WorldWideScience

Sample records for m1 mec greater

  1. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  2. Rapid detection, differentiation and typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring either mecA or the new mecA homologue mecA(LGA251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegger, M; Andersen, P S; Kearns, A; Pichon, B; Holmes, M A; Edwards, G; Laurent, F; Teale, C; Skov, R; Larsen, A R

    2012-04-01

    The recent finding of a new mecA homologue, mecA(LGA251) , with only 70% nucleotide homology to the conventional mecA gene has brought the routine testing for mecA as a confirmatory test for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) into question. A multiplex PCR was designed to differentiate mecA(LGA251) from the known mecA together with detection of lukF-PV and the spa gene fragments, enabling direct spa typing by sequencing of the PCR amplicons. The PCR analysis and subsequent spa typing were validated on a large collection (n=185) of contemporary MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates, including 127 isolates carrying mecA(LGA251) . The mecA(LGA251) gene was situated in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI elements, and sequence variation within a 631-bp fragment of mecA(LGA251) in 79 isolates indicated a very conserved gene sequence. Following a successful validation, the multiplex PCR strategy was implemented in the routine testing of MRSA for national surveillance. Over a 2-month period, among 203 samples tested, 12 new MRSA cases caused by isolates carrying mecA(LGA251) were identified, emphasizing the clinical importance of testing for these new MRSA isolates. © 2011 STATENS SERUM INSTITUT. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Mecánica de los suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo; Escobar Potes, Carlos Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Mecánica de los suelos: texto para la asignatura Mecánica de Suelos I del programa de Ingeniería Civil de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Manizales, cuyo contenido desarrollado en 15 capítulos, es: Origen, formación y constitución del Suelo. Las arcillas. Relaciones de volumen y peso para Suelos. Estructura del suelo y granulometría. Plasticidad de los Suelos. Clasificación e identificación de los Suelos. Capilaridad. Propiedades hidráulicas de los suelos. Redes d...

  4. Dredging in Sediments Containing Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welp, Timothy; Follett, George; Crull, Michelle; Pollock, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    .... This report describes the different types of dredges and dredging projects that can encounter MEC, describes how these dredges' operational methodologies can be impacted by MEC, and summarizes past...

  5. m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    For neutrons the critical angle of Ni is defined as m=1. If one needs a coating with reflectivity above m=1, people have traditionally used Ni58 or Ni-based multilayers. The reason to use Ni is the high neutron scattering density and the fact that it is easy to coat Ni using magnetron sputtering....... For a neutron guide the cost of shielding around the guide is a substantial part of the total cost of the guide. We are therefore looking at other materials than Ni for m=1 coatings. Both Be and diamond have the same or higher neutron scattering density than Ni, and have a much smaller absorption cross section....... Because of the lower absorption cross section, and because of fewer emitted gamma ray photons when a neutron is absorbed, these coatings are producing much less gamma radiation and therefore reduce the shielding costs. Be is frequently used in a wide range of science and technology applications. The only...

  6. Predicting Trainability of M1 Crewmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Load Main Gun Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON M1 TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Launcher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION...Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON Ml TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Lauacher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION FOR OPERATION ON Ml

  7. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut

    2000-01-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 -Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  8. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  9. E-ELT M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, P.; Sedghi, B.; Mueller, M.

    2012-09-01

    During the advanced design phase of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) several critical components have been prototyped. During the last year some of them have been tested in dedicated test stands. In particular, a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror has been assembled with 2 active and 2 passive segments. This test stand is equipped with complete prototype segment subunits, i.e. including support mechanisms, glass segments, edge sensors, position actuators as well as additional metrology for monitoring. The purpose is to test various procedures such as calibration, alignment and handling and to study control strategies. In addition the achievable component and subsystem performances are evaluated, and interface issues are identified. In this paper an overview of the activities related to the E-ELT M1 Test Facility will be given. Experiences and test results are presented.

  10. Introduction to the m = 1 helicity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The m = 1 Helicity Source, formerly called the Kinked Z-pinch, was developed as part of the Electrode Studies program at Los Alamos. The Electrode Studies program was initiated to study the control of electrode erosion in long discharge duration spheromak sources. Erosion control is necessary to reduce plasma impurities and to obtain adequate electrode lifetimes. The first task of the Electrode Studies program is to determine, from among a variety of configurations including the coaxial one, a helicity source geometry with good prospects for erosion control. The more efficient the helicity source the easier it will be to control erosion, but the source most also be easy to diagnose and modify if it is to be a useful test bed. The various erosion control techniques which have been proposed will require extensive experimentation to evaluate and optimize. Proposed techniques include, using refractory metals, profiling of the electrodes and magnetic fields, and various gas injection schemes including porous electrodes. It is considered necessary to do these experiments on an optimized helicity source so that the electrode geometries and plasma properties will be relevant. Therefore the present Electrode Studies program is aimed at developing an improved helicity source design

  11. Infinitely many N=1 dualities from m+1m=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit; Intriligator, Kenneth; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We discuss two infinite classes of 4d supersymmetric theories, T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)}, labelled by an arbitrary non-negative integer, m. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} theory arises from the 6d, A{sub N−1} type N=(2,0) theory reduced on a 3-punctured sphere, with normal bundle given by line bundles of degree (m+1,−m); the m=0 case is the N=2 supersymmetric T{sub N} theory. The novelty is the negative-degree line bundle. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories likewise arise from the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a 4-punctured sphere, and can be regarded as gluing together two (partially Higgsed) T{sub N}{sup (m)} theories. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can be represented, in various duality frames, as quiver gauge theories, built from T{sub N} components via gauging and nilpotent Higgsing. We analyze the RG flow of the U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories, and find that, for all integer m>0, they end up at the same IR SCFT as SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors and quartic superpotential. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can thus be regarded as an infinite set of UV completions, dual to SQCD with N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} duals have different duality frame quiver representations, with 2m+1 gauge nodes.

  12. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10\\/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10\\/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon.

  13. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Morrison, I.

    1988-01-01

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for β → g, γ → g and γ → γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character. (orig.)

  14. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-03

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for ..beta.. -> g, ..gamma.. -> g and ..gamma.. -> ..gamma.. M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  15. Stochasticity and the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Stodiek, W.; Park, W.

    1986-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that stochasticity resulting from toroidal coupling could lead to a saturation of the m = 1 internal mode in tokamaks. We present results from the nonlinear evolution of the m = 1 mode with toroidal coupling that show that stochasticity is not enough to cause saturation of the m = 1 mode

  16. M1 and M2 Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Contribution of Imbalance of M1/M2 Monocytes to Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Fukui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe investigated the relationships among M1 monocytes, M2 monocytes, osteoclast (OC differentiation ability, and clinical characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from RA patients and healthy donors, and we then investigated the number of M1 monocytes or M2 monocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also obtained and cultured CD14-positive cells from PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors to investigate OC differentiation in vitro.ResultsForty RA patients and 20 healthy donors were included. Twenty-two patients (55% were anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive. The median M1/M2 ratio was 0.59 (0.31–1.11, interquartile range. There were no significant differences between the RA patients and healthy donors. There was a positive correlation between the M1/M2 ratio and the differentiated OC number in vitro in RA patients (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.001. The ACPA-positive patients had significantly higher M1/M2 ratios in vivo (p = 0.028 and significantly greater numbers of OCs in vitro (p = 0.005 than the ACPA-negative patients. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the M1/M2 ratio was the sole significant contribution factor to in vitro osteoclastogenesis. RA patients with M1/M2 ratios >1 (having relatively more M1 monocytes had higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates than RA patients with M1/M2 ratios ≤1. M1-dominant monocytes in vitro produced higher concentrations of interleukin-6 upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide than M2 monocytes.ConclusionM1/M2 monocytes imbalance strongly contributes to osteoclastogenesis of RA patients. Our findings cast M1 and M2 monocyte subsets in a new light as a new target of treatments for RA to prevent progression of osteoclastic bone destruction.

  17. Relatividad galileana y ondas mecánicas

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Vega, Mario Felipe

    1991-01-01

    Las leyes de la mecánica son las mismas para todos los observadores inerciales, observadores que se mueven con velocidad constante unos respecto a otros. Así lo asevera el principio de la relatividad galileana ( o Newtoniana). Los diversos observadores correlacionan su observación mediante las transformaciones galileana y así, cuando en la expresión de una ley de la mecánica efectuamos una de tales transformaciones, la ley no cambia, su forma permanece inalterada: decimos que es invariante b...

  18. Mecánica de medios continuos para ingenieros

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Olivella, Xavier; Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Mecánica de medios continuos para ingenieros pretende ser una herramienta para la formación de los ingenieros en la mecánica de medios continuos, que mantiene un equilibrio adecuado entre la rigurosidad de su planteamiento y la claridad de los principios físicos tratados. El contenido del texto está claramente dividido en dos partes, que se presentan secuencialmente. En la primera (capítulos 1 a 5), se introducen los aspectos fundamentales y descriptivos comunes a todos los medios continu...

  19. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-01

    Using the {1}/{N} expansion technique we derive expressions for β→g, γ→g and γ→γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  20. Dredging in Sediments Containing Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    UXO diver tech- niques to recover the targets. First, the diver using a fluxgate magnetometer attempted to verify the exist- ence of a target...MEC. These technologies included: 1. Synthetic Aperture SONAR. 2. Magnetometers and electromagnetic induction sensors. 3. Magnetometer /SONAR...4. Differential Magnetometer . 5. Mobile Underwater Debris Survey System. The feasibility of site characterization of the borrow area

  1. Evolutionary Origin of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Joana; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye

    2017-01-01

    , many steps are still missing from this evolutionary history. In particular, it is not known how mecA was incorporated into the mobile element SCC prior to dissemination among Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic staphylococcal species. To gain insights into the possible contribution of several...

  2. Apuntes de Mecánica de Fluidos

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Domingo, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Esta publicacion contiene unos apuntes para la parte de Mecánica de Fluidos de las asignaturas de la ETSAM, junto con cierta cantidad de material adicional que excede el ámbito del curso. Aunque está lejos de ser completa y de estar libre de errores, el autor espera sea útil.

  3. Distribution of mecA gene amongst Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Antibiotics susceptibility testing including methicillin sensitivity testing, beta lactamase testing, PCR for detection of mecA gene, and minimum inhibitory concentrations to methicillin were carried out on all the 194 isolates of S. aureus. Among the 194 strains, 40 (20.6%) were MRSA using 10 µg methicillin disc. PCR analysis.

  4. Ddc2 mediates Mec1 activation through a Ddc1- or Dpb11-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bandhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase Mec1 (ATR ortholog and its partner Ddc2 (ATRIP ortholog play a key role in DNA damage checkpoint responses in budding yeast. Previous studies have established the model in which Ddc1, a subunit of the checkpoint clamp, and Dpb11, related to TopBP1, activate Mec1 directly and control DNA damage checkpoint responses at G1 and G2/M. In this study, we show that Ddc2 contributes to Mec1 activation through a Ddc1- or Dpb11-independent mechanism. The catalytic activity of Mec1 increases after DNA damage in a Ddc2-dependent manner. In contrast, Mec1 activation occurs even in the absence of Ddc1 and Dpb11 function at G2/M. Ddc2 recruits Mec1 to sites of DNA damage. To dissect the role of Ddc2 in Mec1 activation, we isolated and characterized a separation-of-function mutation in DDC2, called ddc2-S4. The ddc2-S4 mutation does not affect Mec1 recruitment but diminishes Mec1 activation. Mec1 phosphorylates histone H2A in response to DNA damage. The ddc2-S4 mutation decreases phosphorylation of histone H2A more significantly than the absence of Ddc1 and Dpb11 function does. Our results suggest that Ddc2 plays a critical role in Mec1 activation as well as Mec1 localization at sites of DNA damage.

  5. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Hill

    Full Text Available The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs. "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond; "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics. "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders

  6. Symbiotic nature of the object M1-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrt'eva, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Many year spectral observations show, that the object M1-77 is the symbiotic system, which consists of a M-giant and a B-star. An emission spectra arises from an envelope, which was formed from a giant's extended atmosphere, and now is ionized by the hotter component. Some spectral changes were registered in M1-77: the forbidden lines intensities increase relatively to that of Hα. It is connected with the decrease of hydrogen emission. (author)

  7. Temas de ventilación mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero López, Armando

    2011-01-01

    Se trata de la presentación de cinco capítulos del Tomo II del libro *TERAPIA INTENSIVA* muy íntimamente relacionados con la teoría y la práctica de la ventilación mecánica, incluyéndose una introducción con un análisis histórico de la ventilación mecánica y la evolución de conceptos recientes en la temática. Se usan como referencias bibliográficas la producción científica y experiencia del autor, relacionada con la temática que se trata. Los principales novedades y aportes son el conocimient...

  8. Mecánica de suelos : problemas resueltos

    OpenAIRE

    Olivella Pastallé, Sebastià

    2001-01-01

    Esta publicación contiene una colección de problemas resueltos de mecánica de suelos que ha sido preparada para los estudios de ingeniería técnica de obras públicas que se imparten en la UPC. Se trata de una titulación de primer ciclo, por lo que el enfoque que se da a los problemas se centra en aspectos de concepto y no requiere la realización de desarrollos matemáticos. Incluye problemas relativos a propiedades básicas de los suelos, aspectos básicos de la mecánica de medios porosos indefor...

  9. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  10. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  11. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  12. Impairments of mecA gene detection in bovine Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Araújo de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA LGA251 in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS. Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA LGA251 gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097 and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253 mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples.

  13. M1 transitions between superdeformed states in 195Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xing; Xingqu Chen; Xiaochun Wang

    1996-01-01

    Using a triaxial-particle-rotor model, the quadrupole and dipole transition energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, electromagnetic transition probabilities and the relative intensity of the E2 γ-transitions are calculated for superdeformed bands in 195 Tl. A strong perturbation effect of rotation on transition energies and M1 and E2 transitions of superdeformed states is investigated. The total M1 transitions, enhanced by internal conversion, are expected to compete strongly with the E2 γ-ray at low spins in the superdeformed 195 Tl nucleus. (author)

  14. M1-transitions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackman, R.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1977-03-01

    In the MIT bag model, the M1-transitions of low lying hadrons are investigated. The following calculations are performed: 32 hadron masses are recomputed with a choice of bag parameters designed to give the correct values for the proton magnetic moment, μ/sub p/, and several masses, M/sub rho/ M/sub ω/ M/sub Δ/ M/sub Ω/, and M/sub D/; (2) eta, eta', eta/sub c/ mixing is computed in an untrustworthy approximation; and the widths for 38 M1-transitions are computed

  15. Genetic analysis of rice semidwarf mutant Tad-M-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Yang Rencui

    1995-01-01

    This paper dealed with the inheritance of the rice semidwarf of Tad-M-,a mutant line bred from traditional indica rice Variety Tadukan by radiation. The results indicated that semidwarf of Tad-M-1 was controlled by one pair of recessive gene, which was nonallelic to sd-1 gene of variety Aijiaonante and sd-g gene of variety Xinguiai and allelic to the semidwarf gene of Yunnan japonica variety Xueheaizao and Sichuan indica variety Yizila.The possible uses of Tad-M-1 in rice breeding was also discussed

  16. assessing aflatoxin m1 levels among lactating mothers' in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    1Department of Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure in breast milk, a possible risk factor for infant early ..... Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and ...

  17. Analytic theory of the nonlinear M = 1 tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    Numerical studies show that the m = 1 tearing mode continues to grow exponentially well into the nonlinear regime, in contrast with the slow, ''Rutherford,'' growth of m > 1 modes. We present a single helicity calculation which generalizes that of Rutherford to the case when the constant-psi approximation is invalid. As in that theory, the parallel current becomes an approximate flux function when the island size, W, exceeds the linear tearing layer width. However for the m = 1 mode, W becomes proportional to deltaB, rather than (deltaB)/sup 1/2/ above this critical amplitude. This implies that the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law, which couples the m = 0 component to the m = 1 component, dominates the resistive diffusion term. The balance between the inductive electric field and this convective nonlinearity results in exponential growth. Assuming the form of the perturbed fields to be like that of the linear mode, we find that the growth occurs at 71% of the linear rate

  18. Theory of the m=1 kink mode in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.H. de.

    1990-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the stability problems arising in tokamak experiments. In part I of this thesis the internal m=1 kink instability in tokamak plasmas is considered within the confines of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD), in which model the pressure is considered to be isotropic, while state is assumed. Because irreversible processes are disregarded, there is an energy principle. By extremizing the energy associated with infinitesimal perturbations of the plasma, a normal mode is obtained. The m=n=1 mode is resonant at the q=1 surface, and therefore, equilibria with a broad region where q#approx = # 1 are expected to be particularly unstable. The m=1 instability is computed for these q profiles. In Part II of this thesis, the internal m=1 kink instability is considered in a stationary rotating tokamak plasma, in which the particle velocity distribution is allowed to be non-thermal. In a tokamak plasma that is intensely heated by neutron beams or radiofrequent waves, these features, which cannot be described with ideal MHD, may become important, especially in the cases with high m=1 growth rates found in Part I. The energy principle of a generalized fluid theory is applied in these cases, without specifying the equation of state of the plasma. Therefore the resulting energy functional for the m=1 mode is incomplete and not direct applicable, however, the result makes clear that a kinetic description of the plasma is required only to a first approximation, and can therefore be applied analytically. The guiding center approximation is applied, which neglects finite gyroradius effects and collisions. Application of the dispersion relation, that is obtained from kinetic theory, shows that compared to the ideal MHD case, growth rates are strongly reduced due to Landau damping while the stability boundaries are not changed. (author). 72 refs.; 11 figs

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing mecC in Swedish dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnerstad Helle Ericsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has not been detected in Swedish cattle. However, due to the report of mecC, a novel homologue to the mecA gene, there was reason to re-evaluate susceptibility results from strain collections of Staphylococcus aureus and test suspected isolates for the presence of mecC. Findings Bovine isolates of S. aureus with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams were retrospectively tested for presence of mecC. In four of the isolates mecC was detected. Conclusion In Sweden, this is the first finding of MRSA in cattle and the first detection of MRSA harbouring mecC of domestic animal origin. MRSA in animal populations has implications as a potential reservoir with risk for spread to humans. Occurrence of MRSA among Swedish cattle appears still very limited.

  20. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  1. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm caused to patients through incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence regarding the availability of hospital equipment.

  2. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  3. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  4. Fragilidad y comportamiento mecánico del esmalte dental

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Velásquez, C. A. (Camilo Alberto); Ossa, A. (Alexander); Arola, D. (Dwayne)

    2012-01-01

    El esmalte dental es el tejido duro más mineralizado del cuerpo humano. En este trabajo se estudiaron las propiedades mecánicas fundamentales de este tejido para terceros molares de pacientes jóvenes colombianos. Se establecieron la dureza, la tenacidad a la fractura aparente y la fragilidad del esmalte dental en función de la profundidad a partir de la superficie oclusal mediante técnicas de medición de microindentación. Se encontró que las mediciones de dureza son altamente dependi...

  5. Complicaciones mecánicas de los accesos venosos centrales

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rivas, T.

    2011-01-01

    Las complicaciones mecánicas de los accesos venosos centrales son frecuentes, 2 a 15% y en ocasiones pueden comprometer la vida del paciente. Hay factores que determinan el riesgo de una u otra, que pueden ser modificados o enfrentados de diferente forma para minimizarlo. En esta puesta al día se describen las complicaciones más frecuentes o de mayor gravedad como son: el neumotórax, la embolia aérea, mal-posición del catéter, perforación de grandes venas, punción arterial, arritmias, trom...

  6. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1sc +→21+ transition of Gd was determined using results from high-statistics photon scattering. This provides a possibility for a new approach on the search of Jsc + members of the rotational band built on the scissors mode. By application of Alaga's rule, which is justifiable as 156Gd is a well-deformed rotor with good K quantum number, a transition strength of B (E 2 ;2sc +→01+)=0.034 (13 ) W.u. is estimated.

  7. Flavonoids with M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyyammai Swaminathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-active compounds have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic flavones and flavonols was assayed in vitro for their ability to inhibit radioligand binding at human cloned M1 muscarinic receptors. Several compounds were found to possess competitive binding affinity (Ki = 40–110 µM, comparable to that of acetylcholine (Ki = 59 µM. Despite the fact that these compounds lack a positively-charged ammonium group under physiological conditions, molecular modelling studies suggested that they bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor, mainly through non-polar interactions.

  8. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  9. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  10. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  11. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  12. Interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of M1-transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregudov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study is the calculation of interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of the (γ, e) reaction. Two channels of the inelastic (γ, e) reaction are considered: resonance gamma radiation absorption by nucleus accompanied by internal conversion and photo absorption by atomic electrons. The case of M1 nuclear transition multipolarity is considered. The expression for angular dependence coefficients of interference member is obtained. General expression for (γ, e) reaction cross section is obtained in a long-wave approximation for the case when the specimen is placed in longitudinal magnetic field involving superfine nuclear level splitting. The results of disperse amplitudes calculation for 93 Kr, 119 Sn, 129 I, 149 Sm, 151 Eu, 169 Tm, 183 W, 193 Ir, 197 Au nuclei are verified. The calculations show that maximum interference effect in the (γ, e) reaction should be expected for 169 Tm isotope [ru

  13. Excitation of M1 resonances by medium energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, G.M.; Djalali, C.; Marty, N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of 201 MeV (p,p') studies of ΔL=0 spin-flip transitions at very forward angles are discussed. The reasons for making comparisons between (p,p'), (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements of M1 transitions are outlined. After presenting some of the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, a summary of the results on the Zr isotopes plus other nuclei to mass 140 is given. Results from 48 Ca, the N=28 nuclei 50 Ti, 51 V, 52 Cr and 54 Fe are discussed and compared with (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements. In the Ni isotopes, the T 0 and T 0 +1 components of the 1 + spin-flips transition were observed both in (p,p') and in (p,n) reactions

  14. Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Neutron Beam Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, Wichian

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Neutron beam tube of neutron radiography facility at Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (public organization) is a divergent beam. The rectangular open-end of the beam tube is 16 cm x 17 cm while the inner-end is closed to the reactor core. The neutron beam size was measured using 20 cm x 40 cm neutron imaging plate. The measurement at the position 100 cm from the end of the collimator has shown that the beam size was 18.2 cm x 19.0 cm. Gamma ray in neutron the beam was also measured by the identical position using industrial X ray film. The area of gamma ray was 27.8 cm x 31.1 cm with the highest intensity found to be along the neutron beam circumference

  15. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  16. Meson exchange current (MEC) models in neutrino interaction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators

  17. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  18. Analysis about modeling MEC7000 excitation system of nuclear power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangshi; Sun, Zhiyuan; Dou, Qian; Liu, Mosi; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Xiaoming

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the importance of accurate modeling excitation system in stability calculation of nuclear power plant inland and lack of research in modeling MEC7000 excitation system,this paper summarize a general method to modeling and simulate MEC7000 excitation system. Among this method also solve the key issues of computing method of IO interface parameter and the conversion process of excitation system measured model to BPA simulation model. At last complete the simulation modeling of MEC7000 excitation system first time in domestic. By used No-load small disturbance check, demonstrates that the proposed model and algorithm is corrective and efficient.

  19. Public health officials and MECs for health should be held criminally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... MEC and his colleagues award the same company a service contract ... the intention to kill; (ii) the person's act or omission was unlawful; ..... Director of Public Prosecution Gauteng v Pistorius 2016(1) SACR 431 (SCA). 6.

  20. Research Progress of Hydrogen Production fromOrganic Wastes in Microbial Electrolysis Cell(MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yin-sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrolysis cell(MECtechnology as an emerging technology, has achieved the target of hydrogen production from different substrates such as waste water, forestry wastes, activated sludge by simultaneous enzymolysis and fermentation, which can effectively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. This paper described the working principle of MEC and analyzed these factors influencing the process of hydrogen production from organic waste in MEC.

  1. An Internet Study of User's Experiences of the Synthetic Cathinone 4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A synthetic cathinone called 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) emerged online in 2010, and was cyber-marketed to be a replacement for mephedrone. The study aimed to present user experiences of 4-MEC as reported on the Internet, with a focus on user profiles, sourcing and product characteristics, routes of administration, dosage, positive and undesirable effects, and comparisons to mephedrone. Twenty-three individual, anonymous trip reports of the sole use of 4-MEC, and 112 screenshots of general 4-MEC user discussion boards, were taken from a purposeful sample of public drug-related sites. A content textual analysis was conducted on extracted qualitative information and produced 41 categories compiled into five general themes: "Type of 4-MEC user"; "Sourcing, informed decision making, product characteristics, and quality assurance"; "Routes of administration, gauging of dosage, and consumption of other drugs"; "Time course effects and outcomes"; and "Comparisons with mephedrone." 4-MEC is sold as white beads, crystalline shards, or green balls. User motives centered on curiosity, pricing, and ease of web sourcing. Oral, nasal, injecting, eyeball, and rectal routes of administration were described. Testing for purity, "allergy testing," and gauging of dosage were common. Users described euphoric but short-lived effects, with little comedown. Continued research is vital to inform harm reduction.

  2. High-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation of the right M1 further facilitates left M1 excitability during crossed facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibel, Vincent; Muthalib, Makii; Teo, Wei-Peng; Perrey, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    The crossed-facilitation (CF) effect refers to when motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the relaxed muscles of one arm are facilitated by contraction of the opposite arm. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation (HD-tDCS) applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1) controlling the left contracting arm [50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] would further facilitate CF toward the relaxed right arm. Seventeen healthy right-handed subjects participated in an anodal and cathodal or sham HD-tDCS session of the right M1 (2 mA for 20 min) separated by at least 48 h. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit MEPs and cortical silent periods (CSPs) from the left M1 at baseline and 10 min into and after right M1 HD-tDCS. At baseline, compared with resting, CF (i.e., right arm resting, left arm 50% MVIC) increased left M1 MEP amplitudes (+97%) and decreased CSPs (-11%). The main novel finding was that right M1 HD-tDCS further increased left M1 excitability (+28.3%) and inhibition (+21%) from baseline levels during CF of the left M1, with no difference between anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS sessions. No modulation of CSP or MEP was observed during sham HD-tDCS sessions. Our findings suggest that CF of the left M1 combined with right M1 anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS further facilitated interhemispheric interactions during CF from the right M1 (contracting left arm) toward the left M1 (relaxed right arm), with effects on both excitatory and inhibitory processing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows modulation of the nonstimulated left M1 by right M1 HD-tDCS combined with crossed facilitation, which was probably achieved through modulation of interhemispheric interactions.

  3. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Linda E. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density 'snake' located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to n. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of n/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small n and {nabla}p(tilde sign) Asymptotically-Equal-To {nabla}(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q Asymptotically-Equal-To 1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where n aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  4. Propiedades mecánicas de aceites y grasas vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of mechanical properties are presented for crude oils from avocado pulp, lupin grain, peanuts, soybean, sesame, cotton, castor-oil, linseed and passion fruit seeds; refined oils from sunflower, corn, peanut, olive and soybean; and cocoa, coconut, palm-oil and kernel palm-oil fats.
    Correlation equations which describe the effect of temperature on the refractive index, density, viscosity and surface tension are obtained, and values of coefficient of expansion and activation energy for flow are calculated.

    Se presentan los valores de las principales propiedades mecánicas determinadas en aceites crudos extraídos de pulpa de aguacate, granos o semillas de sésamo, algodón, altramuz o chocho, ricino, linaza, maní o cacahuete, maracuyá y soja; aceites refinados provenientes de semillas de girasol, germen de maíz, maní, oliva y soja; grasas extraídas de cacao, copra de coco, pulpa de palma africana y almendras de palma africana.
    Con los datos experimentales se establecen ecuaciones de correlación que describen el efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad, la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. En cada producto, con los datos de la densidad se calcula el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y con los de la viscosidad la energía de activación.

  5. A comprehensive review of microbial electrolysis cells (MEC reactor designs and configurations for sustainable hydrogen gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudukeremu Kadier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles. A cutting edge technology called a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC can achieve sustainable and clean hydrogen production from a wide range of renewable biomass and wastewaters. Enhancing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are the main challenges of MEC technology. MEC reactor design is one of the crucial factors which directly influence on hydrogen and current production rate in MECs. The rector design is also a key factor to up-scaling. Traditional MEC designs incorporated membranes, but it was recently shown that membrane-free designs can lead to both high hydrogen recoveries and production rates. Since then multiple studies have developed reactors that operate without membranes. This review provides a brief overview of recent advances in research on scalable MEC reactor design and configurations.

  6. POTENTIAL USE OF MICROBIAL ELECTROLYSIS CELLS (MECs IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eEscapa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1-4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it needs not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  7. Distribution of radiative strength with excitation energy: the E1 and M1 giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Speth, J.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the giant dipole resonance in the particle-hole model, employing empirical values for the unperturbed particle and hole energies, have been unsuccessful in pushing the dipole state to a sufficiently high energy. it is argued that unperturbed levels correspondign to an effective mass of m*/m approx. 0.6 to 0.7 should be employed. The couplings of particles and holes to vibrations are the crucial ingredients in these considerations. More generally, it is argued that the effective mass relevant to excitations near the Fermi surface is that corresponding to empirical single-particle levels, m*/m greater than or equal to 1.0. For particle-hole excitations above the Fermi surface, it is a decreasing function of excitation energy, reaching the above values 0.6 to 0.7 for E greater than or equal to 2 dirac constant/b omega, dirac constant/sub omega/ being the shell spacing. This has the consequence of spreading out the M1 strength. A new interpretation of experimental strengths is proposed

  8. SCCmecFinder, a Web-Based Tool for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in Staphylococcus aureus Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hülya; Hasman, Henrik; Larsen, Jesper; Stegger, Marc; Johannesen, Thor Bech; Allesøe, Rosa Lundbye; Lemvigh, Camilla Koldbæk; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lund, Ole; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2018-01-01

    Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is important in infection control and surveillance. The current nomenclature of MRSA includes the genetic background of the S. aureus strain determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or equivalent methods like spa typing and typing of the mobile genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), which carries the mecA or mecC gene. Whereas MLST and spa typing are relatively simple, typing of SCC mec is less trivial because of its heterogeneity. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides the essential data for typing of the genetic background and SCC mec , but so far, no bioinformatic tools for SCC mec typing have been available. Here, we report the development and evaluation of SCC mec Finder for characterization of the SCC mec element from S. aureus WGS data. SCC mec Finder is able to identify all SCC mec element types, designated I to XIII, with subtyping of SCC mec types IV (2B) and V (5C2). SCC mec elements are characterized by two different gene prediction approaches to achieve correct annotation, a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)-based approach and a k -mer-based approach. Evaluation of SCC mec Finder by using a diverse collection of clinical isolates ( n = 93) showed a high typeability level of 96.7%, which increased to 98.9% upon modification of the default settings. In conclusion, SCC mec Finder can be an alternative to more laborious SCC mec typing methods and is freely available at https://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SCCmecFinder. IMPORTANCE SCC mec in MRSA is acknowledged to be of importance not only because it contains the mecA or mecC gene but also for staphylococcal adaptation to different environments, e.g., in hospitals, the community, and livestock. Typing of SCC mec by PCR techniques has, because of its heterogeneity, been challenging, and whole-genome sequencing has only partially solved this since no good bioinformatic tools have been available. In this

  9. Single-channel ground airborne radio system (SINCGARS) based remote control for the M1 Abrahms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Joseph R.

    1995-04-01

    Remote control of the Ml Abrahms Main Battle Tank through a minefield breach operation will remove the vehicle crew from the inherent hazard. A successful remote control system will provide automotive control yet not impair normal operation. This requires a minimum of physical parts, and an unobtrusive installation. Most importantly, a system failure must not impair the regular operation as a manned system. The system itself need not be complex. A minefield breach only requires simple control of automotive function and a mine plow interface. Control hardware for the Ml-Al can be reduced to two linear actuators, an electrical interface for the engine control unit, an interface for the mine plow, and the associated cables. Communication between vehicle control and operator control takes place over the vehicles organic radio (typically SINCGARS). This helps reduce the number of special purpose components for the remote control device. The device is currently awaiting an automotive safety test to prepare for its safety release. Because of the specific nature of the MDL-STD 1553-B data bus the device will not control an M1-A2 Main Battle Tank. The architecture will allow control of the M1-A2 through the 1553-B data bus however the physical hardware has not been constructed. The control scheme will not change. The communication interface will provide greater flexibility when interfacing to the vehicle tactical radio. Operational utility will be determined by U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command personnel. The obvious benefit is that if a remote tank is lost during a minefield breach the crew is saved.

  10. Estudio de las propiedades mecánicas del sistema óseo (Segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Mendoza

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios se hicieron bajo la supervisión del área de Biomecánica. Los ensayos dieron a conocer los valores reales de los esfuerzos mecánicos que es capaz de resistir el tejido óseo. Se elaboraron curvas de esfuerzo-deformación, con la ayuda de deformímetros mecánicos y rosetas de deformación, encontrándose las diferentes propiedades mecánicas y dando una base sólida para estudios posteriores en el área, que ayuden aún más al desarrollo de la bioingeniería en Colombia.

  11. Complicaciones pulmonares asociadas a ventilación mecánica en el paciente neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristabel Torres-Castro; Jaime Valle-Leal; Alba J. Martínez-Limón; Zaira Lastra-Jiménez; Lesvia Carmina Delgado-Bojórquez

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Se buscó determinar la incidencia de complicaciones pulmonares asociadas a ventilación mecánica en pacientes ingresados a un servicio de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) en un hospital de 2° nivel. Metodología: Estudio analítico retrospectivo en expedientes de recién nacidos ingresados a una sala de UCIN y que recibieron ventilación mecánica en un hospital de segundo nivel de atención médica. Se recabaron datos demográficos, de la ventilación mecánica, la intubación y co...

  12. Estudio de las propiedades mecánicas del sistema óseo (segunda parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Los estudios se hicieron bajo la supervisión del área de Biomecánica. Los ensayos dieron a conocer los valores reales de los esfuerzos mecánicos que es capaz de resistir el tejido óseo. Se elaboraron curvas de esfuerzo-deformación, con la ayuda de deformímetros mecánicos y rosetas de deformación, encontrándose las diferentes propiedades mecánicas y dando una base sólida para estudios posteriores en el área, que ayuden aún más al desarrollo de la bioingeniería en Colombia.

  13. Old Drugs To Treat Resistant Bugs: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with mecC Are Susceptible to a Combination of Penicillin and Clavulanic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Harrison, Ewan M; Lovering, Andrew L; Gleadall, Nicholas; Zadoks, Ruth; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J; Holden, Matthew T G; Paterson, Gavin K; Holmes, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    β-Lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mediated by the expression of an alternative penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) (encoded by mecA) with a low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a novel variant of mecA, known as mecC, was identified in MRSA isolates from both humans and animals. In this study, we demonstrate that mecC-encoded PBP2c does not mediate resistance to penicillin. Rather, broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in MRSA strains carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA strains) is mediated by a combination of both PBP2c and the distinct β-lactamase encoded by the blaZ gene of strain LGA251 (blaZLGA251), which is part of mecC-encoding staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. We further demonstrate that mecC-MRSA strains are susceptible to the combination of penicillin and the β-lactam inhibitor clavulanic acid in vitro and that the same combination is effective in vivo for the treatment of experimental mecC-MRSA infection in wax moth larvae. Thus, we demonstrate how the distinct biological differences between mecA- and mecC-encoded PBP2a and PBP2c have the potential to be exploited as a novel approach for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Algorítmica del diseño mecánico

    OpenAIRE

    José Martínez Escanaverino

    1997-01-01

    Se demuestra que cualquier procedimiento de diseño mecánico puede interpretarse como un proceso de solución de problemas sobre modelos matemáticos, lo cual equivale a la obtención de los algoritmos de solución de tales problemas. Se utilizan los grafos bicromáticos como medio de expresión de los modelos, problemas yalgoritmos. Se ilustran los conceptos teóricos con un ejemplo práctico tomado de la mecánica de los sólidos.

  15. Modification of barley powdery mildew resistance controlled by the gene M1-a212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, J.; Joergensen, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The barley line Sultan 5 carries resistance gene M1-a12. Seeds were treated with EMS or NaN 3 . Among 10381 M 1 -spike progenies inoculated with M1-a12 a-virulent isolates of Erysiphe graminis, 25 segregated for less resistant infection type. Among 10 mutants analyzed, 9 had mutant allels of M1-a12 and one had a recessive mutant gene in a different locus acting as a ''suppressor'' of M1-a12. (author)

  16. Evidence for the evolutionary steps leading to mecA-mediated β-lactam resistance in staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Joana; Worning, Peder; Boye Nielsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the most primitive staphylococci. In this study we aimed to identify evolutionary steps linking these mecA precursors to the β-lactam resistance gene mecA and the resistance phenotype. We sequenced genomes of 106 S. sciuri, S. vitulinus and S. fleurettii strains and determined their oxacillin...

  17. Detection of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates by use of chromogenic medium MRSA ID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Anil; Steffy, Katherin; Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Sugumar, Madhan; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Manoharan, Anand; Karim, Shamsul; Biswas, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Reports of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are on the rise. Because of their susceptibility to oxacillin and cefoxitin, it is very difficult to detect them by using routine phenotypic methods. We describe two such isolates that were detected by chromogenic medium and confirmed by characterization of the mecA gene element.

  18. A Review of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Types in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Huda; Jasni, Azmiza Syawani; Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Ibrahim, Rosni

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCC mec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCC mec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCC mec types among CoNS species.

  19. A Look into the Melting Pot: The mecC-Harboring Region Is a Recombination Hot Spot in Staphylococcus stepanovicii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Semmler

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is an important driver for resistance- and virulence factor accumulation in pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus.Here, we have investigated the downstream region of the bacterial chromosomal attachment site (attB for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec element of a commensal mecC-positive Staphylococcus stepanovicii strain (IMT28705; ODD4 with respect to genetic composition and indications of HGT. S. stepanovicii IMT28705 was isolated from a fecal sample of a trapped wild bank vole (Myodes glareolus during a screening study (National Network on "Rodent-Borne Pathogens" in Germany. Whole genome sequencing (WGS of IMT28705 together with the mecC-negative type strain CM7717 was conducted in order to comparatively investigate the genomic region downstream of attB (GenBank accession no. KR732654 and KR732653.The bank vole isolate (IMT28705 harbors a mecC gene which shares 99.2% nucleotide (and 98.5% amino acid sequence identity with mecC of MRSA_LGA251. In addition, the mecC-encoding region harbors the typical blaZ-mecC-mecR1-mecI structure, corresponding with the class E mec complex. While the sequences downstream of attB in both S. stepanovicii isolates (IMT28705 and CM7717 are partitioned by 15 bp direct repeats, further comparison revealed a remarkable low concordance of gene content, indicating a chromosomal "hot spot" for foreign DNA integration and exchange.Our data highlight the necessity for further research on transmission routes of resistance encoding factors from the environmental and wildlife resistome.

  20. Visión anatomo-mecánica del cuerpo humano en Descartes

    OpenAIRE

    Idoate García, Victor M.

    1999-01-01

    Pese a que Descartes concibe al cuerpo humano como constituido por un cuerpo (res extensa) y una alma (res cogitans), en este trabajo sólo se considerará la parte que corresponde a la descripción anatómico y mecánica del cuerpo humano.

  1. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface water: reliability of PECs compared to MECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Schemberg, Dimitri; Mohammed, Nabaz; Huneau, Frédéric; Bertrand, Guillaume; Lavastre, Véronique; Le Coustumer, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Due to the current analytical processes that are not able to measure all the pharmaceutical molecules and to the high costs and the consumption of time to sample and analyze PhACs, models to calculate Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) have been developed. However a comparison between MECs and PECs, taking into account the methods of calculations and peculiarly the parameters included in the calculation (consumption data, pharmacokinetic parameters, elimination rate in STPs and in the environment), is necessary to assess the validity of PECs. MEC variations of sixteen target PhACs [acetaminophen (ACE), amlodipine (AML), atenolol (ATE), caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CAR), doxycycline (DOX), epoxycarbamazepine (EPO), fluvoxamine (FLU), furosemide (FUR), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), ifosfamide (IFO), losartan (LOS), pravastatin (PRA), progesterone (PROG), ramipril (RAM), trimetazidine (TRI)] have been evaluated during one hydrological cycle, from October 2011 to October 2012 and compared to PECs calculated by using an adaptation of the models proposed by Heberer and Feldmann (2005) and EMEA (2006). Comparison of PECs and MECS has been achieved for six molecules: ATE, CAR, DOX, FUR, HYD and PRA. DOX, FUR and HYD present differences between PECs and MECs on an annual basis but their temporal evolutions follow the same trends. PEC evaluation for these PhACs could then be possible but need some adjustments of consumption patterns, pharmacokinetic parameters and/or mechanisms of (bio)degradation. ATE, CAR and PRA are well modeled; PECs can then be used as reliable estimation of concentrations without any reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ventilación mecánica asistida en el Hospital San Rafael de Alajuela

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Segura, Donato A.

    1999-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio observacional sobre el empleo de la ventilación mecánica en un hospital de 2do nivel sin unidad de cuidados intensivos. UCR::Docencia::Salud::Facultad de Medicina::Escuela de Medicina

  3. Technical support document for proposed 1994 revision of the MEC thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1994 supplement to the 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for maximum component U{sub 0}-value. The 1994 amendments to the 1993 MEC were established in last year`s code change cycle and did not change the envelope requirements. The research underlying the proposed MEC revision was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards program. The goal of this research was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determines the most cost-effective (least total cost) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) (insulation levels and window types) for residential buildings. This least-cost set of ECMs was used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub 0}-values (thermal transmittances). ECMs include window types (for example, double-pane vinyl) and insulation levels (for example, R-19) for ceilings, walls, and floors.

  4. Resolución por elementos finitos de problemas de mecánica de fluidos

    OpenAIRE

    Nigro, Norberto

    1993-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 1993 Recomienda dar respuesta a algunas de las dificultades que surgen en la simulación numérica de problemas de mecánica de fluídos mediante el método de los elementos finitos

  5. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremy, J M; Roiland, J C; Gaymard, A

    1990-01-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  6. FoxM1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snai1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chun-Peng; Yu, Shui; Shi, Lei; Wang, Song; Li, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) is aberrantly expressed in several types of human malignancy, and serves an important role in tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells has been associated cancer metastasis; however, the implication of FoxM1 in EMT and its putative roles in the regulation of cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression of FoxM1, Snai1 and E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with various meta...

  7. Target-specific M1 inputs to infragranular S1 pyramidal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, Erika E.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of input from the primary motor cortex (M1) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is unclear; one key to understanding this pathway may lie in elucidating the cell-type specific microcircuits that connect S1 and M1. Recently, we discovered that a subset of pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of S1 receive especially strong input from M1 (Kinnischtzke AK, Simons DJ, Fanselow EE. Cereb Cortex 24: 2237–2248, 2014), suggesting that M1 may affect specific classes of pyramidal neurons differently. Here, using combined optogenetic and retrograde labeling approaches in the mouse, we examined the strengths of M1 inputs to five classes of infragranular S1 neurons categorized by their projections to particular cortical and subcortical targets. We found that the magnitude of M1 synaptic input to S1 pyramidal neurons varies greatly depending on the projection target of the postsynaptic neuron. Of the populations examined, M1-projecting corticocortical neurons in L6 received the strongest M1 inputs, whereas ventral posterior medial nucleus-projecting corticothalamic neurons, also located in L6, received the weakest. Each population also possessed distinct intrinsic properties. The results suggest that M1 differentially engages specific classes of S1 projection neurons, thereby regulating the motor-related influence S1 exerts over subcortical structures. PMID:27334960

  8. Produção do maracujazeiro e resistência mecânica do solo com biofertilizante sob irrigação com águas salinas Production of the yellow passion fruit and the mechanical resistance of the soil with biofertilizer under irrigation with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de águas de irrigação com níveis crescentes de salinidade e frequências de aplicação de biofertilizante bovino sobre a produção do maracujazeiro amarelo e a resistência mecânica do solo à penetração (RSP. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Remígio (PB, com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, correspondente aos valores de condutividade elétrica (CE da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 dS m-1 e quatro frequências de aplicação do biofertilizante: sem biofertilizante (SB, aplicação uma semana antes do transplantio (1 SAT, a cada 90 dias a partir do transplantio (90 DAT e, uma semana antes e a cada 90 dias após o transplantio (1 SAT + 90 DAT. O aumento da CE das águas comprometeu a capacidade produtiva do maracujazeiro amarelo, em termos de número de frutos colhidos e produção por planta, sendo os maiores declínios registros nas plantas irrigadas com águas de CE igual e superior a 2,5 dS m-1. As maiores frequência de aplicação do insumo orgânico promoveram incremento da produção por planta. Os valores da RSP até a profundidade de 40 cm, apesar de aumentarem com a profundidade do perfil, foram abaixo de 2000 Kpa o que não compromete o crescimento radicular e a produtividade do maracujazeiro amarelo. As aplicações das águas salinas aumentaram a resistência mecânica com menores valores nos solos com o insumo orgânico aplicado 1 SAT + 90 DAT e aos 90 DAT.The study aimed to evaluate the effects of irrigation water with increasing salinity levels and the application frequency of bio-fertilizer on the production of yellow passion fruit and soil resistance to penetration (RSP. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Remígio (PB, Brazil, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 4 factorial design corresponding to levels of electrical conductivity (EC of the irrigation water of 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and

  9. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  10. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ishan; Seeber, Andrew; Shimada, Kenji; Keusch, Jeremy J; Gut, Heinz; Gasser, Susan M

    2017-10-19

    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response. Activation of ATR-ATRIP in the absence of DNA damage is lethal. Therefore, it is important that damage-specific recruitment precedes kinase activation, which is achieved at least in part by Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization. Here, we report a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2-RPA assembly. High-resolution co-crystal structures of Ddc2-Rfa1 and Ddc2-Rfa1-t11 (K45E mutant) N termini and of the Ddc2 coiled-coil domain (CCD) provide insight into Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization and damage-site targeting. Based on our structural and functional findings, we present a Mec1-Ddc2-RPA-ssDNA composite structural model. By way of validation, we show that RPA-dependent recruitment of Mec1-Ddc2 is crucial for maintaining its homodimeric state at ssDNA and that Ddc2's recruitment domain and CCD are important for Mec1-dependent survival of UV-light-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-07-09

    The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  13. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano José

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  14. Properties of M1-M2-Si-Al-O-N glasses (M1 = La or Nd, M2 = Y or Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, M.J.; Nestor, E.; Hampshire, S. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials and Surface Science Inst.; Ramesh, R. [Littelfuse Ireland, Dundalk, Co. Louth (Ireland)

    2002-07-01

    Mixed lanthanide cation oxynitride glasses have been prepared in the M1 - M2 - Si-Al-O-N systems where M1 = La or Nd and M2 = Y or Er. The densities ({rho}), Young's moduli (E), microhardnesses (H{sub v}), glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}), dilatometric softening temperatures (T{sub dil}) and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of 13 glasses were determined. The molar volume values (MV) calculated from density data, E, H{sub v}, T{sub g}, T{sub dil} and CTE values were all found to vary linearly with the effective cation field strength arising from the M1 and M2 modifier cations. Least squares intercept and slope values are presented which correlate each property to effective cation field strength together with error values which arise from glass and specimen preparation and measurement inconsistencies. These linear correlations clearly indicate that the overall glass structure remains the same for each of the thirteen glasses with only the modifier cation(s) having any influence. This influence appears to be a cross-linking effect, the strength of which increases as the effective cation field strength of the M1, M2 modifiers increases. (orig.)

  15. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt sz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt sz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comportamiento mecánico de yeso reforzado con polímeros sintéticos

    OpenAIRE

    García Santos, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio de la resistencia mecánica del yeso, basado en su refuerzo mediante la adición de polímeros sintéticos, en forma de fibras y dispersiones acuosas. Se pretende mejorar las características mecánicas del yeso, entre cuyas cualidades se pueden enumerar las siguientes: abundancia en España, bajo coste energético, manejabilidad y propiedades de habitabilidad (acústicas, higrotérmicas, etc.). El aumento de las características mecánicas del yeso permite su utilización como elem...

  17. Propiedades mecánicas del acero de refuerzo utilizado en Colombia Propiedades mecánicas del acero de refuerzo utilizado en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria González Quintana; Juan Carlos Botero; Roberto Rochel; Julián Vidal; Martha Cecilia Alvarez Uribe

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado al estudio experimental que de- termina las propiedades mecánicas de aceros colombianos sometidos a cargas monotónicas de tracción. Se obtienen curvas típicas de esfuerzo-deformación que permiten caracterizar aceros nacionales estudiados haciendo énfasis en las variables que determinan el cambio de comportamiento del materialA statistical analysis applied to a experimental study that determines the mechanical properties of steels produ...

  18. Comparison of clinicopathological parameters with FoxM1 expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Kocarslan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that FoxM1 have a progressive oncogenic role in ccRRC. Our results suggested that higher expression of FoxM1 in tumor tissues predicts a locally aggressive behavior and poor outcome of patients with ccRCC, but not in patient with non-ccRCC.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and...

  20. Nanometre-accurate form measurement machine for E-ELT M1 segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    To enable important scientific discoveries, ESO has defined a new ground-based telescope: the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The baseline design features a telescope with a 39-m-class primary mirror (M1), making it the largest and most powerful telescope in the world. The M1 consists of

  1. 78 FR 13897 - Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration RIN 1210-AB51 Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... revisions to the Form M-1, Report for Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements (MEWAs) and Certain Entities...

  2. [Appearance of aflatoxin M1 during the manufacture of Camembert cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémy, J M; Roiland, J C

    1979-01-01

    Several classic cheese making of camembert are made from raw milk spiked with Aflatoxin M1. Three Aflatoxin levels 7.5 microgram/l, 3 microgram/l are used. In respective curds 35.6, 47.1 and 57.7% of Aflatoxin M1 are recovered and 64.4, 52.9 and 42.3% in respective whey. During the first 15 days of storage the Aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decrease respectively 25, 55, 75%. A similar experience is made with a milk contamined in Aflatoxin M1 C14 labelled. Same results are recovered, except about behaviour of Aflatoxin M1 in cheese: a same C14 activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8) CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  5. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  7. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complicaciones mecánicas del infarto agudo de miocardio: aunque infrecuentes, potencialmente letales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Quitian Moreno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la incidencia de complicaciones mecánicas en el infarto agudo de miocardio ha descendido después de la era de la intervención coronaria percutánea, la mortalidad sigue siendo significativa. La ruptura septal ventricular, la regurgitación mitral aguda y la ruptura de la pared libre del ventrículo izquierdo conforman el espectro de complicaciones mecánicas posteriores al infarto agudo de miocardio. La reparación quirúrgica es el pilar del tratamiento; sin embargo, como puente para la cirugía, el manejo médico permite estabilizar al paciente.

  9. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. An Efficient Offloading Scheme For MEC System Considering Delay and Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhua; Hao, Zhe; Zhang, Yanhua

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of mobile devices, mobile edge computing (MEC) which provides cloud computing capabilities proximate to mobile devices in 5G networks has been envisioned as a promising paradigm to enhance users experience. In this paper, we investigate a joint consideration of delay and energy consumption offloading scheme (JCDE) for MEC system in 5G heterogeneous networks. An optimization is formulated to minimize the delay as well as energy consumption of the offloading system, which the delay and energy consumption of transmitting and calculating tasks are taken into account. We adopt an iterative greedy algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Furthermore, simulations were carried out to validate the utility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme. The effect of parameter variations on the system is analysed as well. Numerical results demonstrate delay and energy efficiency promotion of our proposed scheme compared with another paper’s scheme.

  11. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Trombolisis farmacológica y mecánica en tromboembolismo pulmonar submasivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Cáneva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad tromboembólica pulmonar, en sus formas aguda, subaguda o crónica, presenta dificultades para su tratamiento y tiene elevada morbimortalidad. La gravedad del evento agudo y su potencial compromiso sobre la función del ventrículo derecho necesitan estrategias terapéuticas, a veces combinadas, para cambiar el curso de la enfermedad a favor de la supervivencia del paciente. Las trombolisis farmacológica y mecánica son instrumentos útiles para tratar un evento embólico pulmonar agudo grave. Se presenta el caso de una joven que desarrolló una embolia pulmonar submasiva de instalación subaguda en quien la terapia combinada y secuencial trombolítica, farmacológica y mecánica, fue exitosa.

  13. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  14. La imagen del Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mario Rodríguez Devis

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo extrae los principales puntos referentes al estudio de imagen de la Facultad de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá, y se centra en el departamento de Ingenieria Mecánica. El estudio fue contratado a finales de 1989, y coordinado por el autor; como parte de una estrategia de la Facultad de vincularse más activamente al sector productivo.

  15. Estudio de las propiedades mecánicas del sistema óseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Mendoza G.

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios adelantados fueron realizados para el área de Biomecánica, tratando de que su desarrollo fuera lo más científico posible; y aplicado al estudio del sistema óseo del hombre, ya que él posee un material que tiene un comportamiento que hace posible las aplicaciones de conceptos mecánicos y físicos de la Ingenlerla para su análisis.

  16. Asistencia respiratoria mecánica: Influencia de la edad en la evolución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J. Chertcoff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available No existe un concepto definido sobre la influencia de la edad en la mortalidad de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Realizamos un trabajo prospectivo-observacional para determinar si la edad es un factor independiente de mortalidad de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Se incluyeron 200 pacientes internados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires. Se registraron características y comorbilidades al ingreso, al inicio de la asistencia respiratoria mecánica, complicaciones y evolución en el Hospital y a los 6 meses. Los 200 pacientes incluidos fueron divididos en dos grupos: Grupo 1 (n = 164 menores de 80 años y Grupo 2 (n = 36 de 80 años o más. No hubo diferencias en la mortalidad en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y en el Hospital entre los pacientes menores de 80 años y los de 80 años o más. (55.56% vs. 41.46% y 58.33% vs. 42.68%. La supervivencia a los 6 meses de los = 80 años fue significativamente menor (22.22% vs. 48.17%, p = 0.0051. En el análisis multivariado solamente un APACHE II > 20 (p = 0.0007 o la ausencia de vida autónoma (p = 0.0028 conservaron poder predictivo independiente. Los pacientes añosos que reciben asistencia respiratoria mecánica no presentan una mayor mortalidad por el sólo hecho de ser ancianos. La restricción de los cuidados terapéuticos invasivos no parece justificada por la edad avanzada.

  17. Estudio de las propiedades mecánicas del sistema óseo

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Mendoza G.

    2011-01-01

    Los estudios adelantados fueron realizados para el área de Biomecánica, tratando de que su desarrollo fuera lo más científico posible; y aplicado al estudio del sistema óseo del hombre, ya que él posee un material que tiene un comportamiento que hace posible las aplicaciones de conceptos mecánicos y físicos de la Ingenlerla para su análisis.

  18. Breve historia de la ventilación mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Segura, Donato A.

    2000-01-01

    Se dan unos adarmes sobre la historia del desarrollo de la ventilación mecánica asistida, una de las tecnologías médicas que más ha revolucionado el cuidado del paciente gravemente enfermo y que frecuentemente es ignorada en los textos y publicaciones de la historia de la medicina. UCR::Docencia::Salud::Facultad de Medicina::Escuela de Tecnologías en Salud

  19. Materiales de la asignatura Mecánica de Fluidos (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel; Martín Gullón, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    En este material están contenidos los conceptos básicos del curso de Mecánica de fluidos, de tercer curso de la titulación de Ingeniero Químico de la Universidad de Alicante. En dicho curso se aborda el flujo interno de fluidos, el flujo externo sólido-fluido y las operaciones de separación basadas en el flujo de fluidos.

  20. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in ...

  1. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M(1) subtype (oxotremorine ...'s abuse-related effects, whereas non-M(1)/M(4) receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine effects of systemically applied, M(1) receptor agonists and suggest the possibility of a new approach to pharmacotherapy...

  2. Triaxiality and alternating M1 strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabor, S L; Johnson, T D; Holcombe, J W; Womble, P C; Doring, J; Nazarewicz, W [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of alternating patterns in B(M1) strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei is surveyed. The M1 alternations in a sequence of N= 41 isotones, in conjunction with particle-rotor model calculations, is shown to provide information about changing {gamma} deformation. In addition to other odd-A nuclei, several odd-odd nuclei are shown to exhibit alternating B(M1) values and signature inversion. alternations have also been reported in a 4 quasiparticle band in {sup 86}Zr, where they have been interpreted in terms of the interacting boson model. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Fine structure of the giant M1 resonance in 90Zr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G; Tsoneva, N; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Schwengner, R; Tonchev, A P; Adekola, A S; Hammond, S L; Kelley, J H; Kwan, E; Lenske, H; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2013-01-11

    The M1 excitations in the nuclide 90Zr have been studied in a photon-scattering experiment with monoenergetic and linearly polarized beams from 7 to 11 MeV. More than 40 J(π)=1+ states have been identified from observed ground-state transitions, revealing the fine structure of the giant M1 resonance with a centroid energy of 9 MeV and a sum strength of 4.17(56) μ(N)(2). The result for the total M1 strength and its fragmentation are discussed in the framework of the three-phonon quasiparticle-phonon model.

  4. CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms: genetic susceptibility to lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is considered an environment-related disease that develops as a consequence of exposure to mutagenic agents, namely those present in tobacco. The CYP1A1 gene codifies the phase I enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxilase (AHH belonging to the cytochrome P450 system that plays a major role in the bio-activation of tobacco procarcinogenes. Two CYP1A1 polymorphisms, m1 (T6235C transition and m2 (A4889G transition, are associated with greater enzymatic activity and have been described as genetic susceptibility factors for lung cancer.The aim of this study was to verify if this association holds true in blood samples of 175 lung cancer patients and 217 non-cancer patients from Portugal's midlands region. The samples were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay.The allelic frequencies of the mutant alleles were 0.12 for allele C and 1.14 for allele G in the control population. The results were not statistically different from those alleles in the patient population. There was also no statistically significant difference in genotype distribution in lung cancer patients and controls even when combining high risk genotypes. In our control sample, as in other populations of different ethnic origin, both polymorphisms also seem to be in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that in this sample of the Portuguese population, CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms are too rare to be of clinical relevance, and do not seem to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Resumo: O cancro do pulmão é considerado uma doença relacionada com o meio ambiente, consequência da exposição a agentes mutagénicos, nomeadamente os presentes no fumo do tabaco. O gene CYP1A1 codifica a enzima aril hidrocarboneto hidroxilase (AHH, da fase I, do sistema multienzimático do citocromo P450, que desempenha uma função preponderante na bioactivação dos procarcinogénios do tabaco. Dois polimorfismos do CYP1A1, m1 (transi

  5. Requirement of the Mre11 complex and exonuclease 1 for activation of the Mec1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Daisuke; Hirano, Yukinori; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2004-11-01

    The large protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3-related (ATR), orchestrate DNA damage checkpoint pathways. In budding yeast, ATM and ATR homologs are encoded by TEL1 and MEC1, respectively. The Mre11 complex consists of two highly related proteins, Mre11 and Rad50, and a third protein, Xrs2 in budding yeast or Nbs1 in mammals. The Mre11 complex controls the ATM/Tel1 signaling pathway in response to double-strand break (DSB) induction. We show here that the Mre11 complex functions together with exonuclease 1 (Exo1) in activation of the Mec1 signaling pathway after DNA damage and replication block. Mec1 controls the checkpoint responses following UV irradiation as well as DSB induction. Correspondingly, the Mre11 complex and Exo1 play an overlapping role in activation of DSB- and UV-induced checkpoints. The Mre11 complex and Exo1 collaborate in producing long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails at DSB ends and promote Mec1 association with the DSBs. The Ddc1-Mec3-Rad17 complex associates with sites of DNA damage and modulates the Mec1 signaling pathway. However, Ddc1 association with DSBs does not require the function of the Mre11 complex and Exo1. Mec1 controls checkpoint responses to stalled DNA replication as well. Accordingly, the Mre11 complex and Exo1 contribute to activation of the replication checkpoint pathway. Our results provide a model in which the Mre11 complex and Exo1 cooperate in generating long ssDNA tracts and thereby facilitate Mec1 association with sites of DNA damage or replication block.

  6. The ATM homologue MEC1 is required for phosphorylation of replication protein A in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, G.S.; Morrow, D.M.; Hieter, P.; Kelly, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein, required for cellular DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In human cells, RPA is phosphorylated during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and also in response to ionizing or ultraviolet radiation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a similar pattern of cell cycle-regulated RPA phosphorylation, and our studies indicate that the radiation-induced reactions occur in yeast as well. We have examined yeast RPA phosphorylation during the normal cell cycle and in response to environmental insult, and have demonstrated that the checkpoint gene MEC1 is required for the reaction under all conditions tested. Through examination of several checkpoint mutants, we have placed RPA phosphorylation in a novel pathway of the DNA damage response. MEC1 is similar in sequence to human ATM, the gene mutated in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). A-T cells are deficient in multiple checkpoint pathways and are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation. Because A-T cells exhibit a delay in ionizing radiation-induced RPA phosphorylation, our results indicate a functional similarity between MEC1 and ATM, and suggest that RPA phosphorylation is involved in a conserved eukaryotic DNA damage-response pathway defective in A-T

  7. Conserved binding of GCAC motifs by MEC-8, couch potato, and the RBPMS protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufari, Heddy

    2017-01-01

    Precise regulation of mRNA processing, translation, localization, and stability relies on specific interactions with RNA-binding proteins whose biological function and target preference are dictated by their preferred RNA motifs. The RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins is defined by a conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain found in metazoan RBPMS/Hermes and RBPMS2, Drosophila couch potato, and MEC-8 from Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to determine the parameters of RNA sequence recognition by the RBPMS family, we have first used the N-terminal domain from MEC-8 in binding assays and have demonstrated a preference for two GCAC motifs optimally separated by >6 nucleotides (nt). We have also determined the crystal structure of the dimeric N-terminal RRM domain from MEC-8 in the unbound form, and in complex with an oligonucleotide harboring two copies of the optimal GCAC motif. The atomic details reveal the molecular network that provides specificity to all four bases in the motif, including multiple hydrogen bonds to the initial guanine. Further studies with human RBPMS, as well as Drosophila couch potato, confirm a general preference for this double GCAC motif by other members of the protein family and the presence of this motif in known targets. PMID:28003515

  8. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  9. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  10. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of lactating cows is a public health issue, and because of its importance several techniques are used for its detection and quantification. These techniques include the physical-chemical as thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and the biological techniques including immunoassays such as RIA and ELISA. This review aimed to present the techniques used to quantify aflatoxins M1 and M2 in milk and dairy products.

  11. Addendum to 'Half coalescence of the m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.

    1985-01-01

    As an addendum to our previous work concerning the half-coalescence instability of an m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks, the potential energy is given for an arbitrary shape of the separatrix. (orig.)

  12. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  13. Inelastic electron scattering, fine structure of M1 giant resonances and Gamow-Teller states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in obtaining detailed fine structure distributions of magnetic giant resonances in nuclei using high resolution inelastic electron scattering at low energy is discussed. Specific examples chosen are the medium heavy nuclei 40 42 44 48 Ca in which M1 excitations are due to neutron spin-flip transitions and the N=28 isotones 50 Ti, 52 Cr and 54 Fe where in addition also proton excitations contribute to the measured M1 strength. It is found that the M1 strength is very fragmented and considerably quenched in comparison to predictions of shell model calculations in a model space that includes up to 2p-2h excitations. Finally, the old problem of M1 strength in 208 Pb is revisited and the results of a form factor measurement of a recently discovered low lying Jsup(π)=1 + state by nuclear resonance fluorescence are presented. (Auth.)

  14. The mutual dependence of M1 fertility and M2 mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1982-01-01

    The mutual dependence of M 1 fertility and M 2 mutations in rice was studied after treatment with gamma rays and EMS. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with decrease in seed fertility when M 1 ears were selected at random. However, at the lowest fertility class the mutation frequency was low. This reduction is attributed to the elimination of mutants in the high sterility class. The mutation yield can therefore be significantly enhanced by selecting M 1 ears of low fertility. The segregation ratio of mutants increased as fertility decreased. Mutation spectrum was however not influenced by M 1 fertility. This makes selection for fertility quite ineffective in altering the mutation spectrum. (author)

  15. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes, R.; Berg, J. S.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Liu, A.; Pasternak, J.; Rogers, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  16. 76 FR 799 - Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Entities Claiming Exception. It is generally identical to the...

  17. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  18. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  19. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  20. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Thiago Pereira Motta; Thamires Martins; Livia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, preg...

  1. Toroidal effects on the non-linearly saturated m = 1 island in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Haas, F.A.; Thyagaraja, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of toroidal effects (due to the coupling of various poloidal harmonics) on the non-linear saturation of the m=1 island. Bounds are obtained relating the aspect ratio, the shear at the q=1 surface and the saturated island width. Provided these bounds are satisfied, then we find that the cylindrical m=1 island theory is valid for toroidal geometry. (author)

  2. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  3. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  4. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  5. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  6. The effect of proton correlations in the M1 scattering strengths of even calcium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, L.; Poves, A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton correlations are evaluated in Ca isotopes using the wave functions obtained in an extended shell model calculation in the [1dsub(3/2), 1fsub(7/2), 1fsub(5/2)] valence space. The inclusion of 2p-2h correlations in M1 scattering strengths and magnetic moments improves the agrreement with the experimental data. The M1 strength in 40 Ca is correctly reproduced. (orig.)

  7. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  8. [Recombinant human gapM1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its anti-diabetic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiang; Du, Renqian; Li, Xi; Huang, Haiyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Qiqun

    2009-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue, and it can lower the blood glucose level and increase free fatty acid oxidation. In the current study, we developed the globular domain of adiponectin (gapM1) to treat type II diabetes. In both flask and fermentor, we cultivated Pichia pastoris expressing recombinant gapM1 and established the purification procedure by using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. To evaluate the biological activity of recombinant gapM1, we used rat type II diabetes model fed high-fat diet in combination with low-dose STZ (Streptozocin) induction. We purified 200 mg gapM1 with purity of 96% from 10 liters of supernatant. The recombinant gapM1 significantly lowered blood glucose (34.2%), serum triglyceride (79.6%) and total cholesterol (62.1%) in type II diabetes induced rat. Therefore, the recombinant human gapM1 is successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and effectively treated type II diabetes in rat models.

  9. The improvement of M1 polarization in macrophages by glycopeptide derived from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Jie; Li, Wei-Dong; Niu, Yan-Dong; Sun, Yu; Hu, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Duan, Xin-Suo

    2017-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Ganodermataceae) is a medicinal mushroom that has been extensively used in China for centuries to promote longevity and improve vigor without significant adverse effects. There is continuous interest in the bioactive properties of G. lucidum in view of its newly developed popularity in other regions besides Asia, such as Europe. Glycopeptide derived from G. lucidum (Gl-PS) is one of the main effective components isolated from this mushroom. The Gl-PS has been demonstrated pleiotropic with many bioactivities including immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Macrophages are important cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2), with their different roles, display distinct cytokine profiles: M1 preferentially produces TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12; conversely, M2 generates more IL-10 and arginase. Gl-PS might have the potential to promote macrophage M1 polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, LPS was used to induce the M1 polarization. It was shown that the level of the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 were increased and the IL-10 and arginase I were decreased in the polarized M1 macrophages after application of Gl-PS compared to the control. The results indicated the potential of Gl-PS to promote M1 polarization vs M2, with the health beneficial understanding of the bioactivities of Gl-PS.

  10. AP4M1 is abnormally expressed in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Cheng, X Y; Sheng, G Y

    2014-03-20

    AP4M1 mutations have been suggested to be associated with autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome. But the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how AP4M1 expression is changed in injured neurons. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared for this experiment. They were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leading to apoptosis, mimicking brain ischemia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was labeled immunofluorescently to confirm that the purity of neuron was higher than 90%. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the gene expression. AP4M1 was labeled with MAP2 or Tau-1 to observe the distribution. We found that the AP4M1 protein levels immediately after the procedure were similar between the OGD group and the sham group. However, down-regulation was observed 12h after the reperfusion, and became more notable at 24h. The real-time PCR showed similar results, except that the down-regulation of mRNA was able to be detected immediately after the OGD. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed AP4M1 distributed in the dendrites of normal neurons, but it redistributed to the axons after the OGD procedure. In conclusion, AP4M1 is not only down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, but also redistributed from dendrites to axons in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with inelastic proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, M.; Birkhan, J.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Tamii, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The quenching of spin-isospin modes in nuclei is an important field of research in nuclear structure. It has an impact on astrophysical reaction rates and on fundamental processes like neutrinoless double-β decay. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-flip M 1 strengths are quenched. Concerning the latter, the Jπ=1+ resonance in the doubly magic nucleus 48Ca, dominated by a single transition, serves as a reference case. Purpose: The aim of the present work is to search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with a high-resolution (p ,p') experiment at 295 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ and a comparison with results from a similar study using backward-angle electron scattering at low momentum transfers in order to estimate their contribution to the total B (M 1 ) strength in 48Ca. Methods: The spin-M 1 cross sections of individual peaks in the spectra are deduced with a multipole decomposition analysis (MDA) and converted to reduced spin-M 1 transition strengths by using the unit cross-section method. For a comparison with electron-scattering results, corresponding reduced B (M 1 ) transition strengths are extracted following the approach outlined in Birkhan et al. [Phys. Rev. C 93, 041302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041302]. Results: In total, 30 peaks containing a M 1 contribution are found in the excitation energy region 7-13 MeV. The resulting B (M 1 ) strength distribution compares well to the electron-scattering results considering different factors limiting the sensitivity in both experiments and the enhanced importance of mechanisms breaking the proportionality of nuclear cross sections and electromagnetic matrix elements for weak transitions as studied here. The total strength of 1.14(7) μN2 deduced assuming a nonquenched isoscalar part of the (p ,p') cross sections agrees with the (e ,e') result of 1.21(13) μN2. A bin-wise analysis above 10 MeV provides an upper limit of 1.51(17) μN2. Conclusions: The present results confirm the previous electron

  12. β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages: Comprehensive localization in the M1–M2 spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Ho, Hsin-Yun; Ong, Tiffany H.; Kawanishi, Carly K.; Stoffers, Victoria L.; Ahlawat, Nivedita; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2016-01-01

    β-adrenergic signaling can regulate macrophage involvement in several diseases and often produces anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, which are similar to M2 properties in a dichotomous M1 vs. M2 macrophage taxonomy. However, it is not clear that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages may be classified strictly as M2. In this in vitro study, we utilized recently published criteria and transcriptome-wide bioinformatics methods to map the relative polarity of murine β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages within a wider M1–M2 spectrum. Results show that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages did not fit entirely into any one predefined category of the M1–M2 spectrum but did express genes that are representative of some M2 side categories. Moreover, transcript origin analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles located β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages firmly on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum and found active suppression of M1 side gene transcripts. The signal transduction pathways involved were mapped through blocking experiments and bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor binding motifs. M2-promoting effects were mediated specifically through β2-adrenergic receptors and were associated with CREB, C/EBPβ, and ATF transcription factor pathways but not with established M1–M2 STAT pathways. Thus, β-adrenergic-signaling induces a macrophage transcriptome that locates on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum but likely accomplishes this effect through a signaling pathway that is atypical for M2-spectrum macrophages. PMID:27485040

  13. Propiedades mecánicas del acero de refuerzo utilizado en Colombia Propiedades mecánicas del acero de refuerzo utilizado en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria González Quintana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados del análisis estadístico aplicado al estudio experimental que de- termina las propiedades mecánicas de aceros colombianos sometidos a cargas monotónicas de tracción. Se obtienen curvas típicas de esfuerzo-deformación que permiten caracterizar aceros nacionales estudiados haciendo énfasis en las variables que determinan el cambio de comportamiento del materialA statistical analysis applied to a experimental study that determines the mechanical properties of steels produced in Colombia subjected to monotonic loads of tension is presented. Typical stress-strain diagram that allow to characterize these steels making emphasis in the variables that determine the change of behaviour of the materia are presented.

  14. Learning stage-dependent effect of M1 disruption on value-based motor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Demaret, Sophie; Zénon, Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2017-11-15

    The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money. We investigated the functional contribution of M1 to the implementation of the implicit rule in subjects' motor decisions. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over M1 either on Day 1 or on Day 3, producing a temporary lesion either during reinforcement learning (cTBS Learning group) or after consolidation of the implicit rule, during decision-making (cTBS Decision group), respectively. Interestingly, disrupting M1 activity on Day 1 improved the reliance on the implicit rule, plausibly because M1 cTBS increased dopamine release in the putamen in an indirect way. This finding corroborates the view that cTBS may affect activity in unstimulated areas, such as the basal ganglia. Notably, this effect was short-lasting; it did not persist overnight, suggesting that the functional integrity of M1 during learning is a prerequisite for the consolidation of implicit value information to occur. Besides, cTBS over M1 did not impact the use of the implicit rule when applied on Day 3, although it did so when applied on Day 2 in a recent study where the reliance on the implicit rule declined following cTBS (Derosiere et al., 2017). Overall, these findings indicate that the human M1 is functionally involved in the consolidation and implementation of implicit value information underlying motor decisions. However, M1 contribution seems to vanish as subjects become more experienced in using

  15. Hyperglycemia induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moganti, Kondaiah; Li, Feng; Schmuttermaier, Christina; Riemann, Sarah; Klüter, Harald; Gratchev, Alexei; Harmsen, Martin C; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in diabetic pathology. Macrophages are essential regulators of inflammation which can be classified into two major vectors of polarisation: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Both types of macrophages play a role in diabetes, where M1 and M2-produced cytokines can have detrimental effects in development of diabetes-associated inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on differentiation and programming of primary human macrophages was not systematically studied. We established a unique model to assess the influence of hyperglycaemia on M1 and M2 differentiation based on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. The effects of hyperglycaemia on the gene expression and secretion of prototype M1 cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and prototype M2 cytokines IL-1Ra and CCL18 were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Hyperglycaemia stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra during macrophage differentiation. The effect of hyperglycaemia on TNF-alpha was acute, while the stimulating effect on IL-1beta and IL-1Ra was constitutive. Expression of CCL18 was supressed in M2 macrophages by hyperglycaemia. However the secreted levels remained to be biologically significant. Our data indicate that hyperglycaemia itself, without additional metabolic factors induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile that can support of diabetes-associated inflammation and development of vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

  17. First case report of M1 macrophage polarization in an untreated symptomatic patient with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Graziano; Di Lisio, Chiara; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Liberatore, Marcella; Aiello, Francesca Bianca

    2018-03-27

    In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease. Following laboratory, radiological, and pathological analyses, she was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on lymph node sections. More than 50% of the macrophages in the lymph node microgranulomas were M1 macrophages, defined by CD68 + /p-Stat1 + staining, and the presence of T helper 1 lymphocytes indicated an immune response known to induce M1 macrophage polarization. Activated endothelial cells were found only in inflamed areas. No therapy was administered before or after diagnosis, and the lymphadenopathy resolved after a follow-up of 5 months. This is the first report to demonstrate the presence of M1 macrophages in human toxoplasmosis. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and encourage further studies on the role of macrophage polarization in human toxoplasmosis.

  18. Dopaminergic mesocortical projections to M1: role in motor learning and motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aurel Hosp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the architecture of a dopaminergic (DA system within the primary motorcortex (M1 was well characterized anatomically, its functional significance remainedobscure for a long time. Recent studies in rats revealed that the integrity ofdopaminergic fibers in M1 is a prerequisite for successful acquisition of motor skills.This essential contribution of DA for motor learning is plausible as it modulates M1circuitry at multiple levels thereby promoting plastic changes that are required forinformation storage: at the network level, DA increases cortical excitability andenhances the stability of motor maps. At the cellular level, DA induces the expressionof learning related genes via the transcription factor c-fos. At the level of synapses,DA is required for the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP, a mechanism thatlikely is a fingerprint of a motor memory trace within M1. Dopaminergic fibersinnervating M1 originate within the midbrain, precisely the ventral tegmental area(VTA and the medial portion of substantia nigra (SN. Thus, they could be part of themeso-cortico-limibic pathway – a network that provides information about saliencyand motivational value of an external stimulus and is commonly referred as

  19. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA or mecC and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep farms in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, G; Carfora, V; Caprioli, A; Sagrafoli, D; Marri, N; Giangolini, G; Amoruso, R; Iurescia, M; Stravino, F; Dottarelli, S; Feltrin, F; Franco, A; Amatiste, S; Battisti, A

    2017-10-01

    Between January and May 2012, a total of 286 bulk tank milk samples from dairy sheep farms located in central Italy were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred fifty-three samples were positive for S. aureus (53.5%), with an average count of 2.53 log cfu/mL. A total of 679 S. aureus colonies were screened for methicillin resistance by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, and 104 selected cefoxitin-susceptible isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to other antimicrobials representative of the most relevant classes active against Staphylococcus spp. by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, carrying respectively the mecA and the mecC genes, were detected in 2 samples from 2 different farms (prevalence 0.7%). The mecA-positive MRSA isolate was blaZ positive, belonged to spa type t127, sequence type (ST)1, clonal complex (CC)1, carried a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, and was phenotypically resistant to all the β-lactams tested and to erythromycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. The mecC-positive MRSA isolate was negative for the chromosomally or plasmid-associated blaZ gene but positive for the blaZ allotype associated with SCCmec XI (blaZ-SCCmecXI), belonged to spa type 843, ST(CC)130, carried a SCCmec type XI, and was resistant only to β-lactams. Both MRSA were negative for the presence of specific immune-evasion and virulence genes such as those coding for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and the immune evasion cluster genes. Regarding the presence of the major S. aureus enterotoxin genes, the mecC-positive MRSA tested negative, whereas the ST (CC)1 mecA-positive MRSA harbored the seh gene. Among the 104 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, 63 (60.58%) were susceptible to all the antimicrobials tested, and 41 (39.42%) were resistant to at

  1. Nonlinear ω*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Zakharov, L.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies ω* i,e are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important

  2. Analysis of experimental air-detritiation data using TSOAK-M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Minkoff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code (TSOAK-M1) has been developed which permits the determination of tritium reaction (T 2 to HTO)/adsorption/release and instrument correction parameters from enclosure (building) detritiation test data. The code is based on a simplified model which treats each parameter as a normalized time-independent constant throughout the data-unfolding steps. TSOAK-M1 was used to analyze existing small-cubicle test data with good success, and the resulting normalized parameters were employed to evaluate hypothetical reactor-building detritiation scenarios. It was concluded from the latter evaluation that the complications associated with moisture formation, adsorption, and release, particularly in terms of extended cleanup times, may not be as great as was previously thought. It is recommended that the validity of the TSOAK-M1 model be tested using data from detritiation tests conducted on large experimental enclosures (5 to 10 m 3 ) and, if possible, actual facility buildings

  3. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  4. Application of commercial RIA kit in investigating milk contamination with M1 aflatoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Measured were samples of commercially sold milk produced by two Czech dairies and samples of unprocessed cow's milk from three farms. The determination of aflatoxin M 1 in liquid milk was carried out with a RIA-test-aflatoxin M 1 B 1 kit. The range of the calibration curve of the kit is 0.06 to 2.0 μg/l. In samples of commercially sold milk a higher share of aflatoxin M 1 free samples was found (93%) and 7% samples contained 0.050 to 0.1 μg aflatoxin/l. The dilution effect was manifest in commercially sold milk. On the other hand in 7% samples of raw milk aflatoxin concentration exceeded the limits set by hygiene inspection bodies for consumption by infants. The detected aflatoxin concentrations are compared with data from abroad. (E.S.). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  5. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  6. First evidence for spin-flip M1 strength in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.C.; Rainovski, G.; Pietralla, N.; Ahn, T.; Costin, A.; Tonchev, A.P.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A.; Parpottas, Y.; Perdue, B.A.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R.; Angell, C.; Keeter, K.J.; Li, J.; Mikhailov, S.; Wu, Y.K.; Lisetskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 40 Ar(γ→,γ ' ) photon scattering reaction was used to search for spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar. The nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam of HIγS, in an energy region from 7.7 to 11 MeV, was employed in this study. 28 dipole excitations were observed. The azimuthal intensity asymmetry indicated that all of these states were E1 except for the state at E x =9.757 MeV. Shell-model calculations were used to interpret this state as one fragment of the spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar

  7. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Kaito

    Full Text Available The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strain, or into the MW2 (USA400 and FRP3757 (USA300 strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the regulatory function mediated by the small regulatory psm-mec RNA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C; Yeh, Anthony J; Nguyen, Thuan H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Queck, S Y; Otto, M

    2014-07-01

    Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. ESPAMACS: el nuevo Registro Español de Asistencia Mecánica Circulatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Martínez Cabeza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ESPAMACS es el nuevo Registro Español de Asistencia Mecánica Circulatoria, que ha sido creado en el seno del Grupo de Trabajo de Asistencia Mecánica Circulatoria y Trasplante Cardiaco de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Torácica-Cardiovascular (GRUTAT-SECTCV con el objetivo de registrar todas las asistencias, tanto de corto como de largo plazo, que se implanten en España. Técnicamente, es una base de datos «on-line» que permite a los usuarios introducir datos a tiempo real desde cualquier puesto con acceso a Internet. Está operativa desde octubre del 2014, sustituyendo a la anterior base de datos en formato Microsoft Excel en la que se recogieron los dispositivos implantados entre 2007 y 2012. En el presente artículo se justifica la necesidad de este registro en el actual escenario de tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca, caracterizado por la progresión de la asistencia mecánica circulatoria y la limitada disponibilidad del trasplante cardiaco. Asimismo, se describen las características y el funcionamiento de ESPAMACS: propiedad, modo de acceso, planificación y desarrollo, financiación, objetivos, aspectos éticos, requisitos para participar, selección de pacientes, dispositivos incluidos, diseño, variables registradas, sistema de extracción de datos para su análisis estadístico y posterior elaboración de estudios científicos y control de calidad.

  10. Texto guía mecánica básica

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz Morales, Claudia Jenny

    2014-01-01

    EI siguiente texto consta de la unión de los conceptos básicos de las asignaturas estática y mecánica de materiales, que se dictan en la carrera de Ingeniería Civil, de la Facultad de Minas; con algunos ejemplos y ejercicios desarrollados, para explicar conceptos, como otros propuestos, tomados en su mayoría de las referencias utilizadas. En su primera etapa se presentan generalidades de la estática, en cuanto al manejo de vectores, cuerpo rígido, equilibrio de cuerpo rígido entre otros y alg...

  11. Caracterización mecánica de uniones adhesivas caucho-metal

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Gómez, Fabián Esteban; Escobar Trujillo, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto tiene como objetivo principal la caracterización de uniones adhesivas caucho-metal realizando tratamientos superficiales a los sustratos -- Los tratamientos utilizados fueron de tipo mecánico (granallado) y químico (Primer) y tienen como finalidad modificar superficialmente uno de los sustratos para establecer si la resistencia de la unión adhesiva se modifica -- Para ello, se fabrican probetas tipo sándwich de caucho y metal y se ensayan a tracción de acuerdo a la norma ISO 182...

  12. Comportamento mecânico de sistemas de reforço de paredes de alvenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Pedro Sucena Paiva de Calheiros e

    2017-01-01

    Na presente dissertação analisa-se o comportamento mecânico de reforços de paredes de alvenaria de pedra. As paredes de alvenaria de edifícios antigos necessitam frequentemente de ser reforçadas, para melhorar a capacidade resistente desses edifícios, em particular às ações sísmicas. Elabora-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica, trabalhos de campo e estudam-se trabalhos de referência experimentais. Apresenta-se neste trabalho um estudo experimental, em que se analisa o comportamento de um modelo ...

  13. Caracterização mecânica de toros de madeira lamelada colada

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Cruz, Paulo J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho descreve-se a caracterização mecânica de toros de madeira lamelada colada pertencentes a um sistema construtivo de casas pré-fabricadas de madeira. Os módulos de elasticidade global e local à flexão, à compressão paralela e perpendicular às fibras, bem como os valores das respectivas tensões resistentes, foram obtidos de acordo com a norma Europeia EN 408:2003. Na análise destas propriedades foi tida em conta a influência do número de lamelas, ao considerar-se pa...

  14. Cuidado de enfermería a la persona con soporte mecánico ventilatorio

    OpenAIRE

    González Consuegra, Renata Virginia

    2012-01-01

    A partir del concepto de Cuidado, se pretende mostrar las intervenciones del profesional de enfermería que son relevantes durante el cuidado de enfermería que requiere una persona con soporte mecánico ventilatorio, considerando siempre su prioridad como ser humano y no como una prolongación de una sofisticada maquina.Así, pues, partiendo de la valoración holistica del estado de salud, se muestran las posibilidades más frecuentes a resolver por un abordaje de Enfermería critico y analítico, si...

  15. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Subtyping of Chilean Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Medina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has two essential components, the ccr gene complex and the mec gene complex. Additionally, SCCmec has non-essential components called J regions which are used for MRSA subtyping. This study was performed to determine subtypes MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I based on polymorphism of regions located downstream of the mecA gene. A total of 98 MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I isolated from patients hospitalized at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile between May 2007 and May 2008, were analyzed by multiplex PCR designed to amplify the mecA gene and 7 DNA hypervariable regions located around the mecA gene. MRSA strains were classified into seventeen genotypes accordingly to amplification patterns of DNA hypervariable regions. Five genotypes showed amplification patterns previously described. The remaining twelve genotypes showed new amplification patterns. Genotypes 18 and Genotype 19 were the most frequently detected. Regions HVR, Ins117 and pI258 stand out as being present in more than 60% of tested isolates. The acquisition of hypervariable regions by MRSA is a continuous horizontal transfer process through which the SCCmec have been preserved intact, or even may give rise to new types and subtypes of SCCmec. Therefore it is possible to infer that most MRSA strains isolated at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile were originated from two local clones which correspond to Genotype 18 and Genotype 19.

  17. Design of an E-ELT M1 segment measurement machine with nanometer accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; te Voert, M.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The baseline design of the European Extremely Large Telescope features a telescope with a 39-meter-class primary mirror (M1), consisting of 798 hexagonal segments. A measurement machine design is presented based on a non-contact single-point scanning technique, capable of measuring the form error of

  18. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Kalidass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1  queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme. The corresponding steady state probabilities have been obtained. We also obtain the time dependent performance measures of the systems

  19. Study the Effect of Processing of Commercial Kashk Making on Aflatoxin M1 Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a highly toxic compound which is stable during milk processing, and Storage. Hence, it may be found as contaminant in milk and dairy products with hazardous effects for human beings. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated the potential of process to remove Aflatoxin M1 from dairy product. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the ability commercial kashk making to reduce Aflatoxin M1 artificially contaminated milk using a natural process of kashk making. Methods: In this study the commercial cheese from cow's milk (skim milk which was contaminated artificially at a level of 0.25 micrograms per liter of aflatoxin M1 was produced at three replications, and the effects of kashk making process on the AFM1 contents were investigated. The HPLC method was used to determine the presence and levels of AFM1. Results: In the commercial kashk production in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk caused losses of AFM1 about 91%. These losses were found to be statistically significant (P <0.052 in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate that the processing of commercial kashk could help to reduce harmful effects of AFM1 humans through consumption of contaminated milk or dairy products.

  20. A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two

  1. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  2. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' = 0.

  3. Homocysteine elicits an M1 phenotype in murine macrophages through an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Lee J; Veeranki, Sudhakar; Givvimani, Srikanth; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with inflammatory diseases and is known to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and to decrease endothelial nitric oxide production. However, the impact of HHcy on macrophage phenotype differentiation is not well-established. It has been documented that macrophages have 2 distinct phenotypes: the "classically activated/destructive" (M1), and the "alternatively activated/constructive" (M2) subtypes. We hypothesize that HHcy increases M1 macrophage differentiation through extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a known inducer of matrix metalloproteinases. murine J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with 100 and 500 μmol/L Hcy, respectively, for 24 h. Samples were analyzed using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Homocysteine treatment increased cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40; M1 marker) in J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages. MMP-9 was induced in both cell lines. EMMPRIN protein expression was also increased in both cell lines. Blocking EMMPRIN function by pre-treating cells with anti-EMMPRIN antibody, with or without Hcy, resulted in significantly lower expression of CD40 in both cell lines by comparison with the controls. A DCFDA assay demonstrated increased ROS production in both cell lines with Hcy treatment when compared with the controls. Our results suggest that HHcy results in an increase of the M1 macrophage phenotype. This effect seems to be at least partially mediated by EMMPRIN induction.

  4. M1 and E2 transitions in the ground-state configuration of atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have calculated the forbidden transition (M1 and E2) parameters such as transition energies, log- arithmic weighted ... Keywords. Forbidden transitions; transition energies; logarithmic weighted oscillator strengths; .... optimizing the energy function based on the non-relativistic Hamiltonian of an atom,. HNR = N. ∑ j=1. (12∇ ...

  5. Advances in thermal control and performance of the MMT M1 mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.; Callahan, S.; Comisso, B.; Ortiz, R.; Williams, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Strategies for thermal control of the 6.5-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary (M1) mirror at the MMT Observatory have included: 1) direct control of ventilation system chiller setpoints by the telescope operator, 2) semiautomated control of chiller setpoints, using a fixed offset from the ambient temperature, and 3) most recently, an automated temperature controller for conditioned air. Details of this automated controller, including the integration of multiple chillers, heat exchangers, and temperature/dew point sensors, are presented here. Constraints and sanity checks for thermal control are also discussed, including: 1) mirror and hardware safety, 2) aluminum coating preservation, and 3) optimization of M1 thermal conditions for science acquisition by minimizing both air-to-glass temperature differences, which cause mirror seeing, and internal glass temperature gradients, which cause wavefront errors. Consideration is given to special operating conditions, such as high dew and frost points. Precise temperature control of conditioned ventilation air as delivered to the M1 mirror cell is also discussed. The performance of the new automated controller is assessed and compared to previous control strategies. Finally, suggestions are made for further refinement of the M1 mirror thermal control system and related algorithms.

  6. TSOAK-M1: an examination of its model and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgell, D.H.

    1983-05-01

    Fusion facilities will contain a sizable inventory of tritium fuel that will be vulnerable to release. Once released, molecular tritium begins converting into tritiated water which is 10000 times more hazardous and tends to adsorb onto surfaces. The rate of conversion and adsorption/desorption must be accurately known to estimate cleanup times and radiation hazards realistically. Argonne National Laboratory developed a computer code, TSOAK-M1, to determine the conversion/ adsorption/desorption parameters and to model cleanups. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project examined the program for reliability and potential applications. TSOAK-M1 assumes a pseudo second order radiolytic conversion where a first order surface reaction seems more appropriate. This difference in order should be investigated to accurately determine the reaction law. TSOAK-M1 determines the model parameters from experimental data using an optimization routine. However the data used is judged insufficient. More data is needed where the conversion of molecular tritium to tritiated water has a significant effect due to adsorption/desorption. SOAKER, an improved version of the TSOAK-M1 model, which combines first and second order reactions has been implemented in Wang BASIC. Once the reaction law and the parameters have been accurately determined the program could be a useful tool in the study and design of decontamination systems

  7. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  8. First Observation of the M1 Transition psi -> gamma eta(c)(2S)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, L.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium S-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited S-wave spin-singlet states: psi(3686) -> gamma

  9. PENERAPAN METODE INTERACTIVE DEVELOPMENT DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KETERAMPILAN BERBICARA DI MERCURY EDUCATION CENTRE (MEC PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristanti Ayuanita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know how is the application of Interactive development method in teaching speaking skill in Mercury Education Centre (MEC Pamekasan, what are the difficulties in applying interactive development method in teaching speaking skill in Mercury Education Centre (MEC Pamekasan. The researcher uses qualitative approach with descriptive kind of research. The data collection means are observation, interview, field notes and data documentation. To check the validity of the data, the researcher uses the techniques of  longer observation, triangulation. The research result show that the interactive development method started with giving motivation in the beginning and the end of the class. After that the students are given some minutes to pronounce vocabulary and to make sentences to do debate or presentation. While the difficulties faced are the different ability to memorize words, the large amount of the students in a class, the students’ condition, and also the different atmosphere between the school and Mercury. The effort done by the teacher coping these difficulties are giving more motivation, giving reward or appreciation, making the target system arranging to send the mentor to go on seminar on it.

  10. Antibiotic resistance and mecA characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from three hotels in London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non–healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci belonging to 11 different species were isolated from 3 large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S.cohnii and S. epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9% staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility towards penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin and cefepime. 21 (29.5% of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 mg/L to 256 mg/L. 15 of the 21 mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these 7 were type V, 1 type I, 1 type II and 1 type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining 6 of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for 5 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. 4 out of these 5 isolates had MICs between 0.06 to 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.

  11. Antibiotic resistance and mecA characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from three hotels in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Mkrtchyan, Hermine V; Cutler, Ronald R

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non-healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) belonging to 11 different species were isolated from three large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and Staphylococcus epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9%) staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility toward penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin, and cefepime. Twenty-one (29.5%) of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 to 256 mg/L). Fifteen of the twenty-one mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these seven were type V, one type I, one type II, and one type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining six of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for five S. epidermidis isolates. Four out of these five isolates had MICs between 0.06 and 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.

  12. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnov, O.P.; Manykin, A.A.; Rossman, J.S.; Klenk, H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  14. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, pregnant women and elderly. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of B1 aflatoxin in feed supplied to dairy cows and the presence of M1 aflatoxin in milk. Samples were collected from complete diet (corn silage and concentrate from a batch of 15 lactating cows from a dairy farm in the Campinas region. Two samples of diets were collected directly into the troughs in intervals of 24 hours at every 15 days, totalizing a period of 45 days. Milk samples of those cows were collected 24 hours after diet collection, directly from sample valves in the glass jars.. B1 and M1 aflatoxins were detected by the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after extraction and purification on immunoaffinity columns. From the 40 samples of diets evaluated, 40% were contaminated with B1 aflatoxin, and the levels found ranged from 1.93 to 43.78μg/Kg. One sample showed result higher than the maximum recommended for grain and animal feed in Brazil (20μg/Kg. From the 75 milk samples analyzed, the presence of M1 aflatoxin was detected in 13.3% with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.16μg/L, not exceeding the maximum permitted for marketing in the country of 0.5μg/L, however 80% of contaminated samples had values above the maximum permissible levels of 0.05μg/L, value found among countries with abundant milk production... The presence of aflatoxins highlights the importance of monitoring the production, the storage and the importance of handling food and

  15. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirnov, O.P., E-mail: zhirnov@inbox.ru [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Manykin, A.A. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Rossman, J.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT27NJ (United Kingdom); Klenk, H.D. [Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg 35037 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  16. Alternate switching between MFC and MEC for H2O2 synthesis and residual removal in Bioelectro-Fenton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable H2O2 supply and elimination of residual H2O2 are two key challenges to the Fenton processes treating recalcitrant contaminants. In this study, an innovative Bioelectro-Fenton system capable of alternate switching between microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and microbial fuel cell (MFC......) mode of operation was developed to meet the challenges. In the MEC mode, H2O2 was electrochemically produced which reacts with Fenton’s reagent (Fe II) to form hydroxyradical. The residual H2O2 (unused H2O2) is removed as electron acceptor by switching the system to MFC mode. Complete decolorization...

  17. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Errico, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out succesfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF6 coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl2 phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009, studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demostrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa.Recientemente se ha demostrado la posibilidad de fabricar por moldeo, componentes libres de defectos de diferentes aleaciones comerciales de magnesio, añadiendo CaO al caldo, sin emplear SF6. En el caso de las aleaciones AZ este proceso, además, mejora notablemente las propiedades mecánicas, no sólo por la mayor limpieza de las aleaciones sino también por la presencia de la fase CaAl2 que se forma por la incorporación de calcio al caldo. Este trabajo, enmarcado dentro del proyecto Green Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu financiado por la Unión Europea (Programa LIFE+2009, estudia la influencia de diferentes adiciones de CaO en la microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de la aleación Eco-Mg AZ31. El estudio se lleva a cabo en aleaciones AZ31 con 0,5, 1 y 1,5% CaO procesadas por dos rutas diferentes, aleaciones

  18. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  19. CD64: An Attractive Immunotherapeutic Target for M1-type Macrophage Mediated Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusiji A. Akinrinmade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, no curative therapy is available for the treatment of most chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or autoimmune disorders. Current treatments require a lifetime supply for patients to alleviate clinical symptoms and are unable to stop the course of disease. In contrast, a new series of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the Fc γ receptor I (CD64 have emerged and demonstrated significant clinical potential to actually resolving chronic inflammation driven by M1-type dysregulated macrophages. This subpopulation plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of a series of chronic diseases. The novel recombinant M1-specific immunotherapeutics offer the prospect of highly effective treatment strategies as they have been shown to selectively eliminate the disease-causing macrophage subpopulations. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the data generated, together with the advantages and the clinical potential of CD64-based targeted therapies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  20. B(M1) values in the band-crossing of shears bands in 197Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.; Cooper, J. R.; Beausang, C. W.; Novak, J. R.; Dewald, A.; Klug, T.; Kemper, G.; von Brentano, P.; Carpenter, M.; Wiedenhöver, I.

    We present details of the band crossing mechanism of shears bands using the example of 197Pb. Absolute reduced matrix elements B(M1) were determined by means of a RDM lifetime measurement in one of the shears bands in 197Pb. The experiment was performed using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) in conjunction with the Gammasphere array. Band mixing calculations on the basis of the semi-classical model of the shears mechanism are used to describe the transition matrix elements B(M1) and energies throughout the band-crossing regions. Good agreement with the data was obtained and the detailed composition of the states in the shears band are discussed.

  1. Observation of the M1 giant resonance by resonance averaging in 106Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of capture of 2 keV and 24 keV neutrons in a 105 Pd target resulted in resonance-averaged intensities of primary gamma rays with energies between 5.2 and 9.5 MeV. From these intensities the gamma ray strength functions have been evaluated for E1, M1 and E2 radiation and compared with predictions of the giant resonance theory. The inclusion of an energy dependent spreading width for the E1 giant resonance is necessary. The energy distribution of M1 reduced strength is consistent with an interpretation of a broad resonance around 8.8 MeV. E2 data agrees satisfactorily with the giant extrapolation. (orig.)

  2. IKKα Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis by Limiting Recruitment of M1-like Polarized Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan I. Göktuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of immune cells into solid tumors is an essential prerequisite of tumor development. Depending on the prevailing polarization profile of these infiltrating leucocytes, tumorigenesis is either promoted or blocked. Here, we identify IκB kinase α (IKKα as a central regulator of a tumoricidal microenvironment during intestinal carcinogenesis. Mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity are largely protected from intestinal tumor development that is dependent on the enhanced recruitment of interferon γ (IFNγ-expressing M1-like myeloid cells. In IKKα mutant mice, M1-like polarization is not controlled in a cell-autonomous manner but, rather, depends on the interplay of both IKKα mutant tumor epithelia and immune cells. Because therapies aiming at the tumor microenvironment rather than directly at the mutated cancer cell may circumvent resistance development, we suggest IKKα as a promising target for colorectal cancer (CRC therapy.

  3. Prototyping the E-ELT M1 local control system communication infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Grudzien, T.; Dimmler, M.; Andolfato, L.; Barriga, P.

    2016-08-01

    The primary mirror of the E-ELT is composed of 798 hexagonal segments of about 1.45 meters across. Each segment can be moved in piston and tip-tilt using three position actuators. Inductive edge sensors are used to provide feedback for global reconstruction of the mirror shape. The E-ELT M1 Local Control System will provide a deterministic infrastructure for collecting edge sensor and actuators readings and distribute the new position actuators references while at the same time providing failure detection, isolation and notification, synchronization, monitoring and configuration management. The present paper describes the prototyping activities carried out to verify the feasibility of the E-ELT M1 local control system communication architecture design and assess its performance and potential limitations.

  4. Efficacy of magnetoacustoradiation treatment of experimental M-1, PC-1 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizh, D.V.; Krutilina, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The urgency of the struggle against malignant tumors is determined by a stable growth of cancer incidence, high level of disability and morbidity, the cost and difficulty of treatment. The influence of low-frequency ultrasound and alternating magnetic field on transplanted tumors of sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 together with radiation therapy at a SFD of 5 Gy and 20 Gy was investigated in the experiments on animals. It was established that the influence of the above physical factors inhibited sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 growth, prolonged the life and survival of the animals of the investigated groups when compared to the intact controls, which definitely expanded the ideas about the capabilities of ultrasound and magnetic fields in cancer treatment.

  5. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of gamma and fast neutron irradiations on M1 seedling growth in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Mohammad, T.; Khan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of soybean, i.e. Bragg, Hodgson and Lee-74, having a moisture content of 11-13% were irradiated with doses of gamma, 100,200,300,400 and 500 Gray and fast neutron, 5,10,20,25 and 30 Gray, to study the effect on M1 seedling growth. The parameters studied were germination, seedling height and epicotyl length. Growth inhibition was found to increase with increasing radiation doses and the effect on germination was observed only at higher doses. Among early assessable M1 parameters for radio-sensitivity, epicotyl length has proved to be most sensitive, and hence most useful. The Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for the three varieties differed slightly for epicotyl length and the difference was more pronounced for seedling height. A dose range of 150-300 Gray of gamma rays and 10-15 Gray of fast neutron might prove useful for efficient induced mutation. (authors)

  7. Scissors and unique-parity modes of M1 excitation in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the possible modes of M1 excitation in deformed even-even nuclei are studied in terms of the particle-number-conserved Nilsson + BCS formalism with the standard parameters. The spurious motion with respect to the rotation is removed. In addition to the Scissors mode, the Unique-Parity Spin and Normal-Parity Spin modes are suggested, although the latter may be fragmented to a large extent. The Scissors mode carries most of the orbital strength, while the others the spin strength. The proton Unique-Parity (i.e. Oh 11/12 ) Spin mode for 164 Dy is obtained just below Ex = 3 MeV with B(M1) ∼ 0.2 μ 2 N ) in the sum rule limit. This is in a good agreement to the recent experimental data

  8. Forbidden Raman scattering processes. I. General considerations and E1--M1 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The generalized theory of forbidden Raman scattering processes is developed in terms of the multipole expansion of the electromagnetic interaction Hamiltonian. Using the general expressions, the theory of electric dipole--magnetic dipole (E1--M1) Raman scattering is derived in detail. The 1 S 0 → 3 P 1 E1--M1 Raman scattering cross section in atomic magnesium is calculated for two applicable laser wavelengths using published f-value data. Since resonantly enhanced cross sections larger than 10 -29 cm 2 /sr are predicted it should be possible to experimentally observe this scattering phenomenon. In addition, by measuring the frequency dependence of the cross section near resonance, it may be possible to directly determine the relative magnitudes of the Axp and AxA contributions to the scattering cross section. Finally, possible applications of the effect in atomic and molecular physics are discussed

  9. Theoretical expression of the internal conversion coefficient of a M1 transition between two atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Karpeshin, F.; Harston, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have established a general relation for the expression of the internal conversion of an M 1 transition a 1s electronic state to an empty ns electronic bound state. Under the hypothesis that the density of the electron level ρ n satisfies the condition ρ n Γ >> 1 (where Γ is the total width of the excited atomic state) a calculation in the first order gives a relation for the internal conversion coefficient.This relation shows that the internal conversion coefficient takes a resonant character when the nuclear energy transition is smaller than the binding energy of the 1s electron. An application of this relation to an M 1 transition in the case of the ion 125 T e with a charge state Q = 45 and an 1s electron binding energy E B 45 = 35.581 KeV gives the value for the internal conversion coefficient R = 5.7

  10. Status and perspectives of the M1 scissors mode in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1988-07-01

    The present status of the M1 scissors mode which is now known in deformed nuclei ranging from 46 Ti to 238 U is summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on a discussion of the structure, the excitation energy, the transition strength, the form factor and the spin to orbit ratio in the strength of the mode. Finally it is demonstrated how strongly this mode contributes to the magnetic dipole polarizability of nuclei. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic susceptibility and M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb. [Sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, M; Lipparini, E; Orlandini, G; Stringari, S [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Trento, Italy

    1979-04-16

    M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb are studied by evaluating energy-weighted and inverse energy-weighted sum-rules. The role of the nuclear interaction is widely discussed. It is shown that the nuclear potential increases the energy-weighted sum rule and lowers the inverse energy-weighted sum rule, with respect to the prediction of the pure shell model. Values of strengths and excitation energies are compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations.

  12. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  13. Presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptor modulates spontaneous release of acetylcholine from rat basal forearm slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujimoto, LK.; Oohata, H.; Kawashima, K.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous release of (ACh) from rat basal forebrain slices in the presence of cholinesterase inhibitor was directly determined using a specific radioimmunoassay for ACh. The release was calcium dependent. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed throughout the experiment. Atropine (10- 8 to 10- 5 M) and pirenzepine (10- 7 to 10- 5 M) enhanced spontaneous ACh release. These findings indicate the presence of an M 1 muscarenic autoreceptor that modulates spontaneous release of ACh in the rat forebrain

  14. Rac2 controls tumor growth, metastasis and M1-M2 macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Joshi

    Full Text Available Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis.

  15. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  16. Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable Resistance to Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulec, Emilia; Abdelwahed Bagga, Rym Ben; Chevallier, Lucie; O'Donnell, Hope; Guillas, Chloé; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2017-09-15

    Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined. SEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis-induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague. MPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Current status of the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Siripone; Julanan, Mongkol; Charncanchee, Decharchai

    2006-01-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1 went critical on 27 October 1962 at the maximum power of 1 MW. It was located at Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) in Bangkok. Since then, TRR-1 was continuously operated and eventually shut down in 1975. Plate type, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 A1 cladding were used as the reactor fuel. Light water was used as moderator and coolant as well. In 1975, because of the problem from fuel supplier and also to supporting the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon or NPT, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. A new core was a hexagonal core shape designed by General Atomics (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and ZrH alloy as fuel. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. At present, the reactor is operating with core No.14. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. (author)

  18. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  19. Assessment of airborne soy-hull allergen (Gly m 1) in the Port of Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicelli, L; Ruello, M L; Monsalve, R I; González, R; Fava, G; Bonifazi, F

    2010-10-01

    Epidemic asthma outbreaks are potentially a very high-risk medical situation in seaport towns where large volumes of soybean are loaded and unloaded Airborne allergen assessment plays a pivotal role in evaluating the resulting environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to measure the airborne Gly m 1 allergen level in the seaport of Ancona in order assess the soybean-specific allergenic risk for the city. Allergen and PM10 were evaluated at progressive distances from the port area. Allergen analysis was performed by monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay on the sampled filters. Daily meteorological data were obtained from the local meteorological station. For estimating the assimilative capacity of the atmosphere, an approach based on dispersive ventilation coefficient was tried. The allergen concentrations detected were low (range = 0.4-171 ng/m3). A decreasing gradient of the airborne allergen from the unloading area (22.1 +/- 41.2 ng/m3) to the control area (0.6 +/- 0.7 ng/m3) was detected. The concentration of the airborne Gly m 1 was not coupled with the presence of the soy-carrying ships in the port. A statistically significant relationship between airborne allergen, PM10 and local meteorological parameters quantifies the association with the atmospheric condition. Airborne Gly m 1 is part of the atmospheric dust of Ancona. The low level of this allergen seems consistent with the absence of asthma epidemic outbreak.

  20. Energetic M1 transitions as a probe of nuclear collectivity at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1987-01-01

    At ORNL, we have recently utilized the Spin Spectrometer setup to investigate the differential effects of increasing spin and excitation energy on nuclear shape and collectivity in 158 Yb. Along the yrast line of this and other N = 88 nuclei, weakly prolate shapes gradually give way to triaxial, and then finally to non-collective oblate shapes as the spin approaches 40 h-bar. However, above the yrast line, large deformation and collectivity once again sets in. This is evidenced by the emergence of a broad quadrupole structure (E/sub γ/ ≅ 1.2 MeV) in the continuum gamma-ray spectra that grows with increasing temperature. The short (sub ps) lifetimes of these transitions attest to the collective nature of these structures. The emergence and growth of the quadrupole structure at high excitation energies is closely correlated with the appearance of energetic (E/sub γ/ ≅ 2.5 MeV), fast M1 transitions which form another broad structure in the continuum spectra. From the centroid of the M1 bump, a quadrupole deformation parameter of 0.35 is inferred. Because of this sensitivity, these energetic M1 transitions provide a unique probe of nuclear shape in the excitation energy range of ≅ 3 to 10 MeV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  2. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  3. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results

  4. Comparative genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 isolates differing in virulence and propensity to cause systemic infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebig, A.; Loof, T.G.; Babbar, A.; Itzeg, A.; Koehorst, J.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Nitsche-Schmitz, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 is a frequent cause of severe infections in humans. Some M1 isolates are pathogenic in mice and used in studies on infection pathogenesis. We observed marked differences in murine infections caused by M1 strain SF370, 5448, 5448AP or AP1 which prompted us to

  5. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  6. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mário Henrique M; Hauck, Franziska; Dreyer, Johannes H; Kempkes, Bettina; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for

  7. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efecto del tratamiento mecánico por molienda en las propiedades texturales de pirofilita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Soto, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been investigated the effect of mechanical treatment by dry grinding, using a ball mill, on the textural properties of pyrophyllite. The nitrogen gas adsorption-desorption isotherms, obtained at -195 ºC in the original and ground samples, have not showed pronounced hysteresis. However, it has ben found that the gas adsorbed volumes increase gradually at increasing grinding time, with a maximum at 30 min. After this, these values decrease up to a situation very similar to the original unground sample. The evolution of specific surface area (SBET, determined using the BET equation, has showed a rapid increase as increasing grinding time from a value of 2 m2xg-1 (original up to a maximum of 60 m2xg-1 at 30 min, being 7.5 m2xg-1 at 325 min. This behaviour is explained considering the decrease of particle size of the layered silicate as influenced by grinding, but untill a limit. Above this limit, the particles start to a re-aggregate and agglomerate by a mechanochemical process of cold-welding, which is originated by their high surface reactivity. Consequently, the values of SBET decrease progressively, which coincides with the greater structural degree produced in this silicate and the subsequent amorphization process. Even so, the present textural study has showed the ausence of micropores in these ground materials by fisisorption of nitrogen gas, concluding that this process is produced by multilayers. The pore size distribution of ground pyrophyllite samples has proved a contribution of sizes ranging between 20-50 Å to the increase of SBET. Above 30 min, this contribution decreases progressively by the re-aggregation process of the particles, with an important contribution of size pores lower than 40 Å.

    Se ha investigado el efecto del tratamiento mecánico por molienda en seco, empleando un molino de bolas, en las propiedades

  9. Novel types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements identified in clonal complex 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Skov, R.L.; Han, X.; Larsen, A.R.; Larsen, J.; Sorum, M.; Wulf, M.; Voss, A.; Hiramatsu, K.; Ito, T.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements carried by 31 clonal complex 398 (CC398) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from the participants at a conference were analyzed. The SCCmecs were classified into novel types, namely, IX, X,

  10. Mass, momentum and energy conserving (MaMEC) discretizations on general grids for the compressible Euler and shallow water equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Bas van ’t; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains a method by which discretizations of the continuity and momentum equations can be designed, such that they can be combined with an equation of state into a discrete energy equation. The resulting 'MaMEC' discretizations conserve mass, momentum as well as energy, although no

  11. Relationship between pattern of ischemic manifestation and hemodynamics in symptomatic M1 stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Naoki; Sako, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Shizuka; Shirai, Wakako

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism through which ischemic manifestations develop in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis is still uncertain. It may cause ischemic symptoms through both embolic and hemodynamic mechanisms. In this study, we compared the findings from cerebral angiograms with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with M1 stenosis to determine the pathogenesis of ischema. At our hospital from 1994 to 2000, 14 patients (12 males and 2 females; mean age, 60.9; range, 31 to 85 years) with angiographically demonstrated symptomatic M1 stenosis were enrolled in this study. In 10, their stenotic lesion was located at the proximal site of the perforating arteries and for the other 4, stenosis was found at the distal site. Nine presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 5 with completed stroke for an initial episode. The discrepancy in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in relation to the site and degree of stenosis, type of ischemic presentation, and frequency of ischemic events. There was no significant difference in CBF between the patients with stenosis involving the proximal site and those with distal stenosis; but the cortical CBF decreased significantly in those with severe stenosis compared with moderate stenosis. The cortical CBF of those who had a complete stroke is similar to that of the patients with TIA; but CBF of BGA decreased significantly in those with a complete stroke. The single ischemic event group showed a significant decrease in cortical CBF. On the other hand, the group with multiple ischemic events exhibited normal hemodynamics. We concluded that multiple ischemic events that occurred in M1 stenosis are caused by an embolic mechanism. (author)

  12. Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, L H S; Rodrigues, A P D; Coêlho, E C; Santos, M F; Sampaio, S C; Silva, E O

    2017-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL-1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

  13. Mice in Bion-M 1 Space Mission: Training and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Boyle, Richard; Alberts, Jeffrey; Shenkman, Boris; Vinogradova, Olga; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Darya; Soldatov, Pavel; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Sychev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    After a 16-year hiatus, Russia has resumed its program of biomedical research in space, with the successful 30-day flight of the Bion-M 1 biosatellite (April 19–May 19, 2013). The principal species for biomedical research in this project was the mouse. This paper presents an overview of the scientific goals, the experimental design and the mouse training/selection program. The aim of mice experiments in the Bion-M 1 project was to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms, underlying the adaptation of key physiological systems to long-term exposure in microgravity. The studies with mice combined in vivo measurements, both in flight and post-flight (including continuous blood pressure measurement), with extensive in vitro studies carried out shortly after return of the mice and in the end of recovery study. Male C57/BL6 mice group housed in space habitats were flown aboard the Bion-M 1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control groups were used to account for housing effects and possible seasonal differences. Mice training included the co-adaptation in housing groups and mice adaptation to paste food diet. The measures taken to co-adapt aggressive male mice in housing groups and the peculiarities of “space” paste food are described. The training program for mice designated for in vivo studies was broader and included behavioral/functional test battery and continuous behavioral measurements in the home-cage. The results of the preliminary tests were used for the selection of homogenous groups. After the flight, mice were in good condition for biomedical studies and displayed signs of pronounced disadaptation to Earth's gravity. The outcomes of the training program for the mice welfare are discussed. We conclude that our training program was effective and that male mice can be successfully employed in space biomedical research. PMID:25133741

  14. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  15. "Análise da carga mecânica no joeho durante o agachamento"

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Pessoto Hirata

    2006-01-01

    Existe um conceito difundido entre professores de educação física, fisioterapeutas e ortopedistas que o joelho não deve ser demasiadamente anteriorizado em relação à ponta do pé na direção ântero-posterior durante qualquer tipo de agachamento de modo a diminuir a carga mecânica imposta ao joelho. No entanto, são escassas as evidências quantitativas que corroboram este conceito. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estimar forças e torque na articulação do joelho em indivíduos saudáveis durante o e...

  16. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  17. Carga limite para juntas mecânicas em laminados de fibra de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Chaves de Mas Santacreu

    1989-01-01

    Neste trabalho são testadas várias juntas parafusadas com laminados de fibra de carbono. São investigadas as influências dos parâmetros geométricos e dos parâmetros de constituição do laminado no comportamento da curva carga versus deformação do furo carregado. Paralelamente é desenvolvido um modelo de elementos finitos linear elástico para calcular a deformação do furo carregado a partir das propriedades mecânicas do material e da geometria da junta. É proposto um critério de previsão de car...

  18. Upgrading of straw hydrolysate for production of hydrogen and phenols in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Marzorati, Massimo; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was used for hydrogen production during selective recovery of phenols. The average H2 production rate was 0.61 m3 H2/m3 MEC·day and equivalent to a rate of 0.40 kg COD/m3 MEC·day. The microbial...... the energy content in the consumed compounds and the cell voltage of 0.7 V. The highest hydrogen production was equivalent to 0.8 kg COD/m3 MEC·day and was obtained at pH 7–8 and 25°C. Accumulation of 53% w/v phenolic compounds in the liquor was obtained by stepwise addition of the hydrolysate during...

  19. Comportamiento mecánico del Polietileno Tereftalato (PET y sus aplicaciones geotécnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botero Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años la producción de residuos sólidos ha aumentado significativamente, causando problemas de salud y medio ambiente. Con el fin de plantear una alternativa para mitigar estos problemas, se investiga la reutilización de los envases de Polietileno-Tereftalato (PET como una sustitución de materiales ligeros convencionales utilizados en la nivelación o reemplazo de suelo. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una caracterización mecánica de los envases de PET más populares en el mercado de forma individual y grupal. Los resultados de las pruebas de compresión indican que los envases de PET exhiben resistencias de compresión que sugieren que estos se pueden aprovechar en la construcción de estructuras ligeras.

  20. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  1. Observation of the m = 1 mode by microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Segui, J.L.; Pecquet, A.L.; Gil, C.

    1991-06-01

    Microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak exhibit low-frequency oscillations of the transmitted power, associated to the presence of a saturated m = 1, n = 1 mode, as observed by soft X-ray diagnostics. It is shown that these oscillations are related to refraction effects, and specifically to modulations of the electron density profile due to a rotating magnetic island. An analytical solution of the ray equations in the presence of a rotating density perturbation is found, explaining the frequency spectrum of the oscillations

  2. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. of Plasma Physics and Fusion Research)

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (r{SIGMA}B{sup 2})' {le} 0, where {SIGMA} = 1 - (P{sub parallel} - P{sub perpendicular} {sub to})/B/sup 2/. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition {SIGMA} {ge} 0.

  3. Effects of pressure anisotropy on the M=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1986-05-01

    A new model is used to investigate the effect of the pressure anisotropy on the internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collision- less and cylindrical plasma is performed. A comparison of the derived stability criterion with that of ideal MHD is made. The conclusion is that the stability criterion (rSigmaB/sp2/) ' 0, where Sigma=1-(P/sb/(parall)-P/sb/(perpend)/ B/sp/2. (author)

  4. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB 2 )' ≤ 0, where Σ = 1 - (P parallel - P perpendicular to )/B 2 . It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ ≥ 0. (orig.)

  5. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  6. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  7. Nuclear critical opalescence and the M1 form factors of 12C and 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.; Figureau, A.; Guichon, P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that core polarization by the nuclear pion field has opposite effects on the M1 form factors of 12 C(15.11 MeV) and 13 C(g.s.). New data on 13 C are found to agree with this prediction and a common interpretation of the experiments is shown to be possible for the two nuclei in terms of critical opalescence. Discrimination from alternative explanations of the observed anomalies should await further experiments, especially photopion reactions. (orig.)

  8. Relación microestructura - comportamiento mecánico en estructuras bainíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuna, M. A.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the microestructures and their mechanical properties have been studied in different bainitic structures. Therefore, different bainitic morphologies have been produced by isothermal treatments carried out at different temperatures. For these steels, 400-450 °C is the optimum range of temperatures in order to obtain bainitic structures. If the Temperature is higher, perlite is also formed and if it is lower, martensite is obtained during quenching. SEM and EBSD/OIM techniques were applied in order to study the microstructure. Tensile tests were carried out for mechanical characterization.

    En el presente trabajo, se ha estudiado la microestructura de distintos tipos de estructuras bainíticas y las correspondientes propiedades mecánicas. Con el fin de generar diferentes microestructuras de tipo bainítico se han realizado tratamientos térmicos a distintas temperaturas. Para los aceros analizados, se ha obtenido que el rango óptimo, a la hora de obtener estructuras baíniticas, es aproximadamente 400-450 °C. Si la temperatura de tratamiento es más alta, se favorece la formación de perlita y, en cambio, si la temperatura es más baja, tiene lugar la formación de martensita durante el temple final. La microestructura se ha analizado mediante SEM y EBSD/OIM. La caracterización mecánica de los aceros sé ha llevado a cabo mediante ensayos de tracción.

  9. Qualidade de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' submetidas a diferentes tipos de dano mecânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Hendges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dano mecânico por impacto, compressão e corte sobre a qualidade de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' mantidas em condição ambiente. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (sem dano mecânico, dano mecânico por impacto, dano mecânico por compressão e dano mecânico por corte. Os diferentes danos não influenciaram na firmeza de polpa e no ângulo 'hue' da casca. O dano por corte proporcionou frutos com menor acidez titulável, nove dias após a aplicação do dano. Frutos submetidos ao dano por impacto apresentaram maior teor de sólidos solúveis, quinze dias após a aplicação dos danos. Os danos por impacto e corte causaram o menor valor de L da polpa em todas as avaliações, evidenciando o escurecimento da polpa. Contudo, este efeito não foi observado na epiderme. Todos os frutos danificados por corteapresentaram podridão após nove dias da aplicação dos danos.De maneira geral, pode-se concluir que, nas intensidades testadas, maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' submetidas ao dano por impacto e corte apresentam prejuízos em sua qualidade, pois ocorre escurecimento da polpa no local do dano. Além disso, o dano por corte reduz a vida pós-colheita dos frutos, facilitando a ocorrência de podridões.

  10. Recomendações brasileiras de ventilação mecânica 2013. Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O suporte ventilatório artificial invasivo e não invasivo ao paciente crítico tem evoluído e inúmeras evidências têm surgido, podendo ter impacto na melhora da sobrevida e da qualidade do atendimento oferecido nas unidades de terapia intensiva no Brasil. Isto posto, a Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB e a Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT - representadas pelo seus Comitê de Ventilação Mecânica e Comissão de Terapia Intensiva, respectivamente, decidiram revisar a literatura e preparar recomendações sobre ventilação mecânica objetivando oferecer aos associados um documento orientador das melhores práticas da ventilação mecânica na beira do leito, baseado nas evidencias existentes, sobre os 29 subtemas selecionados como mais relevantes no assunto. O projeto envolveu etapas visando distribuir os subtemas relevantes ao assunto entre experts indicados por ambas as sociedades que tivessem publicações recentes no assunto e/ou atividades relevantes em ensino e pesquisa no Brasil na área de ventilação mecânica. Esses profissionais, divididos por subtemas em duplas, responsabilizaram-se por fazer revisão extensa da literatura mundial sobre cada subtema. Reuniram-se todos no Forum de Ventilação Mecânica na sede da AMIB em São Paulo, em 03 e 04 de agosto de 2013 para finalização conjunta do texto de cada subtema e apresentação, apreciação, discussão e aprovação em plenária pelos 58 participantes, permitindo a elaboração de um documento final.

  11. Spatial structure peculiarities of influenza A virus matrix M1 protein in an acidic solution that simulates the internal lysosomal medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Alexander; Bogacheva, Elena; Fedorova, Natalia; Ksenofontov, Alexander; Badun, Gennadii; Radyukhin, Victor; Lukashina, Elena; Serebryakova, Marina; Dolgov, Alexey; Chulichkov, Alexey; Dobrov, Evgeny; Baratova, Lyudmila

    2011-12-01

    The structure of the C-terminal domain of the influenza virus A matrix M1 protein, for which X-ray diffraction data were still missing, was studied in acidic solution. Matrix M1 protein was bombarded with thermally-activated tritium atoms, and the resulting intramolecular distribution of the tritium label was analyzed to assess the steric accessibility of the amino acid residues in this protein. This technique revealed that interdomain loops and the C-terminal domain of the protein are the most accessible to labeling with tritium atoms. A model of the spatial arrangement of the C-terminal domain of matrix M1 protein was generated using rosetta software adjusted to the data obtained by tritium planigraphy experiments. This model suggests that the C-terminal domain is an almost flat layer with a three-α-helical structure. To explain the high level of tritium label incorporation into the C-terminal domain of the M1 protein in an acidic solution, we also used independent experimental approaches (CD spectroscopy, limited proteolysis and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the proteolysis products, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation), as well as multiple computational algorithms, to analyse the intrinsic protein disorder. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study indicate that the C-terminal domain is weakly structured. We hypothesize that the specific 3D structural peculiarities of the M1 protein revealed in acidic pH solution allow the protein greater structural flexibility and enable it to interact effectively with the components of the host cell. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  12. Contamination levels of aflatoxin M1 in bulk raw milk of Chaloos and Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Barami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination rate of raw milk whit aflatoxin M1 in Chaloos and Ramsar raw milk collection centers. Two hundred bulk raw milk samples were collected during winter (January and February and summer (June and July seasons. The milk samples were analyzed by ELISA method for the presence of AFM1. During the winter, AFM1 was detected in 100% and 59/79% of the bulk raw milk samples in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively; however, during summer 83/52% and 50/1 of the samples was found as positive in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively. Furthermore, 45% of Ramsar and 30% of Chaloos bulk milk samples showed higher contamination level of AFM1 than maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by National Standard as well as European Union. Although, the difference between the contamination rate in samples obtained during summer and winter seasons was not statistically significantly, (p

  13. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M; Golding, Sarah J; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Trenholme, Katharine R; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Degori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M; Gardiner, Donald L; Whisstock, James C; Dalton, John P

    2009-02-24

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.

  14. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  15. E2 and M1 transition strengths in heavy deformed nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Popa, G.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vargas, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    An update on the status of pseudo-SU(3) shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is presented. Representative results for energy levels as well as E2 (quadrupole) and M1 (scissors) transitions strengths in 162 Dy (even-even) and 163 Dy (odd-mass) are given. The calculations use realistic single-particle energies and quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interaction strengths fixed from systematics. The strengths of rotor-like terms included in the Hamiltonian- all small relative to the other terms in the interaction were adjusted to give an overall best fit to the energy spectra. The results present a paradox: for even-even nuclei (integer angular momentum) non-zero pseudo-spin configurations seems to be unimportant while for the odd-mass systems (half-integer angular momentum) pseudo-spin mixing is essential as spin-flip couplings appear to dominate the M1 transition strengths. (Author)

  16. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Emre, E-mail: etabar@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Yakut, Hakan, E-mail: hyakut@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Kuliev, Ali Akbar [Azerbaijan National Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-01-15

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed {sup 229–233}Th and {sup 233–239}U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even {sup 228–232}Th and {sup 232–238}U nuclei. For {sup 235}U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5–2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  17. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  18. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran

    2007-11-15

    During the years 2005 and 2006, samples of raw and of pasteurized milk (72 samples each) were collected randomly from various parts of Urmia city in Iran for the detection of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 levels were assessed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a high incidence of AFM1 (100%), in both raw and pasteurized milk samples. The AFM1 levels in 6.25% of samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (50 ng L(-1)), while the observed mean ofAFM1 was lower than those proposed for European diets. Maximum level ofAFM1 in raw and pasteurized samples were 91.8 and 28.5 ng L(-1), while minimum levels were 4.3 and 5.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The levels ofAFM1 in total samples indicated that feeds for cows in this region were contaminated with AFB1 in such a level that appears to be a serious public health problem at the moment. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw and pasteurized milk produced in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafakheri, Sh.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the levels of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk samples during different seasons by Enzyme- Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay in Sanandaj, Iran. In 257 (94.49% out of 272 milk samples the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.007 and 115.930 ng/l. AFM1 level in 12 (4.4% of positive samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by Iran and European Union countries. Statistical evaluations showed that the differences between raw and pasteurized samples were not significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between spring and summer but the differences between other seasons were statistically significant. Winter samples with 22.35 ng/l and summer samples with 5.14 ng/l had the highest and lowest concentration, respectively (p<0.05. Since contamination of milk with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health, milk and milk products should be controlled periodically for Aflatoxin contamination.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of the m=1 kink-tearing instability in a modified magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1995-01-01

    A theory is given for the nonlinear dynamical evolution of the collisionless m=1 kink-tearing instability, including the effects of electron inertia and electron pressure gradient in a generalized Ohm's law. It is demonstrated that electron pressure gradients can cause near-explosive growth in the nonlinear regime of a thin m=1 island. This near-explosive phase is followed by a rapid decay phase as the island width becomes comparable to the radius of the sawtooth region. An island equation is derived for the entire nonlinear evolution of the instability, extending recent work on the subject [X. Wang and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1627 (1993)] to include the effects of both electron inertia and electron pressure gradient. Comparisons are made with experimental data from present-day tokamaks. It is suggested that the present model not only accounts for fast sawtooth crashes, but also provides possible explanations for the problems of sudden onset and incomplete reconnection that have been, heretofore, unexplained features of observations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J.; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M.; Golding, Sarah J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; DeGori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH2]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite. PMID:19196988

  2. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  3. Compressional effects in nonneutral plasmas, a shallow water analogy and m=1 instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Barnes, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Diocotron instabilities form an important class of ExB shear flow instabilities which occur in nonneutral plasmas. The case of a single-species plasma confined in a cylindrical Penning trap, with an axisymmetric, hollow (nonmonotonic) density profile is studied. According to the standard linear theory, the m=1, k z =0 diocotron mode is always stable. On the other hand, experiments by Driscoll [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 645 (1990)] show a robust exponential growth of m=1 diocotron perturbations in hollow density profiles. The apparent contradiction between these experimental results and linear theory has been an outstanding problem in the theory of nonneutral plasmas. A new instability mechanism due to the radial variation of the equilibrium plasma length is proposed in this paper. This mechanism involves the compression of the plasma parallel to the magnetic field and implies the conservation of the line integrated density. The predicted growth rate, frequency, and mode structure are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The effect of a linear perturbation of the plasma length is also shown to give instability with a comparable growth rate. The conservation of the line integrated density in the plasma is analogous to the conservation of the potential vorticity in the shallow water equations used in geophysical fluid dynamics. In particular, there is an analog of Rossby waves in nonneutral plasmas. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, V. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D. [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K}=1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode of deformed nuclei has been studied extensively in (e,e{sup '}) and (γ,γ{sup '}) experiments over the last 30 years with the main focus on strong M1 transitions to the ground state band. In the framework of the semiclassical two-rotor-model it has its origin in quadrupole deformation. A considerable E2 matrix element between the rotational band of the scissors mode and the ground band is predicted which has not been addressed experimentally. A photon-scattering experiment with linearly-polarized quasi monoenergetic vector (γ)-rays has been performed at the High Intensity vector (γ)-ray Source (HIvector (γ)S) at Duke University, Durham, NC, exploiting the γ{sup 3} setup. We have measured an E2/M1-multipole mixing ratio for the 1{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition for the first time. The Alaga rule is applicable and delivers a first estimate of the transition strength B(E2:2{sup +}{sub sc}→0{sup +}{sub 1}). A candidate for a 2{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition is discussed.

  5. Current status of muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors as drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Goldsmith, Paul J; Jackson, Kimberley; Sanger, Helen E; Evans, David A; Mogg, Adrian J; Broad, Lisa M

    2018-01-25

    The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects. More recent compound screening and medicinal chemistry optimization of orthosteric and allosteric agonists, and positive allosteric modulators binding to sites distinct from the highly homologous acetylcholine binding pocket have yielded a collection of highly selective tool compounds for preclinical validation studies. Several M1 selective ligands have progressed to early clinical development and in time will hopefully lead to useful therapeutics for treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. In vitro transfer of methicillin resistance determinants mecA from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Zunita, Zakaria; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Othman, Sarah; Nadzir, Nur Adilah Ahmad

    2017-04-04

    Staphylococcus aureus more than any other human pathogen is a better model for the study of the adaptive evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, as it has demonstrated a remarkable ability in its response to new antibiotics. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro transfer of mecA gene from methicillin resistant S. aureus to methicillin susceptible S. aureus. The recipient transconjugants were resistant to erythromycin, cefpodoxime and were mecA positive. PCR amplification of mecA after mix culture plating on Luria Bertani agar containing 100 μg/mL showed that 75% of the donor and 58.3% of the recipient transconjugants were mecA positive. Additionally, 61.5% of both the donor cells and recipient transconjugants were mecA positive, while 46.2% and 41.75% of both donor and recipient transconjugants were mecA positive on LB agar containing 50 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL respectively. In this study, the direction of transfer of phenotypic resistance as well as mecA was observed to have occurred from the donor to the recipient strains. This study affirmed the importance of horizontal transfer events in the dissemination of antibiotics resistance among different strains of MRSA.

  7. Cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells of mice exposed on the biosatellite "BION-M1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Ivanov, Alexander

    In studies of cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of astronauts, conducted in recent years, have shown an increase in the frequency of chromosomal damage bound, as believe, with influence on an organism of astronauts of space radiation (B.S. Fedorenko, G.P. Snigireva, 2004). However, in recent years published evidence that both acute and chronic stress induce chromosomal aberrations and modified genome sensitivity to mutagens of different nature, including to ionizing radiation (F.I. Ingel et al, 2005 ). This question is especially actual for space biology and medicine due to a number of specific features of space flights, when the interaction of factors more pronounced than in normal terrestrial conditions. In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out at intervals of 15-20 minutes by method of cervical dislocation after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite. Level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. Differences are not significant. The maintenance of animals in experiment with the onboard equipment (ground experiment) led to some increase in aberrant mitoses (2,3 ± 0,4%) and to decrease in a mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION - M1" statistically significant increase of level of chromosomal aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). Since the mouse is a suitable experimental model , also had several ground experiments on research of combined effect of irradiation and other stress factors specific to space flight, with marked tendency to increase the level of aberrant mitoses under the combined action of radiation and stress exposure group housing male mice. Statistically

  8. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  9. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  10. On the GI/M/1 Queue with Vacations and Multiple Service Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a GI/M/1 queue with vacations and multiple service phases. Whenever the system becomes empty, the server takes a vacation, causing the system to move to vacation phase 0. If the server returns from a vacation to find no customer waiting, another vacation begins. Otherwise, the system jumps from phase 0 to some service phase i with probability qi,  i=1,2,…,N. Using the matrix geometric solution method and semi-Markov process, we obtain the distributions of the stationary system size at both arrival and arbitrary epochs. The distribution of the stationary waiting time of an arbitrary customer is also derived. In addition, we present some performance measures such as mean waiting time of an arbitrary customer, mean length of the type-i cycle, and mean number of customers in the system at the end of phase 0. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  11. Optimization of an M/M/1/N Feedback Queue with Retention of Reneged Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has become a threat to the business world. Firms employ various customer retention strategies to retain their impatient (or reneged customers. Customer retention mechanisms may help to retain some or all impatient customers. Further, due to unsatisfactory service, customers may rejoin a queue immediately after departure. Such cases are referred to as feedback customers. Kumar and Sharma take this situation into account and study an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with retention of reneged customers. They obtain only a steady-state solution for this model. In this paper, we extend the work of Kumar and Sharma by performing an economic analysis of the model. We develop a model for the costs incurred and perform the appropriate optimization. The optimum system capacity and optimum service rate are obtained. (original abstract

  12. Atomic spectroscopy with twisted photons: Separation of M 1 -E 2 mixed multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Solyanik, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We analyze atomic photoexcitation into the discrete states by twisted photons, or photons carrying extra orbital angular momentum along their direction of propagation. From the angular momentum and parity considerations, we are able to relate twisted-photon photoexcitation amplitudes to their plane-wave analogs, independently of the details of the atomic wave functions. We analyze the photoabsorption cross sections of mixed-multipolarity E 2 -M 1 transitions in ionized atoms and found fundamental differences coming from the photon topology. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that it is possible to extract the relative transition rates of different multipolar contributions by measuring the photoexcitation rate as a function of the atom's position (or impact parameter) with respect to the optical vortex center. The proposed technique for separation of multipoles can be implemented if the target's atom position is resolved with subwavelength accuracy; for example, with Paul traps. Numerical examples are presented for Boron-like highly charged ions.

  13. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  14. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions in Fe X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energies of the 54 levels belonging to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d and 3s3p 5 3d configurations of Fe X have been calculated using the GRASP code of Dyall and colleagues (1989). Additionally, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among these levels. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 3%, whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20% . Additionally, the agreement between measured and calculated lifetimes is better than 10%. (authors)

  15. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V; Baecklin, A; Fogelberg, B; Malmskog, S G

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  17. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanso, E.N.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Ten thousand plants of M 1 V 3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  18. The MCNP Simulation of a PGNAA System at TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaroon, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Picha, R.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.

    2017-06-01

    The prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been installed at Thai Research Reactor-1/Modified 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1999. The purpose of the system is for elemental and isotopic analyses. The system mainly consists of a series of the moderator and collimator, neutron and gamma-ray shielding and the HPGe detector. In this work, the condition of the system is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code and the experiment. The flux ratios (Φthermal/Φepithermal and Φthermal/Φfast) and thermal neutron flux have been obtained. The simulated prompt gamma rays of the Portland cement sample have been carried out. The simulation provides significant contribution in upgrading the PGNAA station to be available in various applications.

  19. M1 transitions between low-lying states in the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Robert; Werner, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei in the A=90 region have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. Collective symmetric structures appear when protons and neutrons are in phase, whereas mixed-symmetric structures occur when they are not. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetric state was identified from strong M1 transitions to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between higher-spin states, and are predicted by the shell model. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg Interacting Boson Model 2 in order to obtain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and results from first model calculations will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under grant number DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  20. An Automatic Detection Method of Nanocomposite Film Element Based on GLCM and Adaboost M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic detection model adopting pattern recognition technology is proposed in this paper; it can realize the measurement to the element of nanocomposite film. The features of gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM can be extracted from different types of surface morphology images of film; after that, the dimension reduction of film can be handled by principal component analysis (PCA. So it is possible to identify the element of film according to the Adaboost M1 algorithm of a strong classifier with ten decision tree classifiers. The experimental result shows that this model is superior to the ones of SVM (support vector machine, NN and BayesNet. The method proposed can be widely applied to the automatic detection of not only nanocomposite film element but also other nanocomposite material elements.

  1. Low pressure injection sequence sensitivity study of the M1 module of MEDICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.; Norkus, J.K.; Welzbacker, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the consequences of a PWR containment failure and the ensuing radiological source term following a severe reactor accident, it is necessary to understand the ex-vessel behavior of the molten core. The M1 module of MEDICI models the dynamic fuel-coolant mixing, energetic interaction, and ejection of fuel and coolant from the reactor cavity following such an accident. A sensitivity study of the low pressure injection sequence was performed utilizing a Box-Behnken statistical design to treat five sets of input variables considered to be significant in the mixing and steam explosion processes. The low pressure injection sequence was studied in which the molten corium is modeled as a pour stream entering the cavity without entraining or sweeping out fuel or coolant

  2. The frequency of occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovinski-Horvatović Miroslava S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is one of the most common mycotoxins which can be found in milk. It represents a natural metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that occurs as a result of animal metabolism and the body's attempt to detoxificate it. It is excreted in milk, feces and urine of animals that consumed contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1. The carry-over from feed to milk depends on many factors, ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Aflatoxin M1 is in the first group of carcinogens according to the IRAC classification from 2002, but it is considered to have only 10% of carcinogenicity from its precursor aflatoxin B1. Legislation in member countries of European Union for this mycotoxin in milk intended for people is 0.05 μg/l, while the rest of the countries that also have legislation for this mycotoxin allow the concentration that is ten times higher, and that is 0.5 μg/l. In this paper, we have tried to provide on insight into the quality of milk, food often consumed by children, from the standpoint of mycotoxicology, and to compare the obtained data with data available from literature, from countries in the region that have similar climatic and agricultural conditions. From a total of 65 samples of processed milk, aflatoxin M1 was found in 18 samples and none of the samples exceeded the level of 0.05 μg/l, which is allowed by the legislation of the European Union.

  3. Effect of closed shells on the multipole mixing parameter δ(E2/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of the magnitude and sign of the mixing parameter δ(E2/M1) in even-even nuclei has been studied in a number of papers. The most extensive data has been given for transitions of the type 3 γ + , 2 γ + , 2 β + →2 g + . The data on δ are relatively scarce for mixed transitions in odd nuclei with magic or semimagic cores. However, certain conclusions can be drawn about the behavior of δ in transitions in odd nuclei near magic numbers, and also in transitions in even-even nuclei when passing through quasishells: (1) the absolute value of the reduced mixing parameter in transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational states in odd nuclei decreases as a closed shell is approached; (2) δ has the same sign for transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational levels in nuclei with Z=83 and 85 and N=83, 85, and 87; (3) in odd nuclei the sign of δ is positive for transitions between positive-parity states s 1/2 -d 3/2 in Cd, Sm, and Tl isotopes and is negative for transitions between negative-parity states f 7/2 π and h 9/2 π in Sm, Gd, Bi, and At isotopes, independently of whether these transitions are neutron or proton transitions; (4) the removal of ±2 nucleons in an even shell from a magic core (and in certain nuclei a larger number of pairs of nucleons) does not lead to a change in sign of δ in transitions producing an odd nucleus; (5) the closure of quasishells at N=96 and 104 in even-even nuclei is associated with an increase in the absolute value of δ(E2/M1)/E γ , but the sign of δ does not change

  4. Phenotype and molecular analysis of M1 generation of stylosanthes irradiated by 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weili; Liu Fengmin

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Stylosanthes guianensis SW. ‘Reyan No.13’ were irradiated by 60 Co at 0, 325, 487 and 974 Gy. Phenotype and molecular variations of Stylosanthes M 1 generations were studied. Germination percentage, plant height, leaf length and stem diameter of M 1 seedlings were determined using SRAP-PCR. Results showed that biological character indices of treatments were significantly lower than that of control (CK). Irradiation inhibited plant growth. Growth indices of 974 Gy treatment, except leaf length, were significantly lower than CK and other two treatments. Eight effective primers selected from 24 primers combination were used for SRAP-PCR. SRAP analysis revealed that the 57 of 88 DNA fragments were amplified showing polymorphisms. The average percentage of polymorphic bands was 64.77%. The effects of 60 Coγ irradiation on DNA variation of seedlings were varied from different treatments. Numbers of polymorphic bands changed after irradiation. Coefficient of variation was in direct proportion to irradiation doses. Variation rates of 325 Gy, 487 Gy and 974 Gy treatments were 22.0%, 38.1% and 41.5%, respectively. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of all treatments was ranged from 0.585 to 0.780 by software NTSYSpc 2.1 based on SRAP results and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.678. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of 974 Gy treatment was 0.585 and variation degree was highest among all treatments, 487 Gy treatment was second and 325 Gy treatment was the lowest one. Based on present bands, four irradiated treatments were classified into two major groups by UPGMA cluster analysis. Group 1 included CK, 325 Gy and 487 Gy treatment and group 2 included 974 Gy. SRAP analysis determined variation of Stylosanthes after irradiation and the results of SRAP analysis were consistent with their biological indexes in some extent

  5. In Vivo Measurements in Mice in the Bion-M 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Popova, Anfisa; Borovik, Anatoliy; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga

    The main aim of BION-M 1 mission was to reveal morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to prolonged exposure in microgravity. Besides that functional state and behavior were assessed in vivo using test battery, home cage observations and implantable telemetry in space-flown mice (SF), control mice from the ground replica of the flight experiment (GC) and in mice kept in vivarium (SFV and GCV). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously in a subgroup of mice using implantable telemetry throughout the flight as well as before and after it. After 30-days flight aboard BION-M 1 biosatellite SF mice have gained more weight than GC, SFV or GCV mice (11%). SF mice displayed pronounced motor impairment upon examination shortly after landing. 1 day after the flight mice were less active and more anxious in the open-field test, less coordinated in the Rotarod and aerial drop test and had less grip force compared to both control and pre-flight values. Exercise performance was greatly reduced after 30-days flight and recovered by day 7 post-flight. Before the flight mice were trained to perform a simple task using positively reinforced free operant conditioning approach. After the flight performance in the same task was preserved, however learning ability was impaired. Mice displayed drastic reduction of heart rate during launch and reentry acceleration periods. Heart rate (by 8-10%) and, to a lesser extent blood pressure (by 5%) were elevated during the 30-days flight. After return heart rate in SF mice remained elevated throughout the 7-days observation period with no apparent recovery. In summary, mice display pronounced disadaptation to 1g after 30-days exposure in microgravity with different physiological systems having different recovery dynamics. Of particular interest, hemodynamic reactions in mice closely resemble reactions in larger organisms, implying that factors that govern the cardiovascular system adaptation to

  6. Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, D.J.; Yanagishita, M.; Hascall, V.C.; Bickel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family

  7. Realización de un protocolo en el proceso de destete en pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Amo Simón, Sofía del

    2015-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Fin de Grado (TFG) sobre el establecimiento de un protocolo para el destete de los pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica invasiva consta de una introducción y un desarrollo acerca del tema de la ventilación mecánica invasiva y el proceso de retirada progresiva de la misma, también conocido como destete o “weaning”, para establecer el protocolo, objetivo final de este trabajo. La ventilación mecánica invasiva es uno de los procedimientos más emplea...

  8. Caracterización de propiedades físico-mecánicas de rocas ígneas utilizadas en obras de infraestructura

    OpenAIRE

    M. Navarrete

    2013-01-01

    Los materiales pétreos se emplean actualmente en casi todos los procesos edificatorios y debido a esto se les realizan diferentes pruebas, pudiendo ser tanto físicas como mecánicas; en éstas, el ensayo de carga puntual normado por ASTM D 5731, describe el empleo del equipo Point Load para determinar la resistencia mecánica en rocas no labradas, con tamaño aproximado de 4 pulgadas de diámetro, determinándose características mecánicas con alta confiabilidad y facilidad...

  9. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  10. Efeito do ultrassom terapêutico sobre as propriedades mecânicas do gastrocnêmio em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hállamo Henrique Saraiva Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar de algumas controvérsias quanto à sua utilização, o ultrassom terapêutico (UST é um recurso comumente aplicado na reabilitação desportiva para aceleração do reparo tecidual de lesões musculares. Sabe-se que lesões musculares influenciam negativamente as propriedades mecânicas da musculatura estriada esquelética e algumas evidências demonstram que o UST poderia ter efeitos benéficos sobre o reparo muscular e, consequentemente, sobre suas propriedades mecânicas. OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito do UST no reparo tecidual por meio das propriedades mecânicas musculares de ratos após trauma por criolesão. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados no estudo 30 ratos da linhagem Wistar, os quais foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle intacto (GC, grupo lesionado sem tratamento (GL, e grupo lesionado e estimulado com UST (frequência de 1 MHz; intensidade de 0,5 W/cm2; ciclo de trabalho de 50%; por quatro minutos diários, durante sete dias consecutivos (GLUST. As propriedades mecânicas obtidas através de ensaio mecânico de tração foram avaliadas em uma máquina universal de ensaios. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados estatisticamente, com nível de significância de 95% (P<0,05. Após sete sessões de tratamento, houve melhora estatisticamente significativa nas propriedades mecânicas de carga no limite de proporcionalidade, carga no limite máximo e resiliência para o GLUST em relação ao GL (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O UST foi eficaz no processo de reparo tecidual, conferindo ao tecido muscular maior resistência à tração e absorção de energia.

  11. Propriedades mecânicas da madeira resinada de Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Missio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades mecânicas por flexão estática da madeira resinada de Pinus elliottii foram avaliadas por meio de testes destrutivos e não destrutivos. Para tanto, foram confeccionados corpos de prova de 10x10x200mm3 (radial, tangencial e longitudinal, levando em consideração dois fatores: lenho (juvenil, próximo à medula e adulto, próximo à casca e resina, isto é, corpos de prova oriundos de toras com e sem estrias de resinagem. Para a avaliação não destrutiva, utilizou-se um aparelho de ultrassom com transdutores do tipo ponto seco, em que se pode calcular a velocidade da onda ultrassônica e consequentemente o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico (ED. Para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade (MOE e do módulo de ruptura (MOR, realizou-se o ensaio destrutivo de flexão estática de três pontos. De posse das curvas de força x deformação, calculou-se a fragilidade do material. Os resultados confirmaram que o fator lenho foi significativo para as propriedades analisadas e o fator resina, em especial, para aumento do MOR e da massa específica. A fragilidade aumentou quando analisada a madeira juvenil e o fator resina quando incluso tendeu a aumentar a fragilidade no lenho adulto. O modelo de regressão múltiplo com variáveis Dummies, proposto para estimar o MOE pelo ED, foi significativo em 1% de probabilidade de erro (r2=0,75. Os resultados apresentados no presente trabalho mostraram que os fatores lenho e resina não afetaram negativamente as propriedades mecânicas da madeira de Pinus elliottii, em que, para o segundo fator, conclui-se, de maneira geral, que a madeira serrada oriunda de toras resinadas pode não representar danos significativos quando em serviço estrutural

  12. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  13. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  14. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  15. HLA-B27M1M2 and high immune responsiveness to Shigella flexneri in post-dysenteric arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Nabbe, A. J.; Landheer, J. E.; Grumet, F. C.; Mazurkiewicz, E. S.; Dinant, H. J.; Lionarons, R. J.; van Bodegom, P. C.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The heterogeneous HLA-B27 antigen is closely associated with post-infectious or reactive arthritis (ReA) and is comprised of two serologically defined variants: B27M1+M2+ and B27M1+M2-. An outbreak of dysentery (n = 120) caused by a Shigella flexneri 2a strain, which possessed cell envelope antigens

  16. Eficiência da colheita mecânica em variedades paulistas de algodeiro Efficiency of mechanical harvesting in São Paulo cotton varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Carvalho

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento das variedades paulistas de algodoeiro 'IAC 17' e 'IAC 18', em face da colheita mecânica, e a possibilidade de melhorá-lo mediante o uso do regulador de crescimento Cycocel, foram estudados em ensaio conduzido em 1978/79 e 1979/80 no município de Leme (SP. Na média dos dois anos, utilizando-se uma colhedeira John Deere 9900, foi colhido cerca de 89% do algodão produzido, o que representa eficiência comparável à obtida em países que adotam predominantemente essa prática. Em condições normais, as perdas foram 7%, porém, em ano adverso, com chuvas freqüentes na época da colheita e longa permanência do algodão aberto no campo, atingiram 16%. A colheita mecânica proporcionou tipos inferiores de algodão em caroço, situando-se entre 1 e 2 pontos, na escala de classificação comercial, a diferença em relação à colheita manual. As perdas foram maiores, cerca de 2%, para a variedade 'IAC 17', tendo a diferença se manifestado tanto em relação ao algodão caído ao solo, quanto ao que persistiu nas plantas, após a colheita. O prejuízo no tipo foi semelhante para as duas variedades, no ano normal, mas consideravelmente maior para a 'IAC 17', no ano desfavorável. O Cycocel, aplicado na base de 50g de princípio ativo por hectare, aumentou a porcentagem de algodão colhido pela máquina, porém, apenas no ano em que as condições climáticas foram adversas. Todavia, mesmo nesse ano, o produto não contribuiu para melhorar o tipo do algodão colhido mecanicamente. Excetuando tendência para queda na resistência, assim mesmo de forma inconsistente, as demais características tecnológicas da fibra não foram afetadas pela colheita mecânica.Adequacy of the cultivated cotton varieties 'IAC 17' and 'IAC 18' for mechanical harvesting and the possibility to improve their performance by using the plant growth regulator Cycocel, were studied at Leme, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1978/79 and 1979/80 crop seasons

  17. Criterios de extubación ampliados en ventilación mecánica prolongada

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste Pérez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Tot i l'experiència acumulada durant dècades en l'ús de la Ventilació Mecànica Invasiva (VMI), al voltant d'un 20-25% dels pacients pateixen fracàs d'extubació. Aquest fenòmen comporta un augment de la durada de la ventilació mecànica, de l'estada a la UCI i hospitalària i de la mortalitat. Els pacients sotmesos a VMI de forma prolongada (VMP) i els pacients neurològics tenen més probabilitats de patir fracàs d'extubació. Ens hem proposat esbrinar quins són els factors de risc de fracàs d'ext...

  18. Modelo mecánico para el análisis biomecánico del servicio de tenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El propósito de este artículo es plantear un nuevo modelo mecánico del cuerpo, adaptado a los gestos técnicos del tenis. El modelo consta de 28 puntos articulares, en él se definen barras y sólido-rígidos. Dicho modelo permite un estudio del gesto técnico completo. Se analizó un servicio filmado con dos cámaras a 250 fps de una jugadora con ranking WTA mundial 42. Los resultados reflejan la validez de dicho modelo ya que nos permite cuantificar la evolución de la energía de toda la cadena cinética.
    Palabras Clave: Modelo, mecánico, biomecánica, servicio, tenis.

  19. Uncovering SUMOylation Dynamics during Cell-Cycle Progression Reveals FoxM1 as a Key Mitotic SUMO Target Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Joost; Eifler, Karolin; Sigurdsson, Jón Otti

    2014-01-01

    Loss of small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) in mice causes genomic instability due to the missegregation of chromosomes. Currently, little is known about the identity of relevant SUMO target proteins that are involved in this process and about global SUMOylation dynamics during cell......-cycle progression. We performed a large-scale quantitative proteomics screen to address this and identified 593 proteins to be SUMO-2 modified, including the Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1), a key regulator of cell-cycle progression and chromosome segregation. SUMOylation of FoxM1 peaks during G2 and M...... relieving FoxM1 autorepression. Cells deficient for FoxM1 SUMOylation showed increased levels of polyploidy. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of SUMOylation during cell-cycle progression....

  20. Identification of the yeast gene encoding the tRNA m1G methyltransferase responsible for modification at position 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jane E; Montange, Rebecca K; Malik, Harmit S; Phizicky, Eric M

    2003-05-01

    Methylation of tRNA at the N-1 position of guanosine to form m(1)G occurs widely in nature. It occurs at position 37 in tRNAs from all three kingdoms, and the methyltransferase that catalyzes this reaction is known from previous work of others to be critically important for cell growth in Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. m(1)G is also widely found at position 9 in eukaryotic tRNAs, but the corresponding methyltransferase was unknown. We have used a biochemical genomics approach with a collection of purified yeast GST-ORF fusion proteins to show that m(1)G(9) formation of yeast tRNA(Gly) is associated with ORF YOL093w, named TRM10. Extracts lacking Trm10p have undetectable levels of m(1)G(9) methyltransferase activity but retain normal m(1)G(37) methyltransferase activity. Yeast Trm10p purified from E. coli quantitatively modifies the G(9) position of tRNA(Gly) in an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent fashion. Trm10p is responsible in vivo for most if not all m(1)G(9) modification of tRNAs, based on two results: tRNA(Gly) purified from a trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strain is lacking detectable m(1)G; and a primer extension block occurring at m(1)G(9) is removed in trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta-derived tRNAs for all 9 m(1)G(9)-containing species that were testable by this method. There is no obvious growth defect of trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strains. Trm10p bears no detectable resemblance to the yeast m(1)G(37) methyltransferase, Trm5p, or its orthologs. Trm10p homologs are found widely in eukaryotes and many archaea, with multiple homologs in several metazoans, including at least three in humans.

  1. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmskog, S.G.; Hoejeberg, M.

    1967-08-01

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in 233 U: T 1/2 (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 ± 0.15) x 10 -10 sec, T 1/2 (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 ± 1.0) x 10 -11 sec, T 1/2 (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 ± 2.0) x 10 -11 sec and T 1/2 (415.8 keV level) -11 sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters δ and (g K - g R ) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account

  2. Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.

  3. Pancreatic Resections for Advanced M1-Pancreatic Carcinoma: The Value of Synchronous Metastasectomy

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    S. K. Seelig

    2010-01-01

    Materials and Methods. From January 1, 2004 to December, 2007 a total of 20 patients with pancreatic malignancies were retrospectively evaluated who underwent pancreatic surgery with synchronous resection of hepatic, adjacent organ, or peritoneal metastases for proven UICC stage IV periampullary cancer of the pancreas. Perioperative as well as clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. Results. There were 20 patients (9 men, 11 women; mean age 58 years identified. The primary tumor was located in the pancreatic head (n=9, 45%, in pancreatic tail (n=9, 45%, and in the papilla Vateri (n=2, 10%. Metastases were located in the liver (n=14, 70%, peritoneum (n=5, 25%, and omentum majus (n=2, 10%. Lymphnode metastases were present in 16 patients (80%. All patients received resection of their tumors together with metastasectomy. Pylorus preserving duodenopancreatectomy was performed in 8 patients, distal pancreatectomy in 8, duodenopancreatectomy in 2, and total pancreatectomy in 2. Morbidity was 45% and there was no perioperative mortality. Median postoperative survival was 10.7 months (2.6–37.7 months which was not significantly different from a matched-pair group of patients who underwent pancreatic resection for UICC adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (median survival 15.6 months; P=.1. Conclusion. Pancreatic resection for M1 periampullary cancer of the pancreas can be performed safely in well-selected patients. However, indication for surgery has to be made on an individual basis.

  4. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  5. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  6. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: Biological Properties and Their Involvement in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marchese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in feeds and foods. When the ruminants eat feedstuffs containing Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, this toxin is metabolized and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is excreted in milk. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified AFB1 and AFM1 as human carcinogens belonging to Group 1 and Group 2B, respectively, with the formation of DNA adducts. In the last years, some epidemiological studies were conducted on cancer patients aimed to evaluate the effects of AFB1 and AFM1 exposure on cancer cells in order to verify the correlation between toxin exposure and cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In this review, we summarize the activation pathways of AFB1 and AFM1 and the data already reported in literature about their correlation with cancer development and progression. Moreover, considering that few data are still reported about what genes/proteins/miRNAs can be used as damage markers due to AFB1 and AFM1 exposure, we performed a bioinformatic analysis based on interaction network and miRNA predictions to identify a panel of genes/proteins/miRNAs that can be used as targets in further studies for evaluating the effects of the damages induced by AFB1 and AFM1 and their capacity to induce cancer initiation.

  7. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 2{sup 33}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G; Hoejeberg, M

    1967-08-15

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in {sup 233}U: T{sub 1/2} (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup -10} sec, T{sub 1/2} (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -11} sec, T{sub 1/2} (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -11} sec and T{sub 1/2} (415.8 keV level) < 3 x 10{sup -11}sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters {delta} and (g{sub K} - g{sub R}) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account.

  8. Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 548 raw milk samples were collected in the western, central and eastern regions of Croatia during February and March 2015. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 concentrations were quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. The method limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 22.2 and 34.2 ng/kg, respectively. The mean AFM1 levels measured in the three regions were (ng/kg as follows: western 3.69, central 3.11 and eastern 4.14. In total, the 548 samples analysed concentrations were below the LOD value and accordingly below the European Union maximum residue level (EU MRL of 50 ng/kg. The results suggest an absence of use of contaminated with aflatoxin B1 supplementary feedstuff for lactating cows in winter 2015. Such results might be related to the improved storage conditions for feed as well as to the enhanced and more stringent feed control system for mycotoxins in Croatia.

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Milk in Babol city, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Saa; Mirzae, M; Assmar, M; Naddaf, Sr

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is the metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and is found in milk when lactating animals are fed with contaminated feedstuff. The presence of AFM(1) in milk, pose a major risk for humans especially kids as it can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The present study is aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM(1) in subsidized pasteurized milk in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Some 72 pasteurized milk packages were collected from supermarkets in various districts of city during January to March 2006. Milk samples were centrifuged and amounts of 100 μl of skimmed milk were tested for AFM(1) contamination by competitive ELISA. All the samples (100%) exhibited contamination with AFM(1). The contamination levels means in January, February, and March were 227.85, 229.64, and 233.1ng/l, respectively. The amount of AFM(1) in all the samples were above 50ng/l, the threshold set by the European community regulations. Monitoring of AFM(1) level should be part of quality control procedures in dairy factories, particularly the ones providing infant's milk. Production of safer and healthier milk and other dairy products with minimum AFM(1) level can be achieved by adopting prophylactic measures including control of humidity and water content of feedstuff, which favors mould production.

  10. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  11. A survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in Southern Iran

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    Majid Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk samples from farms was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that in samples from collection centers and pasteurized milk. The concentration of AFM1 was not influenced by season, location, or type of farm. The concentrations of AFM1 in all samples were lower than the Iranian national standard limit (100 ng/L, but in 30% of raw cow milk samples they were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/L; therefore, more effort is needed to control AFM1 levels in milk produced in Southern Iran.

  12. Development of an Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of ultratrace amounts of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in food products. The sensor was based on a competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP as a tag. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody (anti-AFM1 were used to separate the bound and unbound fractions. The samples containing AFM1 were incubated with a fixed amount of antibody and tracer [AFM1 linked to HRP (conjugate] until the system reached equilibrium. Competition occurs between the antigen (AFM1 and the conjugate for the antibody. Then, the mixture was deposited on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes, and the mediator [5-methylphenazinium methyl sulphate (MPMS] was added. The enzymatic response was measured amperometrically. A standard range (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ppb of AFM1-contaminated milk from the ELISA kit was used to obtain a standard curve for AFM1. To test the detection sensitivity of our sensor, samples of commercial milk were supplemented at 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 ppb with AFM1. Our immunosensor has a low detection limit (0.01 ppb, which is under the recommended level of AFM1 [0.05 µg L-1 (ppb], and has good reproducibility.

  13. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  14. Development of an impedimetric aptasensor for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamboulié, Georges; Paniel, Nathalie; Zara, Lorena; Reguillo Granados, Lucia; Barthelmebs, Lise; Noguer, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    An aptasensor was designed for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk based on DNA-aptamer recognition and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy detection. A hexaethyleneglycol-modified 21-mer oligonucleotide was immobilized on a carbon screen-printed electrode through carbodiimide immobilization, after diazonium activation of the sensing surface. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe were used to characterize each step of the aptasensor development. Aptamer-AFM1 interaction induced an increase in electron-transfer resistance, allowing the determination of AFM1 in buffer in the range 2-150 ng/L (LOD=1.15 ng/L). Application to milk analysis showed that a preliminary treatment was mandatory. A simple filtration through a 0.2 µm PTFE membrane allowed determination of AFM1 in milk for concentrations ranging from 20 to 1000 ng/kg. These performances are compatible with the AFM1 levels set in European Union for milk and dairy products for adults (50 ng/kg) and infants (25 ng/kg). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  16. Genomic Comparison among Lethal Invasive Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M1

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    Gabriel R. Fernandes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS, is a human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. A GAS outbreak occurred in Brasilia, Brazil, during the second half of the year 2011, causing 26 deaths. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina platform. The sequences were assembled and genes were predicted for comparative analysis with emm type 1 strains: MGAS5005 and M1 GAS. Genomics comparison revealed one of the invasive strains that differ from others isolates and from emm 1 reference genomes. Also, the new invasive strain showed differences in the content of virulence factors compared to other isolated in the same outbreak. The evolution of contemporary GAS strains is strongly associated with horizontal gene transfer. This is the first genomic study of a Streptococcal emm 1 outbreak in Brazil, and revealed the rapid bacterial evolution leading to new clones. The emergence of new invasive strains can be a consequence of the injudicious use of antibiotics in Brazil during the past decades.

  17. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Levels during Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Milk (Ergo Production

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    Tsige Shigute

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels during lab-scale ergo production was investigated through determination of the residual levels of AFM1 using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The results showed gradual and incubation time dependent reduction of AFM1 level in the raw milk samples being fermented to ergo. The maximum reductions of 57.33 and 54.04% were recorded in AFM1 in natural and LAB inoculums initiated fermentations, respectively, in 5 days of incubation. Although a significant difference (P=0.05 in the AFM1 decrease in the two types of fermentations was recorded, such findings could vary with milk samples depending on initial load of the microorganisms as determined by hygienic conditions. However, the level of AFM1 in control (sterilized samples showed only a 5.5% decrease during the entire period of incubation. Microbiological investigation showed increasing LAB counts with incubation time. A gradual decrease in pH of the milk samples was observed during fermentation. Considering the fact that both viable and dead bacterial cells could remove AFM1 during ergo production, the mechanism is proposed as predominantly involving noncovalent binding of the toxin with the chemical components of the bacterial cell wall.

  18. Evolución del estado mental del paciente sometido a la contención mecánica

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    Alix Bohórquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación es de naturaleza cuantitativa, descriptivo de corte prospectivo, en donde se pretende caracterizar el tiempo de reversión que se manifiesta en la contención mecánica de pacientes psiquiátricos. El colectivo en estudio correspondió a 30 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre los 15 a los 65 años, Servicio de Observación Constante (SOC en el ESE Hospital Mental Rudesindo Soto (HMRS durante el segundo semestre del 2009, de ambos sexos que manifestaron como características comunes: agitación psicomotriz, con variables alternas comprendidas en, etiología orgánica y número de contenciones implementadas en cada caso. Para realizar la aplicación de los instrumentos de recolección de información se creó un formato de valoración individual de la contención mecánica, el cual fue revisado y ajustado. Los resultado obtenidos indican que el 60% de la muestra es de género masculino, el cual el 30% comprenden edades entre los 35 a 44 años, en donde se evidencian alteraciones en la normalidad de signos vitales y componentes de las esferas mentales. Aunque los síntomas se revierten en un tiempo de 2 a 3 horas por lo cual se da retiro de la contención mecánica, el paciente continua confuso. Finalmente, se observa que la reversión de la contención mecánica en la mayoría de la muestra se presenta en tiempos de +/- 1.1 a 2 horas.

  19. Para una reescritura de la filosofía: conciencia y mecánica cuántica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tapia

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de este pretencioso título pretendo mostrar algunos desarrollos recientes de la mecánica cuántica con respecto al problema de la conciencia, la mente, el conocimiento, la voluntad, etc., desde el limitado punto de vista de un intruso curioso. El enfoque que ha empezado a tomar forma hace necesario reconsiderar todas nuestras ideas anteriores con respecto a la concepción del mundo.

  20. Structural dynamics of the MecA-ClpC complex: a type II AAA+ protein unfolding machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Mei, Ziqing; Li, Ningning; Qi, Yutao; Xu, Yanji; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng; Lei, Jianlin; Gao, Ning

    2013-06-14

    The MecA-ClpC complex is a bacterial type II AAA(+) molecular machine responsible for regulated unfolding of substrates, such as transcription factors ComK and ComS, and targeting them to ClpP for degradation. The six subunits of the MecA-ClpC complex form a closed barrel-like structure, featured with three stacked rings and a hollow passage, where substrates are threaded and translocated through successive pores. Although the general concepts of how polypeptides are unfolded and translocated by internal pore loops of AAA(+) proteins have long been conceived, the detailed mechanistic model remains elusive. With cryoelectron microscopy, we captured four different structures of the MecA-ClpC complexes. These complexes differ in the nucleotide binding states of the two AAA(+) rings and therefore might presumably reflect distinctive, representative snapshots from a dynamic unfolding cycle of this hexameric complex. Structural analysis reveals that nucleotide binding and hydrolysis modulate the hexameric complex in a number of ways, including the opening of the N-terminal ring, the axial and radial positions of pore loops, the compactness of the C-terminal ring, as well as the relative rotation between the two nucleotide-binding domain rings. More importantly, our structural and biochemical data indicate there is an active allosteric communication between the two AAA(+) rings and suggest that concerted actions of the two AAA(+) rings are required for the efficiency of the substrate unfolding and translocation. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the dynamic cycle of the MecA-ClpC unfoldase and especially lay a foundation toward the complete understanding of the structural dynamics of the general type II AAA(+) hexamers.

  1. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, Laura; Holden, Matthew T G; Lindsay, Heather; Webb, Cerian R; Brown, Derek F J; Curran, Martin D; Walpole, Enid; Brooks, Karen; Pickard, Derek J; Teale, Christopher; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Edwards, Giles F; Girvan, E Kirsty; Kearns, Angela M; Pichon, Bruno; Hill, Robert L R; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert L; Peacock, Sharon J; Maskell, Duncan J; Holmes, Mark A

    2011-08-01

    Animals can act as a reservoir and source for the emergence of novel meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in human beings. Here, we report the discovery of a strain of S aureus (LGA251) isolated from bulk milk that was phenotypically resistant to meticillin but tested negative for the mecA gene and a preliminary investigation of the extent to which such strains are present in bovine and human populations. Isolates of bovine MRSA were obtained from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in the UK, and isolates of human MRSA were obtained from diagnostic or reference laboratories (two in the UK and one in Denmark). From these collections, we searched for mecA PCR-negative bovine and human S aureus isolates showing phenotypic meticillin resistance. We used whole-genome sequencing to establish the genetic basis for the observed antibiotic resistance. A divergent mecA homologue (mecA(LGA251)) was discovered in the LGA251 genome located in a novel staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element, designated type-XI SCCmec. The mecA(LGA251) was 70% identical to S aureus mecA homologues and was initially detected in 15 S aureus isolates from dairy cattle in England. These isolates were from three different multilocus sequence type lineages (CC130, CC705, and ST425); spa type t843 (associated with CC130) was identified in 60% of bovine isolates. When human mecA-negative MRSA isolates were tested, the mecA(LGA251) homologue was identified in 12 of 16 isolates from Scotland, 15 of 26 from England, and 24 of 32 from Denmark. As in cows, t843 was the most common spa type detected in human beings. Although routine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will identify S aureus isolates with this novel mecA homologue as meticillin resistant, present confirmatory methods will not identify them as MRSA. New diagnostic guidelines for the detection of MRSA should consider the inclusion of tests for mecA(LGA251). Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

  2. Medical students who decompress during the M-1 year outperform those who fail and repeat it: A study of M-1 students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Gregory G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All medical schools must counsel poor-performing students, address their problems and assist them in developing into competent physicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether students with academic deficiencies in their M-1 year graduate more often, spend less time to complete the curriculum, and need fewer attempts at passing USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 by entering the Decompressed Program prior to failure of the M-1 year than those students who fail the M-1 year and then repeat it. Method The authors reviewed the performance of M-1 students in the Decompressed Program and compared their outcomes to M-1 students who failed and fully repeated the M-1 year. To compare the groups upon admission, t-Tests comparing the Cognitive Index of students and MCAT scores from both groups were performed. Performance of the two groups after matriculation was also analyzed. Results Decompressed students were 2.1 times more likely to graduate. Decompressed students were 2.5 times more likely to pass USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt than the repeat students. In addition, 46% of those in the decompressed group completed the program in five years compared to 18% of the repeat group. Conclusion Medical students who decompress their M-1 year prior to M-1 year failure outperform those who fail their first year and then repeat it. These findings indicate the need for careful monitoring of M-1 student performance and early intervention and counseling of struggling students.

  3. Asistencia mecánica circulatoria de corta duración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Doñate Bertolín

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El manejo conservador con inotrópicos y vasopresores en el shock cardiogénico ha mostrado ser insuficiente en muchos pacientes para mantener una perfusión adecuada y prevenir el fallo multiorgánico irreversible, lo que ha llevado a la mejora y a la utilización cada vez mayor de diferentes dispositivos de asistencia mecánica circulatoria de corta duración (balón intraaórtico de contrapulsación, TandemHeart, Impella, oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea [ECMO] y CentriMag Levitronix. Por ser la ECMO el dispositivo más versátil —capaz de proporcionar soporte a pacientes con fallo cardíaco, fallo respiratorio o fallo combinado cardiopulmonar durante días a semanas—, sus indicaciones se han ido diversificando, con un uso e interés en adultos creciente durante los últimos años, gracias también al progreso tecnológico y a la mejora en sus resultados. Es por ello esencial familiarizarse con la fisiología, las indicaciones, las estrategias de canulación, los principios de manejo y la evidencia sobre esta terapia, en la que enfatizaremos especialmente en esta revisión.

  4. Estudo da Mecânica Cardíaca pelo Speckle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Donadio Abduch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speckles, ou marcadores naturais do miocárdio, originam se da interferência construtiva e destrutiva do feixe de ultrassom que incide sobre os tecidos, podem fornecer um diagnóstico precoce das alterações miocárdicas e atuar na predição de certos eventos cardíacos. Devido à sua relativa estabilidade temporal, os speckles podem ser rastreados durante o ciclo cardíaco por software dedicados, promovendo a análise da função sistólica e diastólica. São identificados tanto pela escala de cinza da ecocardiografia 2D convencional quanto pela ecocardiografia 3D, sendo independentes do ângulo de incidência do ultrassom, permitindo assim a avaliação da mecânica cardíaca nos três planos espaciais: longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. O objetivo do presente artigo é discutir o papel e o significado da deformação cardíaca obtida por meio do speckle tracking durante a avaliação da fisiologia cardíaca, e discutir as aplicações clínicas desta tecnologia ecocardiográfica inovadora.

  5. Combining zmet and mec in study of user expectations for ideal catering customer service app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaing Ton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The designing and marketing models of general catering customer service APP are made from business owners needs or from commissioned design company’s thoughts. The ZMET and MEC technique are used to understand the consumers more properly. Consumers usually will not purchase a product for just the physical content or functionality of the product but will do so because of other reasons, such as what the product presents socially, how it affects their emotions and more In this context, it is necessary to identify the meaning better. This research attempts to understand how customer satisfaction in the context of the catering industry could be understood better by identifying product and company attributes. The catering company can then develop a unique style of their own, so consumers can better understand the ethos of the company, their culture and style. According to consumers’ experience, we conclude 5 user expectations of catering customer service APP, including Fans Evaluation, Online-to-Offline Consistency, Timeliness, Smart Order, and Customized Logistics. In this paper, the results of these information show that the user expectations of catering customer services APP will become the effective scientific reference and different patterns of cognitive communities.

  6. Projectile motion in Diego Hurtado de Mendoza's Mecánica and new Renaissance dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iommi Echeverría, Virginia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Diego Hurtado de Mendoza’s translation of the Aristotelian Mechanics in relation to the humanistic and scientific Italian environment of the Renaissance. From the analysis of the last problems on dynamics, it demonstrates the affinity with the works of Piccolomini and Cardano. It also shows the originality of the exegesis made by the Spanish author of Problem XXXIV, in which he combines latemedieval physics with the Aristotelian explanation.Este artículo examina la traducción hecha por Diego Hurtado de Mendoza de la Mecánica aristotélica en el contexto del ambiente científico-humanista italiano de mediados del siglo XVI. A partir del análisis de los últimos problemas sobre dinámica, se demuestra su estrecha relación con las obras de Piccolomini y Cardano; sugiriéndose además la originalidad de la interpretación hecha por el autor español del problema XXXIV basada en la combinación de la física tardomedieval y la explicación aristotélica.

  7. Biodegradabilidade e propriedades mecânicas de novas misturas poliméricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Derval S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O plástico tem sido cada vez mais usado em nosso cotidiano em diversos tipos de produtos: garrafas, embalagens, automóveis, etc. Diversas alternativas têm sido buscadas para minimizar o impacto ambiental causado pelos polímeros convencionais. Uma importante alternativa é o uso de polímeros biodegradáveis, que podem ser degradados pela ação de microorganismos, tais como bactérias, fungos ou algas. As aplicações tecnológicas de polímeros biodegradáveis normalmente requerem melhorias nas suas propriedades mecânicas. Neste contexto, novas misturas poliméricas vêm sendo obtidas para aplicações inovadoras e mais baratas. Neste trabalho, será apresentada a metodologia de preparação de novas misturas poliméricas, contendo diferentes teores de amido, com Policaprolactona (PCL, Polihidróxibutirato (PHB e um copolímero Poli(hidróxibutirato-co-valerato (PHBV. A resistência à tração das blendas com 50% em massa de amido é 35% e 60% menor do que a dos polímeros PCL e PHBV puros, respectivamente. Quando expostas a microorganismos em lodo ativado, as misturas de PCL ou PHBV com maiores dosagens de amido apresentam maiores taxas de degradação.

  8. Factores predictivos de mortalidad en pacientes con oclusión intestinal mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erian Jesús Domínguez González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, prospectivo, de cohorte, de 191 pacientes con oclusión intestinal mecánica, operados en el Servicio de Cirugía del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2011 hasta diciembre de 2013, para identificar los factores predictivos de mortalidad. La muestra fue dividida en 2 cohortes: 165 vivos y 26 fallecidos; asimismo, el análisis de los datos se basó en la construcción de un modelo multivariado (regresión logística multivariable, mediante el cual se precisó que la edad por encima de los 60 años, el inicio de los síntomas después de las 48 horas, el estado físico perianestésico IV y V, el daño vascular, los procedimientos resecativos, el estado de choque y las complicaciones posoperatorias, mostraron relación independiente con la muerte. Se estimó 73,1 y 98,8 % de sensibilidad y especificidad, respectivamente y el porcentaje global predictivo fue excelente (95,3

  9. mec-associated dru typing in the epidemiological analysis of ST239 MRSA in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi-Rad, E; Goering, R V; Nor Shamsudin, M; Weng, P L; Sekawi, Z; Tavakol, M; van Belkum, A; Neela, V

    2011-11-01

    The usefulness of mec-associated dru typing in the epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Malaysia was investigated and compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and spa and SCCmec typing. The isolates studied included all MRSA types in Malaysia. Multilocus sequence type ST188 and ST1 isolates were highly clonal by all typing methods. However, the dru typing of ST239 isolates produced the clearest discrimination between SCCmec IIIa and III isolates, yielding more subtypes than any other method. Evaluation of the discriminatory power for each method identified dru typing and PFGE as the most discriminatory, with Simpson's index of diversity (SID) values over 89%, including an isolate which was non-typeable by spa, but dru-typed as dt13j. The discriminatory ability of dru typing, especially with closely related MRSA ST239 strains (e.g., Brazilian and Hungarian), underscores its utility as a tool for the epidemiological investigation of MRSA.

  10. Metodología para caracterizar el proceso de innovación tecnológica en la empresa sidero-mecánica cubana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Yulian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo resume los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicación de un procedimiento general de diagnóstico que permite caracterizar los procesos tecnológicos y de innovación en la industria sidero-mecánica cubana. El estudio se realizó en una muestra representativa de las empresas que integran el sector sidero-mecánico de la provincia de Villa Clara.

  11. Energy-positive wastewater treatment and desalination in an integrated microbial desalination cell (MDC)-microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Styczynski, Jordyn; Huang, Yuankai; Xu, Zhiheng; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of nitrogen in municipal wastewater, metal in industrial wastewater and saline in seawater was achieved in an integrated microbial desalination cell-microbial electrolysis cell (MDC-MEC) system. Batch tests showed that more than 95.1% of nitrogen was oxidized by nitrification in the cathode of MDC and reduced by heterotrophic denitrification in the anode of MDC within 48 h, leading to the total nitrogen removal rate of 4.07 mg L-1 h-1. Combining of nitrogen removal and desalination in MDC effectively solved the problem of pH fluctuation in anode and cathode, and led to 63.7% of desalination. Power generation of MDC (293.7 mW m-2) was 2.9 times higher than the one without salt solution. The electric power of MDC was harvested by a capacitor circuit to supply metal reduction in a MEC, and 99.5% of lead (II) was removed within 48 h. A kinetic MDC model was developed to elucidate the correlation of voltage output and desalination efficiency. Ratio of wastewater and sea water was calculated for MDC optimal operation. Energy balance of nutrient removal, metal removal and desalination in the MDC-MEC system was positive (0.0267 kW h m-3), demonstrating the promise of utilizing low power output of MDCs.

  12. El mantenimiento de la potencia mecánica en tenistas de categoría cadete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sarabia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la eficiencia de un entrenamiento de fuerza para el tren inferior y superior, basado en el mantenimiento de la potencia mecánica en jugadores cadetes de tenis. 18 tenistas (10 en el grupo experimental y 8 en el grupo control participaron en el estudio. Se realizó un periodo de adaptación anatómica (cinco semanas de duración previo al periodo de intervención en el grupo experimental. El periodo de intervención tuvo una duración de seis semanas donde se trabajó con los ejercicios de bench-press con peso libre y semi-squat en maquina Smith, con una carga estable del 60% de la fuerza dinámica máxima. Se evaluaron previa y posteriormente al periodo de intervención la potencia desarrollada en el tren superior como inferior con diferentes tests, tanto directos como indirectos. Los resultados parecen indicar que la metodología de entrenamiento basada en el mantenimiento de la potencia mecánica es eficiente para la mejora de la potencia máxima, permitiendo una optimización de las sesiones y minimizando el trabajo residual.
    Palabras clave: Fuerza, sobrecarga, fallo mecánico

  13. Influência do instrumento de perfuração do orifício piloto nas propriedades mecânicas dos parafusos vertebrais Influencia de la herramienta de perforación del orificio piloto en las propiedades mecánicas de los tornillos vertebrales Effect of the pilot hole perforation tool on mechanical properties of vertebral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a influência do modo de preparo do orifício piloto utilizando sonda romba, sonda cortante e broca na resistência ao arrancamento dos implantes. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados parafusos do sistema de fixação vertebral (USS com 5 mm, 6 mm e 7 mm de diâmetro externo. Os parafusos foram implantados nos corpos de prova de osso bovino após a realização do orifício piloto com três diferentes modos de preparo: sonda romba, sonda cortante e broca. O diâmetro de perfuração do orifício piloto era menor, igual e maior que o diâmetro interno dos parafusos. No mesmo corpo de prova, três orifícios do mesmo diâmetro foram confeccionados por meio dos três modos de preparo utilizados no estudo, os parafusos foram inseridos e, em seguida, foram realizados os ensaios mecânicos de arrancamento. Os ensaios mecânicos foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaio Emic®, Software Tesc 3.13, célula de carga de 2000N, velocidade de aplicação de força de 2 mm/min, pré-carga de 5N e tempo de acomodação de 10 segundos. A propriedade avaliada nos ensaios mecânicos foi a força máxima de arrancamento. RESULTADOS: O modo de preparo do orifício piloto influencia na resistência ao arrancamento dos implantes de 5 e 6 mm utilizados no estudo. Foi observada maior resistência ao arrancamento os orifícios piloto que foram confeccionados com sonda. A resistência ao arrancamento dos parafusos de 7 mm não foi influenciada pelo modo de preparo do orifício piloto. CONCLUSÃO: O modo de preparo do orifício piloto influenciou a resistência ao arrancamento dos parafusos de 5 e 6 mm de diâmetro externo.OBJETIVO: Determinar la influencia del modo de preparar el orificio piloto por medio de punzón de punta roma, punzón de punta cortante y broca, en la resistencia al arrancamiento de los implantes. MÉTODO: Se utilizó el sistema de tornillos de fijación vertebral (USS, con 5 mm, 6 mm y 7 mm de diámetro exterior. Los tornillos se

  14. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  15. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  16. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  17. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  18. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  19. Cytosolic Pellino-1-Mediated K63-Linked Ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 Macrophages Regulates Glucose Intolerance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IRF5 is a signature transcription factor that induces M1 macrophage polarization. However, little is known regarding cytosolic proteins that induce IRF5 activation for M1 polarization. Here, we report the interaction between ubiquitin E3 ligase Pellino-1 and IRF5 in the cytoplasm, which increased nuclear translocation of IRF5 by K63-linked ubiquitination in human and mouse M1 macrophages. LPS and/or IFN-γ increased Pellino-1 expression, and M1 polarization was attenuated in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Defective M1 polarization in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages improved glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, macrophages in adipose tissues from obese humans exhibited increased Pellino-1 expression and IRF5 nuclear translocation compared with nonobese subjects, and these changes are associated with insulin resistance index. This study demonstrates that cytosolic Pellino-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 macrophages regulates glucose intolerance in obesity, suggesting a cytosolic mediator function of Pellino-1 in TLR4/IFN-γ receptor-IRF5 axis during M1 polarization.

  20. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Wingspan stent for symptomatic M1 stenosis of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinbin; Ma Nan; Hu Xiaobo; Guan Sheng; Fan Yimu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Stent placement for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis has become an alternative treatment technique; however, stent placement for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis remains a technical and clinical challenge. Our purpose was to assess the safety and feasibility of Wingspan stent for patients with symptomatic M1 stenosis, and its initial effect on prevention of ischemic events. Methods: Fifty-three cases with recurrent symptomatic MCA stenosis resistant to medical therapy treated by self-expanding stent were reviewed retrospectively (average 58 ± 18.5 years old, 19 women). All patients underwent angioplasty and stenting with the Gateway balloon–Wingspan stent system, and advised follow-up with DSA or TCD at 6th month. Results: Patients had an average stenosis ratio of 76.5 ± 15.4% prior to the treatment. Of the 53 patients, the technical success rate was 98.1% as a whole (52/53). The mean degree of stenosis reduced from (76.5 ± 15.4)% to (18.2 ± 11.3)%. Complications associated with the procedure include subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.89%) and occlusion (3.78%) occurred. During a follow-up of 6 months, there was no recurrence of transient ischemic attack or stroke in 52 cases with successful stenting. Cerebral hemodynamics of MCA using transcranial Doppler monitoring were at normal level (<120 cm/s) in 41 follow-up patients. The follow up angiography at 6 month post-procedure was conducted in 32 patients and showed good patency in stented vessels. Conclusions: Wingspan stent for symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery is a safe and feasible procedure. It improves clinical outcome in the intermediate follow up, but its long-term effect remains to be further evaluated.

  2. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y P; Hsiao, P J; Hong, W S; Dai, T Y; Chen, M J

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Interaction via FoxM1 Signaling Mediates Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Zhu, Maggie M; Peng, Yi; Jin, Hua; Machireddy, Narsa; Qian, Zhijian; Zhang, Xianming; Zhao, You-Yang

    2018-04-17

    Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH. Lung tissues and cells from PAH patients were employed to validate clinical relevance. FoxM1 inhibitor Thiostrepton was used in Sugen 5416/hypoxia- and monocrotaline-challenged rats. FoxM1 expression was markedly upregulated in lungs and pulmonary arterial SMCs of idiopathic PAH patients and 4 discrete PH rodent models. Mice with SMC- (but not EC-) specific deletion of Foxm1 were protected from hypoxia- or Sugen 5416/hypoxia-induced PH. The upregulation of FoxM1 in SMCs induced by multiple EC-derived factors (PDGF-B, CXCL12, ET-1 and MIF) mediated SMC proliferation. Genetic deletion of endothelial Cxcl12 in Egln1Tie2Cre mice or loss of its cognate receptor Cxcr4 in SMCs in hypoxia-treated mice inhibited FoxM1 expression, SMC proliferation and PH. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of FoxM1 inhibited severe PH in both Sugen 5416/hypoxia and monocrotaline-challenged rats. Multiple factors derived from dysfunctional ECs induced FoxM1 expression in SMCs and activated FoxM1-dependent SMC proliferation which contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Thus, targeting FoxM1 signaling represents a novel strategy for treatment of IPAH.

  4. Reactividad y propiedades mecánicas de escoria de alto horno activada por álcalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escalante-García, J. I.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to characterize the reactivity and mechanical properties in blast furnace slag pastes activated by 5 alkali systems such as NaOH, waterglass and combinations of Na2CO3, Na2SO4 y Ca(OH2 in concentrations of 5%. Cubes of 5cm were prepared and cured under water for up to 120 days at 20 and 60°C. The highest compressive strengths were noted for the waterglass activation, followed by one of the combination of 3 compounds, while NaOH activation resulted in the lowest strengths. Increased temperatures favored the strength for the waterglass activation, outperforming those of the Portland cement paste used as control at all times, whereas it had a negative effect for all other activations. The reactivity of the systems, as obtained by measurements of non evaporable water and selective chemical dissolution, indicated that the slag is more reactive under the NaOH activation. Scanning electron microscopy by means of backscattered electrons confirmed the different reactivities and the mechanical properties observed.

    Se realizaron estudios de caracterización de reactividad y propiedades mecánicas en pastas de escoria de alto horno activada por 5 sistemas alcalinos como NaOH, vidrio soluble y combinaciones de Na2CO3, Na2SO4 y Ca(OH2 en concentraciones de 5%. Se prepararon cubos de 5cm por lado y se curaron durante 120 días a 20 y 60°C bajo agua. Los valores mas altos de resistencia mecánica fueron registrados por el sistema de escoria activada con vidrio soluble, seguido por una de las combinaciones de 3 reactivos químicos, mientras que el desarrollo de propiedades mecánicas fue más pobre con la activación por NaOH. El aumento en la temperatura de curado favoreció la resistencia a la compresión de escoria con vidrio soluble, superando a la del cemento Portland a todos los tiempos de curado; para los otros sistemas el incremento de la temperatura de curado resultó perjudicial. En contraste con las

  5. An S/T-Q cluster domain census unveils new putative targets under Tel1/Mec1 control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Hannah C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular response to DNA damage is immediate and highly coordinated in order to maintain genome integrity and proper cell division. During the DNA damage response (DDR, the sensor kinases Tel1 and Mec1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ATM and ATR in human, phosphorylate multiple mediators which activate effector proteins to initiate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. A subset of kinase substrates are recognized by the S/T-Q cluster domain (SCD, which contains motifs of serine (S or threonine (T followed by a glutamine (Q. However, the full repertoire of proteins and pathways controlled by Tel1 and Mec1 is unknown. Results To identify all putative SCD-containing proteins, we analyzed the distribution of S/T-Q motifs within verified Tel1/Mec1 targets and arrived at a unifying SCD definition of at least 3 S/T-Q within a stretch of 50 residues. This new SCD definition was used in a custom bioinformatics pipeline to generate a census of SCD-containing proteins in both yeast and human. In yeast, 436 proteins were identified, a significantly larger number of hits than were expected by chance. These SCD-containing proteins did not distribute equally across GO-ontology terms, but were significantly enriched for those involved in processes related to the DDR. We also found a significant enrichment of proteins involved in telophase and cytokinesis, protein transport and endocytosis suggesting possible novel Tel1/Mec1 targets in these pathways. In the human proteome, a wide range of similar proteins were identified, including homologs of some SCD-containing proteins found in yeast. This list also included high concentrations of proteins in the Mediator, spindle pole body/centrosome and actin cytoskeleton complexes. Conclusions Using a bioinformatic approach, we have generated a census of SCD-containing proteins that are involved not only in known DDR pathways but several other pathways under Tel1/Mec1 control suggesting new

  6. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  7. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  8. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  9. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Bepler, Gerold, E-mail: beplerg@karmanos.org [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. {yields} C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1

  10. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao; Bepler, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. → The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. → The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. → C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. → The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1 conformation has the potential to serve as a specific

  11. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  12. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  13. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  14. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  15. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  16. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the performance of two soybean varieties in M1 and M2 generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.; Rahman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Seed of two soybean varieties Bragg and Improved Pelican were treated with gamma-rays at 0, 11, 29, 47 and 65 Kr doses. Percentage of seedling emergence in both varieties in M 1 generation was not so seriously affected as in M 1 generation. The plant height of Bragg after one month of sowing was less influenced than Improved Pelican. Plant height of both the varieties decreased with increase in radiation doses; except 11 Kr in Bragg in both generations. Similar results were also obtained in plant height at harvest except that Improved Pelican in M 1 generation produced taller plants at 29 Kr than at 11 Kr level. Days required to harvest increased at higher doses in comparison to control, except 11 Kr for Improved Pelican and 29 Kr for Bragg in M 1 generation. (author)

  17. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  18. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  19. Effect of heat-inactivated kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 on preventing an allergic airway response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Po; Dai, Ting-Yeu; Huang, I-Nung; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2011-08-24

    In this study, we assessed the anti-asthmatic effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (HI-M1) and its fermented milk using different feeding procedures and at various dosage levels. The possible mechanisms whereby HI-M1 has anti-allergic asthmatic effects were also evaluated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated the HI-M1 samples showed strong inhibition of production of T helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Th17 cytokines in splenocytes and bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in regulatory T cell population in splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of H1-M1 was also observed. In addition, all of the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including specific IgE production, airway inflammation, and development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were depressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment. These findings support the possibility that oral feeding of H1-M1 may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  20. Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Tan, Yaqian; Cavenee, Webster K; Yan, Guangmei

    2017-06-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic compounds (SMCs), which antagonize the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and induce apoptosis, sensitize tumor cells to multiple cytokines. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SMCs sensitize tumor cells to cytokines induced by the oncolytic M1 virus, thus enhancing a bystander killing effect. Here, we report that SMCs potentiate the oncolytic effect of M1 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This strengthened oncolytic efficacy resulted from the enhanced bystander killing effect caused by the M1 virus via cytokine induction. Through a microarray analysis and subsequent validation using recombinant cytokines, we identified IL-8, IL-1A, and TRAIL as the key cytokines in the bystander killing effect. Furthermore, SMCs increased the replication of M1, and the accumulation of virus protein induced irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, the combined treatment with M1 and SMCs had little effect on normal and human primary cells. Because SMCs selectively and significantly enhance the bystander killing effect and the replication of oncolytic virus M1 specifically in cancer cells, this combined treatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

  1. Paeoniflorin inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle arrest through inhibition of FoxM1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Meng; Li, Shiquan; Yan, Guoqiang; Li, Chenyao; Kang, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) exhibits tumor suppressive functions in a variety of human cancers. However, the function of PF and molecular mechanism in colorectal cancer are elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether PF could exert its antiproliferative activity, anti-migration, and anti-invasive function in colorectal cancer cells. We found that PF inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, we found that PF suppressed cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. FoxM1 has been reported to play an important oncogenic role in human cancers. We also determine whether PF inhibited the expression of FoxM1, leading to its anti-cancer activity. We found that PF treatment in colorectal cancer cells resulted in down-regulation of FoxM1. The rescue experiments showed that overexpression of FoxM1 abrogated the tumor suppressive function induced by PF treatment. Notably, depletion of FoxM1 promoted the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of FoxM1 could participate in the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells.

  2. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  3. Bioimaging of M1 cells using ceramic nanophosphors: Synthesis and toxicity assay of Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, N; Soga, K; Tsuji, T; Okumura, Y; Fukuda, R

    2009-01-01

    Er 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by enzymatic and polymer-assisted homogeneous co-precipitation methods. Resultant particle size is about 30-40 nm with narrow size distribution whereas the particle size is smaller than those acquired by conventional homogeneous and alkali precipitation methods. The particles shows bright green (550 nm) and red (660 nm) upconversion (UC) as well as near infrared (NIR) fluorescence (1550 nm) under 980 nm excitation. Bioimaging of M1 cells using the nanoparticles were successfully attempted. It is observed that 0.5 mg/ml of nanoparticles is the nominal concentration for bioimaging of M1 cells under the physiological conditions. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles is evidenced from bright field, UC and NIR fluorescence images of live M1 cells. Our studies suggest that lower concentration of nanoparticles is sufficient for imaging when the particles are taken in the M1 cells and also the concentration can keep the cells alive. Further it was demonstrated that under the physiological conditions, Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles emit UC and NIR fluorescence in M1 cells even after the surface modification with PEG-b-PAAc polymer. Moreover, surface modified nanoparticles shows lower toxic effect in M1 cells while compare to bare nanoparticles.

  4. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  6. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  7. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  8. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  9. Propriedades Mecânicas e Dinâmico-mecânicas de Composições de Policloropreno com Negro de Fumo Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Chloroprene Rubber Compositions with Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes F. Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As cargas são fundamentais em composições elastoméricas sendo classificadas, segundo desempenho mecânico, em reforçadoras ou não. O negro de fumo é a carga de reforço mais utilizada nessas composições, não só pelas excelentes propriedades que confere ao artefato, mas também pelo baixo preço e facilidade de processamento. As propriedades dinâmico-mecânicas de sistemas poliméricos são modificadas pela adição de cargas, o que acarreta mudanças nos módulos elástico (E' e viscoso (E", bem como na razão entre eles, isto é, a tangente de perda (tan delta. Neste trabalho, são estudadas as propriedades mecânicas e dinâmico-mecânicas de composições de policloropreno (CR com negro de fumo (NF. O teor de negro de fumo incorporado variou entre 0 e 45 phr. A composição contendo 40 phr de carga apresentou o melhor conjunto das propriedades estudadas.Often used in elastomeric compositions, fillers can be classified, according to their mechanical performance, as reinforcing or non-reinforcing fillers. Carbon black is the most used reinforcing filler in rubber compositions, either because of the excellent properties it confers to the rubber article, or due to its low cost and easy processing. When added to polymer systems, fillers are known to cause a considerable change in both dynamic moduli, viscous (E" and elastic (E', and also in the loss factor (tan delta, which is the ratio between those two parameters. In this work, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of compositions of chloroprene rubber (CR with carbon black (CB were investigated. The filler content varied from 0 to 45 phr. The composition containing 40 phr of carbon black showed the best set of results.

  10. Increased Expression of FoxM1 Transcription Factor in Respiratory Epithelium Inhibits Lung Sacculation and Causes Clara Cell Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ching; Zhang, Yufang; Snyder, Jonathan; Sutherland, Mardi J.; Burhans, Michael S.; Shannon, John M.; Park, Hyun Jung; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Foxm1 is a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors. Foxm1 (previously called Foxm1b, HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is expressed in multiple cell types and plays important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of Foxm1 from mouse respiratory epithelium during initial stages of lung development inhibits lung maturation and causes respiratory failure after birth. However, the role of Foxm1 during postnatal lung morphogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, Foxm1 expression was detected in epithelial cells of conducting and peripheral airways and changing dynamically with lung maturation. To discern the biological role of Foxm1 in the prenatal and postnatal lung, a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a constitutively active form of FoxM1 (FoxM1 N-terminal deletion mutant or FoxM1-ΔN) under the control of lung epithelial-specific SPC promoter was produced. Expression of the FoxM1-ΔN transgene during embryogenesis caused epithelial hyperplasia, inhibited lung sacculation and expression of the type II epithelial marker, pro-SPC. Expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant during the postnatal period did not influence alveologenesis but caused focal airway hyperplasia and increased proliferation of Clara cells. Likewise, expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant in conducting airways with Scgb1a1 promoter was sufficient to induce Clara cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, FoxM1-ΔN cooperated with activated K-Ras to induce lung tumor growth in vivo. Increased activity of Foxm1 altered lung sacculation, induced proliferation in the respiratory epithelium and accelerated lung tumor growth, indicating that precise regulation of Foxm1 is critical for normal lung morphogenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:20816795

  11. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-01-01

    The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2 b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: -0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment.

  12. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. Methods All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Results Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: −0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Conclusion Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment. PMID:28243346

  13. A new and efficient culture method for porcine bone marrow-derived M1- and M2-polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiye; Scheenstra, Maaike R; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2018-06-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively. Surface receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry and ELISA was used to quantify cytokine secretion in response to LPS and PAM 3 CSK 4 stimulation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were used as control. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages were cultured best using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF, respectively. Cultures from bone marrow cells resulted in a higher yield M1- and M2-polarized macrophages which were better comparable to human monocyte-derived macrophages than cultures from porcine monocytes. Porcine M1-polarized macrophages displayed the characteristic fried egg shape morphology, lower CD163 expression and low IL-10 production. Porcine M2-polarized macrophages contained the spindle-like morphology, higher CD163 expression and high IL-10 production. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages can be most efficiently cultured from mononuclear bone marrow cells using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF. The new culture method facilitates more refined studies of porcine macrophages in vitro, important for both porcine and human health since pigs are increasingly used as model for translational research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overexpression of the polycystin-1 (PC-1) C-tail enhances sensitivity of M-1 cells to ouabain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Kyle; Magenheimer, Brenda S.; Maser, Robin L.; Calvet, James P.; Blanco, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are abnormally sensitive to ouabain, responding to physiological ouabain concentrations with enhanced proliferation and increased forskolin-induced transepithelial fluid secretion. This requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src kinase, and the extracellular regulated kinases MEK and ERK. Here, we have determined if the ADPKD phenotype obtained in mouse cortical collecting duct cells by stable overexpression of the C-terminal domain of polycystin-1 (PC-1 C-tail) also elicits the ADPKD-like response to ouabain in the cells. M-1 C20 cells expressing the PC-1 C-tail, and M-1 C17 cells, lacking expression of this construct, were treated with physiological concentrations of ouabain, and cell proliferation, activation of the EGFR-Src-MEK-ERK pathway, forskolin-induced transepithelial Cl− secretion, and the sensitivity of the Na,K-ATPase to ouabain were explored. M-1 C20 cells responded to ouabain with increased cell proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. Ouabain also augmented forskolin-induced and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated apical secretion of Cl− in M-1 C20 cells. These effects required activation of EGFR, Src and MEK. In contrast, ouabain had no significant effects on M-1 C17 cells. Interestingly, approximately 20 % of the Na,K-ATPase from M-1 C20 cells presented an abnormally increased sensitivity to ouabain. Overexpression of PC-1 C-tail in M-1 C20 cells is associated with a ouabain sensitive phenotype and an increased ability of the cells to proliferate and secrete anions upon ouabain stimulation. This phenotype mimics the ouabain sensitivity of ADPKD cells and may help promote their cystogenic potential. PMID:23784065

  15. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P 1-5 ) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods . Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results . All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P 1 . In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P 4 . The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion . The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  16. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are present in high density in solid tumors. TAMs share many characteristics with alternatively activated macrophages, also called M2. They have been shown to favor tumor development and a role in chemoresistance has also been suggested. Here, we investigated the effects of M2 in comparison to M1 macrophages on cancer cell sensitivity to etoposide. We set up a model of macrophage polarization, starting from THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages using PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Once differentiated (M0 macrophages), they were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). To mimic the communication between cancer cells and TAMs, M0, M1 or M2 macrophages and HepG2 or A549 cancer cells were co-cultured during respectively 16 (HepG2) or 24 (A549) hours, before etoposide exposure for 24 (HepG2) or 16 (A549) hours. After the incubation, the impact of etoposide on macrophage polarization was studied and cancer cell apoptosis was assessed by western-blot for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 protein, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis of Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expression of M1 and M2 markers confirmed the polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages, which provide a new, easy and well-characterized model of polarized human macrophages. Etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis was markedly reduced in the presence of THP-1 M2 macrophages, while apoptosis was increased in cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages. On the other hand, etoposide did not influence M1 or M2 polarization. These results evidence for the first time a clear protective effect of M2 on the contrary to M1 macrophages on etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

  17. Three-fold increase of M1 strength in 40Ar at 10 MeV excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, Anton

    2017-09-01

    We reexamined the excitation energy region of 40Ar around 9.8 MeV with the goal of determining the known M1 strength located at 9.76 MeV more accurately. The physics motivation was based on the fact that i) the neutrino-nucleus interaction cross section is proportional to the M1 strength of a nucleus, ii) DUNE, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at SURF will be using liquid argon as detector medium, iii) the energy spectrum of supernova neutrinos is peaked at approximately 10 MeV. Mono-energetic and linearly polarized photons of 9.88 MeV were produced via Compton backscattering of 548 nm FEL photons from 543 MeV electrons at the High-Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS) facility at TUNL. The 1.25 cm diameter photon beam with energy spread of 300 keV (FWHM) interacted with argon gas contained in a high-pressure cell. The cell was viewed with HPGe detectors placed at 90o relative to the incident photon beam in the horizontal and vertical planes to distinguish between E1 and M1 de-excitation γ-rays. Our re-measurement provided an increase in M1 strength by a factor of approximately 3, mostly due to the discovery that the known level in 40Ar at 9.84 MeV is of M1 character and not of E1 character, as previously thought. In addition to the already known M1 state at 9.76 MeV, we observed weaker M1 states at 9.70, 9.81, 9.87, and 9.89 MeV.

  18. Propiedades mecánicas de materiales compuestos de matriz de aluminio reforzados con intermetálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work 2124 aluminium matrix composites reinforced with Ni3Al, NiAl, MoSiO2 and Cr3Si intermetallic powder particles have been investigated. For comparision purposes, unreinforced 2124 and reinforced with SiC have also been studied. In all cases, the same powder metallurgy route was used, i.e. the 2124 alloy was obtained by rapid solidification and the intermetallic particles by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS. The matrix and the intermetallics were mechanically blended, cold compacted and finally hot extruded. Tensile tests were carried out in T1 and T4 treatments. Results indicate that mechanical properties depend strongly on the tendence to form new phases at the matrixintermetallic interface during procesing and/or futher thermal treatments. The materials which present better properties are those that present less reaction between matrix and intermetallic reinforcement, i.e. MoSiO2 and SiC reinforced composites.

    En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico de varios materiales compuestos de matriz de aluminio 2124 reforzados con partículas de los intermetálicos, Ni3Al, NiAl, MoSiO2 y Cr3Si. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con la aleación 2124 monolítica y con esa misma aleación reforzada con partículas del cerámico SiC. En todos los casos, se sigue la misma ruta de procesado pulvimetalúrgico a partir de polvos rápidamente solidificados, en el caso de la aleación 2124, y de la molienda mecánica de un tocho obtenido por síntesis autopropagada a temperatura elevada (SHS, para el refuerzo intermetálico. Matriz y reforzante se mezclan, mecánicamente, para, a continuación, compactar uniaxialmente en frío, procediéndose, finalmente, a la consolidación por extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas se estudian mediante ensayos de tracción en estado T1 y T4. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las propiedades mec

  19. Theoretical descriptions of novel triplet germylenes M1-Ge-M2-M3 (M1 = H, Li, Na, K; M2 = Be, Mg, Ca; M3 = H, F, Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaee, Mohamad Zaman; Ashenagar, Samaneh

    2018-02-06

    In a quest to identify new ground-state triplet germylenes, the stabilities (singlet-triplet energy differences, ΔE S-T ) of 96 singlet (s) and triplet (t) M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 species were compared and contrasted at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, QCISD(T)/6-311++G**, and CCSD(T)/6-311++G** levels of theory (M 1  = H, Li, Na, K; M 2  = Be, Mg, Ca; M 3  = H, F, Cl, Br). Interestingly, F-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = F) appear to be more stable and linear than the corresponding Cl- or Br-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = Cl or Br). Triplets with M 1  = K (i.e., the K-Ge-M 2 -M 3 series) seem to be more stable than the corresponding triplets with M 1  = H, Li, or Na. This can be attributed to the higher electropositivity of potassium. Triplet species with M 3  = Cl behave similarly to those with M 3  = Br. Conversely, triplets with M 3  = H show similar stabilities and linearities to those with M 3  = F. Singlet species of formulae K-Ge-Ca-Cl and K-Ge-Ca-Br form unexpected cyclic structures. Finally, the triplet germylenes M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 become more stable as the electropositivities of the α-substituents (M 1 and M 2 ) and the electronegativity of the β-substituent (M 3 ) increase.

  20. Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas de atadura gessada de três diferentes fabricantes, utilizada para confecção de órteses

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Gustavo Cardoso; Fonseca,Marisa de Cássia Registro; Shimano,Antônio Carlos; Mazzer,Nilton; Barbieri,Cláudio Henrique; Elui,Valéria Carril Meirelles

    2006-01-01

    Foram realizados testes mecânicos com atadura gessada de três diferentes fabricantes, utilizada para confecção de órteses. Para isso, foram confeccionados corpos de provas (CDPs) na forma de placas e de cilindros. Os CDPs foram submetidos a dois tipos de ensaios mecânicos: para o grupo das placas foi realizado ensaio de flexão em três pontos e para o grupo dos cilindros, ensaio de compressão. Os ensaios mecânicos foram realizados na Máquina Universal de Ensaios EMIC®. Três propriedades mecâni...

  1. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-on W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Waraporn Chan-on,1 Nguyen Thi Bich Huyen,2 Napat Songtawee,3 Wilasinee Suwanjang,1 Supaluk Prachayasittikul,3 Virapong Prachayasittikul2 1Center for Research and Innovation, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, 3Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Fork head box M1 (FoxM1 is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently elevated in numerous cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. A growing body of evidence documents its diverse functions contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As such, discovery of agents that can target FoxM1 would be valuable for the treatment of CCA. The quinoline-based compounds, namely clioquinol (CQ and nitroxoline (NQ, represent a new class of anticancer drug. However, their efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in CCA. In this study, anticancer activities and inhibitory effects of CQ and NQ on FoxM1 signaling were explored using CCA cells.Methods: The effects of CQ and NQ on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay. Colony formation and cell migration affected by CQ and NQ were investigated using a clonogenic and a wound healing assay, respectively. To demonstrate the agents’ effects on FoxM1 signaling, expression levels of the target genes were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: CQ and NQ significantly inhibited cell survival of HuCCT1 and Huh28 in a dose- and a time-dependent fashion. Further investigations using the rapidly proliferating HuCCT1 cells revealed significant suppression of cell proliferation and colony formation induced by low doses of the compounds. Treatment of CQ and NQ repressed expression of cyclin D1 but enhanced expression of p21. Most importantly, upon CQ and NQ treatment

  3. Divorcing the Late Upper Palaeolithic demographic histories of mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6 in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennarun Erwan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Southwest Asian origin and dispersal to North Africa in the Early Upper Palaeolithic era has been inferred in previous studies for mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6. Both haplogroups have been proposed to show similar geographic patterns and shared demographic histories. Results We report here 24 M1 and 33 U6 new complete mtDNA sequences that allow us to refine the existing phylogeny of these haplogroups. The resulting phylogenetic information was used to genotype a further 131 M1 and 91 U6 samples to determine the geographic spread of their sub-clades. No southwest Asian specific clades for M1 or U6 were discovered. U6 and M1 frequencies in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe do not follow similar patterns, and their sub-clade divisions do not appear to be compatible with their shared history reaching back to the Early Upper Palaeolithic. The Bayesian Skyline Plots testify to non-overlapping phases of expansion, and the haplogroups’ phylogenies suggest that there are U6 sub-clades that expanded earlier than those in M1. Some M1 and U6 sub-clades could be linked with certain events. For example, U6a1 and M1b, with their coalescent ages of ~20,000–22,000 years ago and earliest inferred expansion in northwest Africa, could coincide with the flourishing of the Iberomaurusian industry, whilst U6b and M1b1 appeared at the time of the Capsian culture. Conclusions Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of both haplogroups and coalescent time assessments suggest that the extant main branching pattern of both haplogroups arose and diversified in the mid-later Upper Palaeolithic, with some sub-clades concomitantly with the expansion of the Iberomaurusian industry. Carriers of these maternal lineages have been later absorbed into and diversified further during the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages in North and East Africa.

  4. Comportamiento mecánico del polimetilmetacrilato sometido a envejecimiento artificial mediante cámara xenotest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colom, X.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mechanical behavior of poly(methylmethacrylate due to aging in Xenon test chamber, using a xenon-arch lamp as a light radiation to simulate natural sun light has been studied. This work studies the mechanical properties (elongation at break. Young's modulus, tensile strength and toughness of PMMA samples exposed to different aging conditions (until 1560 h xenotest that correspond to 750 days exposure at natural light. The evolution of different mechanical properties characterizes the PMMA's process of degradation.

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se ha estudiado el comportamiento mecánico del polimetilmetacrilato sometido a envejecimiento en cámara ''xenotest". El Xenotest es un aparato formado por una lámpara de arco de xenón que irradia en el intervalo 700-300 nm, simulando, adecuadamente, las condiciones de exposición a la luz solar. El estudio se centra en la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas (módulo de Young, resistencia máxima a la tracción, deformación en el punto de rotura y tenacidad de las muestras de PMMA sometidas a las condiciones de envejecimiento durante períodos de tiempo variables (hasta 1.560 h xenotest que corresponden a una iluminación solar a la intemperie de 750 días. La evolución de las distintas propiedades mecánicas caracteriza el proceso de envejecimiento/degradación del PMMA.

  5. Reciclagem de carcaças de monitores: propriedades mecânicas e morfológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjanara P. Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A substituição da tecnologia CRT (cathode ray tube utilizada em televisores e monitores, há mais de 60 anos, pelas novas tecnologias de Plasma, LCD (liquid crystal display e LED (light-emitting diode tem gerado grande quantidade de resíduos. Não existem estatísticas oficiais da quantidade de resíduos gerados no Brasil, contudo, para alguns países, como os EUA, a China e Taiwan, estimam-se descartes anuais de 3,2 milhões, 5 milhões e 1 milhão de televisores e monitores, respectivamente. Os monitores são compostos por polímeros, metais e cerâmicas, incluindo alguns materiais tóxicos. Este trabalho está focado na caracterização e reciclagem da carcaça polimérica dos monitores CRT. Foram coletados monitores danificados ou obsoletos e as carcaças foram separadas por marca, caracterizadas, cominuídas e injetadas para obter corpos de provas para os ensaios mecânicos. A caracterização mostrou que as carcaças, independentemente da marca, utilizam o mesmo material polimérico, o ABS (Acrilonitrila Butadieno Estireno. Os resultados dos ensaios mecânicos apresentaram variações nas diferentes marcas, provavelmente por possuírem composições diferenciadas. Esta variação também foi verificada analisando a superfície de fratura dos corpos de prova após o ensaio de tração. Com base nos resultados pode-se concluir que o material reciclado apresentou desempenho mecânico satisfatório, viabilizando tecnicamente a sua reciclagem.

  6. Comportamiento mecánico de la aleación AZ31 reforzada con nanofibras de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reinforcing AZ31 with carbon nanofibres. The materials AZ31, AZ31-1 % C y AZ31-2 % C were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical mixing of nanofibres and powders of AZ31, cool compactation and extrusion at 350 °C. After extrusion the three materials exhibited a recrystallized microstructure of similar grain size, fine and rather inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they presented a weak fibre texture with basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. The tensile properties were affected by the nanofibres presence only at 100 °C. At this temperature, yield strength and tensile strength were 30% higher than in the unreinforced alloy.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de nanofibras de carbono en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica convencional. Se prepararon tres materiales, AZ31, AZ31- 1 % C y AZ31-2 % C. Tras una mezcla mecánica de las nanofibras con los polvos de AZ31, se precompactaron en frío y se extruyeron a 350 °C. Los tres presentan una microestructura recristalizada con un tamaño de grano similar, fino aunque algo heterogéneo. Los tres materiales presentan una débil textura de fibra con el plano basal paralelo a la dirección de extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas a tracción únicamente se ven afectadas por la presencia de nanofibras a 100 °C superando los materiales reforzados en un 30 % a los valores de límite elástico y resistencia de la aleación sin reforzar.

  7. Enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in human helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and in vaccinated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Quiding-Järbrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori triggers a chronic gastric inflammation that can progress to atrophy and gastric adenocarcinoma. Polarization of macrophages is a characteristic of both cancer and infection, and may promote progression or resolution of disease. However, the role of macrophages and their polarization during H. pylori infection has not been well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a mouse model of infection and gastric biopsies from 29 individuals, we have analyzed macrophage recruitment and polarization during H. pylori infection by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. We found a sequential recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages to the gastric mucosa of infected mice. Gene expression analysis of stomach tissue and sorted macrophages revealed that gastric macrophages were polarized to M1 after H. pylori infection, and this process was substantially accelerated by prior vaccination. Human H. pylori infection was characterized by a mixed M1/M2 polarization of macrophages. However, in H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly increased compared to uncomplicated gastritis, indicative of an enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in this pre-malignant lesion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that vaccination of mice against H. pylori amplifies M1 polarization of gastric macrophages, and that a similar enhanced M1 polarization is present in human H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis.

  8. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dugo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  9. The M1 muscarinic receptor and its second messenger coupling in human neuroblastoma cells and transfected murine fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Lin.

    1989-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that pirenzepine (PZ)-high affinity muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) are coupled to the hydrolysis of inositol lipids and not to the adenylate cyclase system in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The maximal carbachol(CCh)-stimulated [ 3 H]IP 1 accumulation in the SH-SY5Y cells was decreased in the presence of 1μg/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein may be involved in the coupling. Several cell clones which express only M 1 mAChR were generated by transfecting the murine fibroblast B82 cells with the cloned rat genomic m 1 gene. The transfected B82 cells (cTB10) showed specific [ 3 H](-)QNB binding activity. The mAChRs in these cells are of the M 1 type defined by their high affinity for PZ and low affinity for AF-DX 116 and coupled to hydrolysis of inositol lipids, possibly via a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein. The relationship between the M 1 mAChR density and the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol lipids was studied in 7 clones. The M 1 mAChR densities in these cells characterized by [ 3 H](-)MQNB binding ranged from 12 fmol/10 6 cells in LK3-1 cells to 260 fmol/10 6 cells in the LK3-8 cells

  10. Propiedades térmicas, acústicas y mecánicas de placas de mortero caucho-cemento.

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Montoro, Rosa; Mayor Lobo, Pablo; Hernandez Olivares, Francisco; Rangel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Se presentan los principales resultados de una investigación sobre la fabricación de losas de mortero de cemento común y metacaolín, que incorporan crecientes fracciones volumétricas de polvo de caucho triturado procedente de neumáticos fuera de uso (NFU), hasta superar el 30% en volumen del producto final. Se describen las dosificaciones y las principales propiedades físicas y mecánicas de los productos obtenidos, comparándolas entre sí y con las de losas similares sin polvo de caucho. Se in...

  11. Terceirização no setor de RH: estudo de casos em empresas do setor mecânico

    OpenAIRE

    Simone van der Halen

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho procura investigar se a terceirização de alguns subsistemas de Recursos Humanos (RH), de empresas do setor metal-mecânico do Rio Grande do Sul, possibilita maior desenvolvimento e crescimento para as organizações e os funcionários. Contextualizou-se o tema, quando se abordou a flexibilização como resposta à globalização dos mercados, a terceirização, como ferramenta da flexibilização e aspectos referentes ao novo papel de RH e a terceirização neste setor. A pesquisa é de naturez...

  12. Propuesta de un sistema de seguridad y salud ocupacional para una empresa del sector de mecánica automotriz

    OpenAIRE

    UPC, Repositorio Academico; Rodríguez Páez, Nadya Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Se estudia la situación actual de una pequeña y mediana empresa (MYPE) que pertenece al sector de mecánica automotriz, la cual presenta el problema de sobrecostos por el incremento del número de accidentes y enfermedades ocupacionales. Ante esta situación, se propone establecer un sistema de gestión de seguridad y salud ocupacional que contribuya a disminuir el número de accidentes de trabajo y los sobrecostos ocasionados por ellos. Para ello, se deberá estudiar las actuales condiciones de lo...

  13. Análisis de señales de medidas mecánicas para el mantenimiento predictivo avanzado

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Martín, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Para contribuir al diseño de un mantenimiento mecánico avanzado, se utilizan en esta tesis las técnicas de análisis de ruido para monitorizar las vibraciones de los internos de un reactor PWR y para vigilar la respuesta dinámica de los sensores de presión capacitivos tipo Rosemount ampliamente utilizados en la industria, sobre todo en las plantas nucleares. Para el primer caso, se han ajustado mediante un método no lineal de Breit- Wigner los espectros de resonancias obtenidos por medio de la...

  14. Análisis de señales de medidas mecánicas para el mantenimiento predictivo avanzado

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Martín, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Para contribuir al diseño de un mantenimiento mecánico avanzado, se utilizan en esta tesis las técnicas de análisis de ruido para monitorizar las vibraciones de los internos de un reactor PWR y para vigilar la respuesta dinámica de los sensores de presión capacitivos tipo Rosemount ampliamente utilizados en la industria, sobre todo en las plantas nucleares. Para el primer caso, se han ajustado mediante un método no lineal de Breit- Wigner los espectros de resonancias obtenidos por medio de la...

  15. Desenvolvimento de um sistema mecânico para limpeza e classificação de ostras

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, André Luís Tortato

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica. A ostreicultura é uma atividade econômica relativamente recente em Santa Catarina, tendo sido implantada comercialmente a cerca de quinze anos. Desde a instalação dos primeiros cultivos comerciais até a atualidade a produção de ostras tem aumentado a cada ano, transformando o estado de Santa Catarina no maior produtor nacional deste molusco. Com a evolução ...

  16. Caracterización mecánica de materiales de base colágeno para aplicaciones cardiovasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Tobaruela Arnedo, María de la Almudena

    2016-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son una de las principales causas de muerte en el mundo. Este hecho ha propiciado que numerosas investigaciones se hayan centrado en la mejora de las prótesis cardiovasculares ya existentes así como en la búsqueda de nuevos materiales más resistentes, duraderos y biocompatibles. Actualmente, existen dos tipos principales de prótesis valvulares: las mecánicas y las biológicas. En muchos países cada vez es más frecuente el uso de estas últimas. Las válvulas bio...

  17. Nueva nave de Ensayos Mecánicos en el Instituto Eduardo Torroja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echegaray Comba, G.

    1968-07-01

    Full Text Available This important building meets an urgent need at the Institute Eduardo Torroja to have a mechanical testing hall that is capable of dealing with all kinds of tests that are likely to arise in the foreseeable future. In designing it account has been taken of all requirements anticipated as a result of the experience obtained during the use of the earlier testing hall which the Institute already has. The new testing hall consists essentially of a metallic structure, 33.50 m high, 11.50 m wide and 8 m high, enclosed by prefabricated LECA type panels. The hall has a powerful reinforced concrete slab, 11.50 m wide and 25.50 m long, which is 1.20 m thick. The slab has 270 anchorage points, with a load capacity of 50 t and 100 t each. These points can be loaded singly, or in groups. The slab rests on two lateral reinforced concrete walls, of 80 cm thickness. Below the slab there is a basement, which can be used in conjunction with the hall above for testing purposes, since the anchorage points make it possible to communicate both sides of the slab. A careful system of illumination has also been provided, and heavy vehicles can enter both the basement and the main hall. One ten ton bridge crane has been installed, although two such cranes can be fitted. All calculations have been done with the aid of the electronic computer of the I.E.T.c.c. The total design makes this project one of the most important of its type in Europe.A los quince años de estrenar la primera nave de Ensayos Mecánicos con que contó el Instituto, se inaugura esta segunda nave. A ella nos vamos a referir en el presente artículo, esencialmente descriptivo. No obstante, son tan singulares las razones que han motivado su necesidad que, aunque sea en forma sumamente breve, creemos de interés dar cuenta de ellas en este preámbulo.

  18. Systematics of the excitation of M1 resonances in medium heavy nuclei by 200 MeV proton inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali, C.; Marty, N.; Morlet, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a series of seventeen nuclei ranging from 51 V to 140 Ca, broad resonance structures are observed at energies between 8 and 10 MeV, nearly mass independent. These resonances have very forward peaked angular distributions which imply that they are populated by an angular momentum transfer of zero. This together with the observed excitation energies suggests an M1 character for these resonances. In 51 V, 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, a sharp peak located at an excitation energy above the threshold for neutron emission is interpreted as a part of the T 0+1 component of the M1 resonances. Cross-sections are given for all the M1 resonances. For 58 Ni, 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 120 Sn and 140 Ca, an ''attenuation'' factor for the cross-sections is extracted in a OWIA calculation assuming simple shell model structures for these resonances

  19. Roles of transmembrane segment M1 of Na(+),K (+)-ATPase and Ca (2+)-ATPase, the gatekeeper and the pivot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Vilsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    In this review we summarize mutagenesis work on the structure-function relationship of transmembrane segment M1 in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The original hypothesis that charged residues in the N-terminal part of M1 interact with the transported...... cations can be rejected. On the other hand hydrophobic residues in the middle part of M1 turned out to play crucial roles in Ca(2+) interaction/occlusion in Ca(2+)-ATPase and K(+) interaction/occlusion in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Leu(65) of the Ca(2+)-ATPase and Leu(99) of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, located...... of the extracytoplasmic gate in both the Ca(2+)-ATPase and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  20. Internal (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) resistive modes in the toroidal Tokomak with circular cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the Tokomak with circular cross sections. One includes the resistive and diamagnetic effects in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, one obtains a system of two coupled equations for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1, the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain: the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption; the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and [de

  1. Effective Lagrangians, Watson's theorem and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the Delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The author investigates theoretical uncertainties and model dependence in the extraction of the nucleon-delta(1232) electromagnetic transition amplitudes from the multipole data base. The starting point is an effective Lagrangian incorporating chiral symmetry, which includes at the tree level the pseudovector Born terms, leading t-channel vector meson exchanges, and s and u channel delta exchanges. The nucleon-delta magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition amplitudes are expressed in terms of two independent gauge couplings at the γNΔ vertex. After unitarizing the tree level amplitude, the gauge couplings are fitted to various multipole data sets, thus determining E2 and M1. Although there is much sensitivity to the method used to unitarize the amplitude, the author extracts the E2/M1 ratio to be negative, with a magnitude around 1.5%. 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Disturbed mitochondrial function restricts glutamate uptake in the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Gurubaran, Iswariyaraja Sridevi; Henriksen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Using the human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, the aim was to study the impact of mitochondrial inhibition in Müller glia through antimycin A treatment. MIO-M1 cell survival, levels of released lactate, mitochondrial function, and glutamate uptake were studied in response to mitochondrial inhibition...... and glucose restriction. Lactate release decreased in response to glucose restriction. Combined glucose restriction and blocked mitochondrial activity decreased survival and caused collapse of the respiratory chain measured by oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. Mitochondrial...... inhibition caused impaired glutamate uptake and decreased mRNA expression of the glutamate transporter, EAAT1. Over all, we show important roles of mitochondrial activity in MIO-M1 cell function and survival....

  3. Further optimization of the M1 PAM VU0453595: Discovery of novel heterobicyclic core motifs with improved CNS penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Joseph D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Adams, Jeffrey J; Nance, Kellie D; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Chang, Sichen; Morrison, Ryan D; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    This Letter describes the continued chemical optimization of the VU0453595 series of M1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By surveying alternative 5,6- and 6,6-heterobicylic cores for the 6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-one core of VU453595, we found new cores that engendered not only comparable or improved M1 PAM potency, but significantly improved CNS distribution (Kps 0.3-3.1). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M1 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this valuable CNS target, devoid of hydrogen-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Task-specificity of unilateral anodal and dual-M1 tDCS effects on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karok, Sophia; Fletcher, David; Witney, Alice G

    2017-01-08

    Task-specific effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning were investigated in 30 healthy participants. In a sham-controlled, mixed design, participants trained on 3 different motor tasks (Purdue Pegboard Test, Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task) over 3 consecutive days while receiving either unilateral anodal over the right primary motor cortex (M1), dual-M1 or sham stimulation. Retention sessions were administered 7 and 28 days after the end of training. In the Purdue Pegboard Test, both anodal and dual-M1 stimulation reduced average completion time approximately equally, an improvement driven by online learning effects and maintained for about 1 week. The Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and the Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task were associated with an advantage of dual-M1 tDCS in consolidation processes both between training sessions and when testing at long-term retention; both were maintained for at least 1 month. This study demonstrates that M1-tDCS enhances and sustains motor learning with different electrode montages. Stimulation-induced effects emerged at different learning phases across the tasks, which strongly suggests that the influence of tDCS on motor learning is dynamic with respect to the functional recruitment of the distributed motor system at the time of stimulation. Divergent findings regarding M1-tDCS effects on motor learning may partially be ascribed to task-specific consequences and the effects of offline consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ADAM-17 is a poor prognostic indicator for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is regulated by FoxM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaodong; Yu, Wenlong; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Ying; Wei, Peilian; Fang, Wenzheng; Yu, Guanzhen

    2018-05-18

    A-disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. Specific ADAMs are upregulated in human cancers and correlated with tumor progression and poor outcome, but rarely studied in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). This study aimed to explore the expression profiles of ADAMs and their potential underlying mechanisms promoting cancer progression. mRNA expression of ADAM-9, - 10, - 11, - 12, - 15, - 17, - 28, and - 33 was analyzed in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of ADAM-10, - 17, - 28, and FoxM1 in HC. The regulation of ADAM-17 by FoxM1 and their functional study was investigated in vivo and in vitro. ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 were upregulated in tumors compared with matched non-cancerous tissues. IHC analysis revealed increased expression of ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 in HC cells, and ADAM17 seems to be an independent prognostic factor. ADAM-17 is regulated by FoxM1. A decrease in the expression of ADAM-17 by silencing FoxM1 led to an inhibition of cell proliferation, tumor growth, and the production of tumor necrosis factor α. IHC analysis showed co-expression of FoxM1 and ADAM-17 in HC specimens. The findings of the present study show an important role of the cross-talk among FoxM1, ADAM-17, and TNFa in HC development and progression.

  6. GST M1-T1 null allele frequency patterns in geographically assorted human populations: a phylogenetic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.

  7. Conditional cancer-specific mortality in T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer: implications for long-term prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Mahal, Brandon A.; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) following a diagnosis of prostate cancer may improve after patients have survived a number of years after diagnosis. We sought to determine long-term conditional PCSM for patients with stage T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer. We identified 66,817 patients diagnosed with stage IV (T4N0M0, N1M0, or M1) prostate cancer between 1973 and 2011 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Conditional five-year PCSM was evaluated for each group of patients at 5, 10, and 15 years of survival according to the Fine & Gray model for competing risks after adjusting for tumor grade, age, income level, and marital status. Race-stratified analyses were also performed. There were 13,345 patients with T4 disease, 12,450 patients with N1 disease, and 41,022 patients with M1 disease. Median follow-up among survivors in the three groups was 123 months (range: 0–382 months), 61 months (range: 0–410 months), and 30 months (range: 0–370 months), respectively. Conditional PCSM improved in all three groups over time. Among patients with T4 disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 13.9 % at diagnosis to 11.2, 8.1, and 6.5 % conditioned on 5, 10, or 15 years of survival, respectively (p < 0.001 in all cases). In patients with N1 disease, 5-year PCSM increased within the first five years and decreased thereafter, from 18.9 % at diagnosis to 21.4 % (p < 0.001), 17.6 % (p = 0.055), and 13.8 % (p < 0.001), respectively. In patients with metastatic disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 57.2 % at diagnosis to 41.1, 28.8, and 20.8 %, respectively (p < 0.001). White race was associated with a greater increase in conditional survival compared to non-white race among those with T4 or N1 disease. While patients with T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer are never “cured,” their odds of cancer-specific survival increase substantially after they have survived for 5 or more years. Physicians who take care of patients with prostate cancer

  8. The Armys M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the Army John McHugh , urging instead the limited production of 70 M-1A2SEPv2 tanks per year from FY2013 to FY2017. 32 Congress subsequently decided...House Members sent a letter to Secretary of the Army McHugh expressing concern over the Army’s failure to fund production of the M-1A2. Congress...John McHugh by Rep. Sander Levin and Rep. Mike Rogers, May 6, 2011. 33 See CRS Reports: CRS Report R43323, Defense: FY2014 Authorization and

  9. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  10. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd-mass nuclei, 59< or =A< or =149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd-mass nuclei with 59< or =A< or =149. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to September 1976

  11. Achievements and Prospects in Electrochemical-Based Biosensing Platforms for Aflatoxin M1 Detection in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Gurban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus growing on plants and products stored under inappropriate conditions, represent the most studied group of mycotoxins. Contamination of human and animal milk with aflatoxin M1, the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is an important health risk factor due to its carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Due to the low concentration of this aflatoxin in milk and milk products, the analytical methods used for its quantification have to be highly sensitive, specific and simple. This paper presents an overview of the analytical methods, especially of the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors, used for determination of aflatoxin M1.

  12. Analysis of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri: identification of a novel ccr gene complex with a newly identified ccrA allotype (ccrA7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushibara, Noriko; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2011-06-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is conferred by the acquisition in its chromosome of the mecA gene, which is located on a mobile genetic element called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Genetic type of SCCmec is defined by combination of mec gene complex class and cassette chromosome recombinase gene (ccr) allotype. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity of the SCCmec in 11 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains and a Staphylococcus sciuri strain, which were recently isolated from clinical specimens in Bangladesh. Among these strains, only two S. haemolyticus strains were proved to have the known types of SCCmec, that is, SCCmec V (class C2 mec-ccrC) and VII (class C1 mec-ccrC). Five S. haemolyticus strains were assigned two unique mec-ccr gene complexes combination; that is, class C1 mec-ccrA4B4 (four isolates) and class A mec-ccrC (one isolate). In the remaining four S. haemolyticus strains with class C1 mec, no known ccr allotypes could be detected. A single S. sciuri strain with class A mec complex carried a ccrA gene belonging to a novel allotype designated ccrA7, together with ccrB3. The ccrA7 gene in the S. sciuri strain showed 61.7%-82.7% sequence identity to the ccrA gene sequences published so far, and 75.3% identity to ccrA3, which is a component of the type 3 ccr complex (ccrA3-ccrB3) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results of the present study indicated that mec gene complex and ccr genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci are highly divergent, and distinct from those of common methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Identification of the novel ccrA7 allotype combined with ccrB3 suggested an occurrence of recombination between different ccr complexes in nature.

  13. Cage-rotor induction motor inter-turn short circuit fault detection with and without saturation effect by MEC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Peyman

    2016-09-01

    The inter-turn short fault for the Cage-Rotor-Induction-Machine (CRIM) is studied in this paper and its local saturation is taken into account. However, in order to observe the exact behavior of machine, the Magnetic-Equivalent-Circuit (MEC) and nonlinear B-H curve are proposed to provide an insight into the machine model and saturation effect respectively. The electrical machines are generally operated near to their saturation zone due to some design necessities. Hence, when the machine is exposed to a fault such as short circuit or eccentricities, it is operated within its saturation zone and thus, time and space harmonics are integrated and as a result, current and torque harmonics are generated which the phenomenon cannot be explored when saturation is dismissed. Nonetheless, inter-turn short circuit may lead to local saturation and this occurrence is studied in this paper using MEC model. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, two and also four-pole machines are modeled as two samples and the machines performances are analyzed in healthy and faulty cases with and without saturation effect. A novel strategy is proposed to precisely detect inter-turn short circuit fault according to the stator׳s lines current signatures and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified by experimental results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus sciuri bacteriophages double-convert for staphylokinase and phospholipase, mediate interspecies plasmid transduction, and package mecA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Mašlaňová, I; Indráková, A; Šiborová, M; Mikulášek, K; Bendíčková, K; Plevka, P; Vrbovská, V; Zdráhal, Z; Doškař, J; Pantůček, R

    2017-04-13

    Staphylococcus sciuri is a bacterial pathogen associated with infections in animals and humans, and represents a reservoir for the mecA gene encoding methicillin-resistance in staphylococci. No S. sciuri siphophages were known. Here the identification and characterization of two temperate S. sciuri phages from the Siphoviridae family designated ϕ575 and ϕ879 are presented. The phages have icosahedral heads and flexible noncontractile tails that end with a tail spike. The genomes of the phages are 42,160 and 41,448 bp long and encode 58 and 55 ORFs, respectively, arranged in functional modules. Their head-tail morphogenesis modules are similar to those of Staphylococcus aureus ϕ13-like serogroup F phages, suggesting their common evolutionary origin. The genome of phage ϕ575 harbours genes for staphylokinase and phospholipase that might enhance the virulence of the bacterial hosts. In addition both of the phages package a homologue of the mecA gene, which is a requirement for its lateral transfer. Phage ϕ879 transduces tetracycline and aminoglycoside pSTS7-like resistance plasmids from its host to other S. sciuri strains and to S. aureus. Furthermore, both of the phages efficiently adsorb to numerous staphylococcal species, indicating that they may contribute to interspecies horizontal gene transfer.

  15. Disentangling the Role of the MEC and LEC in the Processing of Spatial and Non-Spatial Information: Contribution of Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Save

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that the entorhinal cortex (EC plays a pivotal role in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory. The EC is segregated into two sub-regions, the medial EC (MEC and the lateral EC (LEC but a comprehensive understanding of their roles across multiple behavioral contexts remains unclear. Considering that it is still useful to investigate the impact of lesions of EC on behavior, we review the contribution of lesion approach to our knowledge of EC functions. We show that the MEC and LEC play different roles in the processing of spatial and non-spatial information. The MEC is necessary to the use of distal but not proximal landmarks during navigation and is crucial for path integration, in particular integration of linear movements. Consistent with predominant hypothesis, the LEC is important for combining the spatial and non-spatial aspects of the environment. However, object exploration studies suggest that the functional segregation between the MEC and the LEC is not as clearly delineated and is dependent on environmental and behavioral factors. Manipulation of environmental complexity and therefore of cognitive demand shows that the MEC and the LEC are not strictly necessary to the processing of spatial and non-spatial information. In addition we suggest that the involvement of these sub-regions can depend on the kind of behavior, i.e., navigation or exploration, exhibited by the animals. Thus, the MEC and the LEC work in a flexible manner to integrate the “what” and “where” information in episodic memory upstream the hippocampus.

  16. Nasal carriage of mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs exhibits dose-response to zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Scott, Harvey M; Nitikanchana, Sureemas; Vinasco, Javier; Tokach, Mike D; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Goodband, Robert D; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2015-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is often supplemented at elevated concentrations in swine diets, particularly in piglets, to prevent enteric infections and promote growth. Previous studies from Denmark have suggested a genetic linkage and a phenotypic association between Zn resistance, encoded by czrC, and methicillin-resistance conferred by mecA in Staphylococcus aureus. Such an association has not been reported in the U.S. swine population. We conducted an analysis of the effects of Zn, supplemented as zinc oxide (ZnO), on the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursery (n=40) and finisher pigs (n=40) enrolled in a nutritional study. Nasal swabs, collected from nursery and finisher pigs, were inoculated onto MRSA CHROMagar and presumptive MRSA colonies were tested for the presence of mecA and czrC genes by polymerase chain reaction. Zinc susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. The prevalence of mecA-positive MRSA was 10% (4/40) and 20% (8/40) among nursery and finisher pigs, respectively. Of the 12 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, 7 had the czrC gene (58.3%) compared to none among the 68 mecA-negative isolates. The presence of both mecA (p=0.002) and czrC (p=0.006) genes were positively associated with higher levels of Zn supplementation. The median minimum inhibitory concentrations of Zn for czrC-positive and czrC-negative isolates were 12 and 2 mM, respectively (presistance among S. aureus in pigs.

  17. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Facilitate Heart Repair by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaimaa Hasan

    Full Text Available Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs, one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1 into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2. Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control. Immunostaining showed that CDCs-conditioned medium significantly enhanced the expression of CD206 (a marker for M2 macrophages, but decreased the expression of CD86 (a marker for M1 macrophages 3 days after culture. For animal studies, we used an acute myocardial infarction model of mice. We injected CDCs, fibroblasts, or saline only into the border zone of infarction. Then we collected the heart tissues for histological analysis 5 and 14 days after treatment. Compared with control animals, CDCs treatment significantly decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils but increased M2 macrophages in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, CDCs-treated mice had reduced infarct size and fewer apoptotic cells compared to the controls. Our data suggest that CDCs facilitate heart repair by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization and neutrophil recruitment, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of stem cell-based myocardial repair.

  18. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Facilitate Heart Repair by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and Neutrophil Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Luo, Lan; Yan, Chen; Zhang, Tian-Xia; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Mangoura, Safwat A.; Abdel-Raheem, Mahmoud H.; Zhang, Shouhua; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2). Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control. Immunostaining showed that CDCs-conditioned medium significantly enhanced the expression of CD206 (a marker for M2 macrophages), but decreased the expression of CD86 (a marker for M1 macrophages) 3 days after culture. For animal studies, we used an acute myocardial infarction model of mice. We injected CDCs, fibroblasts, or saline only into the border zone of infarction. Then we collected the heart tissues for histological analysis 5 and 14 days after treatment. Compared with control animals, CDCs treatment significantly decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils but increased M2 macrophages in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, CDCs-treated mice had reduced infarct size and fewer apoptotic cells compared to the controls. Our data suggest that CDCs facilitate heart repair by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization and neutrophil recruitment, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of stem cell-based myocardial repair. PMID:27764217

  19. Large low-energy M1 strength for ^{56,57}Fe within the nuclear shell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B Alex; Larsen, A C

    2014-12-19

    A strong enhancement at low γ-ray energies has recently been discovered in the γ-ray strength function of ^{56,57}Fe. In this work, we have for the first time obtained theoretical γ decay spectra for states up to ≈8  MeV in excitation for ^{56,57}Fe. We find large B(M1) values for low γ-ray energies that provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The role of mixed E2 transitions for the low-energy enhancement is addressed theoretically for the first time, and it is found that they contribute a rather small fraction. Our calculations clearly show that the high-ℓ(=f) diagonal terms are most important for the strong low-energy M1 transitions. As such types of 0ℏω transitions are expected for all nuclei, our results indicate that a low-energy M1 enhancement should be present throughout the nuclear chart. This could have far-reaching consequences for our understanding of the M1 strength function at high excitation energies, with profound implications for astrophysical reaction rates.

  20. HIV Nef-M1 Effects on Colorectal Cancer Growth in Tumor-induced Spleens and Hepatic Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Willie; Bond, Vincent; Huang, Ming Bo; Powell, Michael; Lillard, James; Manne, Upender; Bumpers, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    CXCR4 receptors have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation, making it a potential target for colorectal cancer therapy. Expression of this chemokine receptor on cellular surfaces appears to promote metastasis by directly stimulating tumor cell migration and invasion. The receptor/ligand, CXCR4/SDF-1α, pair are critically important to angiogenesis and vascular remodeling which supports cancer proliferation. Our work has shown that a novel apoptotic peptide of HIV-1, Nef-M1, can act as a CXCR4 antagonist, inducing apoptosis in CXCR4 containing cells. Four colorectal tumor cell lines (HT-29, LS174t, SW480, WiDr), were evaluated for their response to Nef-M1 peptide via in vivo and in vitro. The presence of CXCR4 receptors on tumor cells was determined using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Solid xenografts derived from tumor cell lines grown in SCID mice, were evaluated for the persistence of the receptor. Xenografts propagated in SCID mice from each of the four cell lines demonstrated high levels of receptor expression as well. The effects of Nef-M1 in vivo via splenic injected mice and subsequent hepatic metastasis also demonstrated dramatic reduction of primary tumor growth in the spleen and secondary invasion of the liver. We concluded that Nef-M1 peptide, through physical interaction(s) with CXCR4, drives apoptotic reduction in in vivo primary tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:20383296

  1. Selective incorporation of vRNP into influenza A virions determined by its specific interaction with M1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimayo, Chutikarn [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Underwood, Andrew; Hodges, Erin [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Takimoto, Toru, E-mail: toru_takimoto@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Influenza A viruses contain eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments as viral genomes in the form of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). During genome replication in the nucleus, positive-sense complementary RNPs (cRNPs) are produced as replicative intermediates, which are not incorporated into progeny virions. To analyze the mechanism of selective vRNP incorporation into progeny virions, we quantified vRNPs and cRNPs in the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of infected cells, using a strand-specific qRT-PCR. Unexpectedly, we found that cRNPs were also exported to the cytoplasm. This export was chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent unlike that of vRNPs. Although both vRNPs and cRNPs were present in the cytosol, viral matrix (M1) protein, a key regulator for viral assembly, preferentially bound vRNPs over cRNPs. These results indicate that influenza A viruses selectively uptake cytosolic vRNPs through a specific interaction with M1 during viral assembly. - Highlights: •Influenza cRNPs are exported from the nucleus of an infected cell via a CRM1-independent pathway. •Influenza A viruses selectively incorporate cytosolic vRNPs through a specific interaction with M1 during viral assembly. •M1 dissociates from vRNP export complex after nuclear export, and is re-associated with vRNPs at the plasma membrane.

  2. Differential effects of m1 and m2 receptor antagonists in perirhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer; Turchi, Janita

    2012-07-01

    Microinfusions of the nonselective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into perirhinal cortex impairs performance on visual recognition tasks, indicating that muscarinic receptors in this region play a pivotal role in recognition memory. To assess the mnemonic effects of selective blockade in perirhinal cortex of muscarinic receptor subtypes, we locally infused either the m1-selective antagonist pirenzepine or the m2-selective antagonist methoctramine in animals performing one-trial visual recognition, and compared these scores with those following infusions of equivalent volumes of saline. Compared to these control infusions, injections of pirenzepine, but not of methoctramine, significantly impaired recognition accuracy. Further, similar doses of scopolamine and pirenzepine yielded similar deficits, suggesting that the deficits obtained earlier with scopolamine were due mainly, if not exclusively, to blockade of m1 receptors. The present findings indicate that m1 and m2 receptors have functionally dissociable roles, and that the formation of new visual memories is critically dependent on the cholinergic activation of m1 receptors located on perirhinal cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Immunocytochemical demonstration of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors at the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of rat diaphragm endplates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Arkhipova, S. S.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 185-188 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : skeletal muscle * M1 muscarinic receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  4. Calculation of the single lepton SUSY analysis limits in the cMSSM m0-m1/2 plane

    CERN Document Server

    Megas, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the summer student project was the calculation of the single lepton SUSY analysis limits in the cMSSM $m_0$-$m_{1/2}$ plane. To this end, the analysis code, the production of the ntuples and a familarization with the higgs combination tool was needed.

  5. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...

  6. Activation of muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors by curcumin to increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle isolated from Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Li-Jen; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2009-11-20

    Curcumin, an active principle contained in rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been mentioned to show merit for diabetes through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we found that curcumin caused a concentration-dependent increase of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle isolated from Wistar rats. This action was inhibited by pirenzepine at concentration enough to block muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptor (M(1)-mAChR). In radioligand binding assay, the binding of [(3)H]-pirenzepine was also displaced by curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of inhibitors for PLC-PI3K pathway, either U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor) or LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor), curcumin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle was markedly reduced. In Western blotting analysis, the membrane protein level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) increased by curcumin was also reversed by blockade of M(1)-mAChR or PLC-PI3K pathway in a same manner. In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that curcumin can activate M(1)-mAChR at concentrations lower than to scavenge free radicals for increase of glucose uptake into skeletal muscle through PLC-PI3-kinase pathway.

  7. Activation of muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors by curcumin to increase contractility in urinary bladder isolated from Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tse-Chou; Lu, Chih-Cheng; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Kakizawa, Nozomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2010-04-05

    Curcumin is an active principle contained in rhizome of Curcuma longa, and it has been recently mentioned to show affinity to muscarinic M-1 cholinoceptors (M(1)-mAChR). In the present study, we found that curcumin caused a concentration-dependent increase of muscle tone in urinary bladder isolated from Wistar rats. This action was inhibited by pirenzepine at concentration enough to block M(1)-mAChR. In radioligand-binding assay, specific binding of [(3)H]-oxotremorine (OXO-M) in the rat bladder homogenates was also displaced by curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of inhibitors for PLC-PKC pathway, either U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor) or chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor), curcumin-stimulated contraction in urinary bladder was markedly reduced. In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that curcumin can activate M(1)-mAChR at concentrations lower than to scavenge free radicals to increase of muscle tone in urinary bladder through PLC-PKC pathway.

  8. Selective incorporation of vRNP into influenza A virions determined by its specific interaction with M1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaimayo, Chutikarn; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Underwood, Andrew; Hodges, Erin; Takimoto, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses contain eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments as viral genomes in the form of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). During genome replication in the nucleus, positive-sense complementary RNPs (cRNPs) are produced as replicative intermediates, which are not incorporated into progeny virions. To analyze the mechanism of selective vRNP incorporation into progeny virions, we quantified vRNPs and cRNPs in the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of infected cells, using a strand-specific qRT-PCR. Unexpectedly, we found that cRNPs were also exported to the cytoplasm. This export was chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent unlike that of vRNPs. Although both vRNPs and cRNPs were present in the cytosol, viral matrix (M1) protein, a key regulator for viral assembly, preferentially bound vRNPs over cRNPs. These results indicate that influenza A viruses selectively uptake cytosolic vRNPs through a specific interaction with M1 during viral assembly. - Highlights: •Influenza cRNPs are exported from the nucleus of an infected cell via a CRM1-independent pathway. •Influenza A viruses selectively incorporate cytosolic vRNPs through a specific interaction with M1 during viral assembly. •M1 dissociates from vRNP export complex after nuclear export, and is re-associated with vRNPs at the plasma membrane.

  9. Activation of M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in response to heparin-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    Full Text Available In the early stage of sepsis, M1 macrophages result in the production of inflammatory mediators and AKI. Heparin-binding protein (HBP have been shown to play important roles in sepsis-induced AKI. In this study, we investigate the association of HBP with M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced AKI.Male C57BL6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or sham surgery. Biochemical and histological renal damage was assessed. Macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR was used to investigate the expression of heparin-binding protein (HBP, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and arginase 1 (Arg-1 mRNAs. Western blots were performed to assay the tissue levels of HBP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6.High levels of HBP were obviously detected 24 h after sepsis-induced AKI. Heparin inhibited HBP expression during sepsis-induced AKI. The suppression of HBP expression by heparin injection after the establishment of sepsis-induced AKI resulted in a reduction in renal injury severity accompanied with a significant repression of M1 macrophage activation and expression of TNF-α and IL-6.HBP plays an important role in the initial inflammatory reaction associated with sepsis-induced AKI, presumably by activating M1 macrophages and suppressing TNF-α and IL-6 secretion.

  10. Allosteric modulation by persistent binding of xanomeline of the interaction of competitive ligands with the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Tuček, Stanislav; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2002), s. 1033-1041 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP305/01/D119 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : xanomeline * M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.991, year: 2002

  11. Design, Engineering and Application of an Amyloidogenic Protein, SBAFP-m1, for use in Nanotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Maria del Refugio

    Nanotechnology relies on collaborations across scientific disciplines such as physics, engineering, chemistry and biology. In nanotechnology, researchers manipulate molecules on the nanometer scale for various applications, ranging from tissue engineering, nanowire synthesis, and alternative energy devices. By utilizing various biological scaffolds, namely amyloid fibrils, the work of nanometer molecular control can be achieved through the use of self-assembly systems. Here, a systematic design scheme was developed to engineer protein based amyloid fibrils and was successfully applied to the design of two, unique self-assembled monomers, SBAFP-m1 and RGAFP-m1, from naturally occurring ice binding proteins found in insects and plants. A highly idealized, in-register dimer interface was designed and experimentally synthesized and demonstrated to form micron long amyloid fibrils (Chapter 2). The strength and resistance of the designer amyloid fibrils formed by SBAFP-m1 were probed in Chapter 3. Most notably, the ultimate tensile strength of SBAFP-m1 fibrils was experimentally determined to be 2.1 +/- 1.7 GPa, on par with that of naturally occurring amyloid fibrils in literature and steel. The fibrils were found to maintain their beta-sheet structure over a wide range of temperatures, from - 80 °C to 90 °C. Fibrils were resistant to common protein denaturants like 8M urea, 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, 2.5 M NaCl, organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and acetone), and across the pH range two to 11. SBAFP-m1 was mutated to add a 5x cysteine tag to the N-terminus, allowing for gold nanoparticle conjugation along the fibril axis (Chapter 4). The gold-conjugated fibrils were then enhanced with silver to produce nanowires. Various attempts to selectively synthesize heterogeneous fibrils from SBAFP-m1 mutants were attempted in Chapter 5. An attempt to de-stabilize the homogeneous fibril assembly through unfavorable homogeneous protein interactions was not

  12. Identification of the GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes using high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobná, Zuzana; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2012-01-13

    Glutathione S-transferases, including GST-T1 and GST-M1, are known to be involved in the phase II detoxification pathways for xenobiotics as well as in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis and associated with risk factors that predispose to certain inflammatory diseases. In addition, GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes have been shown to be responsible for interindividual variations in the metabolism of arsenic, a known human carcinogen. To assess the specific GST genotypes in the Mexican population chronically exposed to arsenic, we have developed a multiplex High Resolution Melting PCR (HRM-PCR) analysis using a LightCycler480 instrument. This method is based on analysis of the PCR product melting curve that discriminates PCR products according to their lengths and base sequences. Three pairs of primers that specifically recognize GST-T1, GST-M1, and β-globin, an internal control, to produce amplicons of different length were designed and combined with LightCycler480 High Resolution Melting Master Mix containing ResoLight, a completely saturating DNA dye. Data collected from melting curve analysis were evaluated using LightCycler480 software to determine specific melting temperatures of individual melting curves representing target genes. Using this newly developed multiplex HRM-PCR analysis, we evaluated GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotypes in 504 DNA samples isolated from the blood of individuals residing in Zimapan, Lagunera, and Chihuahua regions in Mexico. We found that the Zimapan and Lagunera populations have similar GST-T1 and GST-M1 genotype frequencies which differ from those of the Chihuahua population. In addition, 14 individuals have been identified as carriers of the double null genotype, i.e., null genotypes in both GST-T1 and GST-M1 genes. Although this procedure does not distinguish between biallelic (+/+) and monoallelic (+/-) genotypes, it can be used in an

  13. Resveratrol regulates microglia M1/M2 polarization via PGC-1α in conditions of neuroinflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Xu, Shaoqing; Qian, Yiwei; Xiao, Qin

    2017-08-01

    Microglia are the primary cells that exert immune function in the central nervous system (CNS), and accumulating evidence suggests that microglia act as key players in the initiation of neurodegenerative diseases. It is now well recognized that microglia have functional plasticity and dual phenotypes, proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Inhibiting the M1 phenotype while stimulating the M2 phenotype has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related diseases. Resveratrol has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing M1 microglia activation. However, the role of resveratrol in regulating microglia polarization and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been fully clarified. In this study, we tested whether resveratrol could suppress microglia activation by promoting microglia polarization toward the M2 phenotype via PGC-1α by measuring M1 and M2 markers in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrated that resveratrol reduced inflammatory damage and promoted microglia polarization to the M2 phenotype in LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, resveratrol ameliorated LPS-induced sickness behavior in mice. The promoting effects of resveratrol on M2 polarization were attenuated by knocking down PGC-1α. PGC-1α not only suppressed LPS-evoked M1 marker expression by inhibition of NF-κB activity but also increased M2 marker expression by coactivation of the STAT6 and STAT3 pathways. We propose that overexpression PGC-1α by resveratrol could be a potential therapeutic approach to suppress neuroinflammation by regulating microglia polarization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Truncated thioredoxin (Trx-80) promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages of the M1 phenotype and enhances atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Dler Faieeq Darweesh; Abderrazak, Amna; Couchie, Dominique; Lunov, Oleg; Diderot, Vimala; Syrovets, Tatiana; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Gosselet, Fabien; Simmet, Thomas; Rouis, Mustapha; El Hadri, Khadija

    2013-07-01

    Vascular cells are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress that is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an oxidative stress-limiting protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In contrast, its truncated form (Trx-80) exerts pro-inflammatory effects. Here we analyzed whether Trx-80 might exert atherogenic effects by promoting macrophage differentiation into the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Trx-80 at 1 µg/ml significantly attenuated the polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages induced by exposure to either IL-4 at 15 ng/ml or IL-4/IL-13 (10 ng/ml each) in vitro, as evidenced by the expression of the characteristic markers, CD206 and IL-10. By contrast, in LPS-challenged macrophages, Trx-80 significantly potentiated the differentiation into inflammatory M1 macrophages as indicated by the expression of the M1 cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1. When Trx-80 was administered to hyperlipoproteinemic ApoE2.Ki mice at 30 µg/g body weight (b.w.) challenged either with LPS at 30 µg/30 g (b.w.) or IL-4 at 500 ng/30 g (b.w.), it significantly induced the M1 phenotype but inhibited differentiation of M2 macrophages in thymus and liver. When ApoE2.Ki mice were challenged once weekly with LPS for 5 weeks, they showed severe atherosclerotic lesions enriched with macrophages expressing predominantly M1 over M2 markers. Such effect was potentiated when mice received daily, in addition to LPS, the Trx-80. Moreover, the Trx-80 treatment led to a significantly increased aortic lesion area. The ability of Trx-80 to promote differentiation of macrophages into the classical proinflammatory phenotype may explain its atherogenic effects in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  16. Efeitos do treinamento físico sobre a resistência mecânica do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar,Andreo Fernando; Agati,Leandro Barile; Müller,Sérgio Swain; Pereira,Oduvaldo Camara; Dal-Pai-Silva,Maeli

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento mecânico do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos submetidos ao treinamento aeróbio e resistido crônicos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (80 dias, 300 a 350 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=8 por grupo): Treinamento aeróbio/8 semanas (TA), Treinamento resistido/8 semanas (TR) e controle/8 semanas (CO). Ao término do período de treinamento os animais foram sacrificados e o fêmur direito coletado. Para análise do comportamento mecânico do fêmur foram realizados ensa...

  17. Efeitos do tramadol sobre variáveis clínicas e limiar nociceptivo mecânico em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Moreno, Juan Carlos Duque; Teixeira Neto, Antônio Raphael; Souza, Moisés Caetano e; Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco da

    2014-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos clínicos e o potencial antinociceptivo mecânico de diferentes doses de tramadol administradas por via intravenosa (IV) em equinos. Sete animais foram tratados com 1 (Tr1), 2 (Tr2) ou 3 (Tr3) mg kg-1de tramadol IV em um estudo cruzado do tipo cego e randomizado. Foram avaliados frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial, nível de sedação, motilidade gastrointestinal, alterações comportamentais e limiar antinociceptivo mecânico (Von...

  18. Roles of CcrA and CcrB in Excision and Integration of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec, a Staphylococcus aureus Genomic Island▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Archer, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding resistance to methicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics in staphylococci, mecA, is carried on a genomic island, SCCmec (for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec). The chromosomal excision and integration of types I to IV SCCmec are catalyzed by the site-specific recombinases CcrA and CcrB, the genes for which are encoded on each element. We sought to identify the relative contributions of CcrA and CcrB in the excision and integration of SCCmec. Purified CcrB but not CcrA ...

  19. Evaluación del dolor en pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica invasiva ingresados en las unidades de cuidados intensivos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Llamazares, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. La valoración del dolor presenta especial dificultad en pacientes críticos, en concreto en pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica invasiva, ya que no pueden comunicar este dolor. Objetivos. • Conocer en los enfermeros, el grado de conocimientos y la utilización de escalas del dolor en pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica. • Conocer la prevalencia, grado de dolor y las respuestas fisiológicas de los pacientes, antes, durante y después del cambio postural reali...

  20. Eficacia de métodos químicos, físicos y mecánicos en la limpieza de costras y grafitis en granito

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Antonio, Jose Santiago

    2013-01-01

    [spa] En esta tesis doctoral “Eficacia de métodos químicos, físicos y mecánicos en la limpieza de costras y grafitis en granito” se realiza la evaluación de la eficacia y efectos nocivos de diferentes métodos de limpieza aplicados con el objeto de extraer costras negras biológicas, costras negras sulfatadas y grafitis en granito. Los métodos evaluados son de tipo químico (productos químicos aplicados de manera directa o mezclados con espesantes), mecánicos (abrasivo a baja pres...

  1. Electric conductivity of double fluorides in the systems M1F-Th(U)F4(M1=K, Tl) and M2F2-ThF4(M2=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, I.V.; Andreev, A.M.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electric conductivity of some double fluorides formed in the systems M 1 F-Th(U)F 4 (M 1 =K, Tl) and M 2 F 2 -ThF 4 (M 2 =Ca, Sr, Ba) as well as UF 3 in a wide temperature range is studied. It is shown that the values of electric conductivity and activation energy of these fluorides depend on the compound structure and cation nature. The temperature electric conductivity dependence for double fluorides with the tysonite structure is close to the lanthanum fluoride dependence. Taking into account low electron electric conductivity component the conclusion is drawn that the investigated compounds can be used as solid electrolytes

  2. Ventilação mecânica na crise de asma aguda Mechanical ventilation in acute asthma crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Em 2000, foi publicado o II Consenso Brasileiro de Ventilação Mecânica. Desde então, o conhecimento na área da ventilação mecânica avançou rapidamente, com a publicação de inúmeros estudos clínicos que acrescentaram informações importantes para o manuseio de pacientes críticos em ventilação artificial. Além disso, a expansão do conceito de Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE determinou a hierarquização das recomendações clínicas, segundo o rigor metodológico dos estudos que as embasaram. Essa abordagem explícita vem ampliando a compreensão e a aplicação das recomendações clínicas. Por esses motivos, a AMIB - Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - e a SBPT - Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - julgaram conveniente a atualização das recomendações descritas no Consenso anterior. Dentre os tópicos selecionados a Ventilação Mecânica na Crise de Asma foi um dos temas propostos. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os pontos mais importantes relacionados à ventilação mecânica durante a crise de asma e sugerir as principais abordagens terapêuticas. MÉTODO: Objetivou-se chegar a um documento suficientemente sintético, que refletisse a melhor evidência disponível na literatura. A revisão bibliográfica baseou-se na busca de estudos através de palavras-chave e em sua gradação conforme níveis de evidência. As palavras-chave utilizadas para a busca foram: Ventilação mecânica na asma: asthma and mechanical ventilation. RESULTADOS: São apresentadas recomendações quanto aos modos ventilatórios e aos parâmetros a serem aplicados quando do ajuste do ventilador, além da monitoração recomendada. Apresentam-se ainda, técnicas alternativas que possam ser utilizadas. CONCLUSÕES: Estratégias protetoras de ventilação mecânica são recomendadas durante a ventilação mecânica de paciente asmático grave.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The II Brazilian

  3. Microestructura y propiedades mecánicas del SiC biomórfico obtenido a partir de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presas, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of cellular ceramics with a biological structure, like bones and wood, has been a matter of interest in recent years. A low density highly interconnected structure, perfected by evolution, rises as the principal advantage of these materials. In the case of biomimetic SiC (biomorphic SiC, or bioSiC, the fabrication process technique is quite simple: a piece of wood is pyrolysed and is infiltrated with molten silicon after, the final product is a composite Si/SiC, which replicates the wood anisotropic microstructure This work focus on the mechanical properties of bioSiC fabricated using eucalyptus wood as precursor (hard wood with a bimodal channel distribution. It has been studied the mechanical behavior of this bioSiC (compression strength, flexure strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus between 25 and 1350 oC. It is also discussed the relationship between mechanical behavior of the material and its microstructure.

    El desarrollo de materiales cerámicos con una estructura de tipo celular, similar a la del hueso o la madera, ha sido una cuestión que ha suscitado un gran interés en los últimos años. Su atractivo se debe al hecho de poseer una estructura porosa altamente interconectada de baja densidad, perfeccionada por la evolución. En el caso del SiC biomórfico (bio-SiC el proceso de fabricación es sencillo: se piroliza una pieza de madera y a continuación se inyecta con silicio líquido, el material así obtenido es un compuesto Si/SiC en el que el SiC mimetiza la estructura de la madera original. En este trabajo se estudian las propiedades mecánicas del SiC biomórfico fabricado a partir de eucalipto (madera dura con una distribución bimodal de poros. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento mecánico del mismo (resistencia a compresión, resistencia a flexión, tenacidad de fractura y módulo de elasticidad entre 25 y 1350 oC. Asimismo, se discute la relación entre el comportamiento mecánico del material y

  4. Proto-planetary nebulae. I. The extreme bipolar nebulae M2-9 and M1-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on a long-slit optical spectroscopy measurements of the prototype bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 and the M1-91 bipolar nebula, performed in order to determine the nature of the morphology of the wings of these two nebulae. It is concluded that the overall bipolar morphologies of these nebulae might be due to the orbital motions of binaries, with the orbital angular momentum vector defining the axis of the nebula. Secondary symmetries in the nebulae, such as the point-symmetric knots in M1-91, could be due to other symmetries, such as the rotation axis of one of the individual stars or the polar axis of the accretion disk. 39 refs

  5. Cytoplasm localization of aminopeptidase M1 and its functional activity in root hair cells and BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Ran; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2012-12-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1) was the first M1 metallopeptidase family member identified in Arabidopsis, isolated by its affinity for the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A loss-of-function mutation showed various developmental defects in cell division and auxin transport. APM1 was shown to be localized in endomembrane structures, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. These previous results suggested that APM1 has diverse functional roles in different cell and tissue types. Here we report that APM1 localized to the cytoplasm, and its over-expression in the root hair cell caused longer root hair phenotypes. Treatment of aminopeptidase inhibitors caused internalization of auxin efflux PIN-FORMED proteins in root hair cells and suppressed short root hair phenotype of PIN3 overexpression line (PIN3ox). APM1 also localized to the cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells, its over-expression had little effect on auxin transport in these cells.

  6. Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, W.; Gitu, L.; Kaberia, F.

    1996-01-01

    Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B 1 , a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B 1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M 1 , which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M 1 , is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B 1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

  7. Cosméticos Contém 1g: um caso de empreendedorismo e inovação

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Liliane de Oliveira; Cardoza,Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Este caso de ensino descreve a fundação e a expansão da Contém 1g, uma empresa brasileira do setor de higiene pessoal, perfumaria e cosméticos. Fundada em 1984 como empresa têxtil, seu proprietário redirecionou o negócio e iniciou a produção de perfumes em 1994. A história empresarial da Contém 1g é marcada pelo lançamento de novos produtos e pela utilização, a partir de determinado momento, de um sistema híbrido de vendas: venda direta e franquia. A decisão de expandir o negócio é o ponto de...

  8. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Jeffrey S; Kaufman, Matthew T; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Cunningham, John P; Churchland, Mark M

    2016-11-01

    Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1) and primary motor cortex (M1). All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom) along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  9. Enhancement of CD147 on M1 macrophages induces differentiation of Th17 cells in the lung interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jie-jie; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Li-na; Miao, Jin-lin; Yao, Meng; Ren, Ying; Fu, Zhi-guang; Chen, Zhi-nan; Zhu, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Lung interstitial fibrosis is a chronic lung disease, and few effective therapies are available to halt or reverse the progression of the disease. In murine and human lung fibrosis, the expression of CD147 is increased. However, the role of CD147 in lung fibrosis has not been identified, and it remains to be determined whether lung fibrosis would be improved by decreasing the expression of CD147. A murine bleomycin-induced lung interstitial fibrosis model was used in the experiments, and HAb18 mAbs and CsA were administered during the induction of lung fibrosis. In our study, we found that the HAb18 mAbs markedly reduced the collagen score and down-regulated M1 macrophages and Th17 cells. In vitro, flow cytometry analysis showed that M1 macrophages induced higher Th17 differentiation than M2 macrophages. After treatment with HAb18 mAbs or after reducing the expression of CD147 by lentivirus interference in M1 macrophages, the level of Th17 cells were significantly inhibited. In conclusion, HAb18 mAbs or CsA treatment ameliorates lung interstitial fibrosis. CD147 promoted M1 macrophage and induced the differentiation of Th17 cells in lung interstitial fibrosis, perhaps by regulating some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-23. These results indicated that CD147 may play an important role in the development of lung interstitial fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molybdenum emission from impurity-induced m= 1 snake-modes on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bitter, M.; Gates, D.; Hill, K.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Granetz, R.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sugiyama, L. [MIT - Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A suite of novel high-resolution spectroscopic imaging diagnostics has facilitated the identification and localization of molybdenum impurities as the main species during the formation and lifetime of m= 1 impurity-induced snake-modes on Alcator C-Mod. Such measurements made it possible to infer, for the first time, the perturbed radiated power density profiles from which the impurity density can be deduced.

  11. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Seely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1 and primary motor cortex (M1. All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  12. Unexpected expansion of tRNA substrate recognition by the yeast m1G9 methyltransferase Trm10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, William E; Henderson, Jeremy C; Jackman, Jane E

    2013-08-01

    N-1 Methylation of the nearly invariant purine residue found at position 9 of tRNA is a nucleotide modification found in multiple tRNA species throughout Eukarya and Archaea. First discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the tRNA methyltransferase Trm10 is a highly conserved protein both necessary and sufficient to catalyze all known instances of m1G9 modification in yeast. Although there are 19 unique tRNA species that contain a G at position 9 in yeast, and whose fully modified sequence is known, only 9 of these tRNA species are modified with m1G9 in wild-type cells. The elements that allow Trm10 to distinguish between structurally similar tRNA species are not known, and sequences that are shared between all substrate or all nonsubstrate tRNAs have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the in vitro methylation activity of yeast Trm10 is not sufficient to explain the observed pattern of modification in vivo, as additional tRNA species are substrates for Trm10 m1G9 methyltransferase activity. Similarly, overexpression of Trm10 in yeast yields m1G9 containing tRNA species that are ordinarily unmodified in vivo. Thus, yeast Trm10 has a significantly broader tRNA substrate specificity than is suggested by the observed pattern of modification in wild-type yeast. These results may shed light onto the suggested involvement of Trm10 in other pathways in other organisms, particularly in higher eukaryotes that contain up to three different genes with sequence similarity to the single TRM10 gene in yeast, and where these other enzymes have been implicated in pathways beyond tRNA processing.

  13. Screening the Medicines for Malaria Venture "Malaria Box" against the Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidases, M1, M17 and M18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paiardini

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasitic disease that remains a global health burden. The ability of the parasite to rapidly develop resistance to therapeutics drives an urgent need for the delivery of new drugs. The Medicines for Malaria Venture have compounds known for their antimalarial activity, but not necessarily the molecular targets. In this study, we assess the ability of the "MMV 400" compounds to inhibit the activity of three metalloaminopeptidases from Plasmodium falciparum, PfA-M1, PfA-M17 and PfM18 AAP. We have developed a multiplex assay system to allow rapid primary screening of compounds against all three metalloaminopeptidases, followed by detailed analysis of promising compounds. Our results show that there were no PfM18AAP inhibitors, whereas two moderate inhibitors of the neutral aminopeptidases PfA-M1 and PfA-M17 were identified. Further investigation through structure-activity relationship studies and molecular docking suggest that these compounds are competitive inhibitors with novel binding mechanisms, acting through either non-classical zinc coordination or independently of zinc binding altogether. Although it is unlikely that inhibition of PfA-M1 and/or PfA-M17 is the primary mechanism responsible for the antiplasmodial activity reported for these compounds, their detailed characterization, as presented in this work, pave the way for their further optimization as a novel class of dual PfA-M1/PfA-M17 inhibitors utilising non-classical zinc binding groups.

  14. Computational Modeling with Fluid-Structure Interaction of the Severe M1 Stenosis Before and After Stenting

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soonchan; Lee, Sang-Wook; Lim, Ok Kyun; Min, Inki; Nguyen, Minhtuan; Ko, Young Bae; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Suh, Dae Chul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Image-based computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) can be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis in intracranial artery stenosis. We described a process in FSI study applied to symptomatic severe intracranial (M1) stenosis before and after stenting. Materials and Methods Reconstructed 3D angiography in STL format was transferred to Magics for smoothing of vessel surface and trimming of branch vessels and to HyperMesh for generating tetra volume mesh from trian...

  15. How well do we know the quantum numbers of possible anti p p → M1M2 states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanou, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Information is available to completely analyze the p anti p → ππ reaction, allowing more global, large-scale, phenomenological analyses which combine the two experimental data sets in an energy independent, amplitude analysis which also includes pion-nucleon data. It would appear from the preliminary analyses of p anti p → M 1 M 2 angular distributions and polarizations the T-region may indeed contain some very interesting activity

  16. Diarylheptanoids suppress proliferation of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells through modulating shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-Ih; Lee, So Yoon; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer, and it has the lowest 5-year survival rates. It is necessary to develop more potent anti-pancreatic cancer drugs to overcome the fast metastasis and resistance to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combinations of these. We have identified several diarylheptanoids as anti-pancreatic cancer agents from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and Alnus japonica. These diarylheptanoids suppressed cell proliferation and induced the cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). Among them, the most potent compounds 1 and 7 inhibited the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway and their target gene expression in PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, they suppressed the expression of the cell cycle associated genes that were rescued by the overexpression of exogenous FoxM1. Taken together, (E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (1) from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and platyphyllenone (7) from Alnus japonica inhibit PANC-1 cell proliferation by suppressing the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway, and they can be potential candidates for anti-pancreatic cancer drug development.

  17. Operation of TRR-1/M1 for 25 years and lessons learned in management of safety and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinmeesuke, Sirichai

    2002-01-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, was installed and put into operation in 1962. In 1975 the reactor was converted to a 2 MW TRIGA Mark III by replacing of the reactor core and the control system. The renamed TRR-1/M1 research reactor went critical again in November 1977. TRR-1/M1 has been operated safely for 25 years with its main utilization in research, isotope production and training. Safety management and safety culture have been implemented for 25 years both in the legislation level and the operation level. There was no nuclear incident and there were a few radiological incidents during the 25 years of operation of TRR-1/M1. The lessons learned from the incident events such as the release of N-16 and Ar-41, the release of radioactive Bromine gave valued opportunities to improve our operation procedure, safety procedure and safety culture. All type of activities with respect to safety culture such as individual awareness, commitment, motivation, supervision and responsibility have been seriously reviewed and being set as normal practices. (author)

  18. Genotype-phenotype correlations and expansion of the molecular spectrum of AP4M1-related hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Bettencourt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP due to AP4M1 mutations is a very rare neurodevelopmental disorder reported for only a few patients. Methods We investigated a Greek HSP family using whole exome sequencing (WES. Results A novel AP4M1A frameshift insertion, and a very rare missense variant were identified in all three affected siblings in the compound heterozygous state (p.V174fs and p.C319R; the unaffected parents were carriers of only one variant. Patients were affected with a combination of: (a febrile seizures with onset in the first year of life (followed by epileptic non-febrile seizures; (b distinctive facial appearance (e.g., coarse features, bulbous nose and hypomimia; (c developmental delay and intellectual disability; (d early-onset spastic weakness of the lower limbs; and (e cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy on brain MRI. Conclusions We review genotype-phenotype correlations and discuss clinical overlaps between different AP4-related diseases. The AP4M1 belongs to a complex that mediates vesicle trafficking of glutamate receptors, being likely involved in brain development and neurotransmission.

  19. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between ant...

  20. Mistr tesař diachronní lexikografie (Igor Němec a Staročeský slovník)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejedlý, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-10 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/10/1153 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : diachronic lexicography * lexicological analysis * Old Czech Dictionary * Igor Němec Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. Eficacia ante el dolor y la discapacidad cervical de un programa de fisioterapia individual frente a uno colectivo en la cervicalgia mecánica aguda y subaguda

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    Leonardo Gregorio Antúnez Sánchez

    2017-08-01

    Conclusiones: Los pacientes con cervicalgia mecánica en estado agudo o subagudo experimentan una mejora estadísticamente significativa del dolor y de la discapacidad cervical tras recibir ambas modalidades de tratamiento de fisioterapia empleadas en nuestro estudio, mostrándose la modalidad de tratamiento individual más eficaz que la colectiva.

  2. A simplified multiplex PCR assay for fast and easy discrimination of globally distributed staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ghaznavi Rad (Ehsanollah); N.S. Mariana (Nor Shamsudin); Z. Sekawi (Zamberi); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); V. Neela (Vasanthakumari)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA multiplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of major types and subtypes of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The method uses a novel 9 valent multiplex PCR plus two primer pairs for S. aureus

  3. Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Promotes Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral M1 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina F; Read, Eliot K C; Wise, Helen M; Amorim, Maria J; Digard, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Segment 7 produces two major transcripts: an unspliced mRNA that encodes the M1 matrix protein and a spliced transcript that encodes the M2 ion channel. Export of both mRNAs is dependent on the cellular NXF1/TAP pathway, but it is unclear how they are recruited to the export machinery or how the intron-containing but unspliced M1 mRNA bypasses the normal quality-control checkpoints. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to monitor segment 7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs reconstituted by plasmid transfection and in mutant virus-infected cells. This effect was independent of any major effect on steady-state levels of segment 7 mRNA or splicing but corresponded to a ∼5-fold reduction in the accumulation of M1. A similar defect in intronless hemagglutinin (HA) mRNA nuclear export was seen with an NS1 mutant virus. Efficient export of M1 mRNA required both an intact NS1 RNA-binding domain and effector domain. Furthermore, while wild-type NS1 interacted with cellular NXF1 and also increased the interaction of segment 7 mRNA with NXF1, mutant NS1 polypeptides unable to promote mRNA export did neither. Thus, we propose that NS1 facilitates late viral gene expression by acting as an adaptor between viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery to promote their nuclear export. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species that threatens public health and food security. A fuller understanding of the virus life cycle is important to aid control strategies. The virus has a small genome that encodes relatively few proteins that are often multifunctional. Here, we characterize a new function for the NS1 protein, showing that, as well as

  4. Mecánica Cuántica y Libre Albedrío: Cinco Cuestiones Fundamentales

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    José Manuel Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n1p65 Este trabajo analiza críticamente la situación de la mecánica cuántica en las discusiones sobre el libre albedrío. Comienza describiendo cómo el principio de incertidumbre y el problema de la medición plantean un desafío al determinismo. A continuación, presenta las posiciones de apoyo y el rechazo de correlación entre los fenómenos y el libre albedrío cuántico. Por último,  pone todas estas cuestiones en el contexto de las cinco preguntas clave levantadas por Robert Kane: la compatibilidad, de significación, la inteligibilidad, la existencia y el la cuestión de determinismo.

  5. Efeito da fertilização em propriedades mecânicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-01-01

    estática. A resistência à compressão e o módulo de elasticidade foram influenciados pelos fatores: adubo e posição da tora. Todas as propriedades mecânicas aumentaram no sentido da medula para a casca. Foi observada uma relação positiva entre resistência à compressão paralela às fibras, cisalhamento, módulo de resistência à flexão estática e módulo de elasticidade na flexão estática com a posição radial.

  6. Cytoplasmic localization of Hug1p, a negative regulator of the MEC1 pathway, coincides with the compartmentalization of Rnr2p–Rnr4p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, William B. [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Hughes, Bridget Todd; Au, Wei Chun; Sakelaris, Sally [Genetics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kerscher, Oliver [Biology Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); Benton, Michael G., E-mail: benton@lsu.edu [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Basrai, Munira A., E-mail: basraim@mail.nih.gov [Genetics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Hug1p overexpression sensitizes wild-type cells to DNA damage and hydroxyurea (HU). •Expression of Hug1p in response to HU treatment is delayed relative to Rnr3p. •MEC1 pathway genes are required for cytoplasmic localization of Hug1p. •Hug1p subcellular compartmentalization to the cytoplasm coincides with Rnr2p–Rnr4p. -- Abstract: The evolutionarily conserved MEC1 checkpoint pathway mediates cell cycle arrest and induction of genes including the RNR (Ribonucleotide reductase) genes and HUG1 (Hydroxyurea, ultraviolet, and gamma radiation) in response to DNA damage and replication arrest. Rnr complex activity is in part controlled by cytoplasmic localization of the Rnr2p–Rnr4p subunits and inactivation of negative regulators Sml1p and Dif1p upon DNA damage and hydroxyurea (HU) treatment. We previously showed that a deletion of HUG1 rescues lethality of mec1Δ and suppresses dun1Δ strains. In this study, multiple approaches demonstrate the regulatory response of Hug1p to DNA damage and HU treatment and support its role as a negative effector of the MEC1 pathway. Consistent with our hypothesis, wild-type cells are sensitive to DNA damage and HU when HUG1 is overexpressed. A Hug1 polyclonal antiserum reveals that HUG1 encodes a protein in budding yeast and its MEC1-dependent expression is delayed compared to the rapid induction of Rnr3p in response to HU treatment. Cell biology and subcellular fractionation experiments show localization of Hug1p-GFP to the cytoplasm upon HU treatment. The cytoplasmic localization of Hug1p-GFP is dependent on MEC1 pathway genes and coincides with the cytoplasmic localization of Rnr2p–Rnr4p. Taken together, the genetic interactions, gene expression, and localization studies support a novel role for Hug1p as a negative regulator of the MEC1 checkpoint response through its compartmentalization with Rnr2p–Rnr4p.

  7. Neumonía nosocomial asociada a ventilación mecánica

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    Raquel Maciques Rodríguez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se informa que la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica es un tipo particular de infección nosocomial frecuente en los pacientes críticos y se asocia con altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Su origen es polimicrobiano y depende de múltiples factores de riesgo como: edad, días de ventilación, poca movilización, alcalinización gástrica, trauma, coma y uso de medicamentos como: sedantes y bloqueadores, entre otros. Las estrategias fundamentales para la prevención de esta entidad, tienen como objetivo reducir el impacto de los factores de riesgo ya sean intrínsecos o extrínsecos. Su pronóstico depende del momento de aparición de los síntomas, por lo que se clasifica de inicio temprano, aquella que aparece antes de los 4 días de ventilación, producida por los gérmenes de la orofaringe, se asocia a baja mortalidad y generalmente es de buen pronóstico y la de inicio tardío que aparece después de los 5 días de apoyo ventilatorio, producida por cepas multirresistentes y de muy mal pronóstico. El diagnóstico es difícil por los múltiples criterios propuestos a través de los diferentes estudios realizados. Los emitidos por la Sociedad Americana del Tórax en 1999 son más específicos, pues reúnen las condiciones clínicas, microbiológicas y no microbiológicas, las cuales no son invasivas, resultan fáciles y rápidas de recoger y pueden aplicarse a cualquier grupo de edad, independientemente de la causa que provocó la enfermedad. El análisis microscópico directo y el conocimiento del mapa epidemiológico de cada servicio, permiten el inicio de un tratamiento empírico más efectivo. Aunque la tendencia actual en el tratamiento es la monoterapia, no existe un antibiótico ideal que cubra la totalidad del espectro de los microorganismos responsables de esta entidad.It is reported that pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation is a particular type of nosocomial infection that is frequently found among critical

  8. Implementación del secado mecánico de café en carros secadores

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    Oscar Buitrago Bermúdez

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de presentar una nueva alternativa de secado a los pequeños y medianos ceficultores, se desarrolló un secador mecánico de capa fija, a partir de un secador solar de tradicional uso en la zona cafetera denominado carro secador, el cual consta de dos a cuatro plataformas de secado, un entramado de soporte y desplazamiento de las plataformas y un techo de teja de zinc para resguardarlas en caso de lluvia. Se hicieron las modificaciones necesarias para convertir el carro secador en un secador mecánico, se tuvo en cuenta que el secador pudiera seguirse usando como secador solar, se realizaron seis pruebas de secado, en las cuales se midieron variables del grano, del aire y del secador. La uniformidad del contenido de humedad final del grano se determinó comparando muestras tomadas en las plataformas y después de empacado el grano. De la evaluación del equipo se hicieron las siguientes deducciones: - Cada una de las partes acondicionadas al carro funcionaron satisfactoriamente. No se presentaron fugas de aire caliente. - El consumo de combustible del quemador de olla fue 0.239 y 0.275 L. kg café pergamino seco (c.p.s.. - El caudal de aire aumentó al final del secado alrededor del 90%, debido a la disminución continua del espesor de la capa de grano. - Los consumos energéticos del secador estuvieron 4500 y 7000 kJ.kg c.p.s. - El contenido de humedad final del grano fue uniforme, con coeficientes de variación cercanos al 10%.

  9. Caracterização físico-mecânica do laminado colado de bambu (Dendrocalamus giganteus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do tratamento preservativo e do tipo de adesivo nas propriedades físico-mecânicas do laminado colado, confeccionado com o bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus. Para tanto, colmos de bambu foram tratados pelo método de imersão em produto químico (solução de 1% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado - CCB e em água, durante 15 dias. Dos colmos tratados, foram retiradas as camadas externa e interna, obtendo-se lâminas com espessuras de 4 mm, comprimento de 45 cm e largura de 5 cm. Para a colagem das lâminas, utilizaram-se os adesivos "Cascophen RS" (resorcinol-formol e "Cascorez-Extra" (acetato polivinílico. O adesivo à base de resorcinol-formol proporcionou maior resistência à umidade ao BLC, quando comparado àquele à base de acetato polivinílico, tendo as amostras provenientes de peças tratadas com CCB sido mais estáveis que as tratadas com água. Dentre as propriedades mecânicas testadas, o adesivo apresentou resultado significativo para o cisalhamento na linha de cola e o tratamento preservativo para o MOE. A interação dos fatores adesivo e tratamento foi significativa para o MOE, resistência a compressão paralela ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, tendo as peças tratadas com água e aderidas com resorcinol-formol apresentado melhores resultados para o MOE e compressão paralela às fibras e aquelas tratadas com CCB, para o cisalhamento na linha de cola.

  10. Efeito do corte como dano mecânico na qualidade e na fisiologia de mamões 'golden'

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    Jaqueline Visioni Tezotto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução na qualidade pós-colheita do mamão deve-se em grande parte aos danos mecânicos, especialmente àqueles do tipo corte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reproduzir este dano mecânico e avaliar os efeitos do número de cortes na qualidade e na fisiologia pós-colheita de mamões 'Golden'. Os cortes foram obtidos com o uso de uma lâmina de aço de 30 mm de comprimento e 5 mm de profundidade. Os tratamentos consistiram na reprodução de 1 a 4 cortes na região mediana dos frutos. Mamões sem cortes foram utilizados como controle. Após a reprodução dos danos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara a 22ºC e 80-90% de UR por 10 dias. As análises de qualidade foram realizadas a cada dois dias, e as fisiológicas, diariamente. Os resultados demonstraram que a firmeza, o teor de sólidos solúveis e de ácido ascórbico, a atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno foram influenciados pelo número de cortes, de forma que a perda de qualidade dos frutos foi diretamente proporcional ao número de cortes.

  11. Aerossol bacteriano gerado por respiradores mecânicos: estudo comparativo Bacterial aerosol generated by mechanical ventilators: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Agostino Dias

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiradores mecânicos emitem aerossóis que podem estar colonizados com bactérias. OBJETIVO. Estudar a contaminação ambiental gerada por respiradores, comparando-se dois siste-mas de umidificação. MÉTODOS. Realizaram-se 51 estudos, comparando-se a colonização dos aerossóis emitidos pela válvula expiratória dos aparelhos de ventilação mecânica, sendo em 31 com nebulizadores convencionais e em 20 com condensadores higroscópicos, em quinze minutos de observação. RESULTADOS. Houve emissão de bactérias para o ambiente, pela válvula expiratória, de 32,2% de respiradores equipados com sistema de nebulização convencional e de 5% com condensador (p = 0,0340. CONCLUSÃO. A umidificação da mistura gasosa com o uso de condensadores pode ser um meio eficiente de reduzir a contaminação bacteriana ambiental.Mechanical ventilators generate aerosol which may be bacterially colonized. PURPOSE - To determine the environmental contamination generated by ventilators with two different humidification techniques. METHODS - The study was done comparing the generation of bacterial colonized aerosol by the expiratory valve of mechanical respirators with conventional water nebulization or with hygroscopic condensator as the humidifier source during 15 minutes of observation. RESULTS - The aerosol got positive cultures in 32.2% of the conventional system and in 5% of the condensator system (p = 0.0340. CONCLUSION - We concluded that the humidification by the hygroscopic condensator may be an efficient way to reduce environmental bacterial contamination.

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Mistry

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24 to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml. All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602 and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer.

  13. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R; Kumar, P Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer.

  14. Determinación de la presencia de fatiga mecánica en materiales cerámicos

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    Casellas, D.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that ceramic materials are highly susceptible to environmental assisted subcritical crack growth. In addition, this subcritical crack growth could be also related to cyclic loading (mechanical fatigue. This type of behaviour is not observed either in glasses nor in traditional ceramics. However this phenomena is clearly active in many advanced ceramics. The aim of this work is to obtain a procedure for detecting the presence of cyclic fatigue in ceramic materials. This procedure attempts to obtain cyclic fatigue life estimations and to compare it with the static loading experimental results. Through this comparisons it is possible to asses whether the cyclic fatigue is acting or not. Finally some calculations are conducted in ceramic materials (alumina, mullite and ZTA with natural and indentation flaws.

    Los materiales cerámicos son susceptibles al crecimiento de fisuras por la acción combinada del medio ambiente y la aplicación de carga (fatiga estática. Por otra parte, el crecimiento subcrítico de fisuras en cerámicas también puede ser producido por la aplicación de cargas fluctuantes (fatiga mecánica. Este fenómeno no se observa en vidrios ni en cerámicas monocristalinas, pero si en muchos de los llamados materiales cerámicos avanzados. En este trabajo se describe una metodología utilizada para detectar la presencia de fatiga mecánica en materiales cerámicos, basada en la obtención de estimaciones de la vida a fatiga del material bajo cargas fluctuantes y su comparación con los resultados experimentales bajo carga constante. Este método se ha aplicado a fisuras naturales y de indentación en algunos materiales cerámicos (mullita, alúmina y ZTA.

  15. High incidence of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus (OS-MRSA associated with bovine mastitis in China.

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    WanXia Pu

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6% were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA. These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests to accurately identify MRSA.

  16. Relação das propriedades mecânicas e densidade de postes de madeira de eucalipto com seu estado de deterioração

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    Rafael Colombo Abruzzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta correlações obtidas entre propriedades mecânicas, densidade e o estado de deterioração de postes de eucalipto novos e retirados de serviço. O estado de deterioração foi determinado por inspeções em campo de postes da rede de distribuição de energia elétrica no sul do Brasil. Postes em diferentes estados de deterioração foram retirados da rede para os ensaios de flexão estática e medidas de densidade. Os testes mecânicos indicaram que os valores médios da resistência a flexão e da rigidez decrescem com o estado de deterioração do eucalipto. Entretanto, verificou-se uma grande variação nessas medidas com diferentes classes de deterioração apresentando resistência mecânica residual similar. Esse comportamento pode ser explicado pela influência da densidade da madeira nas correlações entre propriedades mecânicas e o estado de deterioração dos postes. Madeiras menos densas podem apresentar baixa resistência mecânica residual mesmo sem apresentar sinais de deterioração. O estudo da caracterização da madeira de eucalipto indicou que o estado de deterioração avaliado pela inspeção em campo, por si só não é um bom indicativo para prever a durabilidade das estruturas de madeiras, fazendo-se necessária uma análise preliminar da densidade da mesma.

  17. Electrical dipole polarizability and spin M1 strength from {sup 48}Ca(p,p') data under 0; Elektrische Dipol-Polarisierbarkeit und Spin-M1-Staerke aus {sup 48}Ca(p,p')-Daten unter 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhan, Jonny Hubertus

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, proton scattering data on the nucleus {sup 48}Ca at very forward angles had been analysed. The data stem from a measurement campaign which was launched at the Research Centre of Nuclear Physics at Osaka, Japan, in the past. One of the two objectives of this analysis was to extract a value for the static electric dipole polarisability from the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). The second objective was to extract the total electromagnetic M1 strength B(M1) of the spin-flip transition which excites the prominent 1{sup +} state at an excitation energy of E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The polarisability was calculated from the distribution of photo-absorption cross sections within an energy range from E{sub x}=11 MeV to E{sub x}=26 MeV. The photo-absorption cross sections had been deduced from the distribution of E1 cross sections by the method of virtual photons. For this purpose the experimental cross sections had been deconvoluted by a multipole deconvolution into an E1 part and a background part. Then, the best estimate of the polarisability is given by α{sub D}=(1.36±0.14) fm{sup 3}. If a E3 model was included into the multipole decomposition of the (p,p') data the result increased up to α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3}. The deviation between these two results is mainly due to the fact that the multipole decomposition is very sensitive on the background function. Assuming that the the IVGDR of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca have approximately the same structure, estimates for the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca could be drawn from {sup 40}Ca(γ,abs) data. Additionally, data from a {sup 48}Ca(e,e'n) measurement were used to estimate the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca. Its polarisability seems to fall within the range of α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3} and α{sub D}=(1.69±0.03) fm{sup 3}. Beside this, it could be shown by the {sup 40}Ca data that a significant contribution to the polarisability has to be expected

  18. ApolipoproteinA1-75 G/A (M1- polymorphism and Lipoprotein(a; Anti- vs. Pro-Atherogenic properties

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    Ranganath L

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ApolipoproteinA1(apoA1 is the major apoprotein constituent of high-density-lipoprotein(HDL. The relationship of apoA1 -75 bp(M1- allele polymorphism with lipoprotein phenotype and cardiovascular diseae (CVD remain unclear. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a cohort of high-risk Omani population, 90 non-diabetic subjects and 149 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects for genotype and phenotype studies. Results The M1+ and M1- alleles frequencies were 0.808 and 0.192 for M1+ and M1-, respectively, comparable to the frequency of apoA1 (M1+ and M1- amongst a healthy Omani population, 0.788 and 0.212, respectively. The frequencies of the hetero- and homozygous subjects for the MspI polymorphism at -75 (M1- of the apoA1 gene were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean Lp(a concentration was significantly higher(P = 0.02 in subjects carrying M1- allele compared to M1+ allele of the APOA1 gene with an odd ratio of 2.3(95% CI, 1.13–14.3, irrespective of gender and the diabetic status. Conclusion ApolipoproteinA1-75 G/A (M1- polymorphism is relatively common and is positively associated with Lp(a and therefore, may confer a potential risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD.

  19. Impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: revisão de literatura Impact of the open and closed tracheal suctioning system on the incidence of mechanical ventilation associated pneumonia: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maia Lopes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é a infecção nosocomial mais comum em unidades de terapia intensiva, sendo a ventilação mecânica um fator fortemente associado ao seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed para identificar tentativas controladas aleatórias, publicadas no período de 1990 a novembro de 2008. Nove estudos foram incluídos. Dos estudos revisados, sete não observaram redução significante da incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica com o uso do sistema fechado comparado ao aberto, sendo que dois destes verificaram que o uso do sistema fechado resulta em incremento nas taxas de colonização sem incrementar sua incidência e um observou que o uso do sistema fechado não incrementa a colonização do trato respiratório e reduz a expansão de infecção resultando em redução nas taxas de sepse. Apenas dois estudos verificaram redução na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica com o uso do sistema fechado, e um destes revelou um risco 3.5 vezes maior de desenvolvimento desta infecção com o sistema aberto. Os resultados sugerem que o impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado é semelhante para o desenvolvimento da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica, assim a escolha do tipo de sistema de aspiração traqueal deve ser baseada em outros parâmetros. Entretanto, o sistema fechado aumenta o risco de colonização do trato respiratório, mas apresenta como vantagens a manutenção da ventilação mecânica e o menor prejuízo hemodinâmico.Pneumonia is the most common nosocominal infection in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation is a significant factor associated to its development. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of the open and closed tracheal suction

  20. miR-148a-3p Mediates Notch Signaling to Promote the Differentiation and M1 Activation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway plays critical roles in the differentiation and polarized activation of macrophages; however, the downstream molecular mechanisms underlying Notch activity in macrophages remain elusive. Our previous study has identified a group of microRNAs that mediate Notch signaling to regulate macrophage activation and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-148a-3p functions as a novel downstream molecule of Notch signaling to promote the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. Meanwhile, miR-148a-3p promoted M1 and inhibited M2 polarization of macrophages upon Notch activation. Macrophages overexpressing miR-148a-3p exhibited enhanced ability to engulf and kill bacteria, which was mediated by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further studies using reporter assay and Western blotting identified Pten as a direct target gene of miR-148a-3p in macrophages. Macrophages overexpressing miR-148a-3p increased their ROS production through the PTEN/AKT pathway, likely to defend against bacterial invasion. Moreover, miR-148a-3p also enhanced M1 macrophage polarization and pro-inflammatory responses through PTEN/AKT-mediated upregulation of NF-κB signaling. In summary, our data establish a novel molecular mechanism by which Notch signaling promotes monocyte differentiation and M1 macrophage activation through miR-148a-3p, and suggest that miR-148a-3p-modified monocytes or macrophages are potential new tools for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.

  1. NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-li; Wu, Yuan-bo; Fang, Chuan-qin; Qu, Ping; Gao, Zong-liang

    2016-01-15

    Microglia microvesicles (MVs) has shown to have significant biological functions under normal conditions. A diversity of miRNAs is involved in neuronal development, survival, function, and plasticity, but the exact functional role of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs in neuron damage is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia on neuron damage. Expression of Nos2, Arg-1, miR-375, syntaxin-1A, NDRG2 and Pdk 1 were evaluated using RT-PCR or western blotting. Cell viability of N2A neuron was quantified by a MTT assay. Microglia can be polarized into different functional phenotypes. Expression of NDRG2 and Nos2 were significantly increased by LPS treatment on N9 cells, whereas treatment with IL-4 dramatically suppressed the expression of NDRG2 and remarkably elevated expression of Arg-1. Besides, MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 microglia significantly inhibited cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A, and NDRG2 interference reversed the up-regulated miR-375 in LPS-treated N9 microglia and MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 cells. Furthermore, NDRG2 could modulate miR-375 expression in N9 microglia and MVs. And miR-375 inhibitor remarkably elevated Pdk1 expression in N2A neurons. Finally, miR-375 inhibitor could reverse suppression effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A. Our results demonstrated that NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage. The suppression of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia may be potential targets for alleviation of neuron damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M1-immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rameil, Steffen; Schubert, Peter; Grundmann, Peter; Dietrich, Richard; Maertlbauer, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M 1 -immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M 1 antibody (pAb-AFM 1 ), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B 1 conjugate (HRP-AFB 1 conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL -1 and allowed detection of 500 pg mL -1 (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL -1 AFM 1 .

  3. Transient solution of an M/M/1 vacation queue with a waiting server and impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif I. Ammar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Ammar [1] has discussed the transient behavior of a multiple vacations queue with impatient customers. In this paper, a similar technique is used to derive a new elegant explicit solution for an M/M/1 vacation queue with impatient customers and a waiting server, where the server is allowed to take a vacation whenever the system is empty after waiting for a random period of time. If the server does not return from the vacation before the expiry of the customer impatience time, the customer abandons the system forever. Moreover, the formulas of mean and variance expressed in terms of the obtained possibilities for this model.

  4. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  5. Involvement of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztaou, Samira; Maurice, Nicolas; Camon, Jeremy; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne; Liberge, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2016-08-31

    Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal

  6. DFT study on oxidation of HS(CH2) m SH ( m = 1-8) in oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Z.; Song, J. J.; Zhao, T. T.; Chen, C. Y.; He, M.; Du, J.

    2016-06-01

    Density functional theory was employed for calculation of HS(CH2) m SH ( m = 1-8) and its derivatives at B3LYP method at 6-31++g ( d, p) level. Using eigenvalues of LUMO and HOMO for HS(CH2) m SH, the standard electrode potentials were estimated by a stepwise multiple regression techniques (MLR), and obtained as E° = 1.500 + 7.167 × 10-3 HOMO-0.229 LUMO with high correlation coefficients of 0.973 and F values of 43.973.

  7. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    (EPS) at therapeutically relevant doses. In the present study, we examined whether the xanomeline-induced functional dopamine antagonism found in rodent studies could also be observed in nonhuman primates. In addition, we studied whether the lack of EPS observed in rodents also applies to primates......Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects...

  8. Influence of the projection of BCS functions on the M1 and E2 transitions in rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellah, M.; Hammann, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    E2 and M1 transition probabilities for odd-mass rare earth nuclei, have been calculated using both the usual BCS wave functions and the strict particle conserving, projected BCS functions. The blocking effect has been exactly and systematically taken into account. The influence of the Coriolis interaction has been studied using the first order perturbation theory. Allowance has been made for the β and γ vibrations. The unphysical effects, due to particle fluctuation in the BCS theory, are not always negligible, but are in most cases, less important than the Coriolis effect [fr

  9. Heterozygous M1V variant of ELA-2 gene mutation associated with G-CSF refractory severe congenital neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Bhuvana A; Yeager, Nicholas D; Bajwa, Rajinder P

    2011-09-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by maturation arrest at the promyelocyte/myelocyte phase in the bone marrow, absolute neutrophil count ELA-2 have been described. We report the case of a premature male infant with congenital neutropenia, associated with multiple infections, refractory to treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor who subsequently underwent matched sibling donor stem-cell transplant. He was found to be heterozygous for the M1V variant of the ELA-2 gene that we postulate to be causative for his severe neutropenia Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): USA/9507/BLF (ERDA--AL), Model AL-M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.A.; Bertram, R.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Edling, D.A.; Flanagan, T.M.; Griffin, J.F.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The SARP includes structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control of three insulated drum shipping containers identified as USA/9507/BLF (ERDA-AL), also called AL-M1, configurations 1, 3, and 5. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented. Each package consists of an inner container centered within an insulated steel drum. The contents are plutonium-239 and uranium-235 in configurations-1 and -3. The configuration-5 package is intended for shipment of up to 100,000 Ci of tritiated water immobilized on a sorbent such as molecular sieve

  11. Study of gamma-ray induced variability on F1M1-F3M3 distant tomato hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siromeatnicov, Iulia; Cotenco, Eugenia; Ciobanu, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the evaluation of the gamma radiation's action, the growth and development tomato plant has shown that the coefficient of variation of plant height character is on the rise with increasing doses of gamma radiation. The hybrid combination F 1 M 1 (L.hpriz.1998) irradiated with dose 150 Gy variant presented superior value a towards scrutiny for plant height of the characters, number of flowers and fruits per bunch, number of fruits per plant and fruit mass of. The character F 2 M 2 generation plant height registered diminished value compared to F 1 M 1 generation. The highest value was recorded at the hybrid combination F 2 M 2 L.hpriz.1998 200 Gy treated dose. The evaluation research has highlighted that at the doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, have confirmed an increase in characters of reproductive system: the number of flowers and fruits per bunch, number of fruits per plant, fruit mass and reduction of the characters waist and height of placing of the first inflorescences plant. Similar aspects with some differences as low as hybrid combination Lhpi1998 in relation to the radiation doses used under study were confirmed in the case F 3 M 3 . (authors)

  12. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA procedure was used. The statistical methods used in this study were based on normal confidence intervals and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 97.5% of the raw milk ranging from 6.52 to 68.17 ng/l and 95.7% of the pasteurized milk, ranging from 0.8 to 58.13 ng/l. Toxin levels in 10% of the raw milk and 2.1% of the pasteurized milk samples exceeded the Iranian national standard limit i.e. 50 ng/l.  Due to seasonal variations, mean concentration of AFM1 in the samples collected in winter was significantly (P < 0.03 higher than those collected in the summer. Conclusion: Large amount of AFM1 in milk samples might be a potential hazard for the public health. Reducing the levels of AFB1 in animal feedstuffs can be regarded as the initial step to control the transfer of AFM1 to humans.

  13. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morphological Traits in M1 Generation of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) V36 Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz Ahmad; Mohd Zulmadi Sani; Mustapha Akil

    2016-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the world most economically important fiber crops particularly in Asian-Pacific region. Mutation induction is a method to increase genetic divergence associated with selection, recombination, or a combination of these approaches in plant breeding. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of selected gamma irradiation doses (200 Gy and 300 Gy) on the kenaf morphological traits in M1 generation. Irradiated and non-irradiated of kenaf seed from V36 variety were planted in the field at Beseri, Perlis. Soil condition at the field, morphological changes and 10 morphological traits of irradiated plants were observed and evaluated against the controls. Cluster analysis result on M1 progenies showed that the mutation observed were classified into eight genotypic groups. The first two components from principal component analysis explained about 77.99 % of variation. Number of seed per pod, weight of seed per plant and dry stem biomass play important role to explain the variation since they showed positive correlated values for the first component analysis. Thus, this study is important in determining the effectiveness of these doses in generating mutations. In addition, it can also be used to generate a new source of germplasm in kenaf with enhanced quality traits such as high yielding and high fiber content. (author)

  14. Preliminary validation of computational model for neutron flux prediction of Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaibang, S.; Lekchaum, S.; Tipayakul, C.

    2015-05-01

    This study is a part of an on-going work to develop a computational model of Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) which is capable of accurately predicting the neutron flux level and spectrum. The computational model was created by MCNPX program and the CT (Central Thimble) in-core irradiation facility was selected as the location for validation. The comparison was performed with the typical flux measurement method routinely practiced at TRR-1/M1, that is, the foil activation technique. In this technique, gold foil is irradiated for a certain period of time and the activity of the irradiated target is measured to derive the thermal neutron flux. Additionally, the flux measurement with SPND (self-powered neutron detector) was also performed for comparison. The thermal neutron flux from the MCNPX simulation was found to be 1.79×1013 neutron/cm2s while that from the foil activation measurement was 4.68×1013 neutron/cm2s. On the other hand, the thermal neutron flux from the measurement using SPND was 2.47×1013 neutron/cm2s. An assessment of the differences among the three methods was done. The difference of the MCNPX with the foil activation technique was found to be 67.8% and the difference of the MCNPX with the SPND was found to be 27.8%.

  15. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  16. Co-expression of two subtypes of melatonin receptor on rat M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Long Sheng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs. Immunoreactivity for both MT1 and MT2 receptors was clearly seen in the cytoplasm of all labeled ipRGCs, indicating that these two receptors were co-expressed in each of these neurons. Furthermore, labeling for both the receptors were found in neonatal M1 cells as early as the day of birth. It is therefore highly plausible that retinal melatonin may directly modulate the activity of ipRGCs, thus regulating non-image forming visual functions.

  17. Relación entre la presión inspiratoria pico y la activación mecánica de los músculos inspiratorios durante respiración tranquila en pacientes con EPOC

    OpenAIRE

    Sarlabous Uranga, Leonardo; Torres Cebrián, Abel; Fiz Fernández, José Antonio; Gea Guiral, Joaquim; Martínez Llorens, Juana María; Jané Campos, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    En la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) la fuerza muscular inspiratoria (FMI) y la eficiencia mecánica de los músculos inspiratorios (EMMI) podrían verse reducidas como consecuencia de la hiperinsuflación. En este trabajo se registraron la presión inspiratoria en boca (PIpico) y la activación mecánica de los músculos inspiratorios en 10 pacientes EPOC severos y muy severos, durante respiración tranquila. Para determinar la activación mecánica de los músculos inspiratorios se empl...

  18. O Plano de Desenvolvimento da Educação: análise do projeto do MEC The Education Development Plan (EDP: analysis of the project of the Ministry of Education (MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval Saviani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a analisar globalmente a proposta do MEC, visando responder à seguinte pergunta: Em que medida esse novo plano se revela efetivamente capaz de enfrentar a questão da qualidade do ensino das escolas de educação básica? Para tanto, serão considerados os seguintes pontos: 1. A configuração do PDE, procurando entender sua composição e identificar cada uma das 30 ações em que ele se desdobra; 2. Análise da singularidade do plano em confronto com os planos anteriores, em especial com o vigente Plano Nacional de Educação; 3. A singularidade do PDE diante do problema da qualidade da educação básica; 4. As bases de sustentação do plano, visando verificar o grau em que está apto a assegurar a qualidade da educação básica; 5. Finalmente, à guisa de conclusão, sugere-se um caminho para superar as limitações do PDE.This article seeks to analyze globally the proposal of the Ministry of Education (MEC by answering the following question: to what extent is this new Plan effectively able to face the quality problem of basic education?* It thus explores the following elements: 1. The edp framework, in order to understand its composition and identify each one of the 30 actions in which it is divided; 2. An analysis of the singularity of this plan compared to the previous one, especially the current National Education Plan; 3. The singularity of the edp when faced with the problem of the quality of basic education; 4. The foundations of the plan, by verifying to what extent it is apt to ensure the quality of basic education; 5. Finally, as a conclusion, a way to overcome the limitations of the edp is suggested.

  19. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes from selective enrichments from animals and retail meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat. The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus, mecA (associated with methicillin resistance and PVL (virulence factor, and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68-0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement and 0.29-0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0-0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA

  20. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using