori pembelajaran orang dewasa. Konsep pembelajaran orang dewasa merupakan pembelajaran yang berpola non otoriter. Berdasarkan ciri-ciri biologis maupun psikologis sebagian besar siswa SMA telah memasuki usia dewasa, sehingga pendekatan andragogi agaknya lebih sesuai. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yaitu mengembangkan bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, bertujuan untuk memperoleh bahan ajar yang dapat meningkatkan kreativitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa  kelas X-2 SMA Islam Sudirman Ambarawa tahun pelajaran 2010/2011. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode dokumentasi, observasi dan  test hasil belajar.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan digunakannya bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, skor kreativitas  dan hasil test kognitif siswa rata-rata meningkat.Andragogy is adult learning theory. Adult learning concept is learning activity that gets to pattern non authoritarian. Based on biological characteristics and also psychological a large part Senior High School students  have entered adult age, so pedagogy approach (education for children was not suitable anymore for them, it seems that andragogy (education for adult is more suitable. This research is development research which develop learning material in andragogy approach, has an aim to get a learning material that can develop creativity and studying result. The research is executed in X2 class at Sudirman Islamic Senior High School of Ambarawa, academic year 2010 / 2011 which is chosen bases random sampling. Data taking is done by documentation method, observation and learning result test.  Data analysis  indicate   an  improving  of average  value  in creativity and learning result.

  2. PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS TEKS PIDATO DAN BERPIDATO KELAS X DI SMA NEGERI 3 SUKOHARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Santosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study has four aims, (1 the procedure of learning to write text to speech and speech in the classroom, (2 learning strategies and what the media writes text to speech and speech in the classroom, (3 student activity in learning to write text to speech and speech in the classroom, and (4 learning outcomes writing text to speech and speech. This includes descriptive qualitative research which took place in SMA Negeri 3 Sukoharjo. Data in the form of words and actions. Sources of data obtained from sources, events, and documents. Informant is Indonesian teachers and students. Events are learning activities Indonesian X1 class 2nd semester of academic year 2012/2013. The document in question is a document relating to the teaching of writing. Data collection techniques were interviews, observation, and documentary. Research findings in the field, among others, (1 the learning procedure by submitting a text to speech material on speech. Then compose the theme is developed into a framework and final drafting speeches, (2 application of learning strategies to write text to speech and speech with the approach that has been programmed patterns , the approach of process skills and communicative approach, (3 students activate in learning writing text to speech and speech have been carried out by providing learning facilities and trust management using effective learning infrastructure, (4 learning to write text to speech and speech by using the approach of process skills and communicative approaches undertaken by teachers Indonesian subjects in SMA Negeri 3 Sukoharjo obtain following result, students who earn good grades for writing text to speech 80 % and 88 % speech practice, then students who received grades enough to write the speech 20 % and 3 % speech practice, and students who obtain less value to the writing of the speech is not there, to practice speech while there were 9 % .

  3. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) Aneurysm - Adequate Access is Essential for Success - Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalčić, Lovro; Budiselić, Berislav; Kovačević, Miljenko; Knežević, Siniša; Kovačić, Slavica; Miletić, Damir; Tomulić, Vjekoslav; Kuhelj, Dimitrij

    2017-01-01

    An aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with a diameter of 2.2 cm was found incidentally on an ultrasound (US) examination in a 26-year-old woman. The only known risk factor was an intracranial aneurysm that was found on her grandmother's autopsy. Based on pregnancy planning and the current literature, endovascular management with a covered stent was proposed. Self-expandable, covered stent (Bard, Fluency(®)) was implanted using a single transfemoral approach. A stiff guidewire and a large sheath distorted the anatomy, which resulted in an incomplete aneurysmal neck covering. In the absence of additional covered stents, the procedure was terminated. Two weeks later, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) confirmed persistent aneurysmal perfusion due to the incomplete neck coverage. A multidisciplinary board opted for a second endovascular attempt, this time with a longer covered stent via the transaxillary approach in order to reduce anatomical distortion. Balloon, expandable, cobalt-chrome covered stent (Jotec, E-ventus BX(®)) was implanted in the SMA, covering the aneurysmal neck and overlapping the previously implanted covered stent. Angiography confirmed a complete exclusion of the aneurysm. A control US performed three weeks later confirmed a patent covered stent and complete aneurysmal exclusion. There was a mild median nerve damage periprocedurally that resolved in three months. The most recent US control examination, performed eleven months after the procedure, showed an excluded aneurysm and a patent covered stent. There were no clinical signs of bowel ischaemia during the follow-up period. Endovascular management of SMAA proved to be safe and efficient. The "access from above" is probably safer and should be considered in the majority of cases with acceptable sizes of access vessels. Mid-term results in our patient are good and life-long follow-up is planned to prevent late complications.

  4. Bounds on Subspace Codes Based on Subspaces of Type (m,1 in Singular Linear Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sphere-packing bound, Singleton bound, Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound, Johnson bound, and Gilbert-Varshamov bound on the subspace codes n+l,M,d,(m,1q based on subspaces of type (m,1 in singular linear space Fq(n+l over finite fields Fq are presented. Then, we prove that codes based on subspaces of type (m,1 in singular linear space attain the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound if and only if they are certain Steiner structures in Fq(n+l.

  5. Effects of heat treatment on characteristics of porous Ni-rich NiTi SMA prepared by SHS technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and compressive properties of porous Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) were investigated. The solution treatment at 1050℃ has little effects on stable Ti2Ni second phase, however, it decreases the amount of Ni4Ti3 phase derived from the SHS process and results in the improvement of the ductility of porous NiTi SMA. The subsequent aging treatment after solution treatment could lead to the precipitation of the discrete Ni4Ti3 phase in NiTi matrix grains, which increases the brittleness of porous NiTi SMA. Porous NiTi SMA presents a composite fracture behavior consisting of a ductile fracture of NiTi matrix and a cleavage fracture of second phase particles. Many cracks existing on the interfaces indicate that the bonding of the matrix with second phase particles is weak.

  6. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing t......In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line...... as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were...... constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward...

  7. Integration of VEGF and α-SMA Expression Improves the Prediction Accuracy of Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Liver Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzamly, Shaimaa; Agina, Hala A; Elbalshy, Abd El-Latif; Abuhashim, Maha; Saad, Eman; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y

    2016-03-17

    The progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a multifactorial process. The high adverse effects and the cost of standard health care increase the demand to discover new predictors for the progression of fibrosis in CHC patients. Our study aims to establish the relation between the angiogenic marker [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) represented by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and whether these 2 markers can be used as predictors for the progression of fibrosis in patients with CHC. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses were used for examining the morphology and the expression of VEGF and α-SMA in 60 CHC biopsies procured from CHC patients. Multivariate analysis was used to correlate the protein expression with staging and grading of liver fibrosis. Cutoff values of α-SMA and VEGF were determined by the receiver operating characteristics curve. There was a positive correlation between VEGF and HSCs expressing α-SMA (ρ=0.287, P=0.026) and both factors were correlated with the stage of fibrosis (PSMA (area under the curve=0.82, PSMA in CHC biopsies and together can be used as a predictor for the progression of fibrosis.

  8. Gender-Specific Amelioration of SMA Phenotype upon Disruption of a Deep Intronic Structure by an Oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Matthew D; Ottesen, Eric W; Singh, Natalia N; Anderson, Rachel L; Singh, Ravindra N

    2017-06-07

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic disease of children, is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Here, we employ A15/283, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting a deep intronic sequence/structure, to examine the impact of restoration of SMN in a mild SMA mouse model. We show gender-specific amelioration of tail necrosis upon subcutaneous administrations of A15/283 into SMA mice at postnatal days 1 and 3. We also demonstrate that a modest increase in SMN due to early administrations of A15/283 dramatically improves testicular development and spermatogenesis. Our results reveal near total correction of expression of several genes in adult testis upon temporary increase in SMN during early postnatal development. This is the first demonstration of in vivo efficacy of an antisense oligonucleotide targeting a deep intronic sequence/structure. This is also the first report of gender-specific amelioration of SMA pathology upon a modest peripheral increase of SMN. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis-Driven Design Optimization of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, William; Hartl, Darren; Turner, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant component of environmental noise in the vicinity of airports. The noise associated with the leading-edge slat of typical transport aircraft is a prominent source of airframe noise. Previous work suggests that a slat-cove filler (SCF) may be an effective noise treatment. Hence, development and optimization of a practical slat-cove-filler structure is a priority. The objectives of this work are to optimize the design of a functioning SCF which incorporates superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) materials as flexures that permit the deformations involved in the configuration change. The goal of the optimization is to minimize the actuation force needed to retract the slat-SCF assembly while satisfying constraints on the maximum SMA stress and on the SCF deflection under static aerodynamic pressure loads, while also satisfying the condition that the SCF self-deploy during slat extension. A finite element analysis model based on a physical bench-top model is created in Abaqus such that automated iterative analysis of the design could be performed. In order to achieve an optimized design, several design variables associated with the current SCF configuration are considered, such as the thicknesses of SMA flexures and the dimensions of various components, SMA and conventional. Designs of experiment (DOE) are performed to investigate structural response to an aerodynamic pressure load and to slat retraction and deployment. DOE results are then used to inform the optimization process, which determines a design minimizing actuator forces while satisfying the required constraints.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) influences performance on motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfeld, K E; Ketcham, C J; Schneider, H D

    2017-03-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to be highly involved in the planning and execution of both simple and complex motor tasks. This study aimed to examine the role of the SMA in planning the movements required to complete reaction time, balance, and pegboard tasks using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which passes a weak electrical current between two electrodes, in order to modulate neuronal activity. Twenty healthy adults were counterbalanced to receive either tDCS (experimental condition) or no tDCS (control condition) for 3 days. During administration of tDCS, participants performed a balance task significantly faster than controls. After tDCS, subjects significantly improved their simple and choice reaction time. These results demonstrate that the SMA is highly involved in planning and executing fine and gross motor skill tasks and that tDCS is an effective modality for increasing SMA-related performance on these tasks. The findings may be generalizable and therefore indicate implications for future interventions using tDCS as a therapeutic tool.

  11. Very Early Phases of Massive Star Formation: An SMA Follow-up of Herschel Hi-Gal Survey Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard Alan; Zhang, Q.; Jimenez-Serra, I. M.; Beltran, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Finn, S.; Foster, J.; Jackson, J.; Molinari, S.; Viti, S.

    2011-01-01

    We used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe eight cold, massive ( 1000Msol) dense cores in dark clouds discovered in the Herschel HiGal survey. In contrast to numerous studies of hot molecular cores, very little is known about objects prior to the hot core phase. The SMA results allow us to study systematically the physical and chemical evolution of these dense cores. These protostellar objects were selected because the Hershel SEDs of the dust have temperatures spanning the range between about 10K and 20K, suggestive of different evolutionary phases of very young stars, because the objects were comparatively bright at 250 microns ( 10Jy) and distinct in all five FIR HiGal bands, and because they seemed to be morphologically simple. Only one of the sources is bright enough to be detected at MIPS24; this source, the most mature one, already shows a small outflow in CO. The SMA was used in both compact and very extended configurations, with the 230GHz band. The SMA molecular line maps will be compared with chemical modelling (including dust grain and gas phase reactions) to constrain the physical conditions in these young cores, and their evolutionary stages.

  12. Acquisition through horizontal gene transfer of plasmid pSMA198 by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 points towards the dairy origin of the species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    Full Text Available Streptococcus macedonicus is an intriguing streptococcal species whose most frequent source of isolation is fermented foods similarly to Streptococcus thermophilus. However, S. macedonicus is closely related to commensal opportunistic pathogens of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex.We analyzed the pSMA198 plasmid isolated from the dairy strain Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 in order to provide novel clues about the main ecological niche of this bacterium. pSMA198 belongs to the narrow host range pCI305/pWV02 family found primarily in lactococci and to the best of our knowledge it is the first such plasmid to be reported in streptococci. Comparative analysis of the pSMA198 sequence revealed a high degree of similarity with plasmids isolated from Lactococcus lactis strains deriving from milk or its products. Phylogenetic analysis of the pSMA198 Rep showed that the vast majority of closely related proteins derive from lactococcal dairy isolates. Additionally, cloning of the pSMA198 ori in L. lactis revealed a 100% stability of replication over 100 generations. Both pSMA198 and the chromosome of S. macedonicus exhibit a high percentage of potential pseudogenes, indicating that they have co-evolved under the same gene decay processes. We identified chromosomal regions in S. macedonicus that may have originated from pSMA198, also supporting a long co-existence of the two replicons. pSMA198 was also found in divergent biotypes of S. macedonicus and in strains isolated from dispersed geographic locations (e.g. Greece and Switzerland showing that pSMA198's acquisition is not a recent event.Here we propose that S. macedonicus acquired plasmid pSMA198 from L. lactis via an ancestral genetic exchange event that took place most probably in milk or dairy products. We provide important evidence that point towards the dairy origin of this species.

  13. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA and inferior parietal cortex (IPC. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963;Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998, in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modelling (DCM for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008;Herz et al., 2012. Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009 favoured a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favoured for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  14. Locations of All Shotpoints, USGS Cruise M1-98-GM (GOM98SHTALLG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — All shotpoint locations from multichannel seismics survey, USGS cruise M1-98-GM. During June 1998 and April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two...

  15. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurized milk and infant formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar, Sharaf Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique...

  16. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  17. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  18. Coiled-Coil Irregularities and Instabilities in Group A Streptococcus M1 Are Required for Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Case; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho (UO-HSC); (UCSD)

    2008-07-21

    Antigenically variable M proteins are major virulence factors and immunogens of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Here, we report the -3 angstrom resolution structure of a GAS M1 fragment containing the regions responsible for eliciting type-specific, protective immunity and for binding fibrinogen, which promotes M1 proinflammatory and antiphagocytic functions. The structure revealed substantial irregularities and instabilities throughout the coiled coil of the M1 fragment. Similar structural irregularities occur in myosin and tropomyosin, explaining the patterns of cross-reactivity seen in autoimmune sequelae of GAS infection. Sequence idealization of a large segment of the M1 coiled coil enhanced stability but diminished fibrinogen binding, proinflammatory effects, and antibody cross-reactivity, whereas it left protective immunogenicity undiminished. Idealized M proteins appear to have promise as vaccine immunogens.

  19. Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk and milk products, which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern. This study was conducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms from Tulkarm, Nablus and Jenin. Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique. 85 % (34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive. The aflatoxin M1 contamination levels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 29.57 ppt. There was a high incidence rate with 92 % (11 of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city (P ≤ 0.05. 20 % of the analyzed samples (8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit (50 ppt in European Codex, with a range of 2 - 80 ppt.

  20. FoxM1 mediated resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuo XU; Xin ZHANG; Xun WANG; Hai-yan GE; Xiao-ying WANG; David GARFIELD; Ping YANG; Yuan-lin SONG; Chun-xue BAI

    2012-01-01

    Gefitinib is effective in only approximately 20% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC),and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.FoxM1 is upregulated in NSCLC and associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients.In this study,we examined the possible role of FoxM1 in gefitinib resistance and the related mechanisms.Methods:Gefitinib resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and gefitinib-sensitive human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 were used.mRNA and protein expression of FoxM1 and other factors were tested with quantitative RT PCR and Western blot analysis.RNA interference was performed to suppress FoxM1 expression in SPC-A-1 cells,and lentiviral infection was used to overexpress FoxM1 in H292 cells.MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells.Results:Treatment of SPC-A-1 cells with gefitinib (1 and 10 μmol/L) upregulated the expression of FoxM1 in time- and concentrationdependent manners,while gefrtinib (1 μmol/L) downregulated in H292 cells.In SPC-A-1 cells treated with gefitinib (1 μmol/L),the expression of several downstream targets of FoxM1,including survivin,cyclin B1,SKP2,PLK1,Aurora B kinase and CDC25B,were significantly upregulated.Overexpression of FoxM1 increased the resistance in H292 cells,while attenuated FoxM1 expression restored the sensitivity to gefitinib in SPC-A-1 cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis.Conclusion:The results suggest that FoxM1 plays an important role in the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vitro.FoxM1 could be used as a therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to gefitinib.

  1. SMA actuator material model with self-sensing and sliding-mode control; experiment and multibody dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Tyler Ross; Gurley, Austin; Beale, David

    2017-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be used to create actuators that are simple, high strength, and inexpensive. These benefits come at the cost of low electrical efficiency, moderate lifetime, and complex mechanical behavior that makes them difficult to design into new applications and products. To improve the integration of SMA actuators—in particular thin SMA wires heated by passing electric current through them—into modern mechanical applications, we have created tools for modeling SMA mechanical and thermal behavior in dynamic systems and under feedback controls. Thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive models are implemented in a multibody dynamics software where they are easily applied to an actuator emplaced in a multibody dynamic system. Mechanical behavior is modeled with 1D constitutive equations. The material state determines the electrical resistivity of the material which drives ohmic heating, while thermal cooling is based on a heat transfer analysis of thin cylinders. These models contain states which are very difficult to measure experimentally (such as crystal phase fraction) and thus provide insight into the material behavior and design that experimental results cannot offer. This thermomechanical model is used in conjunction with sliding mode control—historically difficult to simulate in numerically integrated models—to develop a working ball-on-a-beam setup in which the ball position is controlled via current passed through an SMA wire and with application of an original self-sensing method. The constitutive model is developed in the multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS and validated through the simulation of the same system.

  2. Social/economic costs and health-related quality of life in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bastida, Julio; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Aranda-Reneo, Isaac; Tizzano, Eduardo; Sefton, Mark; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and their caregivers in Spain. This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients diagnosed with SMA in Spain. We adopted a bottom up, prevalence approach design to study patients with SMA. The patient's caregivers completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, use of healthcare services and non-healthcare services. Costs were estimated from a societal perspective (including healthcare costs and non-healthcare costs), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire. The main caregivers also answered a questionnaire on their characteristics and on their HRQOL. A total of 81 caregivers of patients with different subtypes of SMA completed the questionnaire. Based on the reference unitary prices for 2014, the average annual costs per patient were € 33,721. Direct healthcare costs were € 10,882 (representing around 32.3% of the total cost) and the direct non-healthcare costs were € 22,839 (67.7% of the total cost). The mean EQ-5D social tariff score for patients was 0.16, and the mean score of the EQ-5D visual analogue scale was 54. The mean EQ-5D social tariff score for caregivers was 0.49 and their mean score on the EQ-5D visual analogue scale was 69. The results highlight the burden that SMA has in terms of costs and decreased HRQOL, not only for patients but also for their caregivers. In particular, the substantial social/economic burden is mostly attributable to the high direct non-healthcare costs.

  3. SMN expression is required in motor neurons to rescue electrophysiological deficits in the SMNΔ7 mouse model of SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Vicki L; Iyer, Chitra C; Arnold, W David; Gombash, Sara E; Zaworski, Phillip G; Blatnik, Anton J; Foust, Kevin D; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2015-10-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most frequent cause of hereditary infant mortality. SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that results from the loss of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and retention of the SMN2 gene. The SMN2 gene produces an insufficient amount of full-length SMN protein that results in loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and subsequent muscle paralysis. Previously we have shown that overexpression of human SMN in neurons in the SMA mouse ameliorates the SMA phenotype while overexpression of human SMN in skeletal muscle had no effect. Using Cre recombinase, here we show that either deletion or replacement of Smn in motor neurons (ChAT-Cre) significantly alters the functional output of the motor unit as measured with compound muscle action potential and motor unit number estimation. However ChAT-Cre alone did not alter the survival of SMA mice by replacement and did not appreciably affect survival when used to deplete SMN. However replacement of Smn in both neurons and glia in addition to the motor neuron (Nestin-Cre and ChAT-Cre) resulted in the greatest improvement in survival of the mouse and in some instances complete rescue was achieved. These findings demonstrate that high expression of SMN in the motor neuron is both necessary and sufficient for proper function of the motor unit. Furthermore, in the mouse high expression of SMN in neurons and glia, in addition to motor neurons, has a major impact on survival. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. q-differential operator representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1))

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, K

    1996-01-01

    A representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1)) is constructed based on the q-differential operators acting on the coherent states parameterized by coordinates. These coordinates correspond to the local ones of the flag manifold. This realization provides us with a guide to construct the free field realization for the quantum affine superalgebra Uq^(sl(M+1|N+1)) at arbitrary level.

  5. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  7. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  8. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  9. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti- M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti- M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands.

  10. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  11. Optical illusion alters M1 excitability after mirror therapy: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läppchen, C H; Ringer, T; Blessin, J; Seidel, G; Grieshammer, S; Lange, R; Hamzei, F

    2012-11-01

    The contralesional primary motor cortex (M1) has been suggested to be involved in the motor recovery after mirror therapy, but whether the ipsilesional M1 is influenced by the contralesional M1 via transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) is still unclear. The present study investigated the change of IHI as well as the intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation of both M1 induced by training in a mirror with the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this 2 × 2 factorial design (time × group), healthy subjects exercised standardized motor skills with their right hand on four consecutive days. Either a mirror (mirror group) or a board (control group) was positioned between their hands. Before and after training TMS was applied along with training tests of both hands. Tests were the same motor skills exercised daily by both groups. Tests of the untrained left hand improved significantly more in the mirror group than in the control group after training (P = 0.02) and showed a close correlation with an increase of intracortical inhibition of M1(left). IHI did not show any difference between investigation time points and groups. The present study confirms the previous suggestion of the involvement of the "contralesional" left-side (ipsilateral to the hand behind the mirror) M1 after mirror therapy, which is not mediated by IHI. Even with the same motor skill training (both groups performed same motor skills) but with different visual information, different networks are involved in training-induced plasticity.

  12. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.

  13. The Plasmodium falciparum malaria M1 alanyl aminopeptidase (PfA-M1: insights of catalytic mechanism and function from MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Jones

    Full Text Available Malaria caused by several species of Plasmodium is major parasitic disease of humans, causing 1-3 million deaths worldwide annually. The widespread resistance of the human parasite to current drug therapies is of major concern making the identification of new drug targets urgent. While the parasite grows and multiplies inside the host erythrocyte it degrades the host cell hemoglobin and utilizes the released amino acids to synthesize its own proteins. The P. falciparum malarial M1 alanyl-aminopeptidase (PfA-M1 is an enzyme involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and the generation of an amino acid pool within the parasite. The enzyme has been validated as a potential drug target since inhibitors of the enzyme block parasite growth in vitro and in vivo. In order to gain further understanding of this enzyme, molecular dynamics simulations using data from a recent crystal structure of PfA-M1 were performed. The results elucidate the pentahedral coordination of the catalytic Zn in these metallo-proteases and provide new insights into the roles of this cation and important active site residues in ligand binding and in the hydrolysis of the peptide bond. Based on the data, we propose a two-step catalytic mechanism, in which the conformation of the active site is altered between the Michaelis complex and the transition state. In addition, the simulations identify global changes in the protein in which conformational transitions in the catalytic domain are transmitted at the opening of the N-terminal 8 Å-long channel and at the opening of the 30 Å-long C-terminal internal chamber that facilitates entry of peptides to the active site and exit of released amino acids. The possible implications of these global changes with regard to enzyme function are discussed.

  14. Efeito da sequência de mistura nas propriedades de blendas PA6/ABS compatibilizadas com o copolímero SMA Effect from the blending sequence on the properties of PA6/ABS blends compatibilized with SMA copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blendas de poliamida 6 (PA6 com acrilonitrila-butadieno-estireno (ABS foram preparadas em uma extrusora de rosca dupla, utilizando-se o copolímero estireno-anidrido maleico (SMA, com 7% de anidrido maleico, como compatibilizante. O efeito de três sequências de mistura na microestrutura e propriedades das blendas foi estudado. A morfologia e as propriedades mecânicas dos materiais foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET e testes de resistência ao impacto e módulo de elasticidade, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia e propriedades mecânicas das blendas ternárias foram bastante diferentes e dependem da sequência de mistura. A blenda preparada pela mistura simultânea de todos os componentes, em uma única extrusão, apresentou melhor tenacidade. Por outro lado, quando o ABS e o SMA foram misturados juntos em uma primeira extrusão, antes da incorporação da PA6 em uma segunda extrusão, o valor da resistência ao impacto encontrado foi menor que o da matriz PA6 e da blenda sem compatibilizante PA6/ABS. Evidências de reações químicas entre o compatibilizante SMA e a matriz PA6 também foram investigadas através de reometria de torque.Blends of polyamide 6 (PA6 with acrylonitrile-butadiene-estyrene (ABS were prepared in a twin-screw extruder, using the styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA copolymer containing 7% of maleic anhydride as compatibilizer. The effects from three blending sequences on the microstructure and properties of the blends were investigated. The morphology and mechanical properties of the materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and tensile and impact tests. The results showed that the morphology and mechanical properties of ternary blends depend on the sequence of blend preparation. The blend prepared using the mixture of all components in a single-pass extrusion showed the more significant improvement in the material toughness. However, when the

  15. M1 contributes to the intrinsic but not the extrinsic components of motor-skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-10-01

    Procedural skills consist of several components that can be simultaneously acquired. During a motor-learning task we can distinguish between how a "movement" is performed (intrinsic component) and the spatial-related (extrinsic) component of this movement. The intrinsic movement component is thought to be supported by motor loops, including primary motor cortex (M1) as assessed with neuroimaging studies. Here we want to test further whether M1 makes a critical contribution to the movement rather than spatial-related component of skill-learning. To this purpose, we used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and the serial reaction time (SRT) task. Twenty right-handed participants performed the SRT-task starting with their left or right hand. After this learning session, participants switched to the untrained hand by performing original (spatial-related) and mirror-ordered (movement-based) sequences. rTMS was applied to M1 ipsi- or contralateral to the transfer-hand and both sequences were retested. Results revealed rTMS-interference with motor-skill transfer of mirror-ordered but not original sequences, showing that M1 is critically involved in the retrieval/transformation of the intrinsic but not the extrinsic movement coordinates. rTMS-interference in the mirror-condition consisted of both (i) disruption and (ii) release of motor-skill transfer depending on the stimulated hemisphere and on transfer-hand. The pattern of results suggests (i) contralateral (right) M1 involvement in retrieval/transformation of motor information during left-hand reproduction of previously acquired right-hand motor-skills; and (ii) modulatory interactions of inhibitory nature from the dominant (left) to the non-dominant (right) M1 in the same transfer-condition. These results provide further evidence that M1 is essential to intrinsic movement-based skill-learning and novel insight on models of motor-learning and hemispheric specialization, suggesting the involvement of

  16. Neoglycolipid analogues of ganglioside G sub M1 as functional receptors of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacuszka, T.; Bradley, R.M.; Fishman, P.H. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-12

    The authors synthesized several lipid analogues of ganglioside G{sub M1} by attaching its oligosaccharide moiety (G{sub M1}OS) to aminophospholipids, aliphatic amines, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. They incubated G{sub M1}-deficient rat glioma C6 cells with each of the derivatives as well as native G{sub M1} and assayed the cells for their ability to bind and respond to cholera toxin. On the basis of the observed increase in binding of {sup 125}I-labeled cholera toxin, it was apparent that the cells took up and initially incorporated most of the derivatives into the plasma membrane. In the case of the aliphatic amine derivatives, the ability to generate new toxin binding sites was dependent on chain length; whereas the C{sub 10} derivative was ineffective, C{sub 12} and higher analogues were effective. Increased binding was dependent on both the concentration of the neoglycolipid in the medium and the time of exposure. Cells pretreated with the various derivatives accumulated cyclic AMP in response to cholera toxin, but there were differences in their effectiveness. The cholesterol and long-chain aliphatic amine derivatives were more effective than native G{sub M1}, whereas the phospholipid derivatives were less effective. The distance between G{sub M1}OS and the phospholipid also appeared to influence its functional activity. The results indicate that although G{sub M1}OS provides the recognition site for the binding of cholera toxin, the nature of the lipid moiety plays an important role in the action of the toxin.

  17. Curcumin retunes cholesterol transport homeostasis and inflammation response in M1 macrophage to prevent atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Yuan; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Wang-Ge; Huang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2015-11-27

    Lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism dysfunction in the arterial wall is a major contributor to atherosclerosis, and excessive lipid intake and failed cholesterol homeostasis may accelerate the atherogenic process. Curcumin exerts multiple effects by alleviating inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis; however, its role in cholesterol transport homeostasis and its underlying impact on inflammatory M1 macrophages are poorly understood. This work aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on cholesterol transport, the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in M1 macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages (M0) were induced with LPS plus IFN-γ for 12 h to develop a M1 subtype and were then incubated with curcumin at different concentrations (6.25 and 12.5 μmol/L) in the presence or absence of oxLDL. Then, cholesterol influx/efflux and foam cell formation as well as inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. It was found that curcumin increased cholesterol uptake measured by the Dil-oxLDL binding assay, and simultaneously increased cholesterol efflux carried out by Apo-A1 and HDL in M1 cells. Curcumin further reinforced ox-LDL-induced cholesterol esterification and foam cell formation as determined by Oil Red O and BODIPY staining. Moreover, curcumin dramatically reduced ox-LDL-induced cytokine production such as IL-1β, IL-6 as well as TNF-α and M1 cell apoptosis. We also found that curcumin upregulated CD36 and ABCA1 in M1 macrophages. Curcumin increased PPARγ expression, which in turn promoted CD36 and ABCA1 expression. In conclusion, curcumin may increase the ability of M1 macrophages to handle harmful lipids, thus promoting lipid processing, disposal and removal, which may support cholesterol homeostasis and exert an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  18. CD34(low) and SMA(high) represent stromal signature in uterine cervical cancer and are markers for peritumoral stromal remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Schreiter, Carolin; Canzler, Anika; Leonhardt, Karoline; Einenkel, Jens; Hentschel, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    Peritumoral desmoplastic stromal reaction (DSR) with myofibroblastic phenotype may be of prognostic impact in uterine cervical carcinoma. The present study evaluates the immunostaining (CD34 and smooth muscle actin; SMA) of 97 squamous cell cancers. Staining was scored as low/negative (50%) and DSR as negative/weak and moderate/strong. The staining results were correlated to patient survival. Of the cases, 78.3% showed a decreased of CD34 (SMA staining with more than 50% SMA positive stromal cells. Tumors representing moderate/strong DSR showed a significant decreased CD34 (P=.001) and an increased but not statistically significant SMA staining (P=0.345). Cases with low CD34 and high SMA staining showed reduced 5-year overall survival when compared to cases with high CD34 and low SMA positivity (59.9 vs 81.0%; P=0.025 and 64.6 vs 81.1%; P=0.243). Peritumoral stromal response in cervical carcinoma is immunohistochemically characterized by CD34(low)/SMA(high) and associated reduced overall survival. © 2013.

  19. Intratumoral α-SMA enhances the prognostic potency of CD34 associated with maintenance of microvessel integrity in hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Quan; Liu, Liang; Xu, Hua-Xiang; Luo, Guo-Pei; Chen, Tao; Wu, Chun-Tao; Xu, Yong-Feng; Xu, Jin; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Bo; Long, Jiang; Tang, Zhao-You; Yu, Xian-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Microvessel density (MVD) as an angiogenesis predictor is inefficient per se in cancer prognosis. We evaluated prognostic values of combining intratumoral alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive stromal cell density and MVD after curative resection in hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hypovascular pancreatic cancer (PC). Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 305 HCC and 57 PC patients who underwent curative resection and analyzed for α-SMA and CD34 expression by immunostaining. Prognostic values of these two proteins and other clinicopathological features were examined. Both low α-SMA density and high MVD-CD34 were associated in HCC with the presence of intrahepatic metastasis and microvascular invasion, and they were related to lymph node involvement and microvascular invasion in PC (pSMA, was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival, the combination of low α-SMA and high CD34 was a predictor of worst prognosis for both types of tumors and had a better power to predict patient death and early recurrence (pSMA-positive cells and vascular endothelial cells overlap, showing major colocalization on vascular walls. Poor microvessel integrity, as indicated by high MVD, together with low perivascular α-SMA-positive cell coverage is associated with early recurrence, unfavorable metastasis, and short survival after tumor resection. This finding highlights the significance of vascular quality in tumor progression, which provides an optimized complement to vascular quantity in prognosis of postoperative patients.

  20. POTRET SOSIAL DALAM SEPULUH SAJAK REMY SYLADO DAN RELEVANSINYA DENGAN PEMBELAJARAN SASTRA DI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniar Kamaluddin Mabruri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan struktur puisi dan potret sosial sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk merelevansikan potret sosial masyarakat Indonesia dalam sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado dengan pembelajaran sastra di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah kumpulan puisi Kerygma & Martyria karya Remy Sylado. Objek dalam penelitian ini adalah potret sosial dan relevansinya dengan pembelajaran sastra di SMA dalam sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado. Data dalam penelitian ini adalah kata-kata yang termuat dalam sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado yang dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik sampel bertujuan. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah teknik pembacaan dan pencatatan. Teknik analisis data menggunakan pembacaan semiotika Michael Riffaterre dengan pendekatan sosiologi sastra Rene Wellek & Austin Warren. Berdasarkan pembacaan semiotika terhadap sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado disimpulkan beberapa potret sosial masyarakat Indonesia yang meliputi (1 Potret Modernitas di Negara Indonesia yang terdapat dalam sajak “Zaman Azab“, “Di Atas Azab Pena Berpihak”, “Asap Telah Menutup Kota Perkasa” (2 Potret Kolonialisme dan Ekspansi kapitalisme yang terdapat dalam sajak “Origo Mali“, “Cenderamata”, “Uang” (3 Potret kota, Pembangunan, dan Kapitalisme yang terdapat dalam sajak “Pena”, “Pemain Kambing Hitam”, “Si Miskin”, dan “Apakah Negerinya Masih”. Potret sosial dalam sepuluh sajak Remy Sylado relevan dengan pembelajaran sastra di SMA. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SOCIAL PORTRAIT IN TEN POEMS REMY SYLADO AND RELEVANCE TO LEARNING LITERATURE IN HIGH SCHOOL   Abstract

  1. ANALISIS KESULITAN SISWA SMA DALAM PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA KELAS XII IPA DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Aji Wedaring Tias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan letak kesulitan siswa yang dominan dan faktor-faktor kesulitan yang dialami siswa SMA dalam memecahkan masalah matematika. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 94 siswa SMA Negeri di Kota Yogyakarta yang berasal dari tiga sekolah dengan kategori tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Pemilihan subjek penelitian dilakukan dengan stratified proportional random sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan dokumen, tes, dan wawancara. Analisis data dilakukan dengan metode analisis deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang memberikan gambaran mengenai letak dan faktor kesulitan siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesulitan matematika siswa terletak pada kesulitan mengingat fakta 1,77%, kesulitan memahami fakta 3,54%, kesulitan menerapkan fakta 3,54%, kesulitan menganalisis fakta 10,18%, kesulitan mengingat konsep 1,33%, kesulitan memahami konsep 13,27%, kesulitan menerap-kan konsep 11,95%, kesulitan menganalisis konsep 4,42%, kesulitan memahami prosedur 7,52%, kesulitan menerapkan prosedur 15,49%, kesulitan menganalisis prosedur 16,37%, kesulitan mengingat konsep visual-spasial 1,33%, kesulitan memahami visual-spasial 3,54%, kesulitan menerapakan visual-spasial 3,10%, dan kesulitan menganalisis visual-spasial 2,65%. Faktor-faktor kesulitan yang dialami siswa SMA dalam memecahkan masalah matematika kelas XII program IPA yakni: siswa kurang teliti, tergesa-gesa dalam mengerjakan soal, lupa, kurang waktu untuk mengerjakan soal, cepat menyerah, terkecoh, dan cemas. Kata Kunci: analisis kesulitan, pemecahan masalah matematika, kemampuan pemecahan masalah   AN ANALYSIS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES IN MATHEMATICS PROBLEM SOLVING BASED AT GRADE XII OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN YOGYAKARTA CITY Abstract This research aims to describe the locations of the difficulties and the factors

  2. Gambaran Perilaku Remaja Terhadap Penggunaan Earphone Pada Siswa SMA Negeri Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Rahma Zain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakEarphone adalah alat yang digunakan untukmendengarkan musik dari telepon genggam dan perangkat audio lainnya.Sebuah survey yang dilakukan oleh American Speech Languageand Hearing Association (2006 menemukan bahwa remaja lebih banyak menggunakan perangkat dengar pribadidengan volume keras dan dalam waktu yang lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran perilaku remaja terhadap pengunaan earphone pada siswa SMA Negeri Kota PadangPenelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif pada siswa SMAN Negeri Kota Padang yang berjumlah 13.105 orang.Didapatkan sampel berjumlah 427 orang, pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Cluster Sampling.Data diambil dengan menggunakan kuesioner.Analisis data menggunakan analisis univarat dengan menggunakan program SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution 21.00 for Windows.                Hasil didapatkan proporsi pengguna earphone pada siswa SMA Negeri Kota Padangberjumlah 83,6%. Perilaku siswa dibagi menjadi 3 kategori yaitu pengetahuan, sikap dan tindakan. Hasilnya didapatkan siswa tersebut memiliki pengetahuan dan sikap yang baik terhadap penggunaan earphone dengan persentase 93,4% dan 80,9%. Tindakan siswa ketika menggunakan earphone cukup baik dengan persentasi 66,3%.                Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah sebagian besar siswa SMA Negeri Kota Padang menggunakan earphone.Siswa tersebut memiliki pengetahuan yang baik mengenai dampak penggunaan earphone dan cara pencegahannya. Siswa juga memiliki sikap yang baik terhadap penggunaan earphone dan bertindak cukup baik ketika menggunakan earphone.Kata Kunci :Earphone, remaja, perilaku AbstractEarphone is a device that used for listening music from their mobile phone and other devices. A survey conducted by American Speech Languageand Hearing Association (2006 found that many teenagers use their personal audio device with maximum volume within a long time. This research aims to describe the teenager

  3. Peroxiredoxin II promotes hepatic tumorigenesis through cooperation with Ras/Forkhead box M1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y-H; Kim, S-U; Kwon, T-H; Kim, J-M; Song, I-S; Shin, H-J; Lee, B-K; Bang, D-H; Lee, S-J; Lee, D-S; Chang, K-T; Kim, B-Y; Yu, D-Y

    2016-07-07

    The current study was carried out to define the involvement of Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Expression and function of Prx II in HCC was determined using H-ras(G12V)-transformed HCC cells (H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells) and the tumor livers from H-ras(G12V)-transgenic (Tg) mice and HCC patients. Prx II was upregulated in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg mouse tumor livers, the expression pattern of which highly similar to that of forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Moreover, either knockdown of FoxM1 or site-directed mutagenesis of FoxM1-binding site of Prx II promoter significantly reduced Prx II levels in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells, indicating FoxM1 as a direct transcription factor of Prx II in HCC. Interestingly, the null mutation of Prx II markedly decreased the number and size of tumors in H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Consistent with this, knockdown of Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in athymic nude mice, whereas overexpression of Prx II increased or aggravated the tumor phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of Prx II was correlated with that of FoxM1 in HCC patients. The activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of FoxM1 and cyclin D1 were highly dependent on Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Prx II is FoxM1-dependently-expressed antioxidant in HCC and function as an enhancer of Ras(G12V) oncogenic potential in hepatic tumorigenesis through activation of ERK/FoxM1/cyclin D1 cascade.

  4. High expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chia; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Yuo, Chung-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease caused by deletion or mutation of SMN1 gene. All SMA patients carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene, which produces low level of SMN protein due to mRNA exon 7 exclusion. Previously, we found that the testis of SMA mice (smn-/- SMN2) expresses high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, indicating a testis-specific mechanism for SMN2 exon 7 inclusion. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we established primary cultures of testis cells from SMA mice and analyzed them for SMN2 exon 7 splicing. We found that primary testis cells after a 2-hour culture still expressed high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, but the level decreased after longer cultures. We then compared the protein levels of relevant splicing factors, and found that the level of Tra2-β1 also decreased during testis cell culture, correlated with SMN2 full-length mRNA downregulation. In addition, the testis of SMA mice expressed the highest level of Tra2-β1 among the many tissues examined. Furthermore, overexpression of Tra2-β1, but not ASF/SF2, increased SMN2 minigene exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells and spinal cord neurons, whereas knockdown of Tra2-β1 decreased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells of SMA mice. Therefore, our results indicate that high expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice. This study also suggests that the expression level of Tra2-β1 may be a modifying factor of SMA disease and a potential target for SMA treatment.

  5. Mice Lacking M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Have Impaired Odor Discrimination and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wilson; Singh, Sanmeet; Keshav, Taj; Dewan, Ramita; Eberly, Christian; Maurer, Robert; Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Araneda, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1−/− and the M1/M3−/− knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers. However, the discrimination of dissimilar molecules, social odors (e.g., urine) and novel object recognition was not affected. In addition the KO mice showed impaired learning in an associative odor-learning task, learning to discriminate odors at a slower rate, indicating that both short and long-term memory is disrupted by mAChR dysfunction. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited decreased olfactory neurogenesis at younger ages, a deficit that was not maintained in older animals. In older animals, the olfactory deficit could be restored by increasing the number of new born neurons integrated into the OB after exposing them to an olfactory enriched environment, suggesting that muscarinic modulation and adult neurogenesis could be two different mechanism used by the olfactory system to improve olfactory processing. PMID:28210219

  6. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  7. Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, K; Terada, H; Yamamoto, K; Tsubouchi, H; Sakabe, Y

    1984-01-01

    A systematic method is proposed for determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese by liquid chromatography (LC). A sample of cheese is extracted with chloroform, cleaned up on 2 silica gel columns followed by a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, and chromatographed on a 5 microns octadecyl silica column with fluorometric detection. The sample extract or standard is treated with n-hexane-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (4 + 1) for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Analysis by LC with TFA-treatment of the extract provides quantitative data. Multiple assays of 5 samples of Gouda cheese spiked with aflatoxin M1 at levels of 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 ng/g showed average recoveries of 93.2, 91.6, and 92.4%, with coefficients of variation of 2.63, 3.97, and 4.52%, respectively. Assay of 5 naturally contaminated cheeses resulted in 0.051-0.448 ng/g of aflatoxin M1. Limit of quantitation is about 0.01 ng/g. The identity of aflatoxin M1 is confirmed by treating aflatoxin M1 or the M2a derivative with TFA-methanol (or ethanol) (3 + 1). The TFA-methanol reaction products of M2a could be detected quantitatively.

  8. [mRNA-binding protein Human-antigen R regulates α-SMA expression in human bronchia smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Di; Gu, Xianmin; Jiang, Shujuan; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-10-13

    To investigate the role of mRNA binding protein Human-antigen R (HuR) in the over-expression of α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) stimulated by Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) in cultured human bronchia smooth muscle cells. Human bronchia smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro were divided into 0, 6, 12 and 24 h groups according to the time of PDGF treatment. Total HuR protein and total α-SMA protein expression were detected by Western blot. Total HuR mRNA and total α-SMA mRNA level were determined by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. RNA interference technology was used to down-regulate HuR protein level to study the protective effect of HuR in PDGF-stimulated α-SMA protein expression. PDGF up-regulated the expression of HuR in a time-dependent manner. The relative expression levels of whole-cell HuR protein and mRNA in 0, 6, 12, 24 h groups were 0.23±0.09, 0.42±0.11, 0.93±0.21, 1.37±0.28; 1.00±0.00, 1.09±0.03, 1.16±0.03, 1.27±0.02 (all PSMA protein and mRNA in 0, 6, 12, 24 h group also showed an increase trend marked in a time-dependent manner (1.03±0.08, 1.20±0.09, 1.39±0.11, 1.58±0.10; 1.00±0.00, 1.17±0.02, 1.23±0.02, 1.45±0.03; all PSMA protein expression. PDGF stimulation can increase the expression of HuR and α-SMA in the smooth muscle cells, and HuR protein is involved in the expression of α-SMA protein stimulated by PDGF.

  9. Involvement of secondary motor areas in externally-triggered single-finger movements of dominant and non-dominant hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yun; ZANG Yufeng; WENG Xuchu; JIA Fucang; LI Enzhong; WANG Jiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Whether the secondary motor areas are involved in simple voluntary movements remains controversial. Differences in the neural substrates of movements with the dominant and the non-dominant hands have not been well documented. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the hemodynamic response in the primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PMC) in six healthy right-handed subjects while performing a visually-guided finger-tapping task with their dominant or non-dominant hands. Significant activation was observed in M1, SMA and PMC during this externally triggered simple voluntary movement task. While dominant hand movements only activated contralateral motor areas, non-domi- nant hand movements also activated ipsilateral SMA and PMC. The results provide strong evidence for the involvement of the secondary motor areas in simple voluntary movements, and also suggest that movements of the dominant hand primarily engage the contralateral secondary motor areas, whereas movements of the non-dominant hand engage bilateral secondary motor areas.

  10. E1, M1, E2 transition energies and probabilities of W$^{54+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Liu, Jia-xin; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the E1, M1, E2 transitions of Ca-like tungsten ions is presented. Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with a restricted active space treatment, the wavelengths and probabilities of the M1 and E2 transitions between the multiplets of the ground state configuration ([Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$) and of the E1 transitions between [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{5}$3d$^{3}$ and [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$ have been calculated. The results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The present E1 and M1 calculations are compared with previous theoretical values. For E2 transitions, the importance of electron correlation from 3s and 3p orbitals is pointed out. Several strong E1 transitions are predicted, which have potential advantage for plasma diagnostics.

  11. M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonism alters sleep without affecting memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Christoph; Power, Ann E; Nofzinger, Eric A; Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Kloepfer, Corinna; Waldheim, Bernhard; Radosa, Marc-Philipp; Berger, Mathias; Riemann, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    Preclinical studies have implicated cholinergic neurotransmission, specifically M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation, in sleep-associated memory consolidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of administering the direct M1 mAChR agonist RS-86 on pre-post sleep memory consolidation. Twenty healthy human participants were tested in a declarative word-list task and a procedural mirror-tracing task. RS-86 significantly reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and slow wave sleep (SWS) duration in comparison with placebo. Presleep acquisition and postsleep recall rates were within the expected ranges. However, recall rates in both tasks were almost identical for the RS-86 and placebo conditions. These results indicate that selective M1 mAChR activation in healthy humans has no clinically relevant effect on pre-post sleep consolidation of declarative or procedural memories at a dose that reduces REM sleep latency and SWS duration.

  12. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...... to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M(1)/M(4)-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M(1)-selective agonist...

  13. Nonlinear {omega}*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research; Zakharov, L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies {omega}*{sub i,e} are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important.

  14. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  15. ANALISIS SOAL JENJANG KOGNITIF TAKSONOMI BLOOM REVISI PADA BUKU SEKOLAH ELEKTRONIK (BSE BIOLOGI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aa Juhanda

    2016-11-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kemunculan soal jenjang kognitif Bloom Revisi pada Buku Sekolah Elektronik (BSE Biologi SMA. Subjek penelitian adalah 1.650 soal yang terdapat pada BSE Edisi 2009. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah lembar analisis dokumen yang di dalamnya memuat informasi seperti kode soal, soal, dan jenis tingkatan kognitif taksonomi Bloom Revisi. Analisis data dilakukan secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata persentase kemunculan cukup tinggi diperoleh pada soal yang mengembangkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat rendah (Lower-Order Thinking Skills yaitu soal C1 (mengingat sebesar 46,60% dan C2 (memahami sebesar 47,99%, meskipun untuk C3 (menerapkan persentasenya masih rendah (0,28%. Rerata persentase kemunculan soal yang mengembangkan keterampilan tingkat tinggi (Higher-Order Thinking Skills mulai dari soal C4 (menganalisis sampai dengan C6 (mencipta memiliki rerata persentase yang rendah. Oleh karena itu, kemunculan soal jenjang kognitif Bloom Revisi pada BSE khususnya yang mengembangkan Higher-Order Thinking Skills masih perlu untuk ditingkatkan.

  16. MILITER DAN KONSTRUKSI IDENTITAS NASIONAL: ANALISIS BUKU TEKS PELAJARAN SEJARAH SMA MASA ORDE BARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronymus Purwanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of the military in constructing national identity through history lesson textbooks for high schools in the period of New Order government. The move is motivated by the understanding that history lesson textbooks are important media to instill a national identity. The research method used was qualitative through content analysis of history lesson textbooks. The analysis focused on historical narratives about the revolution of independence (1945-1950. The results show that the narratives in textbooks are influenced by the views of the military. It can be seen from the militaristic narratives and heroification of military figures. On the other hand, the roles of political figures are negated and distorted.Keywords: history, history lesson, textbook, military, heroification, distortion, negation  Penelitian ini bermaksud menganalisis pengaruh kelompok militer dalam pembentukan identitas nasional melalui buku teks pelajaran sejarah untuk SMA pada masa pemerintahan Orde Baru. Langkah itu dimotivasi oleh pemahaman bahwa buku teks pelajaran sejarah merupakan media yang penting untuk menanamkan identitas nasional. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif melalui analisis isi buku teks pelajaran sejarah. Analisis dilakukan terhadap narasi sejarah tentang revolusi kemerdekaan (1945-1950. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa narasi dalam buku teks dipengaruhi oleh pandangan kelompok militer. Hal itu antara lain dapat disimak dari narasi yang bersifat militeristik dan pemahlawanan (heroifikasi tokoh-tokoh militer. Di lain pihak, peran tokoh-tokoh politik dinegasikan dan ditenggelamkan. Kata kunci: sejarah, pelajaran sejarah, buku teks, militer, heroifikasi, distorsi, negasi

  17. Self-Biased-SMA Drive PU Microgripper with Force Sensing in Visual Servo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jung Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative design of a polyurethane microgripper system with force sensor is developed for the measurement of gripping force in vision-based control. A microgripper mechanism integrated with a force sensing arm is fabricated by an excimer laser. The microgripper is actuated by a self-biased-SMA (Shape Memory Alloy actuator. A computer-vision method through the ERES (Extended Regional Edge Statistics algorithm is employed to track the motion of gripper. The position information of the gripping point together with the deflection of the force sensing arm is utilized for sensing force. A fuzzy expert with a PI controller in a visual servo is employed to test the performance of sensing the gripping force in grasping of 38μm diameter metal rod. In the performance test, the microgripper system provides a maximum gripping size of 40μm, a maximum force resolution of 1μN and a maximum gripping force of 58μN.

  18. SIKAP DAN PEMERTAHANAN BAHASA INDONESIA SISWA KELAS X SMA INTERNASIONAL BUDI MULIA DUA YOGYAKARTA

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    Rizki Amalia Sholihah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sikap dan pemertahanan terhadap bahasa Indonesia pada siswa kelas X kelas internasional dan non-internasional di SMA Budi Mulia Dua. Sikap dan pemertahanan bahasa tersebut ditinjau dari tes menulis siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan gabungan antata pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa di kelas X GAC terdapat 9 siswa yang memiliki pemerta-hanan bahasa negatif dan kelas X Asia terdapat 2 siswa yang memiliki pemertahanan yang negatif. Berdasarkan hasil menulis, pada kelas GAC hanya terdapat 1 siswa yang memiliki pemertahanan negatif dan di kelas X Asia terdapat 2 siswa. Kata kunci: bahasa Indonesia, sikap bahasa, pemertahanan bahasa   LANGUAGE ATTITUDE AND MAINTENANCE ON INDONESIAN LANGUAGE CLASS X STUDENTS BUDI MULIA DUA INTERNATIONAL SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YOGYAKARTA Abstract This study is aimed at understanding language attitude and language maintenance on Indone-sian language to Class X students of international class and non-international class at Budi Mulia Dua Senior High School. The language attitude and language maintenance were viewed from students’s writing test. The result of this research from questionnaire, X Asia there are 2 students who have negative language maintenance, and in Class X GAC, there are 9 students who have negative language maintenance. From writing performance in class X Asia there are 2 students who have negative language maintenance and in Class X GAC, there are 1 students. Key words: Indonesian language, language attitude, language maintenance

  19. Pengaruh Intensitas Kesertaan dalam Program Pendidikan Nonformal terhadap Prestasi Belajar Siswa SMA di Kota Malang

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    Rifa’Atul Machmudah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh intensitas kesertaan dalam program pendidikan nonformal seperti bimbingan belajar (bimbel, les privat, kursus, belajar mandiri, dan bel-ajar dengan teman sebaya terhadap prestasi belajar siswa SMA Kota Malang. Penelitian ini mengguna-kan rancangan kuantitatif dengan desain korelasional yang dilanjutkan dengan regresi lima variabel. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik stratified proportional random sampling. Teknik analisa yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah deskriptif, regresi sederhana, dan regresi ganda. Ha-sil penelitian jurusan IPA sumbangan efektif (determinasi intensitas mengikuti bimbel sebesar 17,1%, les privat 12,5%, kursus 4,8%, dan belajar mandiri 1,2%, jurusan IPS sumbangan efektif (deter-minasi intensitas mengikuti bimbel sebesar 32,6%, les privat 6,2%, kursus 2,4%, belajar mandiri 10,2%, dan belajar kelompok 0,1%, jurusan Bahasa sumbangan efektif (determinasi intensitas mengi-kuti bimbel sebesar 0,4%, les privat 0,8%, kursus 0,3%, belajar mandiri 9,3%, dan belajar kelompok 1,3%. Jika diregresi secara ganda maka sumbangan efektif program pendidikan nonformal informal jurusan IPA sebesar 32,2%, pada jurusan IPS sebesar 13,3%, dan pada jurusan Bahasa sebesar 88,7%, posisi relatif prestasi akademik, tingkat kelulusan, dan status sosial ekonomi pada kategori menengah, rencana tindak lanjut pasca pendidikan formal adalah melanjutkan pendidikan di perguruan tinggi.  Kata kunci: pendidikan nonformal, bimbingan belajar, pendidikan luar sekolah

  20. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER POLA MUHAMMADIYAH (Studi Kasus SMA Muhammadiyah 1 dan MA Muallimin Yogyakarta

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    Kuswono Kuswono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the sources of character education at Islamic schools, character- building values application and actualization. This research was conducted in SMA Mubammadiyah I Yogyakarta and MA Muallimin Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.The result of research showed that teacher's perception on character education relied on Islamic precepts to create akhakul karimah-human beings. The sources of character education included Quran and as=Sunnah/Hadist as well as Ijtihad. The character value implantation was carried out through learning in the classroom, precedents from figures, teachers and peers, well-behaving familiarization in the presence of rule and order, personality report, and extracurricular activities in knowledge, skill, sport, art, and organization fields. The form of character-building values actualization emphasized more on the Islamic activities such as collectively shalat, reading and reciting Quran, social service, participating actively in IPM, hizbul wathan, and tapak suci organizational activities. In addition, there were kader inti/an, mubalig jumat, mubalig hijarah, fasting, Friday sermon, becoming the orator in pengajian, and flag ceremony. Such these activities reflected on religious, cooperative, leadership, loving-to-homeland, social care, environmental care, and creative values.Keywords: Education, Character, Muhammadiyah.

  1. Perception of Catholic Lessons Among the Eleventh Grade Muslim Students at SMA Santa Theresia Jakarta

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    Woro Retno Kris Sejati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The government has regulated that each student is entitled to religious education in accordance with his/her religion. However, some schools, one of which is SMA Santa Theresia (Santa Theresia Senior High School, have special regulations. Since these schools are run by Catholic foundations, they provide Catholic religious instruction to all students. Walgito (2004 reported that a person's perception will affect a person’s actions. Therefore, this research aims to reveal the Muslim students’ perception of the Catholic lessons they follow. This research used descriptive qualitative approach. The data were collected using interviews, observation and documentation through a process of data triangulation. The subjects selected through a purposive sampling method by considering that they are the eleventh grade students and taught by the same religious education teacher. The data were analyxed using Miles and Huberman model consisting of data reduction, data display and conclusion. The results indicated that the Muslim students have positive perception of the materials that are easy to apply in their daily lives, and also have a negative perception of the materials that have a lot of memorization and theories.

  2. SMA and CARMA observations of young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus

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    Lee C.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular outflows provide vital information about the earliest stages in the birth of stars, studying the molecular outflow properties is therefore crucial for understanding how stars form. Brown dwarfs with masses between that of stars and planets are not massive enough to maintain stable hydrogen-burning fusion reactions during most of their lifetime. Their origins are subject to much debate in recent literature because their masses are far below the typical mass where core collapse is expected to occur. Based on Submillimeter Array (SMA and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA observations, we present the first detections of bipolar molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus. Our results demonstrate that the bipolar molecular outflow operates down to brown dwarf masses, occurring in brown dwarfs as a scaled-down version of the universal process seen in young low-mass stars. This demonstrates that brown dwarfs and low-mass stars likely share the same formation mechanism.

  3. Upaya Guru Bimbingan dan Konseling dalam Mencegah Perilaku Bullying di SMA Negeri Se Kota Padang

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    Riri Yunika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a behavior consciously done by someone to abuse and hurt others. Ideally, the guidance and counseling teachers (BK teachersare demanded to give attentions in preventing bullying behavior. However, in fact, the BK teachers have not plan special programs yet to prevent the bullying behavior among students in school. This research aims to describe the understanding of BK teachers about the concept of bullying behavior. Then, it aims to describe the treatment of the BK given by the teachers to the students. Finally, it aims to describe the cooperation among the BK teachers within the school. This research is kind of descriptive research. The population of this research is all of the BK teachers of SMA Negeri (State school for secondary education in Padang. Sample is taken by using area sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Generally, the result implicates that the BK teachers have done preventing efforts toward bullying behavior among students in the school. Thus, the teachers should increase the understanding in reference to bullying behavior among students to prevent the behavior in school.

  4. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE STAD BERBANTUAN WINGEOM TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH GEOMETRI SISWA SMA

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    Ikhsanudin Ikhsanudin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is a quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test non-equivalent group design. The population in this research is all of the students on class X in SMA Negeri 1 Marga Tiga and the sampling technique is total sampling. Data are collected by documentation and test. Data are analyzed with descriptive statistics to compare the mean scores of N-Gain  obtained by each student.  The results of the analysis shows that (1 the student’s geometry problem solving ability with cooperative learning STAD is higher than the conventional learning, (2 the student’s geometry problem solving ability with wingeom software in cooperative learning STAD is higher than the conventional learning, (3 the student’s geometry problem solving ability with wingeom software in cooperative learning STAD is higher than without using wingeom software. This research shows that the cooperative learning STAD by using the wingeom software has a significant effect on the high school students’ geometry problem-solving ability. The finding of this research shows that the students are still having difficulties in solving the problems, especially when the students have to look back whether the finishing is right or not.

  5. MODIFIKASI KAMERA OBSCURA SEBAGAI DETEKTOR RADIASI PENGION UNTUK ALAT PEMBELAJARAN FISIKA DI SMA

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    P. Dwijananti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detektor yang dibuat pada penelitian ini berupa kamera kotak hitam. Detektor ini terbuat dari lempeng aluminium tebal 2 mm,berdimensi kotak ukuran (20x15x30 cm, memiliki komponen : panel detektor, kertas film/fotografi, dan sumber radiasi. Interaksiradiasi pengion dengan kertas film menghasilkan jejak bayangan penghitaman pada kertas film setelah dicuci. Tingkatpenghitaman hasil pemotretan menunjukkan pelemahan intesitas radiasi, absorbsi dengan bahan menghasilkan bayangantembus tidaknya pada kertas film. Dengan variasi waktu eksposure, bahan absorber dan pengaturan jarak, detektor ini dapatdigunakan uji kualitatif suatu sumber radiasi pengion. Kamera ini dapat digunakan sebagai alat pembelajaran pada materi inti danradioaktivitas di SMA. Detector made in this study is a black box camera made of aluminum. This detector is made of aluminum plate 2-mm thick, a box of(20x15x30 cm, with the following components: the detector panels, paper, film / photography, and sources of ionizing radiation withradiation. Interaction between ionizing radiation and film paper produces a shadow on the paper trail showing blackened after beingwashed. The blackening of radiation attenuation, absorption with at least translucent material produces a shadow on the paper film,with variation of exposure time, the absorbent material and distance, the detector can be using ionizing radiation submer qualitativetests. Camera conclusively prove can be used as a learning tool in the core content and radioactivity in high school.Keywords: detector, ionizing radiation, learning tool.

  6. FAKTOR DETERMINAN KEMAMPUAN PERENCANAAN KARIER SISWA SMA NEGERI SE-KABUPATEN TEGAL

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    Lu'luatun Miskiya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui faktor determinan kemampuan perencanaan karier siswa. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian survey. Populasi penelitian ini yaitu siswa kelas XI SMA Negeri se-Kabupaten Tegal. Teknik sampling yang digunakan Cluster Sampling Proporsional. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan angket tertutup. Analisis datanya menggunakan deskriptif persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor keluarga menjadi faktor determinan terhadap kemampuan perencanaan karier siswa dengan perolehan persentase sebesar 80% yang berada dalam kategori tinggi. Sedangkan faktor belajar menjadi faktor yang kurang determinan terhadap kemampuan perencanaan karier siswa dengan perolehan persentase sebesar 67% yang berada dalam kategori sedang. Simpulan dari penelitian ini, faktor keluarga menjadi faktor determinan terhadap kemampuan perencanaan karier siswa. The purpose of the study was to find out the determinant  factor of students career planning ability. This research was using survey research with XI grades students of State Senior High Schools in Tegal regency as the population. Proportionate cluster sampling technique was used  in this study. Method for collecting data was used close questionnaire. The data analysis used descriptive percentages.The results showed family factor become the determinant factor of students career planning ability with the percentage of 80 % which is in the high category while learning factor become less determinant factor of the ability of students career planning with a percentage of 67%  in the medium category . It can concluded that family factor become  determinant factor in the ability of students career planning.

  7. THE LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATION OF STUDENTS’ PRESENTATION IN ACCELERATION PROGRAM OF SMA LABSCHOOL JAKARTA

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    Siti Drivoka Sulistyaningrum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the kinds of taxis and logico-semantic relation of students’ presentation in Acceleration Program of SMA Labschool Jakarta. The meanings represented in clause complexes are analyzed based on the concept of relationship between clauses suggested by Halliday (1994: 373. The analysis of taxis and logico-semantic relation is necessary in order to present a pattern of the complexity of the acceleration students. The observation video was recorded in class K-12 then transcribed and analyzed by means of analysis of clause complexes proposed by Gerot and Wignell (1994: 21. The finding in the study shows that the clause complexity in the acceleration students’ presentation is varied. In the first group consisting 4 female students, almost all kinds of taxis and logico-semantic are relation found in their presentation, except hypotactic extension. In correspondence with the first group, the second group consisting 4 male students, has produced all kinds of relation except locution. From all groups the type of taxis and logico-semantic relation mostly arises is paratactic elaboration. The analysis of meaning reveals that the dominant meaning is addition which appears from extension.

  8. Development and Verification of Sputtered Thin-Film Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    SMA) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Cory R Knick and Christopher J Morris 5d. PROJECT ...effects were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for which we demonstrated martensite-austenite phase change at 57 °C for... Calorimetry 3 3.3 Stress vs. Temperature Measurements 4 4. Conclusions 7 5. References 8 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 9 Distribution

  9. Pose de la première pierre du bâtiment SMA18 du Cern

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    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    On 30 April 1999, Jean Pépin, Sénateur for the Department of the Ain and President of the Conseil Général, and Professor Luciano Maiani the Director-General of CERN will lay the foundation stone of Building SMA18, financed by the Department of the Ain in the framework of France's special contribution to CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SMA 1.3mm image of OMC 1 North (Teixeira+, 2016)

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    Teixeira, P. S.; Takahashi, S.; Zapata, L. A.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2016-02-01

    We observed OMC 1n using the eight 6m antennas of the SMA1 in the compact configuration on December 4, 20, and 24, 2008 (2007B-S028, P.I.: L. Zapata) and in the subcompact configuration on February 1, 2009 (2008B-S072, P.I.: L. Zapata) at 230GHz. The primary beam at this frequency is 55", and the nine pointing centers were distributed in a Nyquist-sampled grid. (2 data files).

  11. SMA-causing missense mutations in survival motor neuron (Smn) display a wide range of phenotypes when modeled in Drosophila.

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    Praveen, Kavita; Wen, Ying; Gray, Kelsey M; Noto, John J; Patlolla, Akash R; Van Duyne, Gregory D; Matera, A Gregory

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN) gene are the primary cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a devastating neuromuscular disorder. SMN protein has a well-characterized role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), core components of the spliceosome. Additional tissue-specific and global functions have been ascribed to SMN; however, their relevance to SMA pathology is poorly understood and controversial. Using Drosophila as a model system, we created an allelic series of twelve Smn missense mutations, originally identified in human SMA patients. We show that animals expressing these SMA-causing mutations display a broad range of phenotypic severities, similar to the human disease. Furthermore, specific interactions with other proteins known to be important for SMN's role in RNP assembly are conserved. Intragenic complementation analyses revealed that the three most severe mutations, all of which map to the YG box self-oligomerization domain of SMN, display a stronger phenotype than the null allele and behave in a dominant fashion. In support of this finding, the severe YG box mutants are defective in self-interaction assays, yet maintain their ability to heterodimerize with wild-type SMN. When expressed at high levels, wild-type SMN is able to suppress the activity of the mutant protein. These results suggest that certain SMN mutants can sequester the wild-type protein into inactive complexes. Molecular modeling of the SMN YG box dimer provides a structural basis for this dominant phenotype. These data demonstrate that important structural and functional features of the SMN YG box are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, emphasizing the importance of self-interaction to the proper functioning of SMN.

  12. SMA-causing missense mutations in survival motor neuron (Smn display a wide range of phenotypes when modeled in Drosophila.

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    Kavita Praveen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN gene are the primary cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, a devastating neuromuscular disorder. SMN protein has a well-characterized role i