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Sample records for m1 capture cross

  1. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  2. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  3. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  4. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  5. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  6. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiao Long; LuHanLin; Yu Wei Xiang; Zhao Wen Rong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of sup 7 sup 1 Ga(n, gamma) sup 7 sup 2 Ga, sup 9 sup 4 Zr(n, gamma) sup 9 sup 5 Zr and sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Ir(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sup m sup 1 sup + sup g sup , sup m sup 2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of sup 7 sup 2 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  7. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  8. Neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectra of 89Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katabuchi Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron capture cross section of 89Y was measured by the time-of-flight method in an energy range from 15 to 100 keV. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive the capture yield. The absolute cross section was determined based on the standard reaciotn 197 Au(n, γ198 Au reaction. The neutron capture γ-ray spectrum was derived by unfolding the pulse-height spectrum with detector response functions.

  9. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzátko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Révay, Zs.; Molnár, G. L.; Firestone, R. B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2003-12-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122 Te , 124 Te , 125 Te , 126 Te , 128 Te , and 130 Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ -ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  10. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  11. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  12. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  13. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  14. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  15. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  16. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for the Weak s Process

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, M; Kaeppeler, F; Gallino, R; Pignatari, M; Uberseder, E

    2009-01-01

    In past decades a lot of progress has been made towards understanding the main s-process component that takes place in thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. During this process about half of the heavy elements, mainly between 90=8Msolar) and is much less understood. A better characterization of the weak s component would help disentangle the various contributions to element production in this region. For this purpose, a series of measurements of neutron-capture cross sections have been performed on medium-mass nuclei at the 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator at FZK using the activation method. Also, neutron captures on abundant light elements with A<56 play an important role for s-process nucleosynthesis, since they act as neutron poisons and affect the stellar neutron balance. New results are presented for the (n,g) cross sections of 41K and 45Sc, and revisions are reported for a number of cross sections based on improved spectroscopic information.

  18. Interface-state capture cross section—Why does it vary so much?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J. T.; Matsuda, A.; Campbell, J. P.; Cheung, K. P., E-mail: kin.cheung@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    A capture cross section value is often assigned to Si–SiO{sub 2} interface defects. Using a kinetic variation of the charge pumping technique and transition state theory, we show that the value of capture cross section is extremely sensitive to the measurement approach and does not provide any meaningful insight into the physics involved. We argue that capture cross section is neither a physical property of interface defects nor is there any need to assign capture cross section values.

  19. Systematics Study on Thermal Capture Radiation Cross Section for Fission Nuclides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Xi; WU; Hai-cheng; WANG; Ji-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>The research of the neutron capture radiation cross section is surveyed. The systematics of capture radiation cross section contains single energy cross section systematics, excitation function, and spectra systematics. This work gathers the experimental cross sections of actinide nuclei at the thermal energy, and evaluated data. 382 nuclei of ENDF/BⅦ.0, 398 nuclei of JENDL-4.0, 232 nuclei of CENDL-3.1, and the evaluation data of BNL are surveyed. Based on the evaluation, a set of capture cross sections for actinide nuclei at thermal energy is recommended.

  20. Corrections to nucleon capture cross sections computed in truncated Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B; Odell, D; Papenbrock, T; Platter, L

    2016-01-01

    Nucleon capture cross sections enter various astrophysical processes. The measurement of proton capture on nuclei at astrophysically relevant low energies is a challenge, and the precise theoretical computation in this long-wavelength regime requires us to understand the corrections due to finite Hilbert spaces. We derive extrapolation formulas that relate the infrared regularized capture amplitudes to the infinite basis limit and demonstrate their efficacy for proton-proton fusion. Our results are thus relevant to current calculations of few-body capture reactions such as proton-proton fusion or proton capture on the deuteron, and also open the way for a more precise understanding of nucleon capture on heavier nuclei.

  1. Effect of diameter of nanoparticles and capture cross-section library on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of diameter of 10B nanoparticles and various neutron capture cross-section libraries on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of a 252Cf source, a soft tissue phantom and a tumor containing 10B nanoparticles. Using 252Cf as a neutron source, macroscopic dose enhancement factor (MDEF) and total dose rate in tumor in the presence of 100, 200, and 500 ppm of 10B nanoparticles with 25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm diameters were calculated. Additionally, the effect of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, and CENDL neutron capture cross-section libraries on MDEF was evaluated. Results There is not a linear relationship between the average MDEF value and nanoparticles’ diameter but the average MDEF grows with increased concentration of 10B nanoparticles. There is an increasing trend for average MDEF with the tumor distance. The average MDEF values were obtained the same for various neutron capture cross-section libraries. The maximum and minimum doses that effect on the total dose in tumor were neutron and secondary photon doses, respectively. Furthermore, the boron capture related dose component reduced in some extent with increase of diameter of 10B nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that from physical point of view, various nanoparticle diameters have no dominant effect on average MDEF value in tumor. Furthermore, it is concluded that various neutron capture cross-section libraries are resulted to the same macroscopic dose enhancements. However, it is predicted that taking into account the biological effects for various nanoparticle diameters will result in different dose enhancements. PMID:25834582

  2. Corrections to nucleon capture cross sections computed in truncated Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B.; Ekström, A.; Odell, D.; Papenbrock, T.; Platter, L.

    2017-03-01

    Nucleon capture cross sections enter various astrophysical processes. The measurement of proton capture on nuclei at astrophysically relevant low energies is a challenge, and theoretical computations in this long-wavelength regime are sensitive to the long-distance asymptotics of the wave functions. A theoretical foundation for estimating and correcting errors introduced in capture cross sections due to Hilbert space truncation has so far been lacking. We derive extrapolation formulas that relate the infrared regularized capture amplitudes to the infinite basis limit and demonstrate their efficacy for proton-proton fusion. Our results are thus relevant to current calculations of few-body capture reactions such as proton-proton fusion or proton capture on the deuteron, and they also open the way for the use of ab initio many-body wave functions represented in finite Hilbert spaces in precision calculations of nucleon capture on heavier nuclei.

  3. Stream Segments Captures and Crossings Associated With 2012 Aquatic Organism Passage Study Siuslaw National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Stream segments, aquatic organism captures, stream surveys, and road-stream crossings described by these metadata accompany a 2012 electrofishing study of the...

  4. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  5. Photoneutron cross sections measurements in {sup 13}C with thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, Renato; Carbonari, Artur W.; Terremoto, Luis A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rsemmler@ipen.br; carbonar@ipen.br; laaterre@ipen.br; Goncalez, Odair L. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados]. E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.br

    2007-07-01

    Photoneutrons cross sections measurements of {sup 13}C have been obtained in energy interval between 5,3 and 10,8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 - 21 eV), produced by 21 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 (2MW) research reactor. The sample have been irradiated inside a 4p geometry neutron detector system 'Long Counter', 520,5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (EG and G ORTEC, 25 cm{sup 3}, 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A methodology for unfolding the set of experimental compound cross sections, have been used in order to obtain the cross sections at specific excitation energy values (principal gamma lines energies of the capture targets). The cross sections were compared with experimental data, reported by other authors, using different gamma-ray sources. A good agreement was observed between in this work and reported in the literature. (author)

  6. Differential cross sections for single-electron capture in He{sup 2+}-D collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Dagnac, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)

    1995-06-14

    A translational energy spectroscopy technique was used to study single-electron capture into the He{sup +} (n = 2) and He{sup +} (n 3) states in He{sup 2+}-D collisions. Differential cross sections were determined at 4, 6 and 8 keV in the angular range 5`-1{sup o}30` (laboratory frame). As expected, single-electron capture into the n = 2 state was found to be the dominant process; total cross sections for capture into the He{sup +} (n = 3) state were compared to other experimental and theoretical results. (author).

  7. Ionization and capture in water: a multi-differential cross sections study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented to provide accurate multiple differential and total cross sections for describing the two most important ionizing processes, namely, ionization and capture induced by heavy charged particles in water. A detailed study of the influence of the target description on the cross section calculations is also provided.

  8. Proton-deuteron radiative capture cross sections at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, A A; Amir-Ahmadi, H R; Bacelar, J C S; Berg, A M van den; Castelijns, R; van Garderen, E D; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kiš, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J G; Wörtche, H J

    2011-01-01

    Differential cross sections of the reaction $p(d,^3{\\rm He})\\gamma$ have been measured at deuteron laboratory energies of 110, 133 and 180 MeV. The data were obtained with a coincidence setup measuring both the outgoing $^3$He and the photon. The data are compared with modern calculations including all possible meson-exchange currents and two- and three- nucleon forces in the potential. The data clearly show a preference for one of the models, although the shape of the angular distribution cannot be reproduced by any of the presented models.

  9. Impact of Thorium Capture Cross Section Uncertainty on the Thorium Utilized ADS Reactivity Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the researches on fast neutron spectrum system utilized thorium fuel are widely conducted. However, the recent thorium cross section libraries are limited compared to uranium cross section libraries. The impact of thorium cross section uncertainty on thorium fuel utilized accelerator driven system (ADS reactivity calculation is estimated in this study. The uncertainty of the keff caused by 232Th capture cross section of JENDL-4.0 is about 1.3%. The uncertainty of JENDL-4.0 is needed to be enhanced to provide more reliable results on reactivity calculation for the fast system. The impact of uncertainty of  232Th capture cross section of ENDF/B-VII is small (0.1%. Therefore, it will cause no significant impact of the thorium cross section library on the thorium utilized ADS design calculation.

  10. Theoretical neutron-capture cross sections for r-process nucleosynthesis in the $^{48}$Ca region

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, T; Kratz, K -L; Balogh, W; Oberhummer, H

    2015-01-01

    We calculate neutron capture cross sections for r-process nucleosynthesis in the $^{48}$Ca region, namely for the isotopes $^{40-44}$S, $^{46-50}$Ar, $^{56-66}$Ti, $^{62-68}$Cr, and $^{72-76}$Fe. While previously only cross sections resulting from the compound nucleus reaction mechanism (Hauser-Feshbach) have been considered, we recalculate not only that contribution to the cross section but also include direct capture on even-even nuclei. The level schemes, which are of utmost importance in the direct capture calculations, are taken from quasi-particle states obtained with a folded-Yukawa potential and Lipkin-Nogami pairing. Most recent deformation values derived from experimental data on $\\beta$-decay half lives are used where available. Due to the consideration of direct capture, the capture rates are enhanced and the "turning points" in the r-process path are shifted to slightly higher mass numbers. We also discuss the sensitivity of the direct capture cross sections on the assumed deformation.

  11. Improved Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurements with the n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Perkowski, J; Andriamonje, S; Carrapico, C; Moinul, M; Vannini, G; Quesada, J M; Harrisopulos, S; Milazzo, P M; Berthier, B; Lozano, M; Krticka, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Nolte, R; Chiaveri, E; Saarmento, H; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Massimi, C; Giubrone, G; Avrigeanu, V; Martinez, T; Guerrero, C; Andrzejewski, J; Karadimos, D; Mengoni, A; Ganesan, S; Vlachoudis, V; Becares, V; Cortes, G; Variale, V; Losito, H; Calvino, F; Kappeler, F; Gunsing, F; Gramegna, F; Colonna, N; Marrone, S; Pavlik, A; Berthoumieux, E; Paradela, C; Mastinu, P F; Vaz, P; Tassan-Got, L; Kadi, Y; Tarrio, D; Cano-Ott, D; Brugger, M; Wallner, A; Audouin, L; Fernandez-Ordonez, M; Becvar, F; Goncalves, I F; Cerutti, F; Ventura, A; Mosconi, M; Tagliente, G; Duran, I; Casado, A; Ioannides, K; Weiss, C; Mirea, M; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Vlastou, R; Calviani, M; Lederer, C; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Marganiec, J; Vidriales, J J; Lebbos, E; Leeb, H; Heil, M; Dillmann, I; Tain, J L; Belloni, F

    2011-01-01

    The n\\_TOF collaboration operates a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) {[}1] for measuring neutron capture cross-sections of low-mass and/or radioactive samples. The results obtained with the TAC have led to a substantial improvement of the capture cross sections of (237)Np and (240)Pu {[}2]. The experience acquired during the first measurements has allowed us to optimize the performance of the TAC and to improve the capture signal to background ratio, thus opening the way to more complex and demanding measurements on rare radioactive materials. The new design has been reached by a series of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of complete experiments and dedicated test measurements. The new capture setup will be presented and the main achievements highlighted.

  12. Absolute measurements of electron capture cross sections of C3+ from atomic and molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, M. M.; Melo, W. S.; Santos, A. C. F.; Shah, M. B.; Sigaud, G. M.; Montenegro, E. C.

    2000-02-01

    Absolute measurements of single- and double-electron-capture cross sections by C3+ projectiles on atomic and molecular hydrogen targets were performed for projectile energies between 1.0 and 3.5 MeV for the single- and 1.0 and 2.0 MeV for the double-capture processes. The icons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="TOP"/> H /icons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="TOP"/> H2 cross section ratios were measured using an absolutely calibrated tungsten-tube furnace for the production of atomic hydrogen. The single-capture data are compared with calculations based on the boundary-corrected first Born approximation, the eikonal approximation and a semiclassical model, presenting a good overall agreement. Calculations for the double capture using an analytical expression, obtained within the independent electron approximation and based on the same semiclassical model, give a reasonable qualitative description of the data.

  13. Compound-nuclear Reactions with Unstable Isotopes: Constraining Capture Cross Sections with Indirect Data and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Jutta

    2016-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have recently been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. These methods aim at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from the decay of the compound nucleus relevant to the desired reaction. Each method produces this compound nucleus in a different manner (via a light-ion reaction, a photon-induced reaction, or β decay) and requires additional ingredients to yield the sought-after cross section. This contribution focuses on the process of determining capture cross sections from inelastic scattering and transfer experiments. Specifically, theoretical descriptions of the (p,d) transfer reaction have been developed to complement recent measurements in the Zr-Y region. The procedure for obtaining constraints for unknown capture cross sections is illustrated. The main advantages and challenges of this approach are compared to those of the proposed alternatives. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Surface State Capture Cross-Section at the Interface between Silicon and Hafnium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial properties between silicon and hafnium oxide (HfO2 are explored by the gated-diode method and the subthreshold measurement. The density of interface-trapped charges, the current induced by surface defect centers, the surface recombination velocity, and the surface state capture cross-section are obtained in this work. Among the interfacial properties, the surface state capture cross-section is approximately constant even if the postdeposition annealing condition is changed. This effective capture cross-section of surface states is about 2.4 × 10−15 cm2, which may be an inherent nature in the HfO2/Si interface.

  15. Shell effect and capture cross sections in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU SaiSai; BIAN BaoAn; LIU Min; FENG ZhaoQing; ZHANG FengShou

    2009-01-01

    The shell effect is included in the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in which the shell correction energy of the system is calculated by using the deformed two-center shell model.A switch function is introduced to connect the shell correction energy of the projectile and the target with that of the compound nucleus during the dynamical fusion process.It is found that the calculated capture cross sections reproduce the experimental data quantitatively at the energy near the Coulomb barrier.The capture cross sections for reaction 8035Br+20882Pb→288117X are also calculated and discussed.

  16. Shell effect and capture cross sections in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The shell effect is included in the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in which the shell correction energy of the system is calculated by using the deformed two-center shell model.A switch function is introduced to connect the shell correction energy of the projectile and the target with that of the compound nucleus during the dynamical fusion process.It is found that the calculated capture cross sections reproduce the experimental data quantitatively at the energy near the Coulomb barrier.The capture cross sections for reaction 8305 Br + 28028 Pb → 121878X are also calculated and discussed.

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurement on 91Zr at J-PARC/MLF/ANNRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron capture cross section measurement on 91Zr was performed at neutron TOF beam line ANNRI installed at J-PARC/MLF. Prompt capture gamma rays from the sample were detected with an array of large Ge detectors at a distance of 21.5 m from the spallation neutron source by the time-of-fligh (TOF method. The neutron capture gamma-ray pulse-height spectra from the 182-eV p-wave resonance and the 292-eV s-wave resonance were obtained by gating on the TOF regions, respectively. Though the decay patterns of primary transitions from the capture state were quite different between resonances, the prominent characteristics common to both resonances was the very strong ground-state transition from the 935-keV state. Therefore, a ground-state transition method was applied to obtain the capture yield, so that the background components due to impurities were successfully eliminated. The preliminary result of the neutron capture cross section for 91Zr up to 5 keV is presented.

  18. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  19. Ion-induced ionization and capture cross sections for DNA nucleobases impacted by light ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented for describing electron ionization and electron capture induced by heavy charged particles in DNA bases. Multiple differential and total cross sections are determined and compared with the scarce existing experimental data.

  20. FY07 LDRD Final Report Neutron Capture Cross-Section Measurements at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Wilk, P; Becker, J; Wang, T

    2008-02-08

    We have measured neutron capture cross sections intended to address defense science problems including mix and the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU), and provide details about statistical decay of excited nuclei. A major part of this project included developing the ability to produce radioactive targets. The cross-section measurements were made using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, the detector array called DANCE (The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for astrophysics and stockpile stewardship. DANCE is at the leading edge of neutron capture physics and represents a major leap forward in capability. The detector array was recently built with LDRD money. Our measurements are a significant part of the early results from the new experimental DANCE facility. Neutron capture reactions are important for basic nuclear science, including astrophysics and the statistics of the {gamma}-ray cascades, and for applied science, including stockpile science and technology. We were most interested in neutron capture with neutron energies in the range between 1 eV and a few hundred keV, with targets important to basic science, and the s-process in particular. Of particular interest were neutron capture cross-section measurements of rare isotopes, especially radioactive isotopes. A strong collaboration between universities and Los Alamos due to the Academic Alliance was in place at the start of our project. Our project gave Livermore leverage in focusing on Livermore interests. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory did not have a resident expert in cross-section measurements; this project allowed us to develop this expertise. For many radionuclides, the cross sections for destruction, especially (n,{gamma}), are not well known, and there is no adequate model that describes neutron capture. The modeling problem is significant because, at low energies where capture reactions are important, the neutron

  1. Proton capture cross section of 7Be and the flux of high energy solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, B.W.; Elwyn, A. J.; Davids, C. N.; Koetke, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The low energy cross section for the 7Be(p, γ)8B reaction has been measured by detecting the delayed α particles from the 8B beta decay. Detailed discussion is presented of the analysis of the radioactive 7Be target including the use of two independent methods to determine the 7Be areal density. The direct capture part of the cross section is subtracted from the total cross section to deduce resonance parameters for the 1+ first excited state in 8B. The zero-energy astrophysical S factor infe...

  2. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vieira, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Becker, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Ching-Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Krticka, Milan [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross sections resonance integrals and g-factors

    CERN Document Server

    Mughabghab, S F

    2003-01-01

    The thermal radiative capture cross sections and resonance integrals of elements and isotopes with atomic numbers from 1 to 83 (as well as sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) have been re-evaluated by taking into consideration all known pertinent data published since 1979. This work has been undertaken as part of an IAEA co-ordinated research project on 'Prompt capture gamma-ray activation analysis'. Westcott g-factors for radiative capture cross sections at a temperature of 300K were computed by utilizing the INTER code and ENDF-B/VI (Release 8) library files. The temperature dependence of the Westcott g-factor is illustrated for sup 1 sup 1 sup 3 Cd, sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Xe and sup 1 sup 5 sup 7 Gd at temperatures of 150, 294 and 400K. Comparisons have also been made of the newly evaluated capture cross sections of sup 6 Li, sup 7 Li, sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 2 sup 0 sup 7 Pb with those determined by the k sub 0 method.

  4. Indirect measurement of radiative capture cross sections relevant in astrophysical scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Ushasi Datta

    2007-07-01

    Radiative capture cross sections play a significant role in many cosmic phenomena, e.g. galactic evolution, star formation and planet formation etc. In explosive stellar burning scenarios, a large number of unstable nuclei play a crucial role, and reliable reaction cross sections are necessary for astrophysical model calculations, which will help in turn to understand the phenomena. A number of indirect methods are being explored by experimental nuclear physicists to avoid radioactive targets and other difficulties of direct measurements of radiative capture cross sections. The Coulomb dissociation of radioactive ion beams at intermediate energy is one of the most powerful indirect methods for measuring capture cross sections, and is being explored at various laboratories in the world. Here, a brief current status report is presented. This indirect method has a number of advantages compared to direct measurements, but there are also a number of limitations to this method with the presently available experimental facilities. A discussion on these aspects is given, together with an outlook on future experimental prospects.

  5. Neutron-induced capture cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of neutron-capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei is opening the way to understand and clarify the properties of many nuclei of interest for nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and particularly for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The surrogate approach is well-recognized as a potentially very useful method to extract neutron cross sections for low-energy compound-nuclear reactions and to overcome the difficulties related to the target radioactivity. In this work we will assess where we stand on these neutron-capture cross section measurements and how we can achieve the short-lived Minor Actinides nuclei involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. The CENBG collaboration applied the surrogate method to determine the neutron-capture cross section of 233Pa (T1/2 = 27 d. The 233Pa (n,γ cross section is then deduced from the measured gamma decay probability of 234Pa compound nucleus formed via the surrogate 232Th(3He,p reaction channel. The obtained cross section data, covering the neutron energy range 0.1 to 1 MeV, have been compared with the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The importance of establishing benchmarks is stressed for the minor actinides region. However, the lack of desired targets led us to propose recently the 174Yb (3He,pγ reaction as a surrogate reaction for the (n,γ predetermined benchmark cross section of 175Lu. An overview of the experimental setup combining gamma ray detectors such as Ge and C6D6 in coincidence with light charged particles ΔE-E Telescopes will be presented and preliminary results will be discussed.

  6. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  7. Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of 62Ni in the keV-Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Greife, U.; Haight, R. C.; Hatarik, R.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 62Ni, relative to gold as a standard, was determined in the energy range from 250 eV to 100 keV. This energy range covers the region between 5 keV to 20 keV, which is not available in ENDF. Capture events are detected with the 160-fold 4π BaF2 Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. One of the challenges was to process the high count rate of 4 MHz, which required an optimization of the data acquisition software. The neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight technique using a flight path of 20.25 m. The sample mass of the 96% enriched 62Ni target was 210 mg and it was mounted in a 1.5 μm thick Mylar foil.

  8. Derivation of capture and reaction cross sections from experimental quasi-elastic and elastic backscattering probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, V V; Antonenko, N V; Gomes, P R S

    2013-01-01

    The direct measurement of the reaction or capture (fusion) cross section is a difficult task since it would require the measurement of individual cross sections of many reaction channels, and most of them could be reached only by specific experiments. This would require different experimental set-ups not always available at the same laboratory and, consequently, such direct measurements would demand a large amount of beam time and would take probably some years to be reached. Because of that, the measurements of elastic scattering angular distributions that cover full angular ranges and optical model analysis have been used for the determination of reaction cross sections. This traditional method consists in deriving the parameters of the complex optical potentials which fit the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and then of deriving the reaction cross sections predicted by these potentials. Even so, both the experimental part and the analysis of this latter method are not so simple. In the...

  9. Neutron capture cross section of $^{25}$Mg and its astrophysical implications

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the stable $^{25}$Mg isotope. This experiment aims at the improvement of existing results for nuclear astrophysics.The measurement will be carried out under similar conditions as for the Mgexperiment that was completed at n_TOF during 2003. A metal $^{25}$Mg-enriched sample will be used in the proposed experiment instead of a MgO powder sample, which was used in the previous measurement and prevented us to minimize the uncertainty of the measured cross section. This experiment will be part of an ongoing study for a comprehensive discussion of the s-process abundances in massive stars.

  10. Capture cross sections of 15N(n, {\\gamma})16N at astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Guang-wei; Sheng, Zong-qiang; Tian, Feng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We have reanalyzed reaction cross sections of 16N on 12C target. The nucleon density distribution of 16N, especially surface density distribution, was extracted using the modified Glauber model. On the basis of dilute surface densities, the discussion of 15N(n, {\\gamma})16N reaction was performed within the framework of the direct capture reaction mechanism. The calculations agreed quite well with the experimental data.

  11. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of 41K and 45Sc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Uberseder, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Pignatari, M.

    2016-05-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of light nuclei (A important for s -process scenarios since they act as neutron poisons. We report on measurements of the neutron capture cross sections of 41K and 45Sc, which were performed at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator via the activation method in a quasistellar neutron spectrum corresponding to a thermal energy of k T =25 keV. Systematic effects were controlled by repeated irradiations, resulting in overall uncertainties of less than 3%. The measured spectrum-averaged data have been used to normalize the energy-dependent (n ,γ ) cross sections from the main data libraries JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0, and ENDF/B-VII.1, and a set of Maxwellian averaged cross sections was calculated for improving the s -process nucleosynthesis yields in AGB stars and in massive stars. At k T =30 keV, the new Maxwellian averaged cross sections of 41K and 45Sc are 19.2 ±0.6 mb and 61.3 ±1.8 mb, respectively. Both values are 20% lower than previously recommended. The effect of neutron poisons is discussed for nuclei with A <56 in general and for the investigated isotopes in particular.

  12. Neutron capture cross section of $^{90}$Zr Bottleneck in the s-process reaction flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliente, G; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Abbondanno, U; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Bečvář, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapiço, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Köhler, P; Kossionides, E; Krtička, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M, C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2008-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes have important implications in nuclear astrophysics and for reactor design. The small cross section of the neutron magic nucleus 90Zr, which accounts for more than 50% of natural zirconium represents one of the key isotopes for the stellar s-process, because it acts as a bottleneck in the neutron capture chain between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes. The same element, Zr, also is an important component of the structural materials used in traditional and advanced nuclear reactors. The (n,γ) cross section has been measured at CERN, using the n_TOF spallation neutron source. In total, 45 resonances could be resolved in the neutron energy range below 70 keV, 10 being observed for the first time thanks to the high resolution and low backgrounds at n_TOF. On average, the Γγ widths obtained in resonance analyses with the R-matrix code SAMMY were 15% smaller than reported previously. By these results, the accuracy of the Maxwellian averaged cross section f...

  13. Neutron capture on (94)Zr: Resonance parameters and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliente, G; Fujii, K; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M.T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tain, J.L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M.C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2011-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes play an important role in nucleosynthesis studies. The s-process reaction flow between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes passes through the neutron magic nucleus (90)Zr and through (91,92,93,94)Zr, but only part of the flow extends to (96)Zr because of the branching point at (95)Zr. Apart from their effect on the s-process flow, the comparably small isotopic (n, gamma) cross sections make Zr also an interesting structural material for nuclear reactors. The (94)Zr (n, gamma) cross section has been measured with high resolution at the spallation neutron source n_TOF at CERN and resonance parameters are reported up to 60 keV neutron energy.

  14. Laser cross-linking protein captures for living cells on a biochip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Chen, Hai-Wen; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, bio-sensing pads are proposed to capture living cells, which are fabricated on cover glasses by cross-linking proteins/antibodies using laser induced photochemistry. The biological functions of the cross-linked protein/antibody were verified by capturing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Leptospira, and red blood cells (RBCs), separately, with associated protein/antibody sensing pads. The experimental results show that S. aureus were bound on GFP-AcmA' pad after minutes of incubation and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) rinsing. No binding was observed with reference pad made of neutral bovine serum albumin (BSA). Second, A-type RBCs were chosen as the model cell to demonstrate the blood typing feasibility of the anti-A pad in microchannel. The A-type RBCs were captured only by the anti-A pad, but not the reference pad made of BSA. The same experimental model was carried out on the Leptospira, which stuck on the blood serum pad after PBS rinsing, but not BSA pad. This study provides a potential platform for simple and direct detection of living full cells without culture that could be used in point-of-care settings.

  15. The thermal neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{60}$Fe

    CERN Document Server

    Heftrich, T; Dressler, R; Eberhardt, K; Endres, A; Glorius, J; Göbel, K; Hampel, G; Heftrich, M; Käppeler, F; Lederer, C; Mikorski, M; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Stieghorst, C; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Slavkovská, Z; Sonnabend, K; Wallner, A; Weigand, M; Wiehl, N; Zauner, S

    2015-01-01

    50% of the heavy element abundances are produced via slow neutron capture reactions in different stellar scenarios. The underlying nucleosynthesis models need the input of neutron capture cross sections. One of the fundamental signatures for active nucleosynthesis in our galaxy is the observation of long-lived radioactive isotopes, such as $^{60}$Fe with a half-life of $2.60\\times10^6$ yr. To reproduce this $\\gamma$-activity in the universe, the nucleosynthesis of $^{60}$Fe has to be understood reliably. A $^{60}$Fe sample produced at the Paul-Scherrer-Institut was activated with thermal and epithermal neutrons at the research reactor at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universit\\"at Mainz. The thermal neutron capture cross section has been measured for the first time to $\\sigma_{\\text{th}}=0.226 \\ (^{+0.044}_{-0.049})$ b. An upper limit of $\\sigma_{\\text{RI}} < 0.50$ b could be determined for the resonance integral. An extrapolation towards the astrophysicaly interesting energy regime between $kT$=10 keV and 100 ke...

  16. Determining neutron-capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction technique

    CERN Document Server

    Forssén, C; Escher, J; Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K

    2007-01-01

    Indirect methods play an important role in the determination of nuclear reaction cross sections that are hard to measure directly. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using the so-called surrogate method to extract neutron-capture cross sections for low energy compound-nuclear reactions in spherical and near-spherical nuclei. We present the surrogate method and develop a statistical nuclear-reaction simulation to explore different approaches to utilize surrogate reaction data. We assess the success of each approach by comparing the extracted cross sections with a predetermined benchmark. In particular, we employ regional systematics of nuclear properties in the 34 <= Z <= 46 region to calculate (n,gamma) cross sections for a series of Zr isotopes, and to simulate a surrogate experiment and the extraction of the desired cross section. We identify one particular approach that may provide very useful estimates of the cross section, and we discuss some of the limitations of the method. General r...

  17. Measurement of 208Pb(n ,γ )209Pb Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, L.; Tessler, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Halfon, S.; Guerrero, C.; Kaizer, B.; Kijel, D.; Kreisel, A.; Palchan, T.; Paul, M.; Perry, A.; Schimel, G.; Silverman, I.; Shor, A.; Tamim, N.; Vaintraub, S.

    2017-07-01

    The doubly magic 208Pb nucleus is a bottleneck at the termination of the s -process path due to its very low neutron capture cross section. This cross section is also important for the decomposition of s , r processes and U/Th radiogenic decay contributions to the Pb-Bi solar abundances. The 208Pb(n ,γ )209Pb cross section was measured at the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility Phase I using an intense quasi-Maxwellian neutron source produced by irradiation of the liquid-lithium target with a 1.5-mA continuous-wave proton beam at 1.94 MeV. The cross section was measured by counting the β activity from the irradiated lead target. The measurement allowed us to evaluate the Maxwellian averaged cross section (MACS) at 30 keV obtaining a value of 0.33(2) mb. This has been compared with the earlier activation and time-of-flight measurements found in the literature. The MACS cross-sectional value of the 63Cu(n ,γ )64Cu reaction was determined in the same experiment and is compared to a recent published value.

  18. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...... no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays.METHODS:Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested with the three...... cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months.RESULTS:Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3 assays...

  19. Exotic Properties of Light Nuclei and their Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Mengoni, A; Nakamura, T; Ishihara, M

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the implications of the neutron halo configuration, observed in the ground-state of some neutron-rich light nuclei, on neutron radiative transition processes. In particular, we have studied the influence of the neutron halo on the direct radiative capture (DRC) process. The energy dependence as well as the strength of E1 emission due to incident p-wave neutrons is strongly influenced by the halo configuration of the residual nucleus capturing state. We have compared the calculated 10Be(n,gamma)11Be DRC cross section with that derived from the experiment in the inverse kinematics (Coulomb dissociation of 11Be). We show from the comparison that some important information on the structure of the halo nucleus 11Be can be derived.

  20. Actinide fission and capture cross section measurements at ILL: the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, A.; Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Fioni, G.; Foucher, Y.; Marie, F.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mahamid, I. Al. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S division, Berkeley CA (United States); Blandin, Ch. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX - Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Saclay/DEN/DPC/SECR - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Faust, H.; Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Fission cross section of short-lived minor actinides is of prime importance for the incineration of minor actinides in high and thermal neutron fluxes. But due to the shortness of their half-lives, measurements are difficult to handle on these isotopes and the existing data present some large discrepancies. An original method has been developed, in the framework of the Mini-INCA project at ILL, to measure the fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides with low error bars associated even for short-lived isotopes. This method lies on a quasi on-line alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and on the use of fission micro-chambers. Coupled to a very powerful Monte-Carlo simulation, both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials could be gathered. In this paper, the method is explained in its originality and some recent results are given and compared with existing measurements and evaluated data libraries. (authors)

  1. The effects of ablation on the cross section of planetary envelopes at capturing planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, Omar G.; Brunini, Adrián

    2008-06-01

    We explore the cross section of giant planet envelopes at capturing planetesimals of different sizes. For this purpose we employ two sets of realistic planetary envelope models (computed assuming for the protoplanetary nebula masses of 10 and 5 times the mass of the minimum mass solar nebula), account for drag and ablation effects and study the trajectories along which planetesimals move. The core accretion of these models has been computed in the oligarchic growth regime [Fortier, A., Benvenuto, O.G., Brunini, A., 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 473, 311-322], which has also been considered for the velocities of the incoming planetesimals. This regime predicts velocities larger that those used in previous studies of this problem. As the rate of ablation is dependent on the third power of velocity, ablation is more important in the oligarchic growth regime. We compute energy and mass deposition, fractional ablated masses and the total cross section of planets for a wide range of values of the critical parameter of ablation. In computing the total cross section of the planet we have included the contributions due to mass deposited by planetesimals moving along unbound orbits. Our results indicate that, for the case of small planetary cores and low velocities for the incoming planetesimals, ablation has a negligible impact on the capture cross section in agreement with the results presented in Inaba and Ikoma [Inaba, S., Ikoma, M., 2003. Astron. Astrophys. 410, 711-723]. However for the case of larger cores and high velocities of the incoming planetesimals as predicted by the oligarchic growth regime, we find that ablation is important in determining the planetary cross section, being several times larger than the value corresponding ignoring ablation. This is so regardless of the size of the incoming planetesimals.

  2. Capture cross sections of 15N(n, γ)16N at astrophysical energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guang-Wei; Ma, Jun-Bing; Sheng, Zong-Qiang; Shi, Guo-Zhu; Tian, Feng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Chao

    2016-12-01

    We have reanalyzed reaction cross sections of 16N on a 12C target. The nucleon density distribution of 16N, especially surface density distribution, was extracted using the modified Glauber model. On the basis of dilute surface densities, the 15N(n, γ)16N reaction is discussed within the framework of the direct capture reaction mechanism. The calculations agree quite well with the experimental data. Support given by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11447236, 11505002, 11247001) and Foundation of Anhui University of Science and Technology (11130, 12608)

  3. Measurements of fast—neutron capture cross sections for 159Tb and 169Tm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJin-Xiang; ShiZhao-Min; 等

    1998-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections for 159Tb and 169Tm relative to the 197Au (n,γ)198Au reaction are measured at neutron energies of 0.57,1.10 and 1.60 MeV by using the activation method.The activities of the products are measured with a high resolution HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer.The errors of the present work are 5-6% for Tb,6-7% for Tm.The recommended data in energy region of 0.4-3.0MeV are given as compared with other data published previously.

  4. Radiative proton capture cross sections in the mass range $40-55$

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipti; Gangopadhyay, G; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    Proton capture cross sections in the energy range of astrophysical interest for mass region 40-54 have been calculated in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with reaction code TALYS1.6. The density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction folded with target radial matter densities from relativistic mean field approach is used to obtain the semi-microscopic optical potential. A definite normalization of potential-well depths has been used over the entire mass region. The $(p,\\gamma)$ rates of some reactions, important in the astrophysical scenario, are calculated using the potential in the relevant mass region.

  5. Neutron capture cross section of unstable 63Ni implications for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Becares, V; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapico, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; Garcia, A R; Giubrone, G; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Goncalves, I F; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martinez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrio, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T J; Zugec, P

    2013-01-01

    The $^{63}$Ni($n, \\gamma$) cross section has been measured for the first time at the neutron time-of-flight facility n\\_TOF at CERN from thermal neutron energies up to 200 keV. In total, capture kernels of 12 (new) resonances were determined. Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections were calculated for thermal energies from kT = 5 keV to 100 keV with uncertainties around 20%. Stellar model calculations for a 25 M$_\\odot$ star show that the new data have a significant effect on the $s$-process production of $^{63}$Cu, $^{64}$Ni, and $^{64}$Zn in massive stars, allowing stronger constraints on the Cu yields from explosive nucleosynthesis in the subsequent supernova.

  6. Radioanalytical prediction of radiative capture in 99Mo production via transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing by cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Pazirandeh, Ali; Tenreiro, Claudio; Kadi, Yacine

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the transmutation adiabatic resonance crossing (TARC) concept was estimated in Mo-99 radioisotope production via radiative capture reaction in two designs. The TARC method was composed of moderating neutrons in lead or a composition of lead and water. Additionally, the target was surrounded by a moderator assembly and a graphite reflector district. Produced neutrons were investigated by (p,xn) interactions with 30 MeV and 300 mu A proton beam on tungsten, beryllium, and tantalum targets. The Mo-99 production yield was related to the moderator property, cross section, and sample positioning inside the distinct region of neutron storage as must be proper to achieve gains. Gathered thermal flux of neutrons can contribute to molybdenum isotope production. Moreover, the sample positioning to gain higher production yield was dependent on a greater flux in the length of thermal neutrons and region materials inside the moderator or reflector. When the sample radial distance from Be was 38 cm inside the...

  7. Thermal neutron radiative capture cross-section of 186W(n, γ)187W reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, V. H.; Son, P. N.

    2016-06-01

    The thermal neutron radiative capture cross section for 186W(n, γ)187W reaction was measured by the activation method using the filtered neutron beam at the Dalat research reactor. An optimal composition of Si and Bi, in single crystal form, has been used as neutron filters to create the high-purity filtered neutron beam with Cadmium ratio of Rcd = 420 and peak energy En = 0.025 eV. The induced activities in the irradiated samples were measured by a high resolution HPGe digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The present result of cross section has been determined relatively to the reference value of the standard reaction 197Au(n, γ)198Au. The necessary correction factors for gamma-ray true coincidence summing, and thermal neutron self-shielding effects were taken into account in this experiment by Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Intermediate structure in the /sup 238/U neutron capture cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.B.; de Saussure, G.

    1975-10-01

    Recent measurements of the /sup 238/U neutron capture cross section show large fluctuations in the unresolved resonance region. To test whether or not the observed long-range fluctuation of the neutron capture represent departures from the compound nuclear model, the Wald-Wolfowitz runs and correlation tests were applied to the /sup 238/U neutron capture data obtained at ORELA. The Wald-Wolfowitz runs test deals with the statistic, R, which is the number of unbroken sequences of data points above or below a given reference line. This statistic is to be compared with the expected value of runs E(R) +- sigma(R) arising from randomly distributed data. In the correlation test we have computed the first serial correlation coefficient of the data as well as its expected value and variance for a set of random data. In both tests one computes the probability, P, for the given statistical entity to depart from its expected value by more than epsilon standard deviations. Both tests confirm the presence of intermediate structure between 5 and 100 keV. The range of the structure far exceeds the width of the experimental resolution and level widths. 3 tables, 2 figures. (auth)

  9. Density functional calculations of multiphonon capture cross sections at defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparis, Georgios D.; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2014-03-01

    The theory of electron capture cross sections by multiphonon processes in semiconductors has a long and controversial history. Here we present a comprehensive theory and describe its implementation for realistic calculations. The Born-Oppenheimer and the Frank-Condon approximations are employed. The transition probability of an incoming electron is written as a product of an instantaneous electronic transition in the initial defect configuration and the line shape function (LSF) that describes the multiphonon processes that lead to lattice relaxation. The electronic matrix elements are calculated using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method which yields the true wave functions while still employing a plane-wave basis. The LSF is calculated by employing a Monte Carlo method and the real phonon modes of the defect, calculated using density functional theory in the PAW scheme. Initial results of the capture cross section for a prototype system, namely a triply hydrogenated vacancy in Si are presented. The results are relevant for modeling device degradation by hot electron effects. This work is supported in part by the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT)'s Global Research Outreach (GRO) Program and by the LDRD program at ORNL.

  10. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  11. Measurement of the radiative neutron capture cross section of 206Pb and its astrophysical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, Panayiotis; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, M; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2007-01-01

    The (n, gamma) cross section of 206Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 600 keV by using two optimized C6D6 detectors. In the investigated energy interval about 130 resonances could be observed, from which 61 had enough statistics to be reliably analyzed via the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY. Experimental uncertainties were minimized, in particular with respect to (i) angular distribution effects of the prompt capture gamma-rays, and to (ii) the TOF-dependent background due to sample-scattered neutrons. Other background components were addressed by background measurements with an enriched 208Pb sample. The effect of the lower energy cutoff in the pulse height spectra of the C6D6 detectors was carefully corrected via Monte Carlo simulations. Compared to previous 206Pb values, the Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections derived from these data are about 20% and 9% lower at thermal energies of 5 keV and 30 keV, respectively. These new results hav...

  12. Fast-neutron capture cross sections of importance in technological applications. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the capture cross section of the major fertile nuclei, /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th, leads to the consideration of these data. The /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is considered of priority as it is part of the /sup 238/U-/sup 239/Pu cycle. Experimental techniques used in the measurements of these data are considered. Data measured more recently are compared with provisions made for the possible explanations of differing results. It is concluded that the /sup 238/U (n,..gamma..) cross section is known with approx. 5% above 10 keV and fulfills the uncertainty limit for this cross section set to achieve design accuracy for k/sub eff/ and the breeding ratio above 500 keV. Below 500 keV, the present uncertainty falls short of the required 1.5 to 3.0% uncertainty. Specific recommendations are made to resolve existing discrepancies and data uncertainties. 84 references.

  13. Neutron capture cross section measurement of I-129 with lead slowing-down spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, K

    2002-01-01

    Making use of the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) method with an electron linear accelerator (linac) and of a lead slowing-down spectrometer (KULS), we have measured nuclear data of minor actinides (MAs) and/or long-lived fission products (LLFPs). In the present study, we have carried out the capture cross section measurement of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I by the linac TOE method as a part of experimental series for LLFP. At first, the experimental data and the evaluated data (ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.2, and JEF-2.2) of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I have been reviewed. As a result, it has been found that the present status of the sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I data is not enough in quality and quantity. Secondly, by using the NaI-129 sample, the sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I(n,gamma) sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 I cross section has been measured from 0.004 eV to 10 keV relative to the sup 1 sup 0 B(n,alpha) reaction with a pair of C sub 6 D sub 6 scintillation detectors. After the background subtraction and the self-shielding correction, the cross section has been no...

  14. Neutron capture cross sections of $^{70,72,73,74,76}$ Ge at n_TOF EAR-1

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the (n;$\\gamma$ ) cross sections of the isotopes $^{70;72;73;74;76}$Ge. Neutron induced reactions on Ge are of importance for the astrophysical slow neutron capture process, which is responsible for forming about half of the overall elemental abundances heavier than Fe. The neutron capture cross section on Ge affects the abundances produced in this process for a number of heavier isotopes up to a mass number of A = 90. Additionally, neutron capture on Ge is of interest for low background experiments involving Ge detectors. Experimental cross section data presently available for Ge (n;$\\gamma$ ) are scarce and cover only a fraction of the neutron energy range of interest. (n;$\\gamma$ ) cross sections will be measured in the full energy range from 25 meV to about 200 keV at n TOF EAR-1.

  15. Studying the capture cross sections of structural elements by measuring neutron balance in multiplying media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, V.N.; Dulin, V.A.; Kazanskij, Yu.A.

    1986-10-01

    To refine neutron capture cross sections for structural elements used in fast power reactors the neutron balance in multiplying media with neutron multiplication factor K/sub infinity/=1 has been studied at KBR and ERMINE critical assemblies. Reactivity of multiplying cells consisting of uranium and structural elements is measured as well as reactivity coefficients of individual structural materials. Corresponding calculations are performed using the versions of group constants applied in designing the fast reactors in the USSR and France. The CARNAVAL 4 constant version predicts well a fraction of neutron absorptions in steel and nickel for the spectra typical for a power reactor (ERMINE assembly). For softer spectra (KBR assembly) the agreement with experiment is better when the BNAB-78 constant version is used.

  16. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  17. 232Th, 233Pa, and 234U capture cross-section measurements in moderated neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringer, O.; Isnard, H.; AlMahamid, I.; Chartier, F.; Letourneau, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Th-U cycle was studied through the evolution of a 100 μg 232Th sample irradiated in a moderated neutron flux of 8.010 14 n/cm 2/s, intensity close to that of a thermal molten salt reactor. After 43 days of irradiation and 6 months of cooling, a precise mass spectrometric analysis, using both TIMS and MC-ICP-MS techniques, was performed, according to a rigorous methodology. The measured thorium and uranium isotopic ratios in the final irradiated sample were then compared with integral simulations based on evaluated data; an overall good agreement was seen. Four important thermal neutron-capture cross-sections were also extracted from the measurements, 232Th (7.34±0.21 b), 233Pa (38.34±1.78 b), 234U (106.12±3.34 b), and 235U (98.15±11.24 b). Our 232Th and 235U results confirmed existing values whereas the cross-sections of 233Pa and 234U (both key parameters) have been redefined.

  18. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  19. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA for {sup 233}U, {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Santos, G. Dos; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have made use of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure the fission cross section of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range of 0.36 eV to {approximately} 700 keV. This paper reports integral data and average cross sections. In addition they measured the total neutron cross section of {sup 27}Al and natural chlorine, as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  20. Revisiting the U-238 thermal capture cross section and gamma-raymission probabilities from Np-239 decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Firestone,R.B.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Nichols, A.L.; Moxon, M.C.

    2005-03-03

    The precise value of the thermal capture cross section of238U is uncertain, and evaluated cross sections from various sourcesdiffer by more than their assigned uncertainties. A number of theoriginal publications have been reviewed to assess the discrepant data,corrections were made for more recent standard cross sections andotherconstants, and one new measurement was analyzed. Due to the strongcorrelations in activation measurements, the gamma-ray emissionprobabilities from the beta decay of 239Np were also analyzed. As aresult of the analysis, a value of 2.683 +- 0.012 barns was derived forthe thermal capture cross section of 238U. A new evaluation of thegamma-ray emission probabilities from 239Np decay was alsoundertaken.

  1. Epithermal neutron formation for boron neutron capture therapy by adiabatic resonance crossing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, A.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.; Sadeghi, M.

    2014-05-01

    Low-energy protons from the cyclotron in the range of 15-30 MeV and low current have been simulated on beryllium (Be) target with a lead moderator around the target. This research was accomplished to design an epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using the moderated neutron on the average produced from 9Be target via (p, xn) reaction in Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) concept. Generation of neutron to proton ratio, energy distribution, flux and dose components in head phantom have been simulated by MCNP5 code. The reflector and collimator were designed in prevention and collimation of derivation neutrons from proton bombarding. The scalp-skull-brain phantom consisting of bone and brain equivalent material has been simulated in order to evaluate the dosimetric effect on the brain. Results of this analysis demonstrated while the proton energy decreased, the dose factor altered according to filters thickness. The maximum epithermal flux revealed using fluental, Fe and bismuth (Bi) filters with thicknesses of 9.4, 3 and 2 cm, respectively and also the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio was 103.85. The potential of the ARC method to replace or complement the current reactor-based supply sources of BNCT purposes.

  2. The 236U neutron capture cross-section measured at the n_TOF CERN facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastromarco M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 236U isotope plays an important role in nuclear systems, both for future and currently operating ones. The actual knowledge of the capture reaction of this isotope is satisfactory in the thermal region, but it is considered insufficient for Fast Reactor and ADS applications. For this reason the 236U(n, γ reaction cross-section has been measured for the first time in the whole energy region from thermal energy up to 1 MeV at the n_TOF facility with two different detection systems: an array of C6D6 detectors, employing the total energy deposited method, and a FX1 total absorption calorimeter (TAC, made of 40 BaF2 crystals. The two n_TOF data sets agree with each other within the statistical uncertainty in the Resolved Resonance Region up to 800 eV, while sizable differences (up to ≃ 20% are found relative to the current evaluated data libraries. Moreover two new resonances have been found in the n_TOF data. In the Unresolved Resonance Region up to 200 keV, the n_TOF results show a reasonable agreement with previous measurements and evaluated data.

  3. Characterization of capture cross sections of interface states in dielectric/III-nitride heterojunction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, M.; Stoklas, R.; Kuzmik, J.; Adamowicz, B.; Yatabe, Z.; Hashizume, T.

    2016-05-01

    We performed, for the first time, quantitative characterization of electron capture cross sections σ of the interface states at dielectric/III-N heterojunction interfaces. We developed a new method, which is based on the photo-assisted capacitance-voltage measurements using photon energies below the semiconductor band gap. The analysis was carried out for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction (MISH) structures with Al2O3, SiO2, or SiN films as insulator deposited on the AlGaN layers with Al content (x) varying over a wide range of values. Additionally, we also investigated an Al2O3/InAlN/GaN MISH structure. Prior to insulator deposition, the AlGaN and InAlN surfaces were subjected to different treatments. We found that σ for all these structures lies in the range between 5 × 10 - 19 and 10 - 16 cm2. Furthermore, we revealed that σ for dielectric/AlxGa1-xN interfaces increases with increasing x. We showed that both the multiphonon-emission and cascade processes can explain the obtained results.

  4. A compact multi-plate fission chamber for the simultaneous measurement of 233U capture and fission cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacak M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 233U plays the essential role of fissile nucleus in the Th-U fuel cycle. A particularity of 233U is its small neutron capture cross-section which is about one order of magnitude lower than the fission cross-section on average. Therefore, the accuracy in the measurement of the 233U capture cross-section essentially relies on efficient capture-fission discrimination thus a combined setup of fission and γ-detectors is needed. At CERN n_TOF the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC coupled with compact fission detectors is used. Previously used MicroMegas (MGAS detectors showed significant γ-background issues above 100 eV coming from the copper mesh. A new measurement campaign of the 233U capture cross-section and alpha ratio is planned at the CERN n_TOF facility. For this measurement, a novel cylindrical multi ionization cell chamber was developed in order to provide a compact solution for 14 active targets read out by 8 anodes. Due to the high specific activity of 233U fast timing properties are required and achieved with the use of customized electronics and the very fast ionizing gas CF4 together with a high electric field strength. This paper describes the new fission chamber and the results of the first tests with neutrons at GELINA proving that it is suitable for the 233U measurement.

  5. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62251 (Mexico); Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)]. E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Deumens, Erik [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding.

  6. The neutron capture cross sections of 186;187;188 Os and their application to Re/Os cosmochronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kaori; Mastinu, P; Milazzo, P M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is a fine determination of 186;187;188Os neutron capture cross sections, in order to remove principal nuclear physics uncertainties on the age of the universe determined using the Re/Os cosmochronometer. A general introduction including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmochronometry,available neutron facilities and neutron reaction features is given. Dedicated measurements of the 186;187;188Os capture cross sections have been performed at the CERN neutron time-of- ight facility, n TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. The details of the measurement and the data treatment are reported. Using obtained capture yields, resolved resonance region analysis is completed. Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related averaged resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modelling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and ...

  7. Neutron capture cross section measurement of $^{151}Sm$ at the CERN neutron Time of Flight Facility (nTOF)

    CERN Document Server

    Abbondanno, U; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Durán, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Gonçalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wissha, K

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of **1**5**1Sm(n, gamma)**1**5**2Sm (samarium) cross section showed improved performance of the new spallation neutron facility. It covered a wide energy range with good resolution, high neutron flux, low backgrounds and a favourable duty factor. The samarium cross section was found to be of great importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant stars. The combination of these features provided a promising basis for a broad experimental program directed towards application in astrophysics and advanced nuclear technologies. (Edited abstract)

  8. State-Selective Capture Cross Sections in Proton-Hydrogen and Proton-Helium Collisions at Intermediate and High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1989-01-01

    Total cross sections are computed for electron capture from the ground states of H and He by fast protons using the Corrected first-Born (CB1) approximation. Particular emphasis is given to the formation of atomic hydrogen in excited states 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d and 4s for which experimental data are available. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out, with the purpose of assessing the validity and utility of the CB1 method for prediction of state-selective cross sections.

  9. State-Selective and Total Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Collisions of Multiply Charged Ions with Helium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    The four-body boundary corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is used to calculate the single electron capture cross sections for collisions between fully stripped ions (He2+, Be4+, B5+ and C6+) and helium target at intermediate and high impact energies. The main goal of this study is to assess the usefulness of the CB1-4B method at intermediate and high impact energies for these collisions. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  10. Radiochemical determination of the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 241}Am irradiated in the JMTR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, N.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Hata, K.; Kohno, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section {sigma}{sub 0} and Resonance integral I{sub 0} of {sup 241}Am leading to the production of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 242g}Am were measured by radiochemical method. The cross sections obtained in this study are {sigma}{sub 0}=60.9 {+-} 2.6 barn, I{sub 0}=213 {+-} 13 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242m}Am and {sigma}{sub 0}=736 {+-} 31 barn, I{sub 0}=1684 {+-} 92 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242g}Am. (author)

  11. Capture cross-section and rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction from the Coulomb dissociation of 15C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubhchintak; Neelam; R Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    We calculate the Coulomb dissociation of 15C on a Pb target at 68 MeV/u incident beam energy within the fully quantum mechanical distorted wave Born approximation formalism of breakup reactions. The capture cross-section and the subsequent rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction are calculated from the photodisintegration of 15C, using the principle of detailed balance. Our theoretical model is free from the uncertainties associated with the multipole strength distributions of the projectile.

  12. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections and Sample Application for ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to ENA modeling (approx. few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantummechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  13. Theoretical state-selective and total cross sections for electron capture from helium atoms by fully stripped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, I.; Milojević, N.; Belkić, Dž.

    2015-03-01

    The four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation is used to compute cross sections for single electron capture from helium targets by fully stripped ions. The projectile ions are H+, He2+, Li3+, Be4+, B5+, C6+, N7+, O8+, and F9+. An extensive list of theoretical state-to-state cross sections in these collisions at energies ranging from 20 to 10 000 keV/amu is given. This list includes the state-selective cross sections Qnlm for each individual triple of the usual quantum numbers { n , l , m } of the final hydrogen-like states alongside Qnl and Qn for the pertinent sub-shells and shells where the respective summations over m and { l , m } have been carried out. The maximal value of the principal quantum number n was chosen to vary from 4 (H+) to 10 (F9+) so as to satisfy the condition n ≥ZP, where ZP is the nuclear charge of the projectile. Usually, the largest cross sections stem from those values of n that match the projectile charge (n =ZP) . The total cross sections for capture summed over all the quantum numbers { n , l , m } are also tabulated. The overall goal of this study is to fill in lacunae in the existing databases of charge exchange cross sections that are needed in several inter-disciplinary fields. For example, in particle transport physics, which is of utmost importance in such emerging branches as hadron therapy, these cross sections constitute a part of the multifaceted input data for stochastic simulations of energy losses of multiply charged ions in matter, including tissue. Other significant uses of the present data are anticipated in charge exchange diagnostics within thermonuclear research project as well as in applications covering the relevant parts of plasma physics and astrophysics.

  14. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the s-Process Branching Points 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Casanovas, Adria; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel A.; Dressler, Rugard; Halfon, Shlomi; Heinitz, Stephan; Kivel, Niko; Köster, Ulli; Paul, Michael; Quesada-Molina, Jose Manuel; Schumann, Dorothea; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Tessler, Moshe; Weissman, Leo

    The neutron capture cross section of several key unstable isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, for which high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. As part of a new program to measure some of these important branching points, radioactive targets of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl have been produced by irradiation of stable isotopes (146Nd, 170Er, and 203Tl) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) high flux reactor. After breeding in the reactor and a certain cooling period, the resulting mixed 204Tl/203Tl sample was used directly while 147Pm and 171Tm were radiochemically separated in non-carrier-added quality at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), then prepared as targets. A set of theses samples has been used for time-of-flight measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 19 and 185 m beam lines, during 2014 and 2015. The capture cascades were detected with a set of four C6D6 scintillators, allowing to observe the associated neutron capture resonances. The results presented in this work are the first ever determination of the resonance capture cross sections of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl. Activation experiments on the same 147Pm and 171Tm targets with a high-intensity quasi-Maxwellian flux of neutrons have been performed using the SARAF accelerator and the Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) in order to extract the corresponding Maxwellian Average Cross Section (MACS). The experimental setups are here described together with the first, preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement.

  15. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 151Sm at the CERN neutron time of flight facility (n_TOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortina, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Koelbl, H; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2004-10-15

    The151Sm(n,gamma)152Sm cross section has been measured at the spallation neutron facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The new facility combines excellent resolution in neutron time-of-flight, low repetition rates, and an unsurpassed instantaneous luminosity, resulting in rather favorable signal/background ratios. The 151Sm cross section is of importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. At a thermal energy of kT=30 keV the Maxwellian averaged cross section of this unstable isotope (t(1/2)=93 yr) was determined to be 3100+/-160 mb, significantly larger than theoretical predictions.

  16. Measurement and analysis of the $^{243}$Am neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Balibrea, J; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Carrillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrant†, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gonz alez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Ketlerov, V; Kerveno, M; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lossito, R; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Martınez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O’Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:The design of new nuclear reactors and transmutation devices requires to reduce the present neutron cross section uncertainties of minor actinides. Purpose: Reduce the $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section uncertainty. Method: The $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with a BaF$_{2}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter, in the energy range between 0.7 eV and 2.5 keV. Results: The $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section has been successfully measured in the mentioned energy range. The resolved resonance region has been extended from 250 eV up to 400 eV. In the unresolved resonance region our results are compatible with one of the two incompatible capture data sets available below 2.5 keV. The data available in EXFOR and in the literature has been used to perform a simple analysis above 2.5 keV. Conclusions: The results of this measurement contribute to reduce the $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section uncertainty and suggest that this cross section is underestimate...

  17. Importance of nuclear triaxiality for electromagnetic strength, level density and neutron capture cross sections in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Eckart; Massarczyk, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted simultaneously to level distances at the neutron threshold for more than 100 spin-0 target nuclei with A >70. Assuming triaxiality in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for both, level density and photon strength is presented. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians adding up to the TRK sum rule and theory-based predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths. For the small spins reached by capture level densities are well described by only one free global parameter; a significant collective enhancement due to the deviation from axial symmetry is observed. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability as expected from the derived global parameterization are important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste.

  18. Revision and extensions of neutron capture cross-sections in the European activation file EAF-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, J.; Delfini, M.G.; Kamp, H.A.J. van der; Nierop, D.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains an extensive description of the work performed to compile, extend and revise the neutron capture data subfile of the European Activation File (EAF-3). The starter was the EAF-1 data file from 1989. The present version, EAF/NG-3, contains (n, [gamma]) excitation functions for all nuclides (729 targets) with half-lives exceeding 1/2 day in the mass range from H-1 to Cm-248. (author). 35 refs.; 9 figs.; 7 tabs.

  19. Measurement of the effective thermal cross section of {sup 134}Cs by triple neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}) of the {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs reaction was measured by the activation method and the {gamma}-ray spectroscopic method in order to obtain fundamental data for research on the transmutation of nuclear wastes. The effective thermal cross section of the reaction {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs was found to be 140.6{+-}8.5 barns. (author)

  20. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Zr and La: Probing Neutron Exposure and Neutron Flux in Red Giant Stars

    CERN Multimedia

    Kitis, G; Wiescher, M; Dahlfors, M; Soares, J

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross sections of $^{139}$La, of $^{93}$Zr (t$_{1/2}$)=1.5 10$^{6}$ yr), and of all the stable Zr isotopes at n_TOF. The aim of these measurements is to improve the accuracy of existing results by at least a factor of three in order to meet the quality required for using the s-process nucleosynthesis as a diagnostic tool for neutron exposure and neutron flux during the He burning stages of stellar evolution. Combining these results with a wealth of recent information coming from high-resolution stellar spectroscopy and from the detailed analysis of presolar dust grains will shed new light on the chemical history of the universe. The investigated cross sections are also needed for technological applications, in particular since $^{93}$Zr is one of the major long-lived fission products.

  1. Neutron capture cross-section of fission products in the European activation file EAF-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, J.; Delfini, M.G.; Kamp, H.A.J. van der; Gruppelaar, H.; Nierop, D. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands))

    1992-05-01

    This paper contains a description of the work performed to extend and revise the neutron capture data in the European Activation File (EAF-3) with emphasis on nuclides in the fission-product mass range. The starter was the EAF-1 data file from 1989. The present version, EAF/NG-3, contains (n,[gamma]) excitation functions for all nuclides (729 targets) with half-lives exceeding 1/2 day in the mass range from H-1 to Cm-248. The data file is equipped with a preliminary uncertainty file, that will be improved in the near future. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs.

  2. Studying the capture cross sections of constructional elements from measurements of the neutron balance in breeder media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, V.I.; Dulin, V.A.; Kazanskii, Yu.A.; Darrouzet, M.; Martin-Deidier, L.; Rimpault, G.

    1987-04-01

    Until recently, the indeterminacy in the group capture cross sections of constructional elements at neutron energies above 1 keV were estimated at 15-20%, leading to an error of 0.2 and 1%, respectively, in calculating K/sub ef/ and the conversion factor of breeder reactors with oxide fuel and sodium coolant. In fact, calculations using the BNAB-78 group constants used in the USSR for the design development of fast reactors show that the mean neutron capture cross section of constructional elements (iron, nickel, and chromium) is approx. 1.4 times greater for a typical breeder reactor than in the case of calculation by the version of Carnaval IV used in France for the Superphoenix reactors. To refine the proportion of neutrons absorbed in stainless steel, the neutron balance in media consisting of uranium fuel and stainless steel with nickel in a proportion ensuring a near-unity breeder coefficient of infinite media of this composition (K/sub infinity/ = 1) has been measured at the Power-Physics Institute in Obninsk and at the Center for Nuclear Research in Caradache. The results obtained allow the accuracy of calculating the proportion of neutrons absorbed in constructional elements to be judged

  3. Measurement of the 241Am neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Balibrea, J.; Bécares, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Durán, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fernández-Ordóñez, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Furman, V.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Licata, M.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Versaci, R.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    New neutron cross section measurements of minor actinides have been performed recently in order to reduce the uncertainties in the evaluated data, which is important for the design of advanced nuclear reactors and, in particular, for determining their performance in the transmutation of nuclear waste. We have measured the 241Am(n,γ) cross section at the n_TOF facility between 0.2 eV and 10 keV with a BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter, and the analysis of the measurement has been recently concluded. Our results are in reasonable agreement below 20 eV with the ones published by C. Lampoudis et al. in 2013, who reported a 22% larger capture cross section up to 110 eV compared to experimental and evaluated data published before. Our results also indicate that the 241Am(n,γ) cross section is underestimated in the present evaluated libraries between 20 eV and 2 keV by 25%, on average, and up to 35% for certain evaluations and energy ranges.

  4. Calculation of Cross Section of Radiative Halo-Neutron Capture by 12C at Stellar Energy with the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kai-Su; CHEN Yong-Shou; LIU Zu-Hua; LIN Cheng-Jian; ZHANG Huan-Qiao

    2003-01-01

    The cross section of the direct neutron capture reaction 12C(n,7)13C(l/2+) is calculated with the asymptotic normalization coefficient method. The result is in good agreement with a recent experiment at low energy. An enormous enhancement of cross section is found for this direct neutron capture in which a p-wave neutron is captured into an 2?i/2 orbit with neutron halo. The possible effect of the neutron halo structure presented in this reaction on the s-process in astrophysics is discussed in general.

  5. Total cross sections for electron capture and transfer ionization by highly stripped, slow Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe projectiles on helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justiniano, E.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Dubois, R.; Can, C.; Waggoner, W.; Schuch, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Ingwersen, H.

    1984-03-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for electron capture and transfer ionization for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe projectiles on He for charge states (q) between 2 and 13 and for projectile energies between (250 and 1000 eV)q. The double-electron capture is found to be typically an order of magnitude weaker than single-electron capture, and to be dominated in most cases by the transfer ionization channel. While gross features of the cross sections can be qualitatively understood, quantitative agreement with available theoretical model calculations is poor.

  6. Cross-border movement and women's health: how to capture the data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The movement of women across international borders is occurring at greater rates than ever before, yet the relationship between migration and women's health has been under-explored. One reason may be difficulty measuring migration variables including country of birth, length of time in country, immigration status, language ability, and ethnicity. A range of social, environmental, cultural, and medical characteristics associated with the pre-, during- and post-migration phases are also important to consider. The objective of this paper is to present challenges and solutions in measuring migration and related variables via survey-like questionnaires administered to international migrant women. Methods The development, validation, and translation of two questionnaires subsequently applied in studies of migrant women during pregnancy, birth and postpartum were used as case examples to highlight related measurement issues. Results Challenges: (1 Measuring socio-cultural, medical and environmental variables across the pre-during-post migration phases (since questions must be framed so that data relating to each phase of migration are captured; (2 Obtaining data for complex patterns of migration (i.e., multiple movements between multiple destinations; and (3 answering long questions across a time continuum. Solutions: (1 Using interviewer-assisted rather than self-administered questions; (2 Adding probes and explanations to 'walk' participants through their migration experiences; (3 Identifying variables (e.g., trafficking better captured using non-questionnaire data collection methods or better not collected (e.g., ethnicity due to extreme variations in meaning. Conclusion Carefully constructed and translated survey questionnaires are practical tools for the collection of a breadth of migrant data. These data, including detailed accounts of countries lived in, length of time in those countries, immigration status, change in

  7. Thermal neutron capture and resonance integral cross sections of 45Sc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Do, Nguyen; Duc Khue, Pham; Tien Thanh, Kim; Thi Hien, Nguyen; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Lee, Manwoo

    2015-11-01

    The thermal neutron cross section (σ0) and resonance integral (I0) of the 45Sc(n,γ)46Sc reaction have been measured relative to that of the 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction by means of the activation method. High-purity natural scandium and gold foils without and with a cadmium cover of 0.5 mm thickness were irradiated with moderated pulsed neutrons produced from the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF). The induced activities in the activated foils were measured with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the counting losses caused by the thermal (Gth) and resonance (Gepi) neutron self-shielding, the γ-ray attenuation (Fg) and the true γ-ray coincidence summing effects were made. In addition, the effect of non-ideal epithermal spectrum was also taken into account by determining the neutron spectrum shape factor (α). The thermal neutron cross-section and resonance integral of the 45Sc(n,γ)46Sc reaction have been determined relative to the reference values of the 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction, with σo,Au = 98.65 ± 0.09 barn and Io,Au = 1550 ± 28 barn. The present thermal neutron cross section has been determined to be σo,Sc = 27.5 ± 0.8 barn. According to the definition of cadmium cut-off energy at 0.55 eV, the present resonance integral cross section has been determined to be Io,Sc = 12.4 ± 0.7 barn. The present results are compared with literature values and discussed.

  8. Thermal neutron capture and resonance integral cross sections of {sup 45}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Do, Nguyen; Duc Khue, Pham; Tien Thanh, Kim [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thi Hien, Nguyen [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Department of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    The thermal neutron cross section (σ{sub 0}) and resonance integral (I{sub 0}) of the {sup 45}Sc(n,γ){sup 46}Sc reaction have been measured relative to that of the {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction by means of the activation method. High-purity natural scandium and gold foils without and with a cadmium cover of 0.5 mm thickness were irradiated with moderated pulsed neutrons produced from the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF). The induced activities in the activated foils were measured with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the counting losses caused by the thermal (G{sub th}) and resonance (G{sub epi}) neutron self-shielding, the γ-ray attenuation (F{sub g}) and the true γ-ray coincidence summing effects were made. In addition, the effect of non-ideal epithermal spectrum was also taken into account by determining the neutron spectrum shape factor (α). The thermal neutron cross-section and resonance integral of the {sup 45}Sc(n,γ){sup 46}Sc reaction have been determined relative to the reference values of the {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction, with σ{sub o,Au} = 98.65 ± 0.09 barn and I{sub o,Au} = 1550 ± 28 barn. The present thermal neutron cross section has been determined to be σ{sub o,Sc} = 27.5 ± 0.8 barn. According to the definition of cadmium cut-off energy at 0.55 eV, the present resonance integral cross section has been determined to be I{sub o,Sc} = 12.4 ± 0.7 barn. The present results are compared with literature values and discussed.

  9. Predictive and Prognostic Value of Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory Subunit M1 and Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma (UC Treated with First-Line Gemcitabine Plus Platinum Combination Chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miso Kim

    Full Text Available Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that expression of ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M1 (RRM1 and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1 is associated with resistance to gemcitabine and cisplatin, respectively. We evaluated the significance of RRM1 and ERCC1 expression to predict tumor response to gemcitabine plus platinum chemotherapy (GP and survival in advanced UC. We retrospectively collected tumor samples and reviewed clinical data of 53 patients with unresectable or metastatic UC, who were treated with first-line GP. RRM1 and ERCC1 expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Among 53 patients, 12 (22.6% and 26 (49.1% patients had tumors that demonstrated a high expression for RRM1 and ERCC1, respectively. Twenty-nine (70.7% of 41 patients with low RRM1 expression achieved a clinical response (complete + partial responses, but only 3 (25.0% of 12 patients with high RRM1 expression achieved a clinical response after GP (P=0.007. Nineteen (70.4% of 27 patients with low ERCC1 expression achieved a clinical response, while 13 (50.0% of 26 patients with high ERCC1 expression achieved a clinical response (P=0.130. High RRM1 expression was associated with shorter progression free survival and overall survival (PFS P=0.006, OS P=0.006. Multivariate analysis confirmed that patients with high RRM1 expression had a significantly greater risk of progression and death than those with low RRM1 expression. ERCC1 status was not a significant predictor for PFS and OS. RRM1 expression was predictive and prognostic of clinical outcome in advanced UC treated with gemcitabine plus platinum combination chemotherapy.

  10. Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

    2010-01-01

    An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INL’s Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A < 100, there has been recent progress in extending AMS to heavier isotopes – even to A > 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

  11. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  12. Using the FMA for radiative capture cross-section measurements of interest to astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    We assessed the capability of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) to study radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest using inverse kinematics. Results from measurements on the {sup 1}H({sup 13}C,{sup 14}N){gamma} reaction show that the FMA is an ideal high-efficiency tool for these experiments, where the recoil ion is detected and identified at the FMA focal plane. Intermediate slits acting on energy/charge and mass/charge were introduced into the FMA, which reduced the scattered primary beam fraction at the focal plane to <10{sup -11}. A small gas ionization chamber was placed behind the position-sensitive focal-plane detector, followed by a Si detector. Measurements of mass/charge, energy loss, and residual energy of the transmitted ions were made, giving at least another two orders of magnitude separation of recoils from scattered beam. A new ionization detector operating in the same gas volume as the focal plane detector will provide even better separation by eliminating the need for two of the three windows used in the test measurement. At energies of {approximately} 0.5 MeV/nucleon, the recoil ions populate primarily a single charge state, resulting in a detection efficiency of > 50%. This will be particularly valuable for use with radioactive beams.

  13. Determining neutron capture cross sections with the Surrogate Reaction Technique: Measuring decay probabilities with STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J A; Ahle, L; Bernstein, L A; Cooper, J; Dietrich, F S; Escher, J; Forssen, C; Ai, H; Amro, H; Babilon, M; Beausang, C; Caggiano, J; Heinz, A; Hughes, R; McCutchan, E; Meyer, D; Plettner, C; Ressler, J; Zamfir, V

    2004-07-14

    Neutron-induced reaction cross sections are sometimes difficult to measure due to target or beam limitations. For two-step reactions proceeding through an equilibrated intermediate state, an alternate ''surrogate reaction'' technique can be applicable, and is currently undergoing investigation at LLNL. Measured decay probabilities for the intermediate nucleus formed in a light-ion reaction can be combined with optical-model calculations for the formation of the same intermediate nucleus via the neutron-induced reaction. The result is an estimation for overall (n,{gamma}/n/2n) cross sections. As a benchmark, the reaction {sup 92}Zr({alpha},{alpha}'), surrogate, for n+{sup 91}Zr, was studied at the A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale. Particles were detected in the silicon telescope STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) and {gamma}-ray energies measured with germanium clover detectors from the YRAST (Yale Rochester Array for SpecTroscopy) ball. The experiment and preliminary observations will be discussed.

  14. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  15. Neutron capture cross section measurements and theoretical calculation for the {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-abyad, Mogahed; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Experimental Nuclear Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section (σ{sub 0}) and resonance integral (I{sub 0}) of the reaction {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W were measured experimentally using the research reactor (ETRR-2) and an Am-Be neutron source, also calculated using TALYS-1.6 code. The present results of σ{sub 0} are (39.08±2.6, 38.75±0.98 and 38.33 barn) and I{sub 0} are (418.5±74, 439.3±36 and 445.5 barn) by using the reactor, neutron source and TALYS-1.6, respectively. The present results are in acceptable agreement with most of the previous experimental and evaluated data as well as the theoretical calculations.

  16. New time-of-flight data for the neutron capture cross-section of {sup 63}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, M.; Reifarth, R. [Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Bredeweg, T.A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O' Donnell, J.M.; Ullmann, J.L. [LANL, Los Alamos (United States)

    2014-07-01

    One of the important questions in nuclear astrophysics is how the observed abundances of elements came to be. Nearly all of the elements beyond the iron peak are either formed by the s- or the r-process in almost equal shares. The precise s-process path depends on stellar parameters like temperature and neutron density, and on nuclear parameters like half-lifes and neutron capture cross-sections (NCS). Thus, there is a big need for experimental data on the involved reactions to calculate their stellar rates to understand s-process nucleosynthesis. The NCS of the copper isotopes influences the isotopic ratios of Zn. Former experiments concerning the NCS of {sup 63}Cu showed large discrepancies. In order to determine the {sup 63}Cu(n,γ) cross-section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment has been performed using the calorimetric 4π-BaF{sub 2} array DANCE at the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL). The results of the experiment will be presented.

  17. Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of Dy and Hf in the energy region from 0.003 eV to 50 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, H J; Yamanoto, S; Fujita, Y; Kim, G Y; Ko, I S; Cho, M H; Namkung, W; Chang, J H; Ko, S K

    1999-01-01

    The capture cross-sections of Dy and Hf were measured in the energy region from 0.003 eV to 50 keV by using the neutron time-of-flight method at the 46 MeV electron linear accelerator of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. An assembly of Bi sub 4 Ge sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 (BGO) scintillators, which was placed at a distance of 12.7 +- 0.02 m from the neutron source, was employed as a total absorption detector for the prompt capture gamma-ray measurement on the sample. In order to determine the neutron flux impinging on a capture sample, we used a Sm(n,gamma) reaction for thermal neutrons and the sup 1 sup 0 B(n,alpha gamma) reaction for neutrons from 0.003 eV to 50 keV. The absolute capture yield for the sample was obtained from the saturated resonance data at a large resonance of the sample. For the capture cross-section of Dy, the existing experimental data and the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 are closed to the present result. For the Hf capture cross-section, the previous experimental ...

  18. GSM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的数值解%Numeriacl Solution of GSM (m, 1)(m= 1,2)Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 刘炳琪

    2001-01-01

    The prediction accuracy can be improved by using the spline function to correct the residue of GM (m,1)(m=1,2). Numerical Solution of GSM (m,1)(m=1,2)Modle is given.%本文用样条函数对GM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的残差序列进行插值拟合,得到GSM(m,1)(m=1,2)模型的数值解.

  19. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Kapaklis, V.; Wilkens, H.; Rats, D.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kirstein, O.; Bentley, Philip

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and therm...

  20. PCR-Free Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms Using Magnetic Capture Technology and Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-01-01

    The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 µg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids. PMID:19956680

  1. PCR-free detection of genetically modified organisms using magnetic capture technology and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhou

    Full Text Available The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS. The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 microg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids.

  2. PCR-free detection of genetically modified organisms using magnetic capture technology and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong; Chen, Wei R

    2009-11-26

    The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 microg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids.

  3. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me......V. Materials like diamond and Be have higher neutron scattering density than Ni, have smaller absorption cross section and when a neutron is absorbed they emit much less gamma ray and at lower energies. We present results, both theoretically and experimentally, comparing Ni with Be and preliminary results...

  4. Self-consistent calculations of the strength function and radiative neutron capture cross section for stable and unstable tin isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, S; Krewald, S

    2011-01-01

    The E1 strength function for 15 stable and unstable Sn even-even isotopes from A=100 till A=176 are calculated using the self-consistent microscopic theory which, in addition to the standard (Q)RPA approach, takes into account the single-particle continuum and the phonon coupling. Our analysis shows two distinct regions for which the integral characteristics of both the giant and pygmy resonances behave rather differently. For neutron-rich nuclei, starting from $^{132}$Sn, we obtain a giant E1 resonance which significantly deviates from the widely-used systematics extrapolated from experimental data in the $\\beta$-stability valley. We show that the inclusion of the phonon coupling is necessary for a proper description of the low-energy pygmy resonances and the corresponding transition densities for $A132$ region the influence of phonon coupling is significantly smaller. The radiative neutron capture cross sections leading to the stable $^{124}$Sn and unstable $^{132}$Sn and $^{150}$Sn nuclei are calculated wi...

  5. Neutron capture cross section measurements of $^{238}$U, $^{241}$Am and $^{243}$Am at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Koehler, P E; Plag, R

    The increase of the world energy demand and the need of low carbon energy sources have triggered the renaissance and/or enhancement of nuclear energy in many countries. Fundamental nuclear physics can contribute in a practical way to the sustainability and safety of the nuclear energy production and the management of the nuclear waste. There exists a series of recent studies which address the most relevant isotopes, decay data, nuclear reaction channels and energy ranges which have to be investigated in more detail for improving the design of different advanced nuclear systems [1] and nuclear fuel cycles [2]. In this proposal, we aim at the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{238}$U, $^{241}$Am and $^{243}$Am. All three isotopes are listed in the NEA High Priority Request List [37], are recommended for measurements [1] and play an important role in the nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. The measurements will provide as well valuable nuclear structure data necessary for the...

  6. Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on $^{235}$ U: cross sections and ${\\alpha}$ ratios, photon strength functions and prompt ${\\gamma}$-ray from fission

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron-induced capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U using a fission tagging set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4${\\pi}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) with MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors. It has been proven that such a combination of detectors allows distinguishing with very good reliability the electromagnetic cascades from the capture reactions from dominant ${\\gamma}$-ray background coming from the fission reactions. The accurate discrimination of the fission background is the main challenge in the neutron capture cross section measurements of fissile isotopes. The main results from the measurement will be the associated capture cross section and ${\\alpha}$ ratio in the resolved (0.3-2250 eV) and unresolved (2.25-30 keV) resonance regions. According to the international benchmarks and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL), the 235U(n,${\\gamma}$) cross section is of utmost impo...

  7. Measurement of the 241Am and the 243Am Neutron Capture Cross Sections at the n_TOF Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Guerrero, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The capture cross sections of Am-241 and Am-243 were measured at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN in the epithermal energy range with a BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. A preliminary analysis of the Am-241 and a complete analysis of the Am-243 measurement, including the data reduction and the resonance analysis, have been performed.

  8. A novel method for measuring carrier lifetime and capture cross-section by using the negative resistance I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hairong; Li Siyuan, E-mail: hrli@lzu.edu.c [Institute of Microelectronics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A brand new and feasible method for measuring the carrier lifetime and capture cross-section of a barrier by using the negative resistance segment of the I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor (BTH) is put forward. The measuring principle and calculation method are given. The BTH samples are experimentally measured and the results are analyzed in detail. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Q-Dependence of the double capture cross sections measured by electron spectroscopy at 10 qkeV (q = 4-8). Comparison with other experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Boudjema, M.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.

    1989-01-01

    The q dependence of cross sections for double capture into autoionising states has been investigated by electron spectroscopy. It is shown that they are independent of the ionic core. Our results are compared with all other available experimental data obtained at 10 qkeV collision energy.

  10. Association between long-term neuro-toxicities in testicular cancer survivors and polymorphisms in glutathione-s-transferase-P1 and -M1, a retrospective cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Brydøy Marianne; Kraggerud Sigrid M; Oldenburg Jan; Cvancarova Milada; Lothe Ragnhild A; Fossa Sophie D

    2007-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase (GST) -P1, -M1, and -T1 on self-reported chemotherapy-induced long-term toxicities in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). Methods A total of 238 TCSs, who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy at median twelve years earlier, had participated in a long-term follow-up survey which assessed the prevalence of self-reported p...

  11. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the s-only isotope 204Pb from 1 eV to 440 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P.M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J.L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M.C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2007-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 204Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 440 keV. An R-matrix analysis of the resolved resonance region, between 1 eV and 100 keV, was carried out using the SAMMY code. In the interval between 100 keV and 440 keV we report the average capture cross section. The background in the entire neutron energy range could be reliably determined from the measurement of a 208Pb sample. Other systematic effects in this measurement could be investigated and precisely corrected by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a Maxwellian average capture cross section for 204Pb at kT=30 keV of 79(3) mb, in agreement with previous experiments. However our cross section at kT=5 keV is about 35% larger than the values reported so far. The implications of the new cross section for the s-process abundance contributions in the Pb/Bi region are discussed.

  12. Reinvestigation of {sup 85}Kr branching in the light of new {sup 82,} {sup 84,} {sup 86}Kr neutron capture cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble Cedex (France); Beer, Hermann [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brusegan, Antonio; Corvi, Franco [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg, Geel (Belgium)

    2002-08-01

    High resolution neutron capture cross section measurements of 3 stable krypton isotopes, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 84}Kr and {sup 86}Kr, have been performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA) on both resolved and unresolved resonance region. In addition, a total cross section measurement on {sup 84}Kr has also been performed in the energy range from 1 eV up to 120 kev. Accurate values of the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross section have been derived for all isotopes for stellar temperatures ranging from kT=5 up to 100 keV. A re-investigation of the s-process in the mass region around the prominent branching at {sup 85}Kr has been undertaken in the light of our new results. (author)

  13. Association between long-term neuro-toxicities in testicular cancer survivors and polymorphisms in glutathione-s-transferase-P1 and -M1, a retrospective cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brydøy Marianne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the impact of polymorphisms in Glutathione S-transferase (GST -P1, -M1, and -T1 on self-reported chemotherapy-induced long-term toxicities in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs. Methods A total of 238 TCSs, who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy at median twelve years earlier, had participated in a long-term follow-up survey which assessed the prevalence of self-reported paresthesias in fingers/toes, Raynaud-like phenomena in fingers/toes, tinnitus, and hearing impairment. From all TCSs lymphocyte-derived DNA was analyzed for the functional A→G polymorphism at bp 304 in GSTP1, and deletions in GST-M1 and GST-T1. Evaluation of associations between GST polymorphisms and self-reported toxicities included adjustment for prior treatment. Results All six evaluated toxicities were significantly associated with the cumulative dose of cisplatin and/or bleomycin. Compared to TCSs with either GSTP1-AG or GSTP1-AA, the 37 TCSs with the genotype GSTP1-GG, were significantly less bothered by paresthesias in fingers and toes (p = 0.039, OR 0.46 [0.22–0.96] and p = 0.023, OR 0.42 [0.20–0.88], respectively, and tinnitus (p = 0.008, OR 0.33 [0.14–0.74]. Furthermore, absence of functional GSTM1 protected against hearing impairment (p = 0.025, OR 1.81 [1.08–3.03]. Conclusion In TCSs long-term self-reported chemotherapy-induced toxicities are associated with functional polymorphisms in GSTP1 and GSTM1. Hypothetically, absence of GST-M1 leaves more glutathione as substrate for the co-expressed GST-P1. Also intracellular inactivation of pro-apoptotic mediators represents a possible explanation of our findings. Genotyping of these GSTs might be a welcomed step towards a more individualized treatment of patients with metastatic testicular cancer.

  14. Macroscopic model of particles' capture by the elliptic cross-section collector in magnetic separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goleman, Ryszard E-mail: ryszardg@eltecol.pol.lublin.pl

    2004-05-01

    In the paper, the forces and trajectories of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic particles that move in the surrounding of ferromagnetic capture element have been determined. The influence of flow speed of the medium on the width zone of particle capture by the collector have been analysed. In the considerations, spherical shape of the particle has been assumed.

  15. Measurement of the {sup 232}thorium capture cross section at n-TOF-CERN; Mesure de la section efficace de capture neutronique du {sup 232}Th a n-TOF au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, G

    2005-09-01

    Within the context of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource, a program of research is concentrated on a new nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium. The main advantage, as compared to the uranium cycle, is a lower production of minor actinides, of which the radiological impact on the long term constitutes a problem. At present, nuclear data libraries don't provide cross sections of a good enough quality, allowing more realistic calculations from simulations related to these reactors. The {sup 232}Th neutron capture cross section is an example. With the n-TOF collaboration, the measurement of this reaction was achieved in 2002 using two C{sub 6}D{sub 6} detectors. The experimental area located at CERN, is characterized by an outstanding neutron energy resolution coupled to a high instantaneous neutron flux. The determination of the gamma-ray cascade detection efficiency, with a random behaviour, has been obtained by the use of weighting functions. These were deduced from Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP. Data extraction, reduction, and the description of the neutron flux have lead to the capture yield. In the resolved resonance region, the resonance parameters describing the cross section were deduced with the code SAMMY, using the R-matrix theory. In the unresolved resonance region, an uncertainty of 3,5% is found, and a comparison with recent measurements shows a good agreement. (author)

  16. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Electron Capture Cross-Sections in Ion-Ion Collisions at Approximately to MeV/amu: Application to ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discovery by STEREO A/B of energetic neutral hydrogen is spurring an interest and need for reliable estimates of electron capture cross sections at few MeVs per nucleon as well as for multi-electron ions. Required accuracy in such estimates necessitates detailed and involved quantum-mechanical calculations or expensive numerical simulations. For ENA modeling and similar purposes, a semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground approach. Kuang's semiclassical formalism to calculate electron-capture cross sections for single and multi-electron ions is an elegant and efficient method, but has so far been applied to limited and specific laboratory measurements and at somewhat lower energies. Our goals are to test and extend Kuang s method to all ion-atom and ion-ion collisions relevant to ENA modeling, including multi-electron ions and for K-shell to K-shell transitions.

  17. Unintentional activation of translation equivalents in bilinguals leads to attention capture in a cross-modal visual task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Using a variant of the visual world eye tracking paradigm, we examined if language non-selective activation of translation equivalents leads to attention capture and distraction in a visual task in bilinguals...

  18. Unintentional Activation of Translation Equivalents in Bilinguals Leads to Attention Capture in a Cross-Modal Visual Task: e0120131

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niharika Singh; Ramesh Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

      Using a variant of the visual world eye tracking paradigm, we examined if language non- selective activation of translation equivalents leads to attention capture and distraction in a visual task in bilinguals...

  19. Measurement of neutron capture cross-section of the {sup 71}Ga(n, {gamma}){sup 72}Ga reaction at 0.0536 eV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: shuza88@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, M.H. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, S.M.; Latif, Sk.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Islam, M.A.; Zakaria, A.K.M.; Yunus, S.M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Azharul Islam, S.M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    The neutron capture cross-section for the {sup 71}Ga(n, {gamma}){sup 72}Ga reaction at 0.0536 eV energy was measured using activation technique based on TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. The {sup 197}Au(n, {gamma}){sup 198}Au monitor reaction was used to determine the effective neutron flux. Neutron absorption and {gamma}-ray attenuation in gallium oxide pellet were corrected in determination of cross-section. The cross-section for the above reaction at 0.0536 eV amounts to 2.75 {+-} 0.14 b. As far as we know there are no experimental data available at our investigated energy. So far we are the first, who carried out experiment with 0.0536 eV neutrons for cross-section measurement. The present result is larger than that of JENDL-3.3, but consistent within the uncertainty range. The value of ENDF/B-VII is higher than this work. The result of this work will be useful to observe energy dependence of neutron capture cross-sections.

  20. Analysis of data captured by barcode medication administration system using a PDA; aiming at reducing medication errors at point of care in Japanese Red Cross Kochi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masanori; Koshio, Atsushi; Kaihotsu, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Preventing medication errors by using a barcode administration system has become prevalent in patient safety. Analyses of data captured by bar code systems provide opportunities to understand the actual situation at the point of care. Our study aims at understanding issues of medication safety as well as investigating measures taken to prevent medication accidents, by analyzing data captured by a bar code system and a personal digital assistant (PDA). The barcode administration system named Point-of-Act-System implemented in Japanese Red Cross Kochi Hospital was designed to capture every activity at the bedside. Complete activity data captured by the system, which included injections, treatment and other nursing activity, as well as injection warning data, were used for our analyses. We describe the data and analyze them statistically to find potentially times of risk and to ascertain the relation between busyness and error. The injection warning rate as a whole was 6.1% on average. The results showed there was a negative correlation between the number of injections given and the injection warning rate (-0.48, pmedication safety. A bar code administration system is quite an effective way not only to prevent medication error at point of care, but also to improve patient safety through analyses of data captured by such a system.

  1. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the s process and the origin of stardust

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I; Milazzo, Paolo M; Kaeppeler, Franz; Davis, Andrew M; Savina, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25 to 4 Msun and metallicities Z=0.01 to 0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross section from Bao et al. (2000) and from n_TOF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope 95Zr, the branching point leading to the production of 96Zr. The new cross sections generally presents an improved match with the observational data, except for the 92Zr/94Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The 96Zr/94Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most 96Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8 - 3 Msun, and the others from either lowe...

  2. Capturing a reflective cross-sectional image of an optical fiber with partially coherent laser light to measure the refractive index profile of a multimode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Fang-Wen; Jhang, Heng-Jian

    2013-01-28

    We focused partially coherent laser light onto an optical fiber end-face and captured a high-quality reflective cross-sectional image of the fiber. By analyzing the reflected light intensity distribution of the captured fiber image, we can achieve refractive-index profiling of a step-index multimode optical fiber. The measurement error caused by the reflected light from the other fiber end-face positioned in air can be greatly improved by inserting that end of the fiber into water. This simple and easy technique for fiber index profiling by employing reduced-coherence laser light is very useful in determining the refractive index profiles of various multimode optical fibers.

  3. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the S process and the origin of stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Tagliente, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Milazzo, Paolo M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Käppeler, Franz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Davis, Andrew M. [The Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R., E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: giuseppe.tagliente@ba.infn.it, E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au, E-mail: paolo.milazzo@ts.infn.it, E-mail: franz.kaeppeler@kit.edu, E-mail: a-davis@uchicago.edu, E-mail: msavina@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25-4 M {sub ☉} and metallicities Z = 0.01-0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross sections from Bao et al. and from n{sub T}OF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope {sup 95}Zr, the branching point leading to the production of {sup 96}Zr. The new cross sections generally present an improved match with the observational data, except for the {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The {sup 96}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most {sup 96}Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8-3 M {sub ☉} and the others from either lower or higher masses. The {sup 90,} {sup 91}Zr/{sup 94}Zr variations measured in the grains are well reproduced by the range of stellar metallicities considered here, which is the same needed to cover the Si composition of the grains produced by the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr versus {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si positive correlation observed in the available data suggests that stellar metallicity rather than rotation plays the major role in covering the {sup 90,} {sup 91,} {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr spread.

  4. Emission probabilities of {gamma}-rays from {sup 238}Np and their use for determination of the thermal neutron capture cross section of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, A. [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: aletourneau@cea.fr; Marie, F. [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Albany, NY (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The relevant absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities from the {beta}-decay of {sup 238}Np were measured by means of {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectroscopic techniques. We obtained values of (25.6{+-}0.4)%, (8.9{+-}0.2)% and (18.8{+-}0.3)% for the 984.45-, 1025.87- and 1028.54-keV {gamma}-rays, respectively, in agreement with the previous measured ones. These intensities were used to deduce the thermal neutron capture cross section of {sup 237}Np for which a value of (182.2{+-}4.5) b is obtained higher by 11% than the recommended value.

  5. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Electron Capture Cross-Sections in Ion-Ion Collisions at few MeV's/nucleon: Application to ENA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to energetic neutral atom (ENA) modeling (approx few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on first-principles approaches and/or detailed quantum-mechanical simulation of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground, elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. We shall present a sample application and current progress in applying and extending Kuang's formalism to ENA modeling.

  6. Total Cross Sections as a Surrogate for Neutron Capture: An Opportunity to Accurately Constrain (n,γ) Cross Sections for Nuclides Beyond the Reach of Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-05

    There are many (n,γ) cross sections of great interest to radiochemical diagnostics and to nuclear astrophysics which are beyond the reach of current measurement techniques, and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In contrast, total neutron cross sections currently are feasible for many of these nuclides and provide almost all the information needed to accurately calculate the (n,γ) cross sections via the nuclear statistical model (NSM). I demonstrate this for the case of 151Sm; NSM calculations constrained using average resonance parameters obtained from total cross section measurements made in 1975, are in excellent agreement with recent 151Sm (n,γ) measurements across a wide range of energy. Furthermore, I demonstrate through simulations that total cross section measurements can be made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for samples as small as 10μg. Samples of this size should be attainable for many nuclides of interest. Finally, I estimate that over half of the radionuclides identified ~20 years ago as having (n,γ) cross sections of importance to s-process nucleosynthesis studies (24/43) and radiochemical diagnostics (11/19), almost none of which have been measured, can be constrained using this technique.

  7. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  8. Cross sections for neutron capture from surrogate measurements: An examination of Weisskopf-Ewing and ratio approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Jutta E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the renewed interest in the surrogate nuclear reactions approach, an indirect method for determining compound-nuclear reaction cross sections, the prospects for determining (n, gamma) cross sections for deformed rare-earth and actinide nuclei are investigated. A nuclear-reaction model is employed to simulate physical quantities that are typically measured in surrogate experiments and used to assess the validity of the Weisskopf-Ewing and ratio approximations, which are typically employed in the analysis of surrogate reactions. The expected accuracy of (n,gamma) cross sections extracted from typical surrogate measurements is discussed and limitations of the approximate methods are illustrated. Suggestions for moving beyond presently-employed approximations are made.

  9. Neutron capture and fission reactions on 235U: cross sections, α-ratios and prompt γ-ray emission from fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Romero E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the international benchmarks, and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List, the 235U(n,γ cross section is of utmost importance for the operation and design of current and advanced nuclear reactors. The required accuracy in this energy region (100 eV to 2.25 keV ranges between 5% and 7%, to be compared with the present differences of 20% between the α-ratios in different evaluations. At n_TOF we have measured this cross section during the summer of 2012 using a fission tagging capture set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4π Total Absorption Calorimeter with a series of MicroMegas fission detectors. The experiment has provided as well very valuable information on the distribution of energies and multiplicities of the γ-rays emitted prompt after capture and fission reactions. The very fresh data from this experiment will be presented for the first time, and their quality and expected results will be discussed in detail

  10. Ionization and electron-capture cross sections for single- and multiple-electron removal from H2O by Li3 + impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, H.; Wolff, W.; Montenegro, E. C.; Tavares, André C.; Lüdde, H. J.; Schenk, G.; Horbatsch, M.; Kirchner, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report experimental and theoretical ionization and electron-capture cross sections for single-, double- and triple-electron removal from H2O by Li3 + impact at energies ranging from 0.75 to 5.8 MeV. The experiment was carried out by selecting both the final charge state of the projectile and the ejected fragments in coincidence to obtain cross sections associated with ionization and electron-capture channels. The ionic fragments and the emitted electrons produced under single-collision conditions were collected by a time-of-flight spectrometer with single-hit (e.g., OH++H0 ) and double-hit events (e.g., OH++H+ ) properly discriminated. For the one- and two-electron removal cases, the calculations based on the basis generator method for orbital propagation agree well with the experiment for most of the collision channels studied. Auger-electron emission after vacancy production in the inner 2 a1 orbital of H2O is shown to have a substantial effect on the final charge-state distributions over the entire impact-energy interval.

  11. M$_1$ - M* correlation in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Appodia, B

    1994-01-01

    Photographic F band photometry of a sample of 36 Abell clusters has been used to study the relation between the magnitude M_1 of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M^*. Clusters appear segregated in the M_1-M^* plane according to their Rood \\& Sastry class. We prove on a statistical basis that on average, going from early to late RS classes, M_1 becomes brighter while M^* becomes fainter. The result agrees with the predictions of galactic cannibalism models, never confirmed by previous analyses.

  12. Density and Capture Cross-Section of Interface Traps in GeSnO2 and GeO2 Grown on Heteroepitaxial GeSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somya; Simoen, Eddy; Loo, Roger; Madia, Oreste; Lin, Dennis; Merckling, Clement; Shimura, Yosuke; Conard, Thierry; Lauwaert, Johan; Vrielinck, Henk; Heyns, Marc

    2016-06-01

    An imperative factor in adapting GeSn as the channel material in CMOS technology, is the gate-oxide stack. The performance of GeSn transistors is degraded due to the high density of traps at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Several oxide-gate stacks have been pursued, and a midgap Dit obtained using the ac conductance method, is found in literature. However, a detailed signature of oxide traps like capture cross-section, donor/acceptor behavior and profile in the bandgap, is not yet available. We investigate the transition region between stoichiometric insulators and strained GeSn epitaxially grown on virtual Ge substrates. Al2O3 is used as high-κ oxide and either Ge1-xSnxO2 or GeO2 as interfacial layer oxide. The interface trap density (Dit) profile in the lower half of the bandgap is measured using deep level transient spectroscopy, and the importance of this technique for small bandgap materials like GeSn, is explained. Our results provide evidence for two conclusions. First, an interface traps density of 1.7 × 10(13) cm(-2)eV(-1) close to the valence band edge (Ev + 0.024 eV) and a capture cross-section (σp) of 1.7 × 10(-18) cm(2) is revealed for GeSnO2. These traps are associated with donor states. Second, it is shown that interfacial layer passivation of GeSn using GeO2 reduces the Dit by 1 order of magnitude (2.6 × 10(12) cm(-2)eV(-1)), in comparison to GeSnO2. The results are cross-verified using conductance method and saturation photovoltage technique. The Dit difference is associated with the presence of oxidized (Sn(4+)) and elemental Sn in the interfacial layer oxide.

  13. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  14. Thermal neutron capture cross-section measurements of {sup 243}Am and {sup 242}Pu using the new mini-INCA {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectroscopy station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, F. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Letourneau, A. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)]. E-mail: aletourneau@cea.fr; Fioni, G. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Deruelle, O. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Veyssiere, Ch. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Faust, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); AlMahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., ESH Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Muhammad, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., ESH Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    In the framework of the Mini-INCA project, dedicated to the study of Minor Actinide transmutation process in high neutron fluxes, an {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectroscopy station has been developed and installed at the High Flux Reactor of the Laue-Langevin Institut. This set-up allows short irradiations as well as long irradiations in a high quasi-thermal neutron flux and post-irradiation spectroscopy analysis. It is well suited to measure precisely, in reference to {sup 59}Co cross-section, neutron capture cross-sections, for all the actinides, in the thermal energy region. The first measurements using this set-up were done on {sup 243}Am and {sup 242}Pu isotopes. Cross-section values, at E{sub n}=0.025eV, were found to be (81.8+/-3.6)b for {sup 243}Am and (22.5+/-1.1)b for {sup 242}Pu. These values differ from evaluated data libraries by a factor of 9% and 17%, respectively, but are compatible with the most recent measurements, validating by the way the experimental apparatus.

  15. The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.]|[Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

    1997-10-01

    New high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the n {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

  16. A Novel Membrane Prepared from Sodium Alginate Cross-linked with Sodium Tartrate for CO2 Capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娅群; 王志; 张晨昕; 王纪孝; 王世昌

    2013-01-01

    The membrane-based CO2 separation process has an advantage compared to traditional CO2 separation technologies. The membrane is the key of the membrane separation process. In this paper, preparation, characteriza-tion and laboratory testing of the membrane, which was prepared from sodium alginate, hydrogen bond cross-linked with sodium tartrate and used for CO2/N2 separation, were reported. The resistance to SO2 of the membrane was also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the membrane possesses a high resistance to SO2. Finally, based on experimental results, the economic feasibility of the membrane used for CO2/N2 separation was evaluated, indicating the two-stage membrane process can compete with the traditional chemical absorption method.

  17. Single electron ionization and electron capture cross sections for (C{sup 6+}, H{sub 2}O) interaction within the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: tranngochoang@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Dao, D.D. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Incerti, S. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Karamitros, M. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Nhan Hao, T.V. [Center of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam); Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi Street, Hue City (Viet Nam); Dang, T.M. [VNUHCM-University of Science (Viet Nam); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Beyrouth (Lebanon)

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a derivation of cross sections for single ionization and electron capture processes within the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) approach. Specifically, we have used a potential stemming from an ab initio calculation in Green et al.’s framework to describe the dynamics of the water molecule system. Proposing a modified version of the Classical Over-Barrier (COB) potential, we have found that a cut-off of roughly 28 a.u. on the initial distance of the projectile produced a reasonable accuracy. A global agreement has been obtained in our calculations compared to experimental and other theoretical results for C{sup 6+} ion energies ranging from 10 keV/u to 10 MeV/u.

  18. Measurement of the {sup 232}Th neutron capture cross section in the region 5 keV-150 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Georges; Corvi, Franco; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Brusegan, Antonio; Mutti, Paolo [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Janeva, Natalia [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Belgium)

    2002-08-01

    The average capture cross-section of {sup 232}Th has been measured at the 14.37 m flight path of GELINA, IRMM-Geel, in the energy range from 5 to 150 keV. The capture events were detected by two C{sub 6}D{sub 6} liquid scintillators and the neutron flux was measured with a {sup 10}B-loaded ionisation chamber. The data, corrected with the pulse-height weighting technique, have been normalised to the well-isolated and nearly saturated {sup 232}Th (n, {gamma}) resonances at 21.8 eV and 23.5 eV. Below 15 keV neutron energy, we do not observe the discrepancies, up to 40%, with the evaluated ENDF/B-VI data as reported by Wisshak et al.. Between 5 and 80 keV our results are about 10% systematically above the ENDF/B-VI data and approach the evaluated data between 80 and 100 keV. (author)

  19. Effects of drop acceleration and deceleration on particle capture in a cross-flow gravity tower at intermediate drop Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop; Gupta, S K; Kale, S R

    2007-04-01

    Cross-flow gravity towers are particle scrubbing devices in which water is sprayed from the top into particle-laden flow moving horizontally. Models for predicting particle capture assume drops traveling at terminal velocity and potential flow (ReD > 1000) around it, however, Reynolds numbers in the intermediate range of 1 to 1000 are common in gravity towers. Drops are usually injected at velocities greater than their terminal velocities (as in nozzles) or from near rest (perforated tray) and they accelerate/decelerate to their terminal velocity in the tower. Also, the effects of intermediate drop Reynolds number on capture efficiency have been simulated for (a) drops at their terminal velocity and (b) drops accelerating/decelerating to their terminal velocity. Tower efficiency based on potential flow about the drop is 40%-50% greater than for 200 mm drops traveling at their terminal velocity. The corresponding values for 500 mm drops are about 10%-20%. The drop injection velocity is important operating parameter. Increase in tower efficiency by about 40% for particles smaller than 5 mm is observed for increase in injection velocity from 0 to 20 m/s for 200 and 500mm drops.

  20. Visual capture of a stereo sound: Interactions between cue reliability, sound localization variability, and cross-modal bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Christopher; Zhou, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Multisensory interactions involve coordination and sometimes competition between multiple senses. Vision usually dominates audition in spatial judgments when light and sound stimuli are presented from two different physical locations. This study investigated the influence of vision on the perceived location of a phantom sound source placed in a stereo sound field using a pair of loudspeakers emitting identical signals that were delayed or attenuated relative to each other. Results show that although a similar horizontal range (+/-45°) was reported for timing-modulated and level-modulated signals, listeners' localization performance showed greater variability for the timing signals. When visual stimuli were presented simultaneously with the auditory stimuli, listeners showed stronger visual bias for timing-modulated signals than level-modulated and single-speaker control signals. Trial-to-trial errors remained relatively stable over time, suggesting that sound localization uncertainty has an immediate and long-lasting effect on the across-modal bias. Binaural signal analyses further reveal that interaural differences of time and intensity-the two primary cues for sound localization in the azimuthal plane-are inherently more ambiguous for signals placed using timing. These results suggest that binaural ambiguity is intrinsically linked with localization variability and the strength of cross-modal bias in sound localization.

  1. Characterization of Compass M-1 signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauschild, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Sleewaegen, J.-M.; Huisman, L.; Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of observations from China’s first medium earth orbit satellite Compass M-1 is presented, with main focus on the first orbit and clock solution for this satellite. The orbit is computed from laser ranging measurements. Based on this orbit solution, the apparent clock offset is estimated

  2. Analytic closures for M1 neutrino transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchikova, E. M.; Abdikamalov, E.; Urbatsch, T.

    2017-08-01

    Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in the literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. Given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.

  3. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  4. Experimental cross sections for two-electron capture into nitrogen autoionising states in Nsup(q+) (q=6,7) on He and H/sub 2/ collisions at 10. 5q keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Marrakchi, A.I.; Dousson, S.; Hitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    Singly differential cross sections for two-electron capture into autoionising states (nl,n'l') with n=2,3,4 and n'>=n in Nsup(q+) (q=6,7) on He and H/sub 2/ collisions have been measured at 10,5q ke V collision energy and an observation angle thetasub(lab)=11.6/sup 0/. Total cross sections are estimated assuming isotropic angular distributions. (orig.).

  5. Americium-241 integral radiative capture cross section in over-moderated neutron spectrum from pile oscillator measurements in the Minerve reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslot Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program, called AMSTRAMGRAM, was recently conducted in the Minerve low power reactor operated by CEA Cadarache within the frame of the CHANDA initiative (Solving CHAllenges in Nuclear Data. Its aim was to measure the integral capture cross section of 241Am in the thermal domain. Motivation of this work is driven by large differences in this actinide thermal point reported by major nuclear data libraries. The AMSTRAMGRAM experiment, that made use of well characterized EC-JRC americium samples, was based on the oscillation technique commonly implemented in the Minerve reactor. First results are presented and discussed in this article. A preliminary calculation scheme was used to compare measured and calculated results. It is shown that this work confirms a bias previously observed with JEFF-3.1.1 (C/E-1 = −10.5 ± 2%. On the opposite, the experiment is in close agreement with 241Am thermal point reported in JEFF-3.2 (C/E-1 = 0.5 ± 2%.

  6. Reaction 48Ca+208Pb: the capture-fission cross-sections and the mass-energy distributions of fragments above and deep below the Coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorova, E V; Itkis, M G; Kondratev, N A; Kozulin, E M; Krupa, L; Oganessian, Yu T; Pashkevich, V V; Pokrovsky, I V; Rusanov, A Ya; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.

    2003-01-01

    The capture-fission cross-sections in an energy range of 206-242 MeV of 48Ca-projectiles and mass-energy distributions (MEDs) of reaction products in an energy range of 211-242 MeV have been measured in the 48Ca+208Pb reaction using the double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer CORSET. The MEDs of fragments for heated fission were shown to consist of two components. One component, which is due to classical fusion-fission, is associated with the symmetric fission of the 256No compound nucleus. The other component, which appears as ''shoulders'', is associated with the quasi-fission process and can be named ''quasi-fission shoulders''. Those quasi-fission shoulders enclose light fragments whose masses are 60-90 a.m.u. The total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments that belong to the shoulders is higher than the value expected for a classical fusion-fission process. We have come to the conclusion that in quasi-fission, spherical shells with Z=28 and N=50 play a great role. It has also been demonstrated that the pr...

  7. The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

    1997-08-01

    The properties of the transition from the nucleon to the {Delta}(1232) serve as a benchmark for models of nucleon structure. To first order, N {r_arrow} {Delta} photo-excitation is dominated by a simple M1 quark spin-flip transition. At higher order, small L = 2 components in the N and {Delta} wavefunctions allow this excitation to proceed via an electric quadrupole transition. Since Nucleon models differ greatly on the mechanisms used to generate these L = 2 components,, the ratio of E2/M1 transitions (EMR) provides a sensitive test for structure models. Here, new high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. Compton scattering has provided two important new constraints on the photo-pion amplitude. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the N {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

  8. Capture reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1956-01-01

    Capture reactions will be considered here from the viewpoint of the nuclear spectroscopist. Especially important to him are the capture of neutrons, protons, and alpha particles, which may proceed through narrow resonances, offering a well defined initial state for the subsequent deexcitation proces

  9. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of U{sup 234} in n-TOF at CERN for Generation IV nuclear reactors; Mesure de la section efficace de capture neutronique de l'{sup 234}U a n-TOF au CERN pour les reacteurs nucleaires de generation 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dridi, W

    2006-11-15

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. In particular, the accurate knowledge of U{sup 234}(n,{gamma}) reaction cross section is required for the design and realization of nuclear power plants based on the thorium fuel cycle. We have measured the neutron capture cross section of U{sup 234}, with a 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} Total Absorption Calorimeter, at the recently constructed neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1 MeV. Monte-Carlo simulations with GEANT4 and MCNPX of the detector response have been performed. After the background subtraction and correction with dead time and pile-up, the capture yield from 0.03 eV up to 1.5 keV was derived. The analysis of the capture yield in terms of R-matrix resonance parameters is discussed. We have identified 123 resonances and measured the resonance parameters in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1.5 keV. The mean radiative width <{gamma}{sub {gamma}}> is found to be (38.2 {+-} 1.5) meV and the mean spacing parameter is (11.0 {+-} 0.2) eV, both values agree well with recommended values.

  10. Measurement of the total cross sections for electron capture of 2. 0-7. 5 MeV H/sup +/ in H, H/sub 2/ and He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, W.; Baptista, G.B.; Justiniano, E.; Vogt, H.; Weber, E.W.; Schuch, R.

    1987-06-28

    The total cross sections for electron capture of protons in atomic and molecular hydrogen and in helium gas targets are measured in the high proton velocity regime of 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 MeV. The results are compared with first- and higher-order perturbation theories (Oppenheimer-Brinkmann-Kramers, true first Born approximation (TFBA), eikonal approximation (EA), continuum distorted wave (CDW), strong potential Born, strong potential Born full peaking) for electron capture, and are found to be in good agreement with the CDW, EA and TFBA approximations.

  11. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  12. Electrochemical immunochip sensor for aflatoxin M1 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Charlie O; Lanyon, Yvonne H; Manning, Mary; Arrigan, Damien W M; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2009-07-01

    An investigation into the fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and development of a microelectrode array (MEA) immunosensor for aflatoxin M(1) is presented in this paper. Gold MEAs (consisting of 35 microsquare electrodes with 20 microm x 20 microm dimensions and edge-to-edge spacing of 200 microm) together with on-chip reference and counter electrodes were fabricated using standard photolithographic methods. The MEAs were then characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the behavior of the on-chip electrodes were evaluated. The microarray sensors were assessed for their applicability to the development of an immunosensor for the analysis of aflatoxin M(1) directly in milk samples. Following the sensor surface silanization, antibodies were immobilized by cross-linking with 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (PDITC). Surface characterization was conducted by electrochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay format was developed on the microarray electrode surface using the 3,3,5',5'-tetramethylbenzidine dihyrochloride (TMB)/H(2)O(2) electrochemical detection scheme with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme label. The performance of the assay and the microarray sensor were characterized in pure buffer conditions before applying to the milk samples. With the use of this approach, the detection limit for aflatoxin M(1) in milk was estimated to be 8 ng L(-1), with a dynamic detection range of 10-100 ng L(-1), which meets present legislative limits of 50 ng L(-1). The milk interference with the sensor surface was also found to be minimal. These devices show high potential for development of a range of new applications which have previously only been detected using elaborate instrumentation.

  13. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  14. Total and state-to-state electron capture and excitation cross-sections for Li+, Be{}^{2+}, and {{\\rm{B}}}^{3+} colliding with {\\rm{H}}(1\\;s) at low-to-intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, F. J.; Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2016-01-01

    The electron capture process plays an important role as a diagnostic tool for measuring the temperature, plasma rotation, and impurity densities of plasma in tokamaks. In this work we report the electron capture and excitation cross-sections for Li+, Be{}2+, and {{{B}}}3+ colliding with atomic hydrogen in the collision energy range 0.25-25 keV/amu. For this, we solve numerically the time dependent Schrödinger equation by using a finite difference approach. We model the ion projectile interaction with the target using a pseudopotential obtained within a Hartree-Fock method. We use classical trajectories, obtained self-consistently, for the projectile at collision energies lower than 2 keV/amu and a straight line trajectory at high collision energies. We report new results for the total, n=2,3, and 4 state projectile electron capture cross-section, as well as the n = 2-state target excitation cross-section. We find a good agreement between our cross-section results when compared with available theoretical and experimental data found in the literature. Finally, we find that the electron capture probability, as a function of the impact parameter, shows Stückelberg oscillations at low collision energies for the n = 2 of Be+ and n = 3 of {{{B}}}2+, in the radial range (large impact parameters). Our results assess the validity of the adiabatic basis set at low collision energies and confirm the use of a finite difference method as an accurate approach to study a time-dependent process in charge exchange collisions. A discussion of our results is provided.

  15. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  16. Thermoelectric waste heat recovery from an M1 Abrams tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Thomas, Peter M.; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Mantini, Michael J.; Venkatasubramanian, Rama; Barton, Michael D.; Cardine, Christopher V.; Walker, Grayson W.

    2012-06-01

    The addition of advanced sensors, targeting systems and electronic countermeasures to military vehicles has created a strategic need for additional electric power. By incorporating a thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery system to convert available exhaust heat to electricity, increased electric power needs can be met without reducing the energy efficiency of the vehicle. This approach allows existing vehicles to be upgraded without requiring a complete re-design of the engine and powertrain to support the integration of advanced electronic sensors and systems that keep the performance at the state of the art level. RTI has partnered with General Dynamics Land Systems and Creare, Inc. under an Army Research Lab program to develop a thermoelectric exhaust waste heat recovery system for the M1 Abrams tank. We have designed a reduced-scale system that was retrofitted to the tank and generated 80W of electric power on the vehicle operating on a test track by capturing a portion of the exhaust heat from the Honeywell/Lycoming AGT-1500 gas turbine engine.

  17. Halo Effect on Direct Neutron Capture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 周宏余

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ) 11 Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11 Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray,respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

  18. Coiled-Coil Irregularities and Instabilities in Group A Streptococcus M1 Are Required for Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Case; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho (UO-HSC); (UCSD)

    2008-07-21

    Antigenically variable M proteins are major virulence factors and immunogens of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Here, we report the -3 angstrom resolution structure of a GAS M1 fragment containing the regions responsible for eliciting type-specific, protective immunity and for binding fibrinogen, which promotes M1 proinflammatory and antiphagocytic functions. The structure revealed substantial irregularities and instabilities throughout the coiled coil of the M1 fragment. Similar structural irregularities occur in myosin and tropomyosin, explaining the patterns of cross-reactivity seen in autoimmune sequelae of GAS infection. Sequence idealization of a large segment of the M1 coiled coil enhanced stability but diminished fibrinogen binding, proinflammatory effects, and antibody cross-reactivity, whereas it left protective immunogenicity undiminished. Idealized M proteins appear to have promise as vaccine immunogens.

  19. On the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, complex orthogonal design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Complex orthogonal designs (CODs) are used to construct space-time block codes. COD $\\mathcal{O}_z$ with parameter $[p, n, k]$ is a $p\\times n$ matrix, where nonzero entries are filled by $\\pm z_i$ or $\\pm z^*_i$, $i = 1, 2,..., k$, such that $\\mathcal{O}^H_z \\mathcal{O}_z = (|z_1|^2+|z_2|^2+...+|z_k|^2)I_{n \\times n}$. Adams et al. in "The final case of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 103-122, Jan. 2010, first proved the nonexistence of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd, COD. Combining with the previous result that decoding delay should be an integer multiple of $\\binom{2m}{m-1}$, they solved the final case $n \\equiv 2 \\pmod 4$ of the decoding delay problem for maximum rate complex orthogonal designs. In this paper, we give another proof of the nonexistence of COD with parameter $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m, \\binom{2m-1}{m-1}]$, $m$ odd. Our new proof is based on the uniqueness of $[\\binom{2m}{m-1}, 2m-1, \\binom{...

  20. Capturing appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2005-01-01

    For computer graphics applications, capturing the appearance parameters of objects (reflectance, transmittance and small scale surface structures), is as important as capturing the overall shape. We briefly review recent approaches developed by the computer graphics community to solve this problem. Excellent results have been obtained by various researchers measuring spatially varying reflectance functions for some classes of objects. We will consider some challenges from two of the remaining problematic classes of objects. First we will describe our experience scanning and modeling the throne of Tutankhamen. The major difficulties in this case were that the base shape was a highly detailed non-convex geometry with complex topology, and the shape was covered by optically uncooperative gold and silver. Then we will discuss some observations from our ongoing project to scan and model historic buildings on the Yale campus. The major difficulties in this second case are quantity of data and the lack of control over acquisition conditions.

  1. Highly expressed captured genes and cross-kingdom domains present in Helitrons create novel diversity in Pleurotus ostreatus and other fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanera, Raúl; Pérez, Gúmer; López, Leticia; Sancho, Rubén; Santoyo, Francisco; Alfaro, Manuel; Gabaldón, Toni; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A; Ramírez, Lucía

    2014-12-05

    Helitrons are class-II eukaryotic transposons that transpose via a rolling circle mechanism. Due to their ability to capture and mobilize gene fragments, they play an important role in the evolution of their host genomes. We have used a bioinformatics approach for the identification of helitrons in two Pleurotus ostreatus genomes using de novo detection and homology-based searching. We have analyzed the presence of helitron-captured genes as well as the expansion of helitron-specific helicases in fungi and performed a phylogenetic analysis of their conserved domains with other representative eukaryotic species. Our results show the presence of two helitron families in P. ostreatus that disrupt gene colinearity and cause a lack of synteny between their genomes. Both putative autonomous and non-autonomous helitrons were transcriptionally active, and some of them carried highly expressed captured genes of unknown origin and function. In addition, both families contained eukaryotic, bacterial and viral domains within the helitron's boundaries. A phylogenetic reconstruction of RepHel helicases using the Helitron-like and PIF1-like helicase conserved domains revealed a polyphyletic origin for eukaryotic helitrons. P. ostreatus helitrons display features similar to other eukaryotic helitrons and do not tend to capture host genes or gene fragments. The occurrence of genes probably captured from other hosts inside the helitrons boundaries pose the hypothesis that an ancient horizontal transfer mechanism could have taken place. The viral domains found in some of these genes and the polyphyletic origin of RepHel helicases in the eukaryotic kingdom suggests that virus could have played a role in a putative lateral transfer of helitrons within the eukaryotic kingdom. The high similarity of some helitrons, along with the transcriptional activity of its RepHel helicases indicates that these elements are still active in the genome of P. ostreatus.

  2. Partial {sigma}{sub nl} and total {sigma}{sub tot} cross sections of single electron capture in Ar{sup 8+} -He collision in the 400-2400 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, A.; Husson, X.; Hennecart, D.; Hicham, S.; Kucal, H.; Lecler, D. [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Cassimi, A.; Grandin, J.P.; Jardin, P.; Lepoutre, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1993-12-31

    The Ar{sup 8+} ions are delivered by a recoil ion source (GANIL), the helium target consists in a supersonic jet. Three energy gain spectra were obtained for 400, 1600 and 2400 eV energy collision; each spectrum exhibits two peaks, the left one corresponds to an electron capture in the 5s level of Ar{sup 7+}, the right one corresponds to an electron capture in 4f and 4d levels. The difference between observed and expected energy position is due to the scattering angle which values allow for corrections and partial cross sections determination. Results are compared to the Landau-Zener calculation of Benmeuraien. 2 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral measurements of {sup 139}La(n, γ){sup 140}La and {sup 140}Ce(n, γ){sup 141}Ce using a Am-Be neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Karnataka (India)

    2017-03-15

    Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and resonance integrals of {sup 139}La(n, γ){sup 140}La and {sup 140}Ce (n, γ){sup 141}Ce are measured with respect to reference reactions {sup 197}Au(n, γ){sup 198}Au and {sup 55}Mn(n, γ){sup 56}Mn using the neutron activation technique. Measurements are carried out using neutrons from an Am-Be source located inside a concrete bunker. Two different methods are used for determining self-shielding factors of activation foils as well as for finding the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor. For {sup 139}La with reference to {sup 197}Au and {sup 55}Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 9.24 ± 0.25 b and 9.28 ± 0.37 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 12.18 ± 0.67 b and 11.81 ± 0.94 b, respectively. For {sup 140}Ce with reference to {sup 197}Au and {sup 55}Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 0.44 ± 0.01 b and 0.44 ± 0.02 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 0.55 ± 0.03 b and 0.54 ± 0.04 b, respectively. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements and evaluations. Presently estimated values confirm the established {sup 139}La(n, γ){sup 140}La cross-sections. The presently measured thermal capture cross-section {sup 140}Ce(n, γ){sup 141}Ce, though lower than the evaluated data, is having higher accuracy compared to previous measurements with large uncertainties. The resonance integral measured is higher (like most previous measurements) than most evaluations requiring a revision of the evaluated data. (orig.)

  4. Thermal neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral measurements of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce using a Am-Be neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and resonance integrals of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce (n, γ)141Ce are measured with respect to reference reactions 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn using the neutron activation technique. Measurements are carried out using neutrons from an Am-Be source located inside a concrete bunker. Two different methods are used for determining self-shielding factors of activation foils as well as for finding the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor. For 139 La with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 9.24 ± 0.25 b and 9.28 ± 0.37 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 12.18 ± 0.67 b and 11.81 ± 0.94 b, respectively. For 140 Ce with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 0.44 ± 0.01 b and 0.44 ± 0.02 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 0.55 ± 0.03 b and 0.54 ± 0.04 b, respectively. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements and evaluations. Presently estimated values confirm the established 139La(n, γ)140La cross-sections. The presently measured thermal capture cross-section 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce , though lower than the evaluated data, is having higher accuracy compared to previous measurements with large uncertainties. The resonance integral measured is higher (like most previous measurements) than most evaluations requiring a revision of the evaluated data.

  5. Measurement of the 238U Radiative Capture Cross Section with C6D6 at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Mingrone, F; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the U-238(n,gamma) reaction cross section measurement, performed on April 2012 at the CERN n\\_TOF facility using C6D6 scintillation detectors over an energy range from thermal to 1 MeV. The goal of this measurement, which is part of a larger proposal, is to reach an uncertainty of 2\\% in the cross section. The experimental set-up and the methods used to obtain this result are described.

  6. Measurements and analysis of the {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I neutron capture and total cross sections; Mesure et analyses des sections efficaces neutroniques totales et de capture radiative des iodes 127 et 129 de 0.5 eV a 100keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguere, G

    2005-07-01

    Most of the experimental work on the interaction of neutrons with matter has focused on materials important to reactor physics and reactor structures. By comparison, the corresponding data for minor actinides or long-lived fission products are poor. A significant demand has developed for improved neutron cross-section data of these little-studied nuclides due to the surge of interest in the transmutation of nuclear waste. With 400 kg of {sup 129}I produced yearly in the reactors of the EU countries and a very long {beta}{sup -} half-life of 1.57 x 10{sup 7} years, iodine requires disposal strategies that will isolate this isotope from the environment for long periods of time. Therefore, {sup 129}I is potentially a key long-lived fission product for transmutation applications, since {sup 129}I transmutes in {sup 130}I after a single neutron capture and decays to {sup 130}Xe with a 12.36 h half-life. Accurate capture cross sections would help to reduce uncertainties in waste management concepts. For that purpose, Time-Of-Flight measurements covering the [0.5 eV-100 keV] energy range have been carried out at the 150 MeV pulsed neutron source GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). Two types of experiments have been performed at the IRMM, namely capture and transmission experiments. They are respectively related to the neutron capture and total cross sections. Since the PbI{sub 2} samples used in this work contain natural and radioactive iodine, extensive measurements of {sup 129}I have been carried out under the same experimental conditions as for the {sup 129}I. The data reduction process was performed with the AGS system, and the resonance parameters were extracted with the SAMMY and REFIT shape analysis codes. In a last step, the parameters have been converted into ENDF-6 format and processed with the NJOY code to produce point-wise and multigroup cross sections, as well as MCNP and ERANOS libraries. (author)

  7. Measurements of the Ratio of Neutron Capture Cross Section of 71Ga and 180Hf to 197Au From 0.5 to 3.0 MeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiong-jun; CHANGHong-wei; JIANGLi-yang; ZHONGQi-ping; HANXiao-gang; YUWei-xiang; LIJing-wen; LUHan-lin

    2003-01-01

    The measurements of the ratio of neutron capture cross section of 71Ga and 180Hf to 197Au were carried out at 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator and 600 kV Cockroft-Walton accelerator. Neutrons were produced in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 2.0 MeV by the T(p, n) reaction at 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator, in the energy 3.0 MeV by the D(d, n) reaction at Cockroft-Walton accelerator, respectively.The activation technique was used in this work.

  8. Production of a {sup 44} Ti target and its cross section of thermal neutron capture; Producao de um alvo de {sup 44} Ti e sua secao de choque para captura de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejnisman, R

    1993-12-31

    A study of the production of a {sup 44} Ti target was carried out aiming the determination of its thermal neutron capture cross-section. With this purpose, the cross-section of the reaction {sup 45} Sc(p,2 n) {sup 44} Ti was determined in the energies 16-, 18-, 20-22- and 45 MeV. The cross-section of the reactions (p,n) {sup 45} Ti, (p,pn) {sup 44m} Sc, (p,pn) {sup 44g} Sc and (p,p2n){sup 43} Sc were also measured. The results in the low energy region are in good agreement with a previous work by McGee et al. On the other hand, the cross-section at 45 MeV is different from McGee`s result and indicates the existence of an abnormal behavior of the excitation function at higher energies. Furthermore, a radiochemical separation method was developed in order to eliminate Sc from the {sup 44} Ti target which was irradiated with neutrons. It was possible to determine an upper limit for the cross-section of the reaction {sup 44} Ti (n, {gamma}) of 4 x 10{sup 3} b. At last, it is presented a discussion of the results obtained and their possible astrophysical implications. (author) 94 refs.

  9. The conformation of acetylated virginiamycin M1 and virginiamycin M1 in explicit solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chai Ann; Zhao, Wen; Dang, Jason; Bergdahl, Mikael; Separovic, Frances; Brownlee, Robert T C; Metzger, Robert P

    2007-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of acetylated virginiamycin M(1) (acetylated VM1) in chloroform and in a water/acetonitrile mixture (83:17 v/v) have been established through 2D high resolution NMR experiments and molecular dynamics modeling and the results compared with the conformation of the antibiotic VM1 in the same and other solvents. The results indicated that acetylation of the C-14 OH group of VM1 caused it to rotate about 90 degrees from the position it assumed in non-acetylated VM1. The conformation of both VM1 and acetylated VM1 appear to flatten in moving from a nonpolar to polar solvent. However, the acetylated form has a more hydrophobic nature. The acetylated VM1 in chloroform and in water/acetonitrile solution had a similar configuration to that of VM1 bound to 50S ribosomes and to the Vat(D) active sites as previously determined by X-ray crystallography. Docking studies of VM1 to the 50S ribosomal binding site and the Vat(D) gave conformations very similar to those derived from X-ray crystallographic studies. The docking studies with acetylated VM1 suggested the possibility of a hydrogen bond from the acetyl carbonyl group oxygen of acetylated VM1 to the 2' hydroxyl group of ribose of adenosine 2538 at the ribosomal VM1 binding site. No hydrogen bonds between acetylated VM1 and the Vat(D) active sites were found; the loss of this binding interaction partly accounts for the release of the product from the active site.

  10. Determination of the neutron capture cross sections of 232Th at 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the neutron activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Chang-Lin; Peng, Meng; Lv, Tao; Yao, Ze-en; Chen, Jin-Gen; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The 232Th(n,{\\gamma})233Th neutron capture reaction cross sections were measured at average neutron energies of 14.1 MeV and 14.8 MeV using the activation method. The neutron flux was determined using the monitor reaction 27Al(n,{\\alpha})24Na. The induced gamma-ray activities were measured using a low background gamma ray spectrometer equipped with a high resolution HPGe detector. The experimentally determined cross sections were compared with the literatures data, evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII, JENDL-4.0, and CENDL-3.1. The Excitation functions of 232Th(n,{\\gamma}) reaction were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS 1.6 computer code.

  11. Neutron capture cross-section measurement for the {sup 186}W(n,{gamma}){sup 187}W reaction at 0.0536 eV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: shuza88@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, M.H. [Department of Physics, Comilla Victoria Government College, Comilla (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, S.M.; Latif, Sk.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Islam, M.A.; Zakaria, A.K.M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Azharul Islam, S.M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-09-15

    The thermal neutron-induced activation cross section for the {sup 186}W(n,{gamma}){sup 187}W reaction was measured at 0.0536 eV neutron energy using TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}){sup 198}Au monitor reaction induced in a high-purity gold foil was used to determine the effective neutron beam intensity. The activities induced in sample and monitor foils were measured nondestructively by a high-resolution HPGe {gamma}-ray detector. The present experimental cross-section value is the first one at 0.0536 eV. The obtained new cross section that amounts to 26.6{+-}1.6 b is 2% higher than the recently reported data in ENDF/B-VII and 5% lower than that of JENDL-3.3.

  12. Monte Carlo analysis of the long-lived fission product neutron capture rates at the Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense, 40, Ed. 17, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ismailov, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lafuente, A. [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nishihara, K. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Sugawara, T. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TARC experiment benchmark capture rates results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of updated databases, included ADSLib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-shielding effect in reactor design for transmutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Lead nuclear data. - Abstract: The design of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) requires the development of simulation tools that are able to describe in a realistic way their nuclear performance and transmutation rate capability. In this publication, we present an evaluation of state of the art Monte Carlo design tools to assess their performance concerning transmutation of long-lived fission products. This work, performed under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency, analyses two important aspects for transmutation systems: moderation on Lead and neutron captures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I. The analysis of the results shows how shielding effects due to the resonances at epithermal energies of these nuclides affects strongly their transmutation rate. The results suggest that some research effort should be undertaken to improve the quality of Iodine nuclear data at epithermal and fast neutron energy to obtain a reliable transmutation estimation.

  13. Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K. Rutta U.S...the originator. UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-15-C-0030 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ER-GLSV11389-001.docx Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal SBIR Phase I: Topic A13-061...Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal Christian Muehfeld Steve Pennala Great Lakes Sound & Vibration, Inc. 47140 North Main Street Houghton, MI 49931 ER...061. The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility of developing an efficient, leak proof plenum seal for the M1 Abrams . It also shows the

  15. MANTA. An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Actinides and Fission Products in Fast and Epithermal Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Neutron cross-sections characterize the way neutrons interact with matter. They are essential to most nuclear engineering projects and, even though theoretical progress has been made as far as the predictability of neutron cross-section models, measurements are still indispensable to meet tight design requirements for reduced uncertainties. Within the field of fission reactor technology, one can identify the following specializations that rely on the availability of accurate neutron cross-sections: (1) fission reactor design, (2) nuclear fuel cycles, (3) nuclear safety, (4) nuclear safeguards, (5) reactor monitoring and neutron fluence determination and (6) waste disposal and transmutation. In particular, the assessment of advanced fuel cycles requires an extensive knowledge of transuranics cross sections. Plutonium isotopes, but also americium, curium and up to californium isotope data are required with a small uncertainty in order to optimize significant features of the fuel cycle that have an impact on feasibility studies (e.g. neutron doses at fuel fabrication, decay heat in a repository, etc.). Different techniques are available to determine neutron cross sections experimentally, with the common denominator that a source of neutrons is necessary. It can either come from an accelerator that produces neutrons as a result of interactions between charged particles and a target, or it can come from a nuclear reactor. When the measurements are performed with an accelerator, they are referred to as differential since the analysis of the data provides the cross-sections for different discrete energies, i.e. σ(Ei), and for the diffusion cross sections for different discrete angles. Another approach is to irradiate a very pure sample in a test reactor such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after

  16. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.

    2010-01-01

    publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core...

  17. FoxM1 Regulates Mammary Luminal Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janai R. Carr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer correlates with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype and a negative clinical outcome. However, a role for FoxM1 in regulating mammary differentiation was not known. Here, we identify another function of FoxM1, the ability to act as a transcriptional repressor, which plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of luminal epithelial progenitors. Regeneration of mammary glands with elevated levels of FoxM1 leads to aberrant ductal morphology and expansion of the luminal progenitor pool. Conversely, knockdown of FoxM1 results in a shift toward the differentiated state. FoxM1 mediates these effects by repressing the key regulator of luminal differentiation, GATA-3. Through association with DNMT3b, FoxM1 promotes methylation of the GATA-3 promoter in an Rb-dependent manner. This study identifies FoxM1 as a critical regulator of mammary differentiation with significant implications for the development of aggressive breast cancers.

  18. Measurement of neutron capture cross section of sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf in the energy range from 162 to 1200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Xia Yi Jun; Yang Zhi Hua

    2001-01-01

    The cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 sup 4 Hf( n, gamma) sup 1 sup 7 sup 5 Hf reaction were measured relatively to the sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 8 Au reaction for neutron energies from 162 to 1200 keV, using the activation technique with high resolution HPGE gamma ray spectroscopy. Some experimental data were given for the first time

  19. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 238U at the CERN n_TOF facility in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, F.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gunsing, F.; Žugec, P.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; n TOF Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the 238U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behavior of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross section of 238U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were proposed and carried out within the 7th Framework Project ANDES of the European Commission. The results of one of these 238U(n ,γ ) measurements performed at the n_TOF CERN facility are presented in this work. The γ -ray cascade following the radiative neutron capture has been detected exploiting a setup of two C6D6 liquid scintillators. Resonance parameters obtained from this work are on average in excellent agreement with the ones reported in evaluated libraries. In the unresolved resonance region, this work yields a cross section in agreement with evaluated libraries up to 80 keV, while for higher energies our results are significantly higher.

  20. On (2m + 1)-variable symmetric Boolean functions with submaximum algebraic immunity 2m-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    All (2m +1)-variable symmetric Boolean functions with submaximal algebraic immunity 2m-1 are described and constructed. The total number of such Boolean functions is 32 ·22m-3 +3m-2 · 24 - 2 for m≥2.

  1. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  2. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Diverse Effects on M1 Signaling and Adverse Effect Liability within a Series of M1 Ago-PAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Abe, Masahito; Cho, Hyekyung P; Nance, Kellie D; Luscombe, Vincent B; Adams, Jeffrey J; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Engers, Darren W; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-10

    Both historical clinical and recent preclinical data suggest that the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is an exciting target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive and negative symptom clusters in schizophrenia; however, early drug discovery efforts targeting the orthosteric binding site have failed to afford selective M1 activation. Efforts then shifted to focus on selective activation of M1 via either allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While M1 PAMs have robust efficacy in rodent models, some chemotypes can induce cholinergic adverse effects (AEs) that could limit their clinical utility. Here, we report studies aimed at understanding the subtle structural and pharmacological nuances that differentiate efficacy from adverse effect liability within an indole-based series of M1 ago-PAMs. Our data demonstrate that closely related M1 PAMs can display striking differences in their in vivo activities, especially their propensities to induce adverse effects. We report the discovery of a novel PAM in this series that is devoid of observable adverse effect liability. Interestingly, the molecular pharmacology profile of this novel PAM is similar to that of a representative M1 PAM that induces severe AEs. For instance, both compounds are potent ago-PAMs that demonstrate significant interaction with the orthosteric site (either bitopic or negative cooperativity). However, there are subtle differences in efficacies of the compounds at potentiating M1 responses, agonist potencies, and abilities to induce receptor internalization. While these differences may contribute to the differential in vivo profiles of these compounds, the in vitro differences are relatively subtle and highlight the complexities of allosteric modulators and the need to focus on in vivo phenotypic screening to identify safe and effective M1 PAMs.

  4. Broad analgesic activity of a novel, selective M1 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael W; Martino, Giovanni; Coupal, Martin; Lindberg, Mattias; Schroeder, Patricia; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Valiquette, Manon; Sandin, Johan; Widzowski, Daniel; Laird, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Although the muscarinic receptor family has long been a source of potentially compelling targets for small molecule drug discovery, it was difficult to achieve agonist selectivity within the family. A new class of M1 muscarinic agonists has emerged, and these compounds have been characterized as agonists that activate the receptor at an allosteric site. Members of this class of M1 agonists have been shown to be selective across the muscarinic receptors. However, upon introduction of a novel pharmacologic mechanism, it is prudent to ensure that no new off-target activities have arisen, particularly within the context of in vivo experiments. Reported here, is the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel M1 agonist tool compound, PPBI, and demonstrations that the primary biological effects of PPBI are mediated through M1. PPBI reverses d-amphetamine locomotor activity, but fails to do so in transgenic mice that do not express M1. PPBI also reverses a natural deficit in a rat cognition model at a level of exposure which also activates cortical circuitry. Most notably, PPBI is analgesic in a variety of rat and mouse models and the analgesic effect of PPBI is reversed by an M1-preferring antagonist and an M1-selective toxin. Finally, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures of PPBI are compared across multiple endpoints which highlights that activity in models of psychosis and pain require higher exposures than that required in the cognition model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Selectivity of oxomemazine for the M1 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Woo, C W; Kim, J G

    1994-12-01

    The binding characteristics of pirenzepine and oxomemazine to muscarinic receptor were studied to evaluate the selectivity of oxomemazine for the muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat cerebral microsomes. Equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate([3H]QNB) determined from saturation isotherms was 64 pM. Analysis of the pirenzepine inhibition curve of [3H]QNB binding to cerebral microsome indicated the presence of two receptor subtypes with high (Ki = 16 nM, M1 receptor) and low (Ki = 400 nM, M3 receptor) affinity for pirenzepine. Oxomemazine also identified two receptor subtypes with about 20-fold difference in the affinity for high (Ki = 84 nM, OH receptor) and low (Ki = 1.65 microM, OL receptor) affinity sites. The percentage populations of M1 and M3 receptors to the total receptors were 61:39, and those of OH and OL receptors 39:61, respectively. Both pirenzepine and oxomemazine increased the KD value for [3H]QNB without affecting the binding site concentrations and Hill coefficient for the [3H]QNB binding. Oxomemazine had a 10-fold higher affinity at M1 receptors than at M3 receptors, and pirenzepine a 8-fold higher affinity at OH receptors than at OL receptors. Analysis of the shallow competition binding curves of oxomemazine for M1 receptors and pirenzepine for OL receptors yielded that 69% of M1 receptors were of OH receptors and the remaining 31% of OL receptors, and that 29% of OL receptors were of M1 receptors and 71% of M3 receptors. However, M3 for oxomemazine and OH for pirenzepine were composed of a uniform population. These results suggest that oxomemazine could be classified as a selective drug for M1 receptors and also demonstrate that rat cerebral microsomes contain three different subtypes of M1, M3 and the other site which is different from M1, M2 and M3 receptors.

  6. M1.3--a small scaffold for DNA origami .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hassan; Schüller, Verena J; Eber, Fabian J; Wege, Christina; Liedl, Tim; Richert, Clemens

    2013-01-07

    The DNA origami method produces programmable nanoscale objects that form when one long scaffold strand hybridizes to numerous oligonucleotide staple strands. One scaffold strand is dominating the field: M13mp18, a bacteriophage-derived vector 7249 nucleotides in length. The full-length M13 is typically folded by using over 200 staple oligonucleotides. Here we report the convenient preparation of a 704 nt fragment dubbed "M1.3" as a linear or cyclic scaffold and the assembly of small origami structures with just 15-24 staple strands. A typical M1.3 origami is large enough to be visualized by TEM, but small enough to show a cooperativity in its assembly and thermal denaturation that is reminiscent of oligonucleotide duplexes. Due to its medium size, M1.3 origami with globally modified staples is affordable. As a proof of principle, two origami structures with globally 5'-capped staples were prepared and were shown to give higher UV-melting points than the corresponding assembly with unmodified DNA. M1.3 has the size of a gene, not a genome, and may function as a model for gene-based nanostructures. Small origami with M1.3 as a scaffold may serve as a workbench for chemical, physical, and biological experiments.

  7. Surface properties of new virginiamycin M(1) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Katherine; Paquot, Michel; Dufour, Samuel; Eeman, Marc; Deleu, Magali

    2009-03-01

    Three kinds of derivatives of the M(1) factor of virginiamycin have been synthesised: esters with long chain fatty acids, oximes with modified polar amino acids and bis-derivatives with both the ester and oxime function. The study of the surface tension time dependence of M(1) and its derivatives has shown that it is necessary to enhance simultaneously the hydrophobicity and the hydrophilicity of M(1) to render M(1) surface-active. A structure/function relationship study of the surface-active bis-derivatives has shown that enhancing the hydrophobicity of the molecule led to slower adsorption kinetics, higher stability of the monolayers formed and a better capacity to penetrate a membrane model. The repulsive electrostatic forces due to the presence of charges on the amino acids linked to M(1) lead to higher surface tensions, a greater molecular area at the interface and lower penetration into a membrane model. This study has demonstrated that modifying systematically the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of a non surface-active molecule allows the production of surface-active derivatives.

  8. Genomic characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Friis

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308 is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core genome comprised 1,295 gene families, or about two-thirds of the gene content of the average of the sequenced C. jejuni genomes. Various comparison and visualization tools were applied to the 13 C. jejuni genome sequences, including a species pan- and core genome plot, a BLAST Matrix and a BLAST Atlas. Trees based on 16S rRNA sequences and on the total gene families in each genome are presented. The findings are discussed in the background of the proven virulence potential of M1.

  9. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  10. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm and {sup 154}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 155}Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: shuza88@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, M.H. [Department of Physics, Comilla Victoria Government College, Comilla (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, S.M.; Latif, Sk.A.; Islam, M.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Mubin, S.H.; Zakaria, A.K.M.; Yunus, S.M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Azharul Islam, S.M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-11-15

    The neutron capture cross sections for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm and {sup 154}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 155}Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV neutron energy were measured using an activation technique based on the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, relative to the reference reaction {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}){sup 198}Au. The activity was measured nondestructively using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Our measured values at this neutron energy are the first ones and are compared with 1/v based evaluated cross sections reported in the ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 libraries. The measured value for the {sup 152}Sm(n,{gamma}){sup 153}Sm reaction is 0.28% lower than JENDL-3.3 and 0.48% higher than ENDF/B-VII. Our value for the production of {sup 155}Sm is about 3% and 2.3% higher than the evaluated value with ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 at 0.0536 eV, respectively.

  11. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 238U at the n TOF CERN facility with C6D6 scintillation detectors in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Mingrone, F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the 238U(n,g) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behaviour of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross-section of 238U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were proposed and carrie...

  12. Neutron capture cross section measurement of $^{238}$U at the n_TOF CERN facility in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Mingrone, F; Vannini, G; Colonna, N; Gunsing, F; Zugec, P; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Becares, V; Becvavr, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapico, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortes, G; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; Garcia, A R; Giubrone, G; Goncalves, I F; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Hernandez-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Lo Meo, S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martinez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mirea Horia, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; LTain, J; Tarrio, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the $^{238}$U(n,$\\gamma$) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behaviour of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross-section of $^{238}$U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were pr...

  13. Photoneutron cross sections measurements in {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C e {sup 17}O with thermal neutron capture gamma-rays; Medidas das secoes de choque de fotoneutrons do {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C e {sup 17}O com radiacao gama de captura de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmler, Renato

    2006-07-01

    Photoneutron cross sections measurements of {sup 9}Be, {sup 13}C and {sup 17}O have been obtained in the energy interval between 1,6 and 10,8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 a 21 eV), produced by 21 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 (5 MW) research reactor. The samples have been irradiated inside a 4{pi} geometry neutron detector system 'Long Counter', 520,5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (EG and G ORTEC, 25 cm{sup 3}, 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A inversion matrix methodology to solve inversion problems for unfolding the set of experimental compound cross sections, was used in order to obtain the cross sections at specific excitation energy values (principal gamma line energies of the capture targets). The cross sections obtained at the energy values of the principal gamma lines were compared with experimental data reported by other authors, with have employed different gamma-ray sources. A good agreement was observed among the experimental data in this work with reported in the literature. (author)

  14. Study of the thermal neutron radiative capture sup 31 P( n ,. gamma. ) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Xiantang; Shi Zongren; Zhang Ming; Li Guohua; Ding Dazhao (Institute of Atomic Energy, P. O. Box 275, Beijing (CN))

    1989-05-01

    The measurement of the {gamma}-ray spectrum of the {sup 31}P({ital n},{gamma}) reaction induced by thermal neutrons from the heavy water reactor is performed by using three crystal pair spectrometer'', Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. 128 {gamma}-rays are identified, 24 of them are recognized as primary {gamma}-transitions. The excitation energies of 32 levels are deduced. Two possible levels of 5451.44 keV and 5021.10 keV have not been reported previously. The neutron separation energy is determined to be 7936.65(8) keV and partial cross sections are measured. The thermal neutron capture cross section of {sup 31}P is obtained to be 177(5) mb by comparison with Au({ital n}{sub th}, {gamma}) cross section standard. With the formula of the Lane-Lynn direct interaction, the partial capture cross sections of eight strong primary E1-transitions are calculated and compared with their experimental values, leading to the conclusion that the theoretical values are in coincidence with the experimental ones and the E1-transitions mainly come from 1+ capture state. The correlation analyses of the reduced strengths of E1 and M1 transitions with the spectroscopic factors of (d, p) reaction are performed and the reaction mechanisms discussed.

  15. Concerning the Integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William; Huber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Consider the integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x). In the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables," this integral can require repeated integral evaluations. Enter this integral into your favourite computer algebra system, and the results may be unrecognizable. In this article, we seek to provide a simpler evaluation for integrals of this form. We state up…

  16. Theory of the M = 1 Kink Mode in Toroidal Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blank, H. J.; Schep, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    The energy principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to study the ideal MHD stability of the m = 1 internal kink mode in a toroidal plasma. The equilibrium configurations that are considered allow for a broad region where the safety factor q is close to unity. This region may extend to t

  17. Concerning the Integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William; Huber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Consider the integral dx/x[superscript m] (1+x). In the "CRC Standard Mathematical Tables," this integral can require repeated integral evaluations. Enter this integral into your favourite computer algebra system, and the results may be unrecognizable. In this article, we seek to provide a simpler evaluation for integrals of this form. We state up…

  18. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  19. Measurement of the thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Ag(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m Ag reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, S; Shcherbakov, O A; Furutaka, K; Harada, H; Katoh, T

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop a neutron flux monitor for long-term neutron irradiation, the thermal neutron (2,200 m/s neutron) capture cross section (sigma sub 0) and the resonance integral (I sub 0) of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Ag(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m Ag reaction were measured by the activation and gamma-ray spectroscopic methods. Silver foils were irradiated with and without a Cd shield capsule at the Rikkyo Research Reactor. The Co/Al and Au/Al alloy wires were irradiated together with silver foils in order to monitor the thermal neutron flux and the fraction of the epi-thermal neutron part (Westcott's index). A high purity Ge detector was used for the gamma-ray measurements of the irradiated samples. The sigma sub 0 and the I sub 0 of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Ag(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m Ag reaction are 4.12+-0.10 b and 67.9+-3.1 b, respectively. The sigma sub 0 is 12% smaller than the tabulated one (4.7+-0.2 b). On the other hand, the I sub 0 is in agreement with the tabulated one (72.3+-4.0 b) with...

  20. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section and resonance integral of the sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np(n, gamma) sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Np reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Katoh, T; Furutaka, K; Harada, H; Fujiwara, K; Fujii, T; Yamana, H

    2003-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section (sigma sub 0) and the resonance integral (I sub 0) of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np have been measured by an activation method to supply basic data for the study of transmutation of nuclear waste. The neutron irradiation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np samples have been done at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). Samples of sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np were irradiated between two Cd sheets or without a Cd sheet. Since sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np has a strong resonance at the energy of 0.49eV, the Cd cut-off energy was adjusted at 0.358 eV (thickness of the Cd sheets: 0.125 mm). A high purity Ge detector was employed for activity measurement. The reaction rate to produce sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Np from sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np was analyzed by the Westcott's convention. Results obtained were 141.7+-5.4 barns for sigma sub 0 and 862+-51 barns for I sub 0 above 0.358eV of sup 2 sup 7 sup 3 Np. By setting the Cd cut-off energy at 0.358eV considering the resonance at 0.49 eV, a smaller value of ...

  1. Effect of the radial plasma nonuniformity on the propagation of guided m = + 1 and m = - 1 modes in helicon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical as well as numerical analyses of the full set of Maxwell's equations is carried out to study non-axisymmetric ( m ≠ 0 ) guided modes in radially nonuniform helicon (HE) discharges. Unlike the axisymmetric (m = 0) modes, these modes reveal a non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal direction. We develop the conditions for propagation and non-propagation of the various modes in the helicon parameter range, thereby focussing on the important role of the radial density gradient. Three types of modes occurring in different parameter ranges are described, i.e., the helicon (HE) mode, the electrostatic (ES) or Trivelpiece-Gould mode, and the locally coupled (LC) mode that is characterized by mode coupling (MC) in a certain region of the plasma density profile. In contrast to m = + 1 modes, the parameter range of m = - 1 modes is much more restricted as rather high densities are needed for the propagation of the helicon and LC modes. An important issue of the investigations is the rf power coupling and absorption via the various modes. Computations based on a simple antenna-plasma model show that the axial wavenumber of the antenna determines decisively which type of mode is excited. In case of LC mode excitation, the dominant role of the MC layer for the absorption is demonstrated. Finally, the rf power coupling to helicon modes is studied. The density limit for m = - 1 helicon mode propagation and the narrow magnetic field profiles of these modes are the main reasons why the rf power absorption in helicon discharges occurs via m = + 1 helicon modes.

  2. A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins continue to pose a health concern via human exposure to contaminated food. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), may be found in the milk of dairy cattle and other mammals. In humans, AFM1 is excreted through the feces, urine, and in the case of lactating mothers, also in breast milk after consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food. Concentration of AFM1 in milk is a function of several factors, namely: animal type, milking day, milk yield, season...

  3. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  7. [The BION-M1 project: overview and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, V N; Ilyin, E A; Yarmanova, E N; Rakov, D V; Ushakov, I B; Kirilin, A N; Orlov, O I; Grigoriev, A I

    2014-01-01

    Biosatellite BION-M1 was launched on April 19 and landed on May 19, 2013. The mission program was largely a continuation of the earlier flown 11 BION projects, FOTON-M2 and FOTON-M3. The biosatellite was inhabited by a great variety of living organisms used for experiments and studies in gravitational physiology, gravitational biology, biotechnology, astrobiology and radiation biology, dosimetry and spectrometry. This was the first time in the history of national biology and physiology when male mice C57bl/6 were chosen for a long-term space experiment focused upon molecular biology investigations. Unfortunately, because of technical failures during the flight a part of the animals were lost. However, the major objectives were attained through reconsideration of biomaterial division among investigators and completion of virtually the total scope of investigations.

  8. Single ionization and electron capture in He2++Na collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Olson, RE; Ott, H; Hasan, VG; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R

    2005-01-01

    Single-electron capture and ionization in He2+ + Na collisions at energies around the matching velocity (2-13 keV amu(-1)) have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. State-selective cross section for capture into the n = 2, 3, 4 and n >= 5, and the ionization cross section as well as d

  9. The Reaction Dynamics of the Reactions Ba+CmH2m+1Br(m=1,2,3,4,5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩克利; 郑锡光; 张瑞勤; 孙本繁; 何国钟; 楼南泉

    1994-01-01

    The internal energy distributions of the nascent BaBr products formed in the reactions ofBa+BrR(R=CH3,C2H5,C3H7,C4H9,C5H11) under the single collision condition have been first studied bylaser-induced fluorescence method.With computer simulations of the experimental spectra,we obtained thevibrational distributions of the BaBr products,and found that the vibrational excitation and reaction cross-section increase with the number of the carbon atoms in the alkyl radical R.The quasitriatomic LEPS poten-tial of the Ba+CH3 reaction has been deduced reversely from the experimental results.The dynamics of thereactions Ba+BrR have been studied by the classical trajectory calculations based on the model LEPS poten-tials.It is concluded that the mass factor and the C-Br bond strength are the major factors affecting the rela-tionship between vibrational excitation and reaction cross-section with the number of the carbon atoms in thealkyl radical R.Furthermore,we obtained all the LEPS potentials of the reactive systems Ba+CmH2m+1 andconfirmed its reliability with ab initio calculations.

  10. Unstable $m=1$ modes of counter-rotating Keplerian discs

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Mamta; Sridhar, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear $m=1$ counter-rotating instability in a two-component, nearly Keplerian disc. Our goal is to understand these \\emph{slow} modes in discs orbiting massive black holes in galactic nuclei. They are of interest not only because they are of large spatial scale--and can hence dominate observations--but also because they can be growing modes that are readily excited by accretion events. Self-gravity being nonlocal, the eigenvalue problem results in a pair of coupled integral equations, which we derive for a two-component softened gravity disc. We solve this integral eigenvalue problem numerically for various values of mass fraction in the counter-rotating component. The eigenvalues are in general complex, being real only in the absence of the counter-rotating component, or imaginary when both components have identical surface density profiles. Our main results are as follows: (i) the pattern speed appears to be non negative, with the growth (or damping) rate being larger for larger values of the ...

  11. The conformational flexibility of the antibiotic virginiamycin M(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jason; Metzger, Robert P; Brownlee, Robert T C; Ng, Chai Ann; Bergdahl, Mikael; Separovic, Frances

    2005-07-01

    The antibiotic virginiamycin is a combination of two molecules, virginiamycin M(1) (VM1) and virginiamycin S(1) (VS1) or analogues, which function synergistically by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Both VM1 and VS1 dissolve poorly in water and are soluble in more hydrophobic solvents. We have recently reported that the 3D conformation of VM1 in CDCl(3) solution differs markedly from the conformation bound to a VM1 binding enzyme and to 50S ribosomes as found by X-ray crystallographic studies. We now report the results of further NMR studies and subsequent molecular modeling of VM1 dissolved in CD(3)CN/H(2)O and compare the structure with that in CD(3)OD and CDCl(3). The conformations of VM1 in CD(3)CN/H(2)O, CD(3)OD and CDCl(3) differ substantially from one another and from the bound form, with the aqueous form most like the bound structure. We propose that the flexibility of the VM1 molecule in response to environmental conditions contributes to its effectiveness as an antibiotic.

  12. The m=1 amplituhedron and cyclic hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    The (tree) amplituhedron A(n,k,m) is the image in the Grassmannian Gr(k,k+m) of the totally nonnegative part of Gr(k,n), under a (map induced by a) linear map which is totally positive. It was introduced by Arkani-Hamed and Trnka in 2013 in order to give a geometric basis for the computation of scattering amplitudes in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. When k+m=n, the amplituhedron is isomorphic to the totally nonnegative Grassmannian, and when k=1, the amplituhedron is a cyclic polytope. While the case m=4 is most relevant to physics, the amplituhedron is an interesting mathematical object for any m. In this paper we study it in the case m=1. We start by taking an orthogonal point of view and define a related "B-amplituhedron" B(n,k,m), which we show is isomorphic to A(n,k,m). We use this reformulation to describe the amplituhedron in terms of sign variation. We then give a cell decomposition of the amplituhedron A(n,k,1) using the images of a collection of distinguished cells of the totally nonnegative ...

  13. Abundances of Planetary Nebula M1-42

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R; Roellig, T L

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of the planetary nebula M1-42 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of ISO, IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the mid- and far-infrared lines, which are insensitive to electron temperature, are used as the basis for the determination of the composition, which are found to substantially differ from earlier results. High values of neon, argon and sulfur are found. They are higher than in other PN, with the exception of NGC6153, a nebula of very similar abundances. The high values of helium and nitrogen found indicate that the second dredge-up and hot bottom burning has occurred in the course of evolution and that the central star was originally more massive than 4Msun. The present temperature and luminosity of the central star is determined and at first sight may be inconsistent with such a high mass.

  14. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  15. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  16. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  19. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  20. Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheid W.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

  1. Improved energy of the 21.5 keV M1 + E2 nuclear transition in {sup 151}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoyatov, A.Kh. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National University, Institute of Applied Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kovalik, A. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Filosofov, D.V.; Perevoshchikov, L.L. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rysavy, M. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Baimukhanova, A. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-05-15

    Using internal conversion electron spectroscopy, improved energy 21 541.5±0.5 eV was determined for the 21.5 keV M1+E2 nuclear transition in {sup 151}Eu populated in the electron capture decay of {sup 151}Gd. This value was found to agree well with the present adopted value but is much more accurate. A value of 0.0305±0.0011 derived for the E2 admixture parameter vertical stroke δ(E2/M1) vertical stroke from the measured conversion electron line intensities corresponds to the present adopted value. A possible effect of nuclear structure on the multipolarity of the 21.5 keV transition was also investigated. (orig.)

  2. Stress polishing demonstrator for ELT M1 segments and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Laslandes, Marie; Floriot, Johan; Dufour, Thibaut; Fappani, Denis; Combes, Jean Marc; Ferrari, Marc

    2014-07-01

    After two years of research and development under ESO support, LAM and Thales SESO present the results of their experiment for the fast and accurate polishing under stress of ELT 1.5 meter segments as well as the industrialization approach for mass production. Based on stress polishing, this manufacturing method requires the conception of a warping harness able to generate extremely accurate bending of the optical surface of the segments during the polishing. The conception of the warping harness is based on finite element analysis and allowed a fine tuning of each geometrical parameter of the system in order to fit an error budget of 25nm RMS over 300μm of bending peak to valley. The optimisation approach uses the simulated influence functions to extract the system eigenmodes and characterise the performance. The same approach is used for the full characterisation of the system itself. The warping harness has been manufactured, integrated and assembled with the Zerodur 1.5 meter segment on the LAM 2.5meter POLARIS polishing facility. The experiment consists in a cross check of optical and mechanical measurements of the mirrors bending in order to develop a blind process, ie to bypass the optical measurement during the final industrial process. This article describes the optical and mechanical measurements, the influence functions and eigenmodes of the system and the full performance characterisation of the warping harness.

  3. Modulation of Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Applied Over Primary Motor Cortex (M1) by Conditioning Stimulation of the Opposite M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragert, Patrick; Camus, Mickael; Vandermeeren, Yves; Dimyan, Michael A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2009-01-01

    The excitability of the human primary motor cortex (M1) as tested with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) depends on its previous history of neural activity. Homeostatic plasticity might be one important physiological mechanism for the regulation of corticospinal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Although homeostatic plasticity has been demonstrated locally within M1, it is not known whether priming M1 could result in similar homeostatic effects in the homologous M1 of the opposite hemisphere. Here, we sought to determine whether down-regulating excitability (priming) in the right (R) M1 with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) changes the excitability-enhancing effect of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied over the homologous left (L) M1. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups in a sham-controlled parallel design with real or sham R M1 1-Hz TMS stimulation always preceding L M1 iTBS or sham by about 10 min. The primary outcome measure was corticospinal excitability in the L M1, as measured by recruitment curves (RCs). Secondary outcome measures included pinch force, simple reaction time, and tapping speed assessed in the right hand. The main finding of this study was that preconditioning R M1 with 1-Hz rTMS significantly decreased the excitability-enhancing effects of subsequent L M1 iTBS on RCs. Application of 1-Hz rTMS over R M1 alone and iTBS over L M1 alone resulted in increased RC in L M1 relative to sham interventions. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that homeostatic mechanisms operating across hemispheric boundaries contribute to regulate motor cortical function in the primary motor cortex. PMID:19474173

  4. Molecular Probes for Muscarinic Receptors: Derivatives of the M1-Antagonist Telenzepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Yishai; Baumgold, Jesse; Handen, Jeffrey S.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized congeners of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist telenzepine (4,9-dihydro-3-methyl-4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-10H-thieno[3,4–b][1,5]benzodiazepin-10-one) were developed and found to bind to the receptor with affinities (Ki values) in approximately the nanomolar range. The derivatives contain a 10-aminodecyl group, which provides a nucleophilic functionality for further derivatization. The attachment of a spacer chain to the distal piperazinyl nitrogen was based on previous findings of enhanced affinity at muscarinic receptors in an analogous series of alkylamino derivatives of pirenzepine [J. Med. Chem. (1991) 34, 2133–2145]. The telenzepine derivatives contain prosthetic groups for radioiodination, protein cross-linking, photoaffinity labeling, and fluorescent labeling and biotin for avidin complexation. The affinity for muscarinic receptors in rat forebrain (mainly m1 subtype) was determined in competitive binding assays vs [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. A (p-aminophenyl)-acetyl derivative for photoaffinity labeling had a Ki value of 0.29 nM at forebrain muscarinic receptors (16-fold higher affinity than telenzepine). A biotin conjugate displayed a Ki value of 0.60 nM at m2-receptors and a 5-fold selectivity versus forebrain. The high affinity of these derivatives makes them suitable for the characterization of muscarinic receptors in pharmacological and spectroscopic studies, for peptide mapping, and for histochemical studies. PMID:1520727

  5. Electron capture from coherent elliptic Rydberg states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, J.C.; DePaola, B.D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Hansen, S.B.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Leontiev, Y.; Mogensen, K.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    Experimental relative cross sections for electron capture by singly charged ions (Na{sup +}) from coherent elliptic states of principal quantum number n=25 are presented. An interval of reduced impact velocities from about 1{endash}2 is covered. Absolute reaction cross sections could not be determined precisely, but the eccentricity of the coherent elliptic states and their orientation relative to the ion-impact velocity were varied to expose the dependence of the electron-capture process on the initial motion of the electron. The dependencies on eccentricity and orientation are generally strong and they vary sharply with impact velocity. Qualitatively, the observations agree fairly well with classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations, as expected for the large quantum numbers involved, but significant deviations of a systematic nature do remain, showing that some aspects of the capture reactions studied are described poorly by classical physics as represented by the CTMC model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. The TNM 8 M1b and M1c classification for non-small cell lung cancer in a cohort of patients with brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, C; Hintz, M; Oehlke, O; Bilger, A; Grosu, A L

    2017-09-01

    According to the recent TNM 8 classification, patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single extrathoracic metastasis should be classified as stage M1b, while those with 2 or more metastases comprise stage M1c. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of this classification in patients with brain metastases. This retrospective study included 172 patients treated with individualized approaches. Actuarial survival was calculated. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Thirty patients (17%) were staged as M1b. Those with squamous cell cancer were more likely to harbor M1b disease (29%, adenocarcinoma 14%, other histology 17%, p = 0.16). Median survival was 5.4 months (8.0 months in case of M1b disease and 4.5 months in case of M1c disease, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the role of M1b stage. M1b patients managed with upfront surgery or radiosurgery had significantly longer median survival than those who received whole-brain irradiation (21.0 vs. 3.5 months, p = 0.0001) and the potential to survive beyond 5 years. We found the M1b classification to provide clinically relevant information. The multivariate analysis suggested that patients with M1b disease, better performance status and younger age have better survival.

  7. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S18_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S18 PSEUDO: Unlabeled and labeled Medicago samples for metabolite annotation using ShiftedIonsFind...17_M1), and for Medicago samples labeled by 13C (S05_M1), 15N (S07_M1), 28O (S10_M1), and 34S (S13_M1) are used. SE37_DS4 Labeled peak search by ShiftedIonsFinder ...

  8. Marine turtle capture data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  9. Preparing to Capture Carbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel P. Schrag

    2007-01-01

    .... Scientific and economic challenges still exist, but none are serious enough to suggest that carbon capture and storage will not work at the scale required to offset trillions of tons of carbon...

  10. Measurement of the 243Am capture cross section at the n{sub T}OF facility; Medida de la sección eficaz de captura del 243Am en la instalación n{sub T}OF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Cembranos, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear data for minor actinides are necessary for improving the design and performance of advanced reactors and transmutation devices for the incineration of radioactive nuclear waste [Sal08, Gon09, Ali04, Ali06]. In particular, the 243Am isotope is relevant since it is the minor actinide which contributes more to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste between s3 03 and s3 04 years. In addition, the neutron capture in 243Am is the main gate to the creation of 244Cm and higher mass isotopes. The purpose of the this work is to provide experimental data on the 243Am(n, ) for improving the current evaluations. At present, there is no published neutron capture measurement of 243Am below 250 eV, and all the existing evaluations of the elastic and capture cross sections are based essentially on a single transmission measurement [Sim74]. Above 250 eV there are only a few capture measurements available [Wes85, Wis83], which show discrepancies that make them incompatible. Due to the lack of experimental data on 243Am the standard ENDF-6 format libraries present sizeable di rences between each other...(Author)

  11. Preliminary study of the {alpha} ratio measurement, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to the fission one for {sup 233}U, on the PEREN platform. Development and study of the experimental setup; Etude preliminaire de la mesure du rapport {alpha}, rapport de la section efficace moyenne de capture sur celle de fission de l'{sup 233}U, sur la plateforme PEREN. Developpement et etude du dispositif experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, M.A

    2007-12-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emission and to meet high energy demand, implies three conditions to the nuclear plants of the IV. generation: safety improvements, radioactive waste minimization, and fuel breeding for a sustainable use of the resources. The Thorium fuel cycle used in Molten Salt Reactors seems promising. Many numerical studies based on probabilistic codes are carried out in order to analyse the behaviour of such reactors. Nevertheless, one of the most important parameters is badly known: the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to fission one for {sup 233}U. This key-parameter is necessary to calculate the breeding ratio and thus, the deployment capacities of those reactors. This Ph-D thesis was intended to prepare a precise measurement of the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U between 1 eV and 10 keV. Preliminary measurements have been performed on the experimental platform PEREN. This experimental environment is composed of a lead slowing-down time spectrometer associated with an intense pulsed neutron generator. Capture and fission rates are measured thanks to eight scintillators with their photomultipliers, surrounding a fission chamber. A software analysis sets the coincidence rate between the scintillators. In order to understand perfectly the experimental setup, preliminary tests using a {sup 235}U fission chamber have been done. This experiment resulted in a very low signal to background ratio (1 %). The background coming from the scintillators themselves seriously handicapped the measurement. Another series of experiment has been done with scintillators 5 times thinner. Nevertheless, the signal to background ratio should still be increased to measure the capture of {sup 235}U. To make sure that the experimental setup has totally been understood, we made many comparisons between experimental results and simulations. Two simulation codes were mainly used: MCNP and GEANT4. We paid

  12. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zhang

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo.

  13. Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Suzana A.; Azad, Tej D.; Gholamin, Sharareh; Xu, Chelsea Y.; Liu, Jie; Achrol, Achal S.; Richard, Chase; Sommerkamp, Pia; Schoen, Matthew Kenneth; McCracken, Melissa N.; Majeti, Ravi; Weissman, Irving; Mitra, Siddhartha S.; Cheshier, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo. PMID:27092773

  14. New measurements of (n,γ) and (n,fission) cross sections and capture-to-fission ratios for ^233,235U and ^239Pu using the DANCE 4π BaF2 array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Baker, J. D.; McGrath, C. A.

    2009-10-01

    Accurate neutron nuclear data are important to many issues in stockpile stewardship, nuclear reactor design and re-certification, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear forensics. Of particular interest are the production and destruction reactions for all of the major and most of the minor actinides. The competition between capture and fission in many of the actinides presents both an obstacle and an opportunity for large γ detector arrays such as DANCE. Additional instrumentation is required to deconvolve the two contributions to the total observed γ-ray spectrum. However, conducting a simultaneous measurement can simplify background treatment and other sources of systematic uncertainty. An outline of the current experimental program will be presented along with results from neutron capture measurements on ^233,235U and ^239Pu.

  15. Muon capture at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  16. Muon capture in deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  17. Radiative Neutron Capture on Carbon-14 in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rupak, Gautam; Vaghani, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    The cross section for radiative capture of neutron on carbon-14 is calculated using the model-independent formalism of halo effective field theory. The dominant contribution from E1 transition is considered, and the cross section is expressed in terms of elastic scattering parameters of the effective range expansion. Contributions from both resonant and non-resonant interaction are calculated. Significant interference between these leads to a capture contribution that deviates from simple Breit-Wigner resonance form.

  18. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  19. A structural evaluation of the tungsten isotopes via thermal neutron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Hurst, A M; Sleaford, B W; Summers, N C; Revay, Zs; Szentmiklosi, L; Basunia, M S; Belgya, T; Escher, J E; Krticka, M

    2014-01-01

    Total radiative thermal neutron-capture $\\gamma$-ray cross sections for the $^{182,183,184,186}$W isotopes were measured using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Research Reactor to induce prompt and delayed $\\gamma$ rays from elemental and isotopically-enriched tungsten targets. These cross sections were determined from the sum of measured $\\gamma$-ray cross sections feeding the ground state from low-lying levels below a cutoff energy, E$_{\\rm crit}$, where the level scheme is completely known, and continuum $\\gamma$ rays from levels above E$_{\\rm crit}$, calculated using the Monte Carlo statistical-decay code DICEBOX. The new cross sections determined in this work for the tungsten nuclides are: $\\sigma_{0}(^{182}{\\rm W}) = 20.5(14)$ b and $\\sigma_{11/2^{+}}(^{183}{\\rm W}^{m}, 5.2 {\\rm s}) = 0.177(18)$ b; $\\sigma_{0}(^{183}{\\rm W}) = 9.37(38)$ b and $\\sigma_{5^{-}}(^{184}{\\rm W}^{m}, 8.33 \\mu{\\rm s}) = 0.0247(55)$ b; $\\sigma_{0}(^{184}{\\rm W}) = 1.43(10)$ b and $\\sigma_{11/2^{+}}(^{185}{\\rm W}^{m}, 1.67 ...

  20. Capturing the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Digital lecture capture and broadcast solutions have been around for only about 10 years, but are poised for healthy growth. Frost & Sullivan research analysts estimate that the market (which amounts to $25 million currently) will quadruple by 2013. It's still dominated by a few key players, however: Sonic Foundry holds a hefty 40 percent-plus…

  1. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  2. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  3. Neutron capture cross-section of fission products in the European activation file EAF-3. Presented at the NEA Specialists` Meeting on Fission Product Nuclear Data, JAERI, Japan, 25-27 May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, J.; Delfini, M.G.; Kamp, H.A.J. van der; Gruppelaar, H.; Nierop, D. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1992-05-01

    This paper contains a description of the work performed to extend and revise the neutron capture data in the European Activation File (EAF-3) with emphasis on nuclides in the fission-product mass range. The starter was the EAF-1 data file from 1989. The present version, EAF/NG-3, contains (n,{gamma}) excitation functions for all nuclides (729 targets) with half-lives exceeding 1/2 day in the mass range from H-1 to Cm-248. The data file is equipped with a preliminary uncertainty file, that will be improved in the near future. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs.

  4. CAPTURED End Evaluation Synthesis Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Synthesis Study of the CAPTURED Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the three CAPTURED partners have achieved commendable results. Ten lessons learned are formulated th

  5. Measurement of the 238U neutron-capture cross section and gamma-emission spectra from 10 eV to 100 keV using the DANCE detector at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Couture, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keksis, A L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, D J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Donnell, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jandel, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rundberg, R S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chyzh, A [NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV; Baramsai, B [NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV; Wu, C Y [LLNL; Mitchell, G E [NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV; Becker, J A [LLNL; Krticka, M [CHARLES UNIV

    2010-01-01

    A careful new measurement of the {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}) cross section from 10 eV to 100 keV has been made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. DANCE is a 4{pi} calorimetric scintillator array consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} crystals. Measurements were made on a 48 mg/cm{sup 2} depleted uranium target. The cross sections are in general good agreement with previous measurements. The gamma-ray emission spectra, as a function of gamma multiplicity, were also measured and compared to model calculations.

  6. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  7. Production of a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin M1 and its application for detection of aflatoxin M1 in fortified milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarphorn Chadseesuwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a toxic metabolite of the fungal product aflatoxin found in milk. For food safety concern, maximum residual limits of AFM1 in milk and dairy products have been differently enforced in many countries. A suitable detection method is required to screen a large number of product samples for the AFM1 contamination. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against AFM1 were generated using a conventional somatic cell fusion technique. After screening, five MAbs (AFM1-1, AFM1-3, AFM1-9, AFM1-11, and AFM1-17 were obtained that showed cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1 but with no other tested compounds. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a partially purified MAb and antigen-coated plates yielded the best sensitivity with the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 and the limit of detection (LOD values of 0.13 ng/mL and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. This indirect competitive ELISA was used to quantify the amount of fortified AFM1 in raw milk. The precision and accuracy in terms of % coefficient of variation (CV and % recovery of the detection was investigated for both intra- (n = 6 and inter- (n = 12 variation assays. The % CV was found in the range of 3.50–15.8% and 1.32–7.98%, respectively, while the % recovery was in the range of 92–104% and 100–103%, respectively. In addition, the indirect ELISA was also used to detect AFM1 fortified in processed milk samples. The % CV and % recovery values were in the ranges of 0.1–33.0% and 91–109%, respectively. Comparison analysis between the indirect ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography was also performed and showed a good correlation with the R2 of 0.992 for the concentration of 0.2–5.0 ng/mL. These results indicated that the developed MAb and ELISA could be used for detection of AFM1 in milk samples.

  8. Establishment of M1 multipolarity of a 6.5 mu_N^2 resonance in 172-Yb at E_gamma=3.3 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, A; Algin, E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Two-step-cascade spectra in 172-Yb have been measured after thermal neutron capture. They are compared to calculations based on experimental values of the level density and radiative strength function (RSF) obtained from the 173-Yb(3-He,alpha gamma)172-Yb reaction. The multipolarity of a 6.5(15) mu_N^2 resonance at E_gamma=3.3(1) MeV in the RSF is determined to be M1 by this comparison.

  9. Within the framework of the new fuel cycle {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U, determination of the {sup 233}Pa(n.{gamma}) radiative capture cross section for neutron energies ranging between 0 and 1 MeV; Dans le cadre du nouveau cycle de combustible {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U, determination de la section efficace de capture radiative {sup 233}Pa(n,{gamma}) pour des energies de neutrons comprises entre 0 et 1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, S

    2004-10-15

    The Thorium cycle Th{sup 232}/U{sup 233} may face brilliant perspectives through advanced concepts like molten salt reactors or accelerator driven systems but it lacks accurate nuclear data concerning some nuclei. Pa{sup 233} is one of these nuclei, its high activity makes the direct measurement of its radiative neutron capture cross-section almost impossible. This difficulty has been evaded by considering the transfer reaction Th{sup 232}(He{sup 3},p)Pa{sup 234}* in which the Pa{sup 234} nucleus is produced in various excited states according to the amount of energy available in the reaction. The first chapter deals with the thorium cycle and its assets to contribute to the quenching of the fast growing world energy demand. The second chapter gives a detailed description of the experimental setting. A scintillation detector based on deuterated benzene (C{sub 6}D{sub 6}) has been used to counter gamma ray cascades. The third chapter is dedicated to data analysis. In the last chapter we compare our experimental results with ENDF and JENDL data and with computed values from 2 statistical models in the 0-1 MeV neutron energy range. Our results disagree clearly with evaluated data: our values are always above ENDF and JENDL data but tend to near computed values. We have also perform the measurement of the radiative neutron cross-section of Pa{sup 231} for a 110 keV neutron: {sigma}(n,{gamma}) 2.00 {+-} 0.14 barn. (A.C.)

  10. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  11. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  12. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  13. Association between CYP1A1m1 gene polymorphism and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N B; Silva, C T X; Frare, A B; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2014-12-04

    The CYP1A1 gene is related to the generation of secondary metabolites that are capable of inducing DNA damage. The CYP1A1m1 polymorphism has been examined in many studies, and is located in a region near loci that have been linked to glaucoma, including the locus GLC1I. As a result, this polymorphism has been related to several diseases that are influenced by exposure to xenobiotic as well as primary open-angle glaucoma. We compared the prevalence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism in 152 Brazilian patients, 100 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, and 52 normal controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (N = 100) was 16%, for genotype w1/m1, the frequency was 77%, and for m1/m1 it was 7%. Among the control group (N = 52), the frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene was 54%, the frequency of w1/m1 was 46%, and the frequency of m1/m1 was 0%. The presence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism may interfere with xenobiotic metabolism and exacerbate direct or indirect damage to the optic nerve. These CYP1A1m1 polymorphisms may be risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma.

  14. Reconciling Coulomb breakup and neutron radiative capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.; Nollet, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Coulomb-breakup method to extract the cross section for neutron radiative capture at astrophysical energies is analyzed in detail. In particular, its sensitivity to the description of the neutron-core continuum is ascertained. We consider the case of 14C(n ,γ )15C for which both the radiative capture at low energy and the Coulomb breakup of 15C into 14C+n on Pb at 68 MeV/nucleon have been measured with accuracy. We confirm the direct proportionality of the cross section for both reactions to the square of the asymptotic normalization constant of 15C observed by Summers and Nunes [Phys. Rev. C 78, 011601(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.78.011601], but we also show that the 14C-n continuum plays a significant role in the calculations. Fortunately, the method proposed by Summers and Nunes can be improved to absorb that continuum dependence. We show that a more precise radiative-capture cross section can be extracted selecting the breakup data at forward angles and low 14C-n relative energies.

  15. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Actual and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on the (n, $\\gamma$) cross sections and $\\alpha$-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission $\\gamma$-ray background competing with the weaker $\\gamma$-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n, $\\gamma$) process. A specific setup has been used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,$\\gamma$ ) cross section and $\\alpha$- ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the $^{235}$U isotope. The setup consists in a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding $^{235}$U samples and placed inside the segmented BaF$_2$ Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  16. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Section of the Fissile Isotope 235U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a Fission Tagging Based on Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balibrea, J; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    Current and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on (n,γ) cross sections and the α-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission γ-ray background competing with the weaker γ-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n,γ) process. A specific setup was used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,γ) cross section and α-ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the 235U isotope. The setup consists of a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding the 235U samples all placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  17. SAR studies on carboxylic acid series M(1) selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Scott D; Beshore, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence from preclinical and early proof-of-concept studies suggesting that selective modulation of the M1 muscarinic receptor is efficacious in cognitive models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of nonselective M1 muscarinic agonists have previously shown positive effects on cognitive function in AD patients, but were limited due to cholinergic adverse events thought to be mediated by pan activation of the M2 to M5 sub-types. Thus, there is a need to identify selective activators of the M1 receptor to evaluate their potential in cognitive disorders. One strategy to confer selectivity for M1 is the identification of allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators, which would target an allosteric site on the M1 receptor rather than the highly conserved orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. BQCA has been identified as a highly selective carboxylic acid M1 PAM and this review focuses on an extensive lead optimization campaign undertaken on this compound.

  18. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  19. M1 Protein Allows Group A Streptococcal Survival in Phagocyte Extracellular Traps through Cathelicidin Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Lauth, Xavier; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; McNamara, Case W; Myskowski, Sandra; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Beall, Bernard; Ghosh, Partho; Richard L Gallo; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    M1 protein contributes to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) systemic virulence by interfering with phagocytosis and through proinflammatory activities when released from the cell surface. Here we identify a novel role of M1 protein in the stimulation of neutrophil and mast cell extracellular trap formation, yet also subsequent survival of the pathogen within these DNA-based innate defense structures. Targeted mutagenesis and heterologous expression studies demonstrate M1 protein promotes resistance...

  20. Neutron Capture Reactions on lu Isotopes at Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, O.; Meot, V.; Daugas, J.-M.; Morel, P.; Jandel, M.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wouters, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    The DANCE1 (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) array at LANSCE spallation neutron source in Los Alamos has been used to obtain the neutron radiative capture cross sections for 175Lu and 176Lu with neutron energies from thermal up to 100 keV. Both isotopes are of current interest for the nucleosynthesis s-process.2,3 Three targets were used to perform these measurements. One was natural Lu foil of 31 mg/cm2 and the other two were isotope-enriched targets of 175Lu and 176Lu. Firstly, the cross sections were obtained by normalizing yield to a well-known cross section at the thermal neutron energy. Now, we want to obtain absolute cross sections of radiative capture through a precise neutron flux determination, an accurate target mass measurement and an efficiency determination of the DANCE array.

  1. Non-viral FoxM1 gene delivery to hepatocytes enhances liver repopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D; Liu, C-C; Wang, M-J; Li, J-X; Chen, F; Yao, H; Yu, B; Lu, L; Borjigin, U; Chen, Y-X; Zhong, L; Wangensteen, K J; He, Z-Y; Wang, X; Hu, Y-P

    2014-05-22

    Hepatocyte transplantation as a substitute strategy of orthotopic liver transplantation is being studied for treating end-stage liver diseases. Several technical hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve the therapeutic liver repopulation, such as the problem of insufficient expansion of the transplanted hepatocytes in recipient livers. In this study, we analyzed the application of FoxM1, a cell-cycle regulator, to enhance the proliferation capacity of hepatocytes. The non-viral sleeping beauty (SB) transposon vector carrying FoxM1 gene was constructed for delivering FoxM1 into the hepatocytes. The proliferation capacities of hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had a higher proliferation rate than wild-type (WT) hepatocytes in vitro. In comparison with WT hepatocytes, the hepatocytes with FoxM1 expression had an enhanced level of liver repopulation in the recipient livers at both sub-acute injury (fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)(-/-) mice model) and acute injury (2/3 partial hepatectomy mice model). Importantly, there was no increased risk of tumorigenicity with FoxM1 expression in recipients even after serial transplantation. In conclusion, expression of FoxM1 in hepatocytes enhanced the capacity of liver repopulation without inducing tumorigenesis. FoxM1 gene delivered by non-viral SB vector into hepatocytes may be a viable approach to promote therapeutic repopulation after hepatocyte transplantation.

  2. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  3. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  4. Differential effects of M1 muscarinic receptor blockade and nicotinic receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum on response reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavos, Arianna; Jih, Jane; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The present studies determined whether blockade of M1-like muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum affects acquisition or reversal learning of a response discrimination. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. In the acquisition phase, a rat learned to turn to the left or to the right. In the reversal learning phase, a rat learned to turn in the opposite direction as required during acquisition. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of the M1-like muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine infused into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Experiment 2 examined the effects of the nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, mecamylamine injected into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Bilateral injections of pirenzepine at 10 µg, but not 1 µg, selectively impaired reversal learning. Analysis of the errors indicated that pirenzepine treatment did not impair the initial shift, but increased reversions back to the original response choice following the initial shift. Bilateral injections of mecamylamine, 6 or 18 µg, did not affect acquisition or reversal learning. The results suggest that activation of M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, but not nicotinic cholinergic receptors, in the dorsomedial striatum is important for facilitating the flexible shifting of response patterns. PMID:15302131

  5. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  6. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  7. Autoantibody against transient receptor potential M1 cation channels of retinal ON bipolar cells in paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yujuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraneoplastic retinopathy is caused by the cross-reaction of neoplasm-directed autoantibodies against retinal antigens and results in retinal damage. Paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy, a presumed paraneoplastic retinopathy with features of atypical melanoma-associated retinopathy, has recently been reported in patients with metastatic melanoma. Ocular ultrastructure and its autoantibody localization of paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy are still indefinable. This is the first report of anti-transient receptor potential M1 antibody directly against human retinal bipolar dendritic tips in a melanoma patient with paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy. Case presentation We present a pair of postmortem eyes of an 80-year-old male with metastatic cutaneous melanoma, who developed paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy. The autopsied eyes were examined with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Microscopically, the inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer were the most affected retinal structures, with local thinning. The lesions extended to the outer nuclear layer, resulting in focal retinal degeneration, edema, and atrophy. No active inflammation or melanoma cells were observed. Immunohistochemistry showed tightly compact bipolar cell nuclei (protein kinase C alpha/calbindin positive with blur/loss of ON bipolar cell dendritic tips (transient receptor potential M1 positive in diffusely condensed outer plexiform layer. The metastatic melanoma cells in his lung also showed immunoreactivity against transient receptor potential M1 antibody. Transmission electron microscopy illustrated degenerated inner nuclear layer with disintegration of cells and loss of cytoplasmic organelles. These cells contained many lysosomal and autophagous bodies and damaged mitochondria. Their nuclei appeared pyknotic and fragmentary. The synapses in the outer plexiform layer were extensively

  8. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S19_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S19 PSEUDO: Unlabeled and labeled Medicago samples for flavonoid annotation using ShiftedIonsFinde...03_M1) and for a blank sample (S16_M1 to S16_M3) are used. Import file name is unlabeling SE37_DS5 Flavonoid like peak search by ShiftedIonsFinder ...

  9. Radioiodinated ganglioside G/sub M1/: A potential tracer for neurological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Gallagher, P.; Magistretti, P.L.; Ghidoni, R.

    1985-05-01

    Ganglioside G/sub M1/ is a glycosphingolipid which appears to be involved in the regeneration of damaged neuronal tissue. In addition, it is being investigated clinically in the treatment of various neuropathies. If labeled with the appropriate isotope, G/sub M1/ might be useful as a probe of these processes, particularly if it accumulates preferentially in cerebral infarcts. The G/sub M1/ -tyr derivative was labeled with I-125 in 75% yield using the Iodogen method and at micellar concentration was isolated using gel chromatography. Binding of I-125 (G/sub M1/ -tyr) to rat neuronal membranes was measured at concentrations of 5,50, and 500 nM. The amount bound (8,26, and 158 pmol/gm membrane) was similar to that reported for H-3(G/sub M1/). The biodistribution of I-125(G/sub M1/ -tyr) in mice at both micellar and monomeric concentrations was also similar to that of H-3(G/sub M1/). However, at monomeric concentrations, thyroid uptake of I-125 was about 10 times higher than at micellar concentrations, suggesting differential dehalogenation of the two forms. Initial studies in the gerbil stroke model suggest that the uptake of I-125(G/sub M1/ -tyr) in damaged brain is twice that in normal tissue.

  10. CONDITIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF MUSCARINIC M(1) RECEPTORS IN VAGALLY MEDIATED CONTRACTION OF GUINEA-PIG BRONCHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBERGE, REJ; ROFFEL, AF; ZAAGSMA, J

    The involvement of ganglionic muscarinic M(1) receptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of the M(1)-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on vagus nerve (VNS, preganglionic) and electrical field

  11. A note on predicting recessions in the euro area using real M1

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Boysen-Hogrefe

    2012-01-01

    Real M1 is a renowned leading indicator used to forecast real economic activity. This note provides evidence that real M1 is also a suitable recession indicator that gave a clear and early signal for the Great Recession as long as changes in money demand are controlled for.

  12. Analytical Method (M): SE37_S18_M1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37_S18_M1 This is a pseudo metadata prepared for integrated analyses of multiple ...datasets. The raw data obtained from LC-Orbitarp MS analyses for Medicago samples and a blank sample (S17_M1

  13. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5,...

  14. Experimental Conditions: SE19_S2_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE19_S2_M1_D1 SE19 Grobal triacylglycerol analysis in mouse liver and white adipose... tissue (WAT) by high resolution LC/ESI-QTOF MS/MS SE19_S2 Mouse white adipose tissue (WAT) SE19_S2_M1 20 ug

  15. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Brás, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, H.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  16. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laoukili, J.; Kooistra, M.R.H.; Bras, A.; Kauw, J.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Morrison, A.; Clevers, J.C.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce

  17. Nanometre-accurate form measurement machine for E-ELT M1 segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    To enable important scientific discoveries, ESO has defined a new ground-based telescope: the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The baseline design features a telescope with a 39-m-class primary mirror (M1), making it the largest and most powerful telescope in the world. The M1 consists of

  18. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  19. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  20. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  1. The luminosity function of cluster galaxies relations among M$_{1}$, M* and the morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Appodia, B

    1996-01-01

    A study of the luminosity function of 36 Abell clusters of galaxies has been carried out using photographic plates obtained with the Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt telescope. The relation between the magnitude M_1 of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M* has been analyzed. A positive correlation between M* and M_1 is found. However clusters appear segregated in the M_1-M* plane according to their Rood & Sastry class in such a way that on average M_1 becomes brighter while M* becomes fainter going from late to early Rood & Sastry and also Bautz & Morgan classes. Also a partial correlation analysis involving the magnitude M_10 of the 10th brightest galaxy, shows a negative intrinsic correlation between M_1 and M*. These results agree with the cannibalism model for the formation of brightest cluster members, and provide new constraints for theories of cluster formation and evolution.

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  3. Electrical dipole polarizability and spin M1 strength from {sup 48}Ca(p,p') data under 0; Elektrische Dipol-Polarisierbarkeit und Spin-M1-Staerke aus {sup 48}Ca(p,p')-Daten unter 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhan, Jonny Hubertus

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, proton scattering data on the nucleus {sup 48}Ca at very forward angles had been analysed. The data stem from a measurement campaign which was launched at the Research Centre of Nuclear Physics at Osaka, Japan, in the past. One of the two objectives of this analysis was to extract a value for the static electric dipole polarisability from the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). The second objective was to extract the total electromagnetic M1 strength B(M1) of the spin-flip transition which excites the prominent 1{sup +} state at an excitation energy of E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The polarisability was calculated from the distribution of photo-absorption cross sections within an energy range from E{sub x}=11 MeV to E{sub x}=26 MeV. The photo-absorption cross sections had been deduced from the distribution of E1 cross sections by the method of virtual photons. For this purpose the experimental cross sections had been deconvoluted by a multipole deconvolution into an E1 part and a background part. Then, the best estimate of the polarisability is given by α{sub D}=(1.36±0.14) fm{sup 3}. If a E3 model was included into the multipole decomposition of the (p,p') data the result increased up to α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3}. The deviation between these two results is mainly due to the fact that the multipole decomposition is very sensitive on the background function. Assuming that the the IVGDR of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca have approximately the same structure, estimates for the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca could be drawn from {sup 40}Ca(γ,abs) data. Additionally, data from a {sup 48}Ca(e,e'n) measurement were used to estimate the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca. Its polarisability seems to fall within the range of α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3} and α{sub D}=(1.69±0.03) fm{sup 3}. Beside this, it could be shown by the {sup 40}Ca data that a significant contribution to the polarisability has to be expected

  4. Electrical dipole polarizability and spin M1 strength from {sup 48}Ca(p,p') data under 0; Elektrische Dipol-Polarisierbarkeit und Spin-M1-Staerke aus {sup 48}Ca(p,p')-Daten unter 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhan, Jonny Hubertus

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, proton scattering data on the nucleus {sup 48}Ca at very forward angles had been analysed. The data stem from a measurement campaign which was launched at the Research Centre of Nuclear Physics at Osaka, Japan, in the past. One of the two objectives of this analysis was to extract a value for the static electric dipole polarisability from the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). The second objective was to extract the total electromagnetic M1 strength B(M1) of the spin-flip transition which excites the prominent 1{sup +} state at an excitation energy of E{sub x}=10.22 MeV. The polarisability was calculated from the distribution of photo-absorption cross sections within an energy range from E{sub x}=11 MeV to E{sub x}=26 MeV. The photo-absorption cross sections had been deduced from the distribution of E1 cross sections by the method of virtual photons. For this purpose the experimental cross sections had been deconvoluted by a multipole deconvolution into an E1 part and a background part. Then, the best estimate of the polarisability is given by α{sub D}=(1.36±0.14) fm{sup 3}. If a E3 model was included into the multipole decomposition of the (p,p') data the result increased up to α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3}. The deviation between these two results is mainly due to the fact that the multipole decomposition is very sensitive on the background function. Assuming that the the IVGDR of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca have approximately the same structure, estimates for the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca could be drawn from {sup 40}Ca(γ,abs) data. Additionally, data from a {sup 48}Ca(e,e'n) measurement were used to estimate the polarisability of the nucleus {sup 48}Ca. Its polarisability seems to fall within the range of α{sub D}=(1.50±0.09) fm{sup 3} and α{sub D}=(1.69±0.03) fm{sup 3}. Beside this, it could be shown by the {sup 40}Ca data that a significant contribution to the polarisability has to be expected

  5. Direct excitation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: roles in cellular excitability, inhibitory transmission and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Ball, Jackson; Stoll, Kurt E; Satpute, Vaishali C; Mitchell, Samantha M; Pauli, Jordan L; Holloway, Benjamin B; Johnston, April D; Nathanson, Neil M; Deisseroth, Karl; Gerber, David J; Tonegawa, Susumu; Lawrence, J Josh

    2014-08-15

    Parvalbumin-containing (PV) neurons, a major class of GABAergic interneurons, are essential circuit elements of learning networks. As levels of acetylcholine rise during active learning tasks, PV neurons become increasingly engaged in network dynamics. Conversely, impairment of either cholinergic or PV interneuron function induces learning deficits. Here, we examined PV interneurons in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and their modulation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). HC PV cells, visualized by crossing PV-CRE mice with Rosa26YFP mice, were anatomically identified as basket cells and PV bistratified cells in the stratum pyramidale; in stratum oriens, HC PV cells were electrophysiologically distinct from somatostatin-containing cells. With glutamatergic transmission pharmacologically blocked, mAChR activation enhanced PV cell excitability in both CA1 HC and PFC; however, CA1 HC PV cells exhibited a stronger postsynaptic depolarization than PFC PV cells. To delete M1 mAChRs genetically from PV interneurons, we created PV-M1 knockout mice by crossing PV-CRE and floxed M1 mice. The elimination of M1 mAChRs from PV cells diminished M1 mAChR immunoreactivity and muscarinic excitation of HC PV cells. Selective cholinergic activation of HC PV interneurons using Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs technology enhanced the frequency and amplitude of inhibitory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. Finally, relative to wild-type controls, PV-M1 knockout mice exhibited impaired novel object recognition and, to a lesser extent, impaired spatial working memory, but reference memory remained intact. Therefore, the direct activation of M1 mAChRs on PV cells contributes to some forms of learning and memory.

  6. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on {sup 235}U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in {sup 236}U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables. (orig.)

  7. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  8. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  9. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  10. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  11. Neutron Capture Reactions on Fe and Ni Isotopes for the Astrophysical s-process

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, C; Massimi, C; Žugec, P; Barbagallo, M; Colonna, N; Domingo-Pardo, C; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Käppeler, F; Tain, J L; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J

    2014-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections in the keV neutron energy region are the key nuclear physics input to study the astrophysical slow neutron capture process. In the past years, a series of neutron capture cross section measurements has been performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility n\\_TOF at CERN focussing on the Fe/Ni mass region. Recent results and future developments in the neutron time-of-flight technique are discussed.

  12. 10. 23 MeV M1 transition in the /sup 48/Ca(p,p ') /sup 48/Ca/sup / reaction at 319 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, S.K.; Glashausser, C.; Jones, K.W.; McGill, J.A.; Carey, T.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Moss, J.M.; Seestrom-Morris, S.J.; Comfort, J.R.; Levenson, S.

    1984-02-01

    The cross section, analyzing power, and spin-flip probability have been measured for the M1 transition at 10.23 MeV excitation energy in the /sup 48/Ca(p,p') /sup 48/Ca /sup 48/Ca(p,p') /sup 48/Ca agreement with distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations; about 28% of the pure single particle (..nu..f/sub 7/2/ /sup -1/,f/sub 5/2/)M1 strength is observed. The results serve as a good calibration of results expected in heavy nuclei.

  13. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  14. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises, how this model could explain the oscillation of universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of BIonic system. In this model, $M0$-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of $M1$-anti-$M1$-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of $M1$ and the bulk leading to an expansion of $M1$-branes. When $M1$-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To removes these states, $M1$...

  15. Performance Characteristics of a Kernel-Space Packet Capture Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    a simple sniffer. Mar- tin Roesch first created Snort to gain experience with cross-platform libpcap development and to more easily see the...lightweight N2d capabil- ity. Also written by Martin Roesch , DaemonLogger is a libpcap-based capture service with an extremely straightforward and...space, libpcap-based packet capture applica- tion written by Martin Roesch —author of the Snort Intrusion Detection Sys- tem. DaemonLogger provides a

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of aflatoxin M1 based on magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M. K.; Ivanova, N. V.; Godjevargova, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles (Method A) for the quantitative determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk was developed. This immunoassay was based on the immobilization of monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-NH2). It was observed that for each mg of the MNPs, 25 µg of antibody was immobilized. Both aflatoxin M1 in the sample and aflatoxin M1-BSA-peroxidase conjugate competed for the immobilized antibody. The proposed Method A was compared with other method (B). The Method B was based on the immobilization of aflatoxin M1-BSA conjugate on the MNPs-NH2, which competed with the aflatoxin M1 in the sample for binding to the added mAb. The binding of mAb to the aflatoxin M1-BSA-MNPs-NH2 was detected using a target secondary IgG-peroxidase antibody. The analytical characteristics of the two methods were compared. Real milk samples were investigated for present of aflatoxin M1. Two methods were based on the use of MNPs as a solid support for covalently immunoreagents immobilization. A comfortable separation of bound and free fraction of the tracer can be performed only through a simple collection of the MNPs by a permanent magnet. The application of MNPs helps to eliminate non-specific binding and to retain higher activity of bound biomolecules. The development of a MNPs-based ELISA for determination of aflatoxin M1 has a great potential to supersede the traditional ELISA for aflatoxin M1 diagnosis.

  17. Asymmetric capture of Dirac dark matter by the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Current problems with the solar model may be alleviated if a significant amount of dark matter from the galactic halo is captured in the Sun. We discuss the capture process in the case where the dark matter is a Dirac fermion and the background halo consists of equal amounts of dark matter and anti-dark matter. By considering the case where dark matter and anti-dark matter have different cross sections on solar nuclei as well as the case where the capture process is considered to be a Poisson process, we find that a significant asymmetry between the captured dark particles and anti-particles is possible. Such an asymmetry puts a lower bound on the total amount of captured dark matter and could be a possible solution to the solar composition problem.

  18. Bounds on Subspace Codes Based on Subspaces of Type (m,1 in Singular Linear Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sphere-packing bound, Singleton bound, Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound, Johnson bound, and Gilbert-Varshamov bound on the subspace codes n+l,M,d,(m,1q based on subspaces of type (m,1 in singular linear space Fq(n+l over finite fields Fq are presented. Then, we prove that codes based on subspaces of type (m,1 in singular linear space attain the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound if and only if they are certain Steiner structures in Fq(n+l.

  19. Study of thermal neutron capture in /sup 32/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUO Taichang; SHI Zongren; ZENG Xiantang; LI Guohua; DING Dazhao

    1985-10-01

    The ..gamma..-ray spectrum of the /sup 32/S (n, ..gamma..) reaction at thermal neutron energy is measured by using a Ge(Li) detector. Among 86 ..gamma.. rays identified, 23 are recognized as primary ..gamma.. transitions. The excitation energies of 25 levels and the decay branching ratios are deduced. Three possible levels at 7505.0, 4473.1, and 2884.6 keV were not reported previously. The neutron separation energy of S is determined to be 8641.7 +- 0.6 keV. The thermal neutron capture cross section of /sup 32/S is determined to be 529 +- 26 mb by summing the transition intensities to the ground state of /sup 33/S and comparing with the well-known Au (n, ..gamma..) cross section. The partial capture cross sections of seven primary E1 transitions are calculated by the formula of the Lane-Lynn direct capture theory, and compared with measured values.

  20. Approximating the spin distributions in capture reactions between spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chushnyakova, M.V., E-mail: maria.chushnyakova@gmail.com [Physics Department, Omsk State Technical University, 644050 Omsk (Russian Federation); Applied Physics Department, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634028 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gontchar, I.I. [Physics and Chemistry Department, Omsk State Transport University, 644046 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Twenty years ago an approximation for the spin distribution of the dinuclear systems formed in capture reactions with heavy ions was proposed. This approximation is used nowadays. However, since that time the experimental errors of the measured capture cross sections were reduced drastically. We show that the accuracy of the old spin distribution approximation is certainly out of date and propose a new approximation built on the dynamical modeling of the capture process. Results suggest that this new approximation might be useful especially for performing modeling of decay of excited dinuclear systems (compound nuclei) formed during heavy-ion collisions.

  1. Approximating the spin distributions in capture reactions between spherical nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chushnyakova, M. V.; Gontchar, I. I.

    2015-09-01

    Twenty years ago an approximation for the spin distribution of the dinuclear systems formed in capture reactions with heavy ions was proposed. This approximation is used nowadays. However, since that time the experimental errors of the measured capture cross sections were reduced drastically. We show that the accuracy of the old spin distribution approximation is certainly out of date and propose a new approximation built on the dynamical modeling of the capture process. Results suggest that this new approximation might be useful especially for performing modeling of decay of excited dinuclear systems (compound nuclei) formed during heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Locations of All Shotpoints, USGS Cruise M1-98-GM (GOM98SHTALLG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — All shotpoint locations from multichannel seismics survey, USGS cruise M1-98-GM. During June 1998 and April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two...

  3. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurized milk and infant formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar, Sharaf Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique...

  4. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  5. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  6. Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk and milk products, which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern. This study was conducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms from Tulkarm, Nablus and Jenin. Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique. 85 % (34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive. The aflatoxin M1 contamination levels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 29.57 ppt. There was a high incidence rate with 92 % (11 of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city (P ≤ 0.05. 20 % of the analyzed samples (8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit (50 ppt in European Codex, with a range of 2 - 80 ppt.

  7. FoxM1 mediated resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuo XU; Xin ZHANG; Xun WANG; Hai-yan GE; Xiao-ying WANG; David GARFIELD; Ping YANG; Yuan-lin SONG; Chun-xue BAI

    2012-01-01

    Gefitinib is effective in only approximately 20% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC),and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.FoxM1 is upregulated in NSCLC and associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients.In this study,we examined the possible role of FoxM1 in gefitinib resistance and the related mechanisms.Methods:Gefitinib resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 and gefitinib-sensitive human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 were used.mRNA and protein expression of FoxM1 and other factors were tested with quantitative RT PCR and Western blot analysis.RNA interference was performed to suppress FoxM1 expression in SPC-A-1 cells,and lentiviral infection was used to overexpress FoxM1 in H292 cells.MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells.Results:Treatment of SPC-A-1 cells with gefitinib (1 and 10 μmol/L) upregulated the expression of FoxM1 in time- and concentrationdependent manners,while gefrtinib (1 μmol/L) downregulated in H292 cells.In SPC-A-1 cells treated with gefitinib (1 μmol/L),the expression of several downstream targets of FoxM1,including survivin,cyclin B1,SKP2,PLK1,Aurora B kinase and CDC25B,were significantly upregulated.Overexpression of FoxM1 increased the resistance in H292 cells,while attenuated FoxM1 expression restored the sensitivity to gefitinib in SPC-A-1 cells by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis.Conclusion:The results suggest that FoxM1 plays an important role in the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vitro.FoxM1 could be used as a therapeutic target to overcome the resistance to gefitinib.

  8. Trojan capture by terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigate the capture of asteroids by Venus, Earth and Mars into the 1:1 mean motion resonance especially into Trojan orbits. Current theoretical studies predict that Trojan asteroids are a frequent by-product of the planet formation. This is not only the case for the outer giant planets, but also for the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System. By using numerical integrations, we investigated the capture efficiency and the stability of the captured objects. We found out that the capture efficiency is larger for the planets in the inner Solar System compared to the outer ones, but most of the captured Trojan asteroids are not long term stable. This temporary captures caused by chaotic behaviour of the objects were investigated without any dissipative forces. They show an interesting dynamical behaviour of mixing like jumping from one Lagrange point to the other one.

  9. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  10. Inland capture fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  11. Capture-recapture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  12. q-differential operator representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1))

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, K

    1996-01-01

    A representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1)) is constructed based on the q-differential operators acting on the coherent states parameterized by coordinates. These coordinates correspond to the local ones of the flag manifold. This realization provides us with a guide to construct the free field realization for the quantum affine superalgebra Uq^(sl(M+1|N+1)) at arbitrary level.

  13. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  14. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  15. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  16. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti- M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti- M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands.

  17. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  18. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  19. Optical illusion alters M1 excitability after mirror therapy: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läppchen, C H; Ringer, T; Blessin, J; Seidel, G; Grieshammer, S; Lange, R; Hamzei, F

    2012-11-01

    The contralesional primary motor cortex (M1) has been suggested to be involved in the motor recovery after mirror therapy, but whether the ipsilesional M1 is influenced by the contralesional M1 via transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) is still unclear. The present study investigated the change of IHI as well as the intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation of both M1 induced by training in a mirror with the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this 2 × 2 factorial design (time × group), healthy subjects exercised standardized motor skills with their right hand on four consecutive days. Either a mirror (mirror group) or a board (control group) was positioned between their hands. Before and after training TMS was applied along with training tests of both hands. Tests were the same motor skills exercised daily by both groups. Tests of the untrained left hand improved significantly more in the mirror group than in the control group after training (P = 0.02) and showed a close correlation with an increase of intracortical inhibition of M1(left). IHI did not show any difference between investigation time points and groups. The present study confirms the previous suggestion of the involvement of the "contralesional" left-side (ipsilateral to the hand behind the mirror) M1 after mirror therapy, which is not mediated by IHI. Even with the same motor skill training (both groups performed same motor skills) but with different visual information, different networks are involved in training-induced plasticity.

  20. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.

  1. Investigation of the electron capture process in semiclassical plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seisembayeva Madina M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of electron capture in partially ionized plasma is considered. Electron-atom interaction was described by the effective interaction potential, which takes into account the screening effect at large distances and the diffraction effect at the small distances. The results of numerical calculations of the electron capture radius, differential cross-section for different values of the coupling and density parameters are presented. The differential cross-section was obtained on the basis of perturbation theory and also by solving of the equation of motion of the projectile electron.

  2. Influence of the nuclear structure on the suppression factor of the M1 resonance in the (p,p') reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Gareev, F.A.; Ershov, S.N.; Ponomarev, V.Y.

    1987-02-01

    In the distorted-wave impulse approximation we calculate cross sections for (p,p') scattering at E/sub p/ = 200 MeV with excitation of the M1 resonance in /sup 90//sup --//sup 96/Zr isotopes. Here we take into account the central and tensor components of the free t/sub N//sub N/ interaction and the exchange knockout of nucleons. The wave function of the M1 resonance is calculated in different approximations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the suppression factor of the excitation probability of the M1 resonance in (p,p') scattering q = sigma/sub exp//sigma/sub theor/ depends strongly on the complexity of the model wave function of the resonance. For the wave function containing one- and two-phonon components the mean value of the factor is q = 0.74.

  3. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Neutron capture measurements on {sup 171}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, R. E-mail: www.reifarth@lanl.gov; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Fowler, M.M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Miller, G.G.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ullmann, J.L.; Wilhelmy, J.B

    2003-05-05

    A first proof of principal experiment of measuring neutron capture cross sections of radioactive isotopes was performed on {sup 171}Tm which has a half life of 1.92 years. This isotope was chosen for its ease of production and its radiation properties. The experiment was done at an 8 meter irradiation station at LANSCE using the pulse height weighting technique. A complemental activation measurement at FZK as well as a theoretical estimation indicated a significant background component above 1 keV neutron energy during the experiment at LANSCE.

  5. Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bečvár, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Heil, M.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Vieira, D. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Spectra of γ rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei weremeasured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of 153,155-159Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength ΣB(M1)↑, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum ΣB(M1)↑ increases with A and for 157,159Gd it is significantly higher compared to 156,158Gd.

  6. The Plasmodium falciparum malaria M1 alanyl aminopeptidase (PfA-M1: insights of catalytic mechanism and function from MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Jones

    Full Text Available Malaria caused by several species of Plasmodium is major parasitic disease of humans, causing 1-3 million deaths worldwide annually. The widespread resistance of the human parasite to current drug therapies is of major concern making the identification of new drug targets urgent. While the parasite grows and multiplies inside the host erythrocyte it degrades the host cell hemoglobin and utilizes the released amino acids to synthesize its own proteins. The P. falciparum malarial M1 alanyl-aminopeptidase (PfA-M1 is an enzyme involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and the generation of an amino acid pool within the parasite. The enzyme has been validated as a potential drug target since inhibitors of the enzyme block parasite growth in vitro and in vivo. In order to gain further understanding of this enzyme, molecular dynamics simulations using data from a recent crystal structure of PfA-M1 were performed. The results elucidate the pentahedral coordination of the catalytic Zn in these metallo-proteases and provide new insights into the roles of this cation and important active site residues in ligand binding and in the hydrolysis of the peptide bond. Based on the data, we propose a two-step catalytic mechanism, in which the conformation of the active site is altered between the Michaelis complex and the transition state. In addition, the simulations identify global changes in the protein in which conformational transitions in the catalytic domain are transmitted at the opening of the N-terminal 8 Å-long channel and at the opening of the 30 Å-long C-terminal internal chamber that facilitates entry of peptides to the active site and exit of released amino acids. The possible implications of these global changes with regard to enzyme function are discussed.

  7. Establishment of M1 multipolarity of a 6.5 (micro)2n resonance in 172Yb at E(gamma) = 3.3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Algin, E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-02-04

    Two-step-cascade spectra in {sup 172}Yb have been measured after thermal neutron capture. they are compared to calculations based on experimental values of the level density and radiative strength function (RSF) obtained from the {sup 173}Yb(3{sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 172}Yb reaction. The multipolarity of a 6.5(15) {mu}{sub N}{sup 2} resonance at E{sub {gamma}} = 3.3(1) MeV in the RSF is determined to be M1 by this comparison.

  8. Capturing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Kobbernagel, Christian; Peters, Chris

    that underlie established news paradigms (Peters and Witschge, 2014). This paper thus focuses on methodological challenges that impede efforts to understand such shifting audience practices on three levels: conducting longitudinal research; operationalizing cross-national studies with a genuine comparative......-in-the-life interviews, Q-sort methodology and think-aloud protocols, alongside recent Dutch and Danish data that expands upon this research. The results highlight tensions and inconsistencies in data and design that hinder meaningful research into ever-shifting audiences. We argue that in order to enable comparison......, research instruments must have a high degree of standardization. However, in order to be valid they must also be sensitive to specificities – both for the sake of being faithful to the media system of each specific country or time being compared and in order to be meaningful to the vernacular...

  9. M1 contributes to the intrinsic but not the extrinsic components of motor-skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-10-01

    Procedural skills consist of several components that can be simultaneously acquired. During a motor-learning task we can distinguish between how a "movement" is performed (intrinsic component) and the spatial-related (extrinsic) component of this movement. The intrinsic movement component is thought to be supported by motor loops, including primary motor cortex (M1) as assessed with neuroimaging studies. Here we want to test further whether M1 makes a critical contribution to the movement rather than spatial-related component of skill-learning. To this purpose, we used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and the serial reaction time (SRT) task. Twenty right-handed participants performed the SRT-task starting with their left or right hand. After this learning session, participants switched to the untrained hand by performing original (spatial-related) and mirror-ordered (movement-based) sequences. rTMS was applied to M1 ipsi- or contralateral to the transfer-hand and both sequences were retested. Results revealed rTMS-interference with motor-skill transfer of mirror-ordered but not original sequences, showing that M1 is critically involved in the retrieval/transformation of the intrinsic but not the extrinsic movement coordinates. rTMS-interference in the mirror-condition consisted of both (i) disruption and (ii) release of motor-skill transfer depending on the stimulated hemisphere and on transfer-hand. The pattern of results suggests (i) contralateral (right) M1 involvement in retrieval/transformation of motor information during left-hand reproduction of previously acquired right-hand motor-skills; and (ii) modulatory interactions of inhibitory nature from the dominant (left) to the non-dominant (right) M1 in the same transfer-condition. These results provide further evidence that M1 is essential to intrinsic movement-based skill-learning and novel insight on models of motor-learning and hemispheric specialization, suggesting the involvement of

  10. Neoglycolipid analogues of ganglioside G sub M1 as functional receptors of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacuszka, T.; Bradley, R.M.; Fishman, P.H. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-12

    The authors synthesized several lipid analogues of ganglioside G{sub M1} by attaching its oligosaccharide moiety (G{sub M1}OS) to aminophospholipids, aliphatic amines, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. They incubated G{sub M1}-deficient rat glioma C6 cells with each of the derivatives as well as native G{sub M1} and assayed the cells for their ability to bind and respond to cholera toxin. On the basis of the observed increase in binding of {sup 125}I-labeled cholera toxin, it was apparent that the cells took up and initially incorporated most of the derivatives into the plasma membrane. In the case of the aliphatic amine derivatives, the ability to generate new toxin binding sites was dependent on chain length; whereas the C{sub 10} derivative was ineffective, C{sub 12} and higher analogues were effective. Increased binding was dependent on both the concentration of the neoglycolipid in the medium and the time of exposure. Cells pretreated with the various derivatives accumulated cyclic AMP in response to cholera toxin, but there were differences in their effectiveness. The cholesterol and long-chain aliphatic amine derivatives were more effective than native G{sub M1}, whereas the phospholipid derivatives were less effective. The distance between G{sub M1}OS and the phospholipid also appeared to influence its functional activity. The results indicate that although G{sub M1}OS provides the recognition site for the binding of cholera toxin, the nature of the lipid moiety plays an important role in the action of the toxin.

  11. Curcumin retunes cholesterol transport homeostasis and inflammation response in M1 macrophage to prevent atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Yuan; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Wang-Ge; Huang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2015-11-27

    Lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism dysfunction in the arterial wall is a major contributor to atherosclerosis, and excessive lipid intake and failed cholesterol homeostasis may accelerate the atherogenic process. Curcumin exerts multiple effects by alleviating inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis; however, its role in cholesterol transport homeostasis and its underlying impact on inflammatory M1 macrophages are poorly understood. This work aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on cholesterol transport, the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in M1 macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages (M0) were induced with LPS plus IFN-γ for 12 h to develop a M1 subtype and were then incubated with curcumin at different concentrations (6.25 and 12.5 μmol/L) in the presence or absence of oxLDL. Then, cholesterol influx/efflux and foam cell formation as well as inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. It was found that curcumin increased cholesterol uptake measured by the Dil-oxLDL binding assay, and simultaneously increased cholesterol efflux carried out by Apo-A1 and HDL in M1 cells. Curcumin further reinforced ox-LDL-induced cholesterol esterification and foam cell formation as determined by Oil Red O and BODIPY staining. Moreover, curcumin dramatically reduced ox-LDL-induced cytokine production such as IL-1β, IL-6 as well as TNF-α and M1 cell apoptosis. We also found that curcumin upregulated CD36 and ABCA1 in M1 macrophages. Curcumin increased PPARγ expression, which in turn promoted CD36 and ABCA1 expression. In conclusion, curcumin may increase the ability of M1 macrophages to handle harmful lipids, thus promoting lipid processing, disposal and removal, which may support cholesterol homeostasis and exert an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  12. On neutrinoless double electron capture

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, E G

    2016-01-01

    We found the probability for the neutrinoless double electron capture in the case of $KK$ capture. We clarified the mechanism of the energy transfer from the nucleus to the bound electrons. This enabled us to obtain the equations for the probability of the $2EC0\

  13. Muon capture on Chlorine-35

    CERN Document Server

    Arole, S; Gorringe, T P; Hasinoff, M D; Kovash, M A; Kuzmin, V; Moftah, B A; Sedlar, R; Stocki, T J; Tetereva, T

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of $\\gamma$--ray spectra from muon capture on $^{35}$Cl. For the allowed Gamow--Teller transitions to the $^{35}$S$(2939, 3/2^+)$ state and the $^{35}$S$(3421, 5/2^+)$ state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences and $\\gamma$--$\

  14. Ionization and single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Gou Bing-Cong

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with He atoms in the velocity range of 1.2-1.9 a.u.. The relative importance of single ionization (SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data. The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total single electron capture cross sections are also given for this collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u..

  15. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peroxiredoxin II promotes hepatic tumorigenesis through cooperation with Ras/Forkhead box M1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y-H; Kim, S-U; Kwon, T-H; Kim, J-M; Song, I-S; Shin, H-J; Lee, B-K; Bang, D-H; Lee, S-J; Lee, D-S; Chang, K-T; Kim, B-Y; Yu, D-Y

    2016-07-07

    The current study was carried out to define the involvement of Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Expression and function of Prx II in HCC was determined using H-ras(G12V)-transformed HCC cells (H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells) and the tumor livers from H-ras(G12V)-transgenic (Tg) mice and HCC patients. Prx II was upregulated in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg mouse tumor livers, the expression pattern of which highly similar to that of forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Moreover, either knockdown of FoxM1 or site-directed mutagenesis of FoxM1-binding site of Prx II promoter significantly reduced Prx II levels in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells, indicating FoxM1 as a direct transcription factor of Prx II in HCC. Interestingly, the null mutation of Prx II markedly decreased the number and size of tumors in H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Consistent with this, knockdown of Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in athymic nude mice, whereas overexpression of Prx II increased or aggravated the tumor phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of Prx II was correlated with that of FoxM1 in HCC patients. The activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of FoxM1 and cyclin D1 were highly dependent on Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Prx II is FoxM1-dependently-expressed antioxidant in HCC and function as an enhancer of Ras(G12V) oncogenic potential in hepatic tumorigenesis through activation of ERK/FoxM1/cyclin D1 cascade.

  17. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  18. Mice Lacking M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Have Impaired Odor Discrimination and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wilson; Singh, Sanmeet; Keshav, Taj; Dewan, Ramita; Eberly, Christian; Maurer, Robert; Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Araneda, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1−/− and the M1/M3−/− knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers. However, the discrimination of dissimilar molecules, social odors (e.g., urine) and novel object recognition was not affected. In addition the KO mice showed impaired learning in an associative odor-learning task, learning to discriminate odors at a slower rate, indicating that both short and long-term memory is disrupted by mAChR dysfunction. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited decreased olfactory neurogenesis at younger ages, a deficit that was not maintained in older animals. In older animals, the olfactory deficit could be restored by increasing the number of new born neurons integrated into the OB after exposing them to an olfactory enriched environment, suggesting that muscarinic modulation and adult neurogenesis could be two different mechanism used by the olfactory system to improve olfactory processing. PMID:28210219

  19. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  20. Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, K; Terada, H; Yamamoto, K; Tsubouchi, H; Sakabe, Y

    1984-01-01

    A systematic method is proposed for determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese by liquid chromatography (LC). A sample of cheese is extracted with chloroform, cleaned up on 2 silica gel columns followed by a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, and chromatographed on a 5 microns octadecyl silica column with fluorometric detection. The sample extract or standard is treated with n-hexane-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (4 + 1) for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Analysis by LC with TFA-treatment of the extract provides quantitative data. Multiple assays of 5 samples of Gouda cheese spiked with aflatoxin M1 at levels of 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 ng/g showed average recoveries of 93.2, 91.6, and 92.4%, with coefficients of variation of 2.63, 3.97, and 4.52%, respectively. Assay of 5 naturally contaminated cheeses resulted in 0.051-0.448 ng/g of aflatoxin M1. Limit of quantitation is about 0.01 ng/g. The identity of aflatoxin M1 is confirmed by treating aflatoxin M1 or the M2a derivative with TFA-methanol (or ethanol) (3 + 1). The TFA-methanol reaction products of M2a could be detected quantitatively.

  1. E1, M1, E2 transition energies and probabilities of W$^{54+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Liu, Jia-xin; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the E1, M1, E2 transitions of Ca-like tungsten ions is presented. Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with a restricted active space treatment, the wavelengths and probabilities of the M1 and E2 transitions between the multiplets of the ground state configuration ([Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$) and of the E1 transitions between [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{5}$3d$^{3}$ and [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$ have been calculated. The results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The present E1 and M1 calculations are compared with previous theoretical values. For E2 transitions, the importance of electron correlation from 3s and 3p orbitals is pointed out. Several strong E1 transitions are predicted, which have potential advantage for plasma diagnostics.

  2. M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonism alters sleep without affecting memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Christoph; Power, Ann E; Nofzinger, Eric A; Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Kloepfer, Corinna; Waldheim, Bernhard; Radosa, Marc-Philipp; Berger, Mathias; Riemann, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    Preclinical studies have implicated cholinergic neurotransmission, specifically M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation, in sleep-associated memory consolidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of administering the direct M1 mAChR agonist RS-86 on pre-post sleep memory consolidation. Twenty healthy human participants were tested in a declarative word-list task and a procedural mirror-tracing task. RS-86 significantly reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and slow wave sleep (SWS) duration in comparison with placebo. Presleep acquisition and postsleep recall rates were within the expected ranges. However, recall rates in both tasks were almost identical for the RS-86 and placebo conditions. These results indicate that selective M1 mAChR activation in healthy humans has no clinically relevant effect on pre-post sleep consolidation of declarative or procedural memories at a dose that reduces REM sleep latency and SWS duration.

  3. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...... to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M(1)/M(4)-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M(1)-selective agonist...

  4. Nonlinear {omega}*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research; Zakharov, L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies {omega}*{sub i,e} are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important.

  5. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  6. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  7. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  8. Spatial scaling of the binocular capture effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Anderson, Coleman S; Saladin, James J

    2009-03-01

    Binocular "capture" occurs when the perceived visual direction of a monocular stimulus is displaced in the direction of the cyclopean visual direction of nearby binocular targets. This effect increases with the vertical separation of broadband monocular stimuli. The present study investigated whether the "capture" effect exhibits a systematic relationship with the spatial frequency composition of monocular lines and vertical separation. Subjects judged the horizontal misalignment of 66 arc min vertical spatial frequency ribbons that were temporally interleaved with a random dot depth edge (3.2 degrees) for 108 ms. Spatial frequency ribbons were constructed from horizontal cosine gratings windowed by a 4 arc min vertical Gaussian envelope. The bottom half of the depth edge was presented with zero relative disparity, whereas the top half was presented with 10 arc min of crossed or uncrossed relative disparity. Four vertical separations (8, 16, 30, and 60 arc min) and three ribbon spatial frequencies (1, 4, and 8 cpd) were tested. The horizontal ribbon offset corresponding to 50% performance was calculated for each combination of depth condition, ribbon spatial frequency, and vertical separation. The magnitude of the "capture" effect was consistently larger for higher spatial frequency ribbons and decreased with decreasing vertical separation. When vertical separation was expressed as multiples of spatial periods of the respective ribbon spatial frequency, the magnitude of effect was significantly larger for separations greater than about one spatial period. The systematic scaling of the "capture" effect with spatial frequency and vertical separation is strongly suggestive of the operation of multiple spatial scale mechanisms; similar to those advocated for the processing of relative positional acuity with increasing vertical separation of monocular targets.

  9. DILEPTON PRODUCTION FROM VIRTUAL BREMSSTRAHLUNG INDUCED BY PROTON CAPTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Neck, D.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Scholten, O.

    1994-01-01

    Dilepton production following radiative capture of a proton on a nuclear target is studied in the impulse approximation. The cross section is decomposed in terms of four time-like nuclear structure functions through a longitudinal-transverse separation of the nuclear current. Using a simple PWIA mod

  10. CAPTURING VALUE FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP) IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    discuss in our concluding section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and nonmarket tools, depending on the institutional and business environment...

  11. Provenance Datasets Highlighting Capture Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Web pages of the universities and institutes.1 Notes are made and links pasted in a variety of formats. Files are saved on a shared drive. When...institutions/ 3. Capture Methods There are several capture methods that are available for use [4]: • Manual capture. • Scraping of logs or...the high-level user desktop. Save links App: Word, SharePoint User: Alice Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Web Data Notes.txt Create

  12. Cross sections of electron loss and capture for beams of O{sup +} in water vapor from the energy range of 0,2 to 1,2 MeV; Secoes de choque de perda e captura eletronica para feixes de O{sup +} em vapor de agua em uma faixa de energia entre 0,2 e 1,2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vitor Jesus de

    2015-06-01

    The study of the interactions between atoms and molecules is important for the knowledge of the cross sections of the processes that contribute to the deposition of energy by charged particle beams used in radiotherapy planning and transport particle simulation codes. Heavy ions, such as oxygen, induce many cellular and molecular damages in human cells.as a result of interaction between the projectile and atoms and molecules. The use of proton and carbon as the projectile interacting with water molecules is well characterized, however there are few studies with oxygen ions. In this work we are interested in the study of electron loss (projectile ionization) and electron capture with charge state 1+. The Pelletron accelerator of 1.7 MeV from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro housed in the Atomic and Molecular collisions Laboratory (LACAM) has been used, which can accelerate atomic and molecular ions up to speeds of the order of hundredths of light speed, and consists of the source of negative ions, the Wien filter, the accelerator itself and the magnet load selector. The detection device used to evaluate the processes of interaction (capture and loss) between the beam of the O{sup +} and the water molecule is a Microchannel Plate (MCP) at the position sensitive anode. The collisions of O{sup +} beans are being studied in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 MeV with water vapor (Z = 10). Were obtained the respective absolute cross sections for electron loss and electron capture and compared with the cross sections of the molecule methane (CH4 → Z = 10), the isoelectronic water molecule. The experimental results show an agreement between the measurements with water and methane. Comparisons were made with results of theoretical models for electron loss using the 'Free Collision Model' and for capture the Bohr and Lindhard model. The theoretical results for electron loss show an agreement of experimental data with the model used. The model of Bohr and Lindhard

  13. Recent Development of QCD Factorization for B-> M1 M2

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deshan

    2010-01-01

    After briefly introducing the framework of QCD factorization for B-> M1 M2 in the language of the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, we firstly address the recent efforts on higher-order radiative corrections in QCD factorization. Then we discuss some phenomenologies in B-> V V within the framework of QCD factorization.

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(m)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3306(m)-1... vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is documented (that is....) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of the United States...

  15. M1 corticospinal mirror neurons and their role in movement suppression during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Ganesh; Philipp, Roland; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander

    2013-02-04

    Evidence is accumulating that neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) respond during action observation, a property first shown for mirror neurons in monkey premotor cortex. We now show for the first time that the discharge of a major class of M1 output neuron, the pyramidal tract neuron (PTN), is modulated during observation of precision grip by a human experimenter. We recorded 132 PTNs in the hand area of two adult macaques, of which 65 (49%) showed mirror-like activity. Many (38 of 65) increased their discharge during observation (facilitation-type mirror neuron), but a substantial number (27 of 65) exhibited reduced discharge or stopped firing (suppression-type). Simultaneous recordings from arm, hand, and digit muscles confirmed the complete absence of detectable muscle activity during observation. We compared the discharge of the same population of neurons during active grasp by the monkeys. We found that facilitation neurons were only half as active for action observation as for action execution, and that suppression neurons reversed their activity pattern and were actually facilitated during execution. Thus, although many M1 output neurons are active during action observation, M1 direct input to spinal circuitry is either reduced or abolished and may not be sufficient to produce overt muscle activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A fluorescence anisotropy assay for the muscarinic M1 G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwiler, Kristin G; De Rosier, Therese; Hanson, Bonnie; Vogel, Kurt W

    2010-06-01

    In the search for new chemical entities that interact with G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), assays that quantify efficacy and affinity are employed. Traditional methods for measuring affinity involve radiolabeled ligands. To address the need for homogeneous biochemical fluorescent assays to characterize orthosteric ligand affinity and dissociation rates, we have developed a fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the muscarinic M1 receptor that can be conducted in a 384-well plate. We used membranes from a muscarinic M1 cell line optimized for high-throughput functional assays and the previously characterized fluorescent antagonist BODIPY FL pirenzepine. The affinities of reference compounds were determined in the competitive FA assay and compared with those obtained with a competitive filter-based radioligand-binding assay using [(3)H] N-methylscopolamine. The IC(50) values produced from the FA assay were well-correlated with the radioligand-binding K(i) values (R(2) = 0.98). The dissociation of the BODIPY FL pirenzepine was readily monitored in real time using the FA assay and was sensitive to the presence of the allosteric modulator gallamine. This M1 FA assay offers advantages over traditional radioligandbinding assays as it eliminates radioactivity while allowing investigation of orthosteric or allosteric muscarinic M1 ligands in a homogeneous format.

  17. Stereospecific reduction of virginiamycin M1 as the virginiamycin resistance pathway in Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Minami, M; Sakuda, S; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1996-03-01

    In a cell extract of Streptomyces virginiae, virginiamycin M1 was inactivated in the presence of NADPH, while virginiamycin S remained intact. The inactivated product of virginiamycin M1 was isolated, and structure analysis revealed that the inactivation involves reduction of a C-16 carbonyl group leading to the formation of 16-dihydrovirginiamycin M1. Acetonide and benzylidene acetal derivatives were synthesized from the two hydroxyl groups on C-14 and C-16, and the C-16 stereochemistry was determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two methyl groups of the acetonide derivative gave 13C signals of 20.1 and 30.1 ppm, indicating that the relative stereochemistry of the C-14 and C-16 hydroxy groups is syn. Furthermore, irradiation of the benzylidene methine proton gave clear nuclear Overhauser effect enhancement of the C-14 or C-16 methine protons, indicating that H-14 and H-16 were in an axial configuration. From the (14S) absolute configuration of natural virginiamycin M1 and the syn relative configuration for the C-14 and C-16 hydroxyl groups of the inactivated product, the C-16 absolute configuration of the inactivated product was thus identified as R.

  18. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  19. Molecular mechanisms that regulate the macrophage M1/M2 polarization balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eWang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As an essential component of innate immunity, macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting or promoting cell proliferation and tissue repair. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of macrophages. Classical M1 and alternative M2 activation of macrophages, mirroring the Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells, represent two extremes of a dynamic changing state of macrophage activation. M1-type macrophages release cytokines that inhibit the proliferation of surrounding cells and damage contiguous tissue, and M2-type macrophages release cytokines that promote the proliferation of contiguous cells and tissue repair. M1-M2 polarization of macrophage is a tightly controlled process entailing a set of signaling pathways, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. An imbalance of macrophage M1-M2 polarization is often associated with various diseases or inflammatory conditions. Therefore identification of the molecules associated with the dynamic changes of macrophage polarization and understanding their interactions is crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of disease progression and designing novel macrophage-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  20. A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two

  1. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is potential human carcinogen. Its presence in milk and dairy products represents risk for human health. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to determine thedegree of microbiological contamination by mold, and the potential presence of aflatoxin M1 in 60 raw milk samples, randomly taken from individual producers from different regions of the continental Croatia. The most common genera isolated fungi were Geotrichum (78.3 %, Aspergillus (32.4 % and Penicillium (27.0 %. From total of 60 studied milk samples, 86.66 % were positive for the presence of aflatoxin M1, and 6.66 % of samples were above the prescribed limits. Lactic acid bacteria used in fermented dairy products as a starter culture may play a role in reduction of aflatoxin in foods and nutrients. In this paper the ability of lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus delbrueckii S1 and Lactobacillus plantarum A1 to bind aflatoxin M1 was investigated. Standard strain L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 and L. delbrueckii S1 can significantly (P50 % compared to L. plantarum A1, which binds AFM1 between 18.7 to 28.7 %.

  2. Chlorogenic acid inhibits glioblastoma growth through repolarizating macrophage from M2 to M1 phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Nina; Zhou, Qin; Ji, Ming; Jin, Jing; Lai, Fangfang; Chen, Ju; Zhang, Mengtian; Jia, Jing; Yang, Huarong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive tumor that is associated with distinctive infiltrating microglia/macrophages populations. Previous studies demonstrated that chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CHA), a phenolic compound with low molecular weight, has an anti-tumor effect in multiple malignant tumors. In the present study, we focused on the macrophage polarization to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-glioma response of CHA in vitro and in vivo. We found that CHA treatment increased the expression of M1 markers induced by LPS/IFNγ, including iNOS, MHC II (I-A/I-E subregions) and CD11c, and reduced the expression of M2 markers Arg and CD206 induced by IL-4, resulting in promoting the production of apoptotic-like cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells by co-culture experiments. The activations of STAT1 and STAT6, which are two crucial signaling events in M1 and M2-polarization, were significantly promoted and suppressed by CHA in macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, In G422 xenograft mice, CHA increased the proportion of CD11c-positive M1 macrophages and decreased the distribution of CD206-positive M2 macrophages in tumor tissue, consistent with the reduction of tumor weight observed in CHA-treated mice. Overall these findings indicated CHA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce glioma growth through promoting M1-polarized macrophage and inhibiting M2 phenotypic macrophage. PMID:28045028

  3. Tim-3 promotes intestinal homeostasis in DSS colitis by inhibiting M1 polarization of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingwei; Yu, Jiahui; Shi, Qingzhu; Xiao, Yan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Guojiang; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Hou, Chunmei; Feng, Jiannan; Ma, Yuanfang; Shen, Beifen; Wang, Lili; Li, Yan; Han, Gencheng

    2015-10-01

    Tim-3 is involved in the physiopathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that, in mouse with DSS colitis, Tim-3 inhibited the polarization of pathogenic pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, while Tim-3 downregulation or blockade resulted in an increased M1 response. Adoptive transfer of Tim-3-silenced macrophages worsened DSS colitis and enhanced inflammation, while Tim-3 overexpression attenuated DSS colitis by decreasing the M1 macrophage response. Co-culture of Tim-3-overexpressing macrophages with intestinal lymphocytes decreased the pro-inflammatory response. Tim-3 shaped intestinal macrophage polarization may be TLR-4 dependent since Tim-3 blockade failed to exacerbate colitis or increase M1 macrophage response in the TLR-4 KO model. Finally, Tim-3 signaling inhibited phosphorylation of IRF3, a TLR-4 downstream transcriptional factor regulating macrophage polarization. A better understanding of this pathway may shed new light on colitis pathogenesis and result in a new therapeutic strategy.

  4. Experimental Conditions: SE18_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liver and brain by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search SE18_S1 Mouse liver SE18_S1_M1 34.1...phy. SE18_MS1 Preparation of lipid extract and ESI negative detection by LC-MS analysis SE18_DS1 Identification of phospholipids with Lipid Search default ...

  5. Experimental Conditions: SE18_S2_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liver and brain by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search SE18_S2 Mouse brain SE18_S2_M1 10.8...phy. SE18_MS1 Preparation of lipid extract and ESI negative detection by LC-MS analysis SE18_DS1 Identification of phospholipids with Lipid Search default ...

  6. Design of an E-ELT M1 segment measurement machine with nanometer accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; Voert, M.J.A. te

    2014-01-01

    The baseline design of the European Extremely Large Telescope features a telescope with a 39-meter-class primary mirror (M1), consisting of 798 hexagonal segments. A measurement machine design is presented based on a non-contact single-point scanning technique, capable of measuring the form error of

  7. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M1 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43484 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data 6|ITMS 2 ...

  8. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Hasan; Yarsan, Ender; Sarimehmetoglu, Belgin; Cakmak, Omer

    2002-10-01

    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively. The particularly high AFM,concentrations imply that more importance should be given to routine analysis of these dairy products.

  10. Effects on Variations in M1 Generation of Durum Wheat (T. durum Thell by Induced Mutagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bilgin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research conducted ın Department of Field Crops, Tekirdağ Agricultural Faculty, TrakyaUniversity, the effect of six different gamma ray doses on plant growth in M1 generations derived from twodurum wheat cultivars was investigated.In the experiment, 10 plants in each pot (17 x 40 cm containing 5 kgsoil were grown with three replicates. Total 30 plants for each treatment were used. In M1 generation, numberof leaves, number of roots, seedling height, seedling weight, leaf weight and germination rate were determined.Application of 100-200 gray gamma ray doses did not have any inhibitory effect on investigated characters inseedling growth of M1 generation. On the other hand, 400-500 gray doses significantly inhibited the plantgrowth. 100-200 gray doses did not affect the seed germination rate whereas germination rate decreased with400-500 gray gamma ray applications. At 600 gray dose, only one seed remained viably, rest of them could notsurvive. It was generally observed the highest variations at 300-400 gray gamma doses in M1 plants.

  11. First state selective electron capture measurements with trapped highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, F.W.; Woestenenk, G.R.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first state selective electron capture cross section measurements at eV energies are reported for collisions between C4+ ions and H-2 molecules. The cross sections are measured in a crossed beam experiment by means of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. The ion beams are decelerated in an octopole ion

  12. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, O P; Manykin, A A; Rossman, J S; Klenk, H D

    2016-05-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~ 25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased SMA-M1 coherence in Parkinson's disease - Pathophysiology or compensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollok, Bettina; Kamp, Daniel; Butz, Markus; Wojtecki, Lars; Timmermann, Lars; Südmeyer, Martin; Krause, Vanessa; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder owing to loss of dopaminergic cells. Akinesia - one of the core symptoms of PD - is associated with exaggerated oscillations at beta frequency (13-30 Hz) within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Thus, enhanced oscillations below 30 Hz are assumed to represent a pathophysiological marker of PD. However, recent data suggest that OFF medication exaggerated beta oscillations within basal ganglia (BG) cortical networks may serve for the compensation of BG dysfunctions. The STN is functionally connected to mesial prefrontal areas like the supplementary motor area (SMA). But, it is still not fully understood how enhanced beta oscillations within the BG exert dominance over the primary motor cortex (M1) thereby yielding motor impairment. The present study, therefore, investigates the effect of dopaminergic state on SMA-M1 functional connectivity using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were recorded in 7 patients suffering from PD with preponderance of akinesia during isometric contraction of the right forearm and during rest. Coherence as a measure of functional connectivity between M1 and SMA was calculated OFF and ON medication and correlated with the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III) and with disease duration. During rest a significant positive correlation between disease duration and SMA-M1 coherence was found ON but not OFF medication. Conversely, during isometric contraction SMA-M1 coherence and UPDRS III were inversely correlated OFF but not ON medication explaining more than 80% of variance. The results favor the hypothesis that OFF medication exaggerated cortical coherence at beta frequency represents a compensatory mechanism rather than a pathophysiological marker per se. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Balancing the excitability of M1 circuitry during movement observation without overt replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eArias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although observation of a movement increases the excitability of the motor system of the observer, it does not induce a motor replica. What is the mechanism for replica suppression? We performed a series of experiments, involving a total of 66 healthy humans, to explore the excitability of different M1 circuits and the spinal cord during observation of simple movements. Several strategies were used. In the first and second experimental blocks, we used several delay times from movement onset to evaluate the time-course modulation of the cortico-spinal excitability (CSE, and its potential dependency on the duration of the movement observed; in order to do this single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over M1 was used. In subsequent experiments, at selected delay times from movement-onset, we probed the excitability of the cortico-spinal circuits using three different approaches: i electric cervicomedullary stimulation, to test spinal excitability, ii paired-pulse TMS over M1, to evaluate the cortical inhibitory-excitatory balance (short intracortical inhibition SICI and intracortical facilitation ICF and iii continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS, to modulate the excitability of M1cortical circuits. We observed a stereotyped response in the modulation of CSE. At 500ms after movement-onset the ICF was increased; although the most clear-cut effect was a decrease of CSE. The compensatory mechanism was not explained by changes in SICI, but by M1-intracortical circuits targeted by cTBS. Meanwhile, the spinal cord maintained the elevated level of excitability induced when expecting to observe movements, potentially useful to facilitate any required response to the movement observed.

  15. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim......The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  16. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  17. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  18. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  19. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Gorringe, T.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Henderson, R. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility); McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.D. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.).

  20. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  1. The Capture of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The origin of Jupiter Trojans remained mysterious for decades. Particularly, it was difficult to explain the excitation of the inclinations of the Trojan population [1]. In 2005, Morbidelli et al. [2] proposed a scenario of capture from the trans-Neptunian disk, in the framework of the so-called "Nice model" [3,4]. This scenario explained in a natural way the observed orbital distribution of Trojans. The Nice model, however, evolved in the years, in order to satisfy an increasingly large number of constraints. It now appears that the dynamical evolution of the giant planets was different from that envisioned in [2]. Here, we assess again the process of capture of Trojans within this new evolution. We show that (6-8)×10 - 7 of the original trans-Neptunian planetesimals are captured in the Trojan region, with an orbital distribution consistent with the one observed. Relative to [2], the new capture mechanism has the potential of explaining the asymmetry between the L4 and L5 populations. Moreover, the resulting population of Trojans is consistent with that of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter, which are captured in the same process; a few bodies from the main asteroid belt could also be captured in the Trojan cloud.

  2. Immunohistochemical localisation of cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1r) in the guinea pig and human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A M; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding the location of cholinergic muscarinic receptor 1 (M1r) in the ENS, even though physiological data suggest that M1rs are central to cholinergic neurotransmission. This study localised M1rs in the ENS of the guinea pig ileum and human colon using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in human colon. Double labelling using antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify neuron subytpes bearing M1r. M1r immunoreactivity (IR) was present on neurons in the myenteric and submucosal ganglia. The two antibodies gave similar M1r-IR patterns and M1r-IR was abolished upon antibody preabsorption. M1r-IR was present on cholinergic and nNOS-IR nerve cell bodies in both guinea pig and human myenteric neurons. Presynaptic M1r-IR was present on NOS-IR and VAChT-IR nerve fibres in the circular muscle in the human colon. In the submucosal ganglia, M1r-IR was present on a population of neurons that contained cChAT-IR, but did not contain NPY-IR or calretinin-IR. M1r-IR was present on endothelial cells of blood vessels in the submucosal plexus. The localisation of M1r-IR in the guinea pig and human ENS shown in this study agrees with physiological studies. M1r-IR in cholinergic and nitrergic neurons and nerve fibres indicate that M1rs have a role in both cholinergic and nitrergic transmission. M1r-IR present in submucosal neurons suggests a role in mediating acetylcholine's effect on submucosal sensory and secretomotor/vasodilator neurons. M1r-IR present on blood vessel endothelial cells suggests that M1rs may also mediate acetylcholine's direct effect on vasoactivation.

  3. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  4. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirnov, O.P., E-mail: zhirnov@inbox.ru [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Manykin, A.A. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Rossman, J.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT27NJ (United Kingdom); Klenk, H.D. [Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg 35037 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  5. FRET-Based Detection of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation by Orthosteric and Allosteric Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Danijela; Holdich, Jonathan; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Mistry, Rajendra; Krasel, Cornelius; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Challiss, R. A. John

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Methods Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M1-cam5) was expressed stably in HEK293 cells. Results The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with Gαq/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M1 FRET (FEYFP/FECFP) that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine. Conclusion The M1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a valuable molecular reagent for

  6. FRET-based detection of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation by orthosteric and allosteric agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Markovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M(1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. METHODS: Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M(1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M(1-cam5 was expressed stably in HEK293 cells. RESULTS: The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with Gα(q/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M(1 FRET (F(EYFP/F(ECFP that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine. CONCLUSION: The M(1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a

  7. Neutron capture reactions on Lu isotopes at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters J.M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments array located at the Los Alamos national laboratory has been used to obtain the neutron capture cross sections for the 175Lu and 176Lu isotopes with neutron energies from thermal up to 100 keV. Both isotopes are of current interest for the nucleosynthesis s-process in astrophysics and for applications as in reactor physics or in nuclear medicine. Three targets were used to perform these measurements. One was natLu foil and the other two were isotope-enriched targets of 175Lu and 176Lu. The cross sections are obtained for now through a precise neutron flux determination and a normalization at the thermal neutron cross section value. A comparison with the recent experimental data and the evaluated data of ENDF/B-VII.0 will be presented. In addition, resonances parameters and spin assignments for some resonances will be featured.

  8. Coupled-Channel Models of Direct-Semidirect Capture via Giant-Dipole Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, I J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Escher, Jutta E [ORNL; Arbanas, Goran [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Semidirect capture, a two-step process that excites a giant-dipole resonance followed by its radiative de-excitation, is a dominant process near giant-dipole resonances, that is, for incoming neutron energies within 5 20 MeV. At lower energies such processes may affect neutron capture rates that are relevant to astrophysical nucleosynthesis models. We implement a semidirect capture model in the coupled-channel reaction code Fresco and validate it by comparing the cross section for direct-semidirect capture 208Pb(n,g)209Pb to experimental data. We also investigate the effect of low-energy electric dipole strength in the pygmy resonance. We use a conventional single-particle direct-semidirect capture code Cupido for comparison. Furthermore, we present and discuss our results for direct-semidirect capture reaction 130Sn(n,g)131Sn, the cross section of which is known to have a significant effect on nucleosynthesis models.

  9. The potent M1 receptor allosteric agonist GSK1034702 improves episodic memory in humans in the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Pradeep J; Watson, Jeannette; Lund, Jesper; Davies, Ceri H; Peters, Gary; Dodds, Chris M; Swirski, Bridget; Lawrence, Philip; Bentley, Graham D; O'Neill, Barry V; Robertson, Jon; Watson, Stephen; Jones, Gareth A; Maruff, Paul; Croft, Rodney J; Laruelle, Marc; Bullmore, Edward T

    2013-05-01

    Episodic memory deficits are a core feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Muscarinic M(1) receptors play a critical role in modulating learning and memory and are highly expressed in the hippocampus. We examined the effect of GSK1034702, a potent M(1) receptor allosteric agonist, on cognitive function, and in particular episodic memory, in healthy smokers using the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 20 male nicotine abstained smokers were tested following single doses of placebo, 4 and 8 mg GSK1034702. Compared to the baseline (nicotine on-state), nicotine abstinence showed statistical significance in reducing immediate (p=0.019) and delayed (p=0.02) recall. GSK1034702 (8 mg) significantly attenuated (i.e. improved) immediate recall (p=0.014) but not delayed recall. None of the other cognitive domains was modulated by either nicotine abstinence or GSK1034702. These findings suggest that stimulating M(1) receptor mediated neurotransmission in humans with GSK1034702 improves memory encoding potentially by modulating hippocampal function. Hence, selective M(1) receptor allosteric agonists may have therapeutic benefits in disorders of impaired learning including Alzheimer's disease.

  10. New probe of M1 and E1 strengths in GDR regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency and National Astronomical Observatory in Japan (Japan); Ogata, K. [RCNP, Osaka University (Japan); Miyamoto, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S. [University of Hyogo (Japan); Imazaki, K.; Li, D.; Izawa, Y. [Institute for Laser Technology (Japan); Chiba, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    The M1 strengths (or level density of 1{sup +} states) are of importance for estimation of interaction strengths between neutrinos and nuclei for the study of the supernova neutrino-process. In 1957, Agodi predicted theoretically angular distribution of neutrons emitted from states excited via dipole transitions with linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the polar angle of θ=90° should be followed by a simple function, a + b cos(2φ), where φ, is azimuthal angel. However, this theoretical prediction has not been verified over the wide mass region except for light nuclei as deuteron. We have measured neutron angular distributions with (polarized gamma, n) reactions on Au, Nal, and Cu. We have verified the Agodi's prediction for the first time over the wide mass region. This suggests that (polarized gamma, n) reactions may be useful tools to study M1 strengths in giant resonance regions.

  11. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies.

  12. IKKα Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis by Limiting Recruitment of M1-like Polarized Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan I. Göktuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of immune cells into solid tumors is an essential prerequisite of tumor development. Depending on the prevailing polarization profile of these infiltrating leucocytes, tumorigenesis is either promoted or blocked. Here, we identify IκB kinase α (IKKα as a central regulator of a tumoricidal microenvironment during intestinal carcinogenesis. Mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity are largely protected from intestinal tumor development that is dependent on the enhanced recruitment of interferon γ (IFNγ-expressing M1-like myeloid cells. In IKKα mutant mice, M1-like polarization is not controlled in a cell-autonomous manner but, rather, depends on the interplay of both IKKα mutant tumor epithelia and immune cells. Because therapies aiming at the tumor microenvironment rather than directly at the mutated cancer cell may circumvent resistance development, we suggest IKKα as a promising target for colorectal cancer (CRC therapy.

  13. Extended M1 sum rule for excited symmetric and mixed-symmetry states in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, N A; Leviatan, A; Ginocchio, J N; Fransen, C

    2002-01-01

    A generalized M1 sum rule for orbital magnetic dipole strength from excited symmetric states to mixed-symmetry states is considered within the proton-neutron interacting boson model of even-even nuclei. Analytic expressions for the dominant terms in the B(M1) transition rates from the first and second $2^+$ states are derived in the U(5) and SO(6) dynamic symmetry limits of the model, and the applicability of a sum rule approach is examined at and in-between these limits. Lastly, the sum rule is applied to the new data on mixed-symmetry states of 94Mo and a quadrupole d-boson ratio $nd(0^+_1)/nd(2^+_2) \\approx 0.6$ is obtained in a largely parameter-independent way

  14. M=1 and 2 gravitational instabilities in gaseous disks; 1, diffuse gas

    CERN Document Server

    Junqueira, S

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of self-gravitating simulations of spiral galaxies, modeled by stellar and gaseous components, developed to investigate in particular the role of dissipation in the evolution of galaxy disks. The gas disk is simulated by the Beam-Scheme method, where it is considered as a self-gravitating fluid. The results suggest that the gravitational coupling between the stars and gas plays a fundamental role in the formation and dissolution of stellar bars, depending on the gaseous mass concentration and on the degree of dissipation. In addition we remark that initially concentrated gas disks can be unstable to the one-armed (m=1) spiral perturbations, which may explain the lopsided features observed in the gas distribution of the late-type isolated galaxies. The development of the m=1 feature slows down the radial gas flows towards the center, since the large-scale gravity torques are then much weaker.

  15. Cholinergic impact on neuroplasticity drives muscarinic M1 receptor mediated differentiation into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Rauh, Werner; Brantl, Victor; Schloesser, Robert J; Moessner, Rainald; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that canonical neurotransmitters act as regulatory signals during neuroplasticity. Here, we report that muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission stimulates differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vitro. Adult neural stem cells (ANSC) dissociated from the adult mouse hippocampus were expanded in culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Carbachol (CCh), an analog of acetylcholine (ACh) significantly enhanced de novo differentiation into neurons on bFGF- and EGF-deprived stem cells as shown by the percentage of TUJ1 positive cells. By contrast, pirenzepine (PIR), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, reduced the generation of neurons. Activation of cholinergic signaling drives the de novo differentiation of uncommitted stem cells into neurons. These effects appear to be predominantly mediated via the muscarinic M1 receptor subtype.

  16. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by miceller-polymer flooding. M-1 project: facilities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, B.L. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    ERDA and Marathon Oil Company contracted together for a commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by the Maraflood (TM) oil recovery process. This M-1 Project is located within Sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, T6N, R13W, Crawford County, Illinois, encompassing approximately 407 acres of Robinson Sand reservoir developed in the first decade of the century. The area covers portions of several waterfloods developed on 10-acre spacing in the 1950's that were approaching their economic limit. This report describes all M-1 Project facilities, how they were prepared or constructed, their purpose and how they operate: (1) wells (drilling and completion); (2) production facility; (3) injection facility; and (4) various service systems required during project development and/or operation. (48 fig, 7 tables) (DLC).

  17. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  18. THE BULK INPUT M[X]/M/1 QUEUE WITH WORKING VACATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli XU; Mingxin LIU; Xiaohua ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a bulk input M[X]/M/1 queue with multiple working vacations. A quasi upper triangle transition probability matrix of two-dimensional Markov chain in this model is obtained, and with the matrix analysis method, highly complicated probability generating function(PGF) of the stationary queue length is firstly derived, from which we got the stochastic decomposition result for the stationary queue length which indicates the evident relationship with that of the classical M[X]/M/1 queue without vacation. It is important that we find the upper and the lower bounds of the stationary waiting time in the Laplace transform order using the properties of the conditional Erlang distribution. Furthermore, we gain the mean queue length and the upper and the lower bounds of the mean waiting time.

  19. Formation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Blends by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes M1-2 from Various Carbon Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain M1-2 isolated from oil-contaminated soil collected from an oilfield in northern China was found to be able to synthesize a blend of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) containing monomers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (C4), 3-hydroxyvalerate (C5), 3-hydroxyheptanoate (C7), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8), 3-hydroxynonanoate (C9), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12) from various carbon sources.The hydroxyalkanoate (HA) monomer composition varied both quantitatively and qualitatively, depending on the carbon sources used.The presence of octanoate in substrates of myristic acid or tridecanoate promoted the synthesis of HB monomer in the blend.Concentration of octanoate was also found to significantly affect the PHB content in the blend.A PHA biosynthesis pathway in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligens M1-2 was proposed.

  20. Modulating activity of M1 receptor to the reaction of ileal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaza, Izabela; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Rafał; Gajdus, Marta; Olkowska, Joanna

    2011-08-03

    The subject of the study was determination of the effect of drugs on ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of M(1) type muscarinic receptors. Drugs that have an effect on muscarinic receptors are divided to agonists, with close ties to the receptor and high internal activity and antagonists, with no internal activity. Conducted experiments tested interactions between a broad-spectrum agonist of muscarinic receptors, carbachol and a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist of M(1) type, pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's intestine. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963) in Kenakin modification (2006). The purpose of the study was determination of concentration-effect curves for carbachol. This curve was compared with the curve of receptor occupation depending on concentration of this drug. Based on concentration-effect curves, the average value of EC(50) was calculated for carbachol, amounting to 2.44×10(-6) [M/l]. The results confirmed that atropine is effective in stopping contractions caused by carbachol, meeting the conditions of competitive antagonists. Atropine caused the shift of curves for carbachol to the right. Pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M(1) type gave similar results. It was proved that in the preparation of gastric fundus smooth muscle, M(1) type receptors occur not only presynaptically, but also postsynaptically.

  1. Modulating activity of M1 receptor to the reaction of ileal smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Glaza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of the study was determination of the effect of drugs on ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of M1 type muscarinic receptors. Drugs that have an effect on muscarinic receptors are divided to agonists, with close ties to the receptor and high internal activity and antagonists, with no internal activity. Conducted experiments tested interactions between a broad-spectrum agonist of muscarinic receptors, carbachol and a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist of M1 type, pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s intestine. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963 in Kenakin modification (2006.Results:The purpose of the study was determination of concentration-effect curves for carbachol. This curve was compared with the curve of receptor occupation depending on concentration of this drug. Based on concentration-effect curves, the average value of EC50 was calculated for carbachol, amounting to 2.44×10–6 [M/l].Conclusions:The results confirmed that atropine is effective in stopping contractions caused by carbachol, meeting the conditions of competitive antagonists. Atropine caused the shift of curves for carbachol to the right. Pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type gave similar results. It was proved that in the preparation of gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type receptors occur not only presynaptically, but also postsynaptically.

  2. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gajdus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification.Results:According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10–8 M to 10–4 M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction.Conclusions:From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type

  3. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdus, Marta; Szadujkis-Szadurska, Katarzyna; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Glaza, Izabela; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Rafał; Olkowska, Joanna

    2011-09-14

    The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification). According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type receptors occur also postsynaptically.

  4. "5M1E"法在生产管理中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋香

    2010-01-01

    人(man)、机械(machine)、材料(material)、方法(method)、环境(enviroment)、管理(manage)这几个主要环节实行全面质量管理,称为"5M1E"法.在生产管理中应用该法,可以达到提升人品质、提升产品品质,提高员工士气.

  5. Radiationless transitions to atomic M 1,2,3 shells - Results of relativistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiationless transitions filling vacancies in atomic M1, M2, and M3 subshells have been calculated relativistically with Dirac-Hartree-Slater wave functions for ten elements with atomic numbers 67-95. Results are compared with those of nonrelativistic calculations and experiment. Relativistic effects are found to be significant. Limitations of an independent-particle model for the calculation of Coster-Kronig rates are noted.

  6. Study of Mutagenic Effects of M1 Generation of Maize Seeds Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOHong-bing; ZHAOKui; GUOJi-yu; SUILi; NIMei-nan; MEIJun-ping; LUXiu-qin; ZHOUPing; KONGFu-quan; ZHANGGen-fa

    2003-01-01

    In order to study M1 biological effects induced by heavy ion irradiation on maize seeds, the embryos of dry maize seeds are irradiated with 7Li and 12C ions. The experiment is performed at the heavy ion scanning tube of the HI-13 tandem accelerator. The beam goes through a thickness of 25μm. Then the maize seeds are irradiated in the air uniformly.

  7. Cellular stress response in human Müller cells (MIO-M1) after bevacizumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Monique; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Marquezini, Mônica Valeria; Sholl-Franco, Alfred; Lameu, Amanda; Monteiro, Mário Luiz R; Miguel, Nádia Campos de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, is widely used in the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. However, due to the essential role Müller cell derived-VEGF plays in the maintenance of retinal neurons and glial cells, cell viability is likely to be affected by VEGF inhibition. We therefore evaluated the effect of bevacizumab-induced VEGF inhibition on Müller cells (MIO-M1) in vitro. MIO-M1 cells were cultured for 12 or 24 h in media containing bevacizumab at 0.25 or 0.5 mg/mL. Controls were cultured in medium only. Cell viability was determined with the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT assay. Caspase-3, beclin-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin content were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. Treatment with bevacizumab did not reduce MIO-M1 cell viability, but increased metabolic activity at 24 h (0.5 mg/mL) and induced apoptosis and autophagy, as shown by the increased caspase-3 levels at 12 h (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) and the increased beclin levels at 24 h (0.5 mg/mL). Caspase-3 mRNA was upregulated at 12 h and downregulated at 24 h in cells treated with bevacizumab at 0.25 mg/mL. Bevacizumab treatment was also associated with structural protein abnormalities, with decreased GFAP and vimentin content and upregulated GFAP and vimentin mRNA expression. Although bevacizumab did not significantly affect MIO-M1 cell viability, it led to metabolic and molecular changes (apoptosis, autophagy and structural abnormalities) suggestive of significant cellular toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fingerprinting the substrate specificity of M1 and M17 aminopeptidases of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Poreba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, expresses two aminopeptidases, PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP, critical to generating a free amino acid pool used by the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite for proteins synthesis, growth and development. These exopeptidases are potential targets for the development of a new class of anti-malaria drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To define the substrate specificity of recombinant forms of these two malaria aminopeptidases we used a new library consisting of 61 fluorogenic substrates derived both from natural and unnatural amino acids. We obtained a detailed substrate fingerprint for recombinant forms of the enzymes revealing that PfM1AAP exhibits a very broad substrate tolerance, capable of efficiently hydrolyzing neutral and basic amino acids, while PfM17LAP has narrower substrate specificity and preferentially cleaves bulky, hydrophobic amino acids. The substrate library was also exploited to profile the activity of the native aminopeptidases in soluble cell lysates of P. falciparum malaria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data showed that PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP are responsible for majority of the aminopeptidase activity in these extracts. These studies provide specific substrate and mechanistic information important for understanding the function of these aminopeptidases and could be exploited in the design of new inhibitors to specifically target these for anti-malaria treatment.

  9. Fingerprinting the Substrate Specificity of M1 and M17 Aminopeptidases of Human Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Marcin; McGowan, Sheena; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; To, Joyce; Salvesen, Guy S.; Dalton, John P.; Drag, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, expresses two aminopeptidases, PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP, critical to generating a free amino acid pool used by the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite for proteins synthesis, growth and development. These exopeptidases are potential targets for the development of a new class of anti-malaria drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings To define the substrate specificity of recombinant forms of these two malaria aminopeptidases we used a new library consisting of 61 fluorogenic substrates derived both from natural and unnatural amino acids. We obtained a detailed substrate fingerprint for recombinant forms of the enzymes revealing that PfM1AAP exhibits a very broad substrate tolerance, capable of efficiently hydrolyzing neutral and basic amino acids, while PfM17LAP has narrower substrate specificity and preferentially cleaves bulky, hydrophobic amino acids. The substrate library was also exploited to profile the activity of the native aminopeptidases in soluble cell lysates of P. falciparum malaria. Conclusions/Significance This data showed that PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP are responsible for majority of the aminopeptidase activity in these extracts. These studies provide specific substrate and mechanistic information important for understanding the function of these aminopeptidases and could be exploited in the design of new inhibitors to specifically target these for anti-malaria treatment. PMID:22359643

  10. A novel strain of Bacteroides fragilis enhances phagocytosis and polarises M1 macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Li, Zhengchao; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Ye; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Ruifu; Bi, Yujing; Bai, Yang; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-01-01

    Commensal Bacteroides fragilis possesses immune-regulatory characteristics. Consequently, it has been proposed as a potential novel probiotic because of its therapeutic effects on immune imbalance, mental disorders and inflammatory diseases. Macrophages play a central role in the immune response, developing either a classical-M1 or an alternative-M2 phenotype after stimulation with various signals. The interactions between macrophages and B. fragilis, however, remain to be defined. Here, a new isolate of B. fragilis, ZY-312, was shown to possess admirable properties, including tolerance to simulated gastric fluid, intestinal fluid and ox bile, and good safety (MOI = 100, 200) and adherent ability (MOI = 100) to LoVo cells. Isolate ZY-312 cell lysate promoted phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres and pathogenic bacteria in bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cells. Gene expression of IL-12, iNOS and IL-1β in BMDM cells was increased after treatment with ZY-312, indicating the induction of M1 macrophages, consistent with enhanced secretion of NO. Cell surface expression of CD80 and CD86 was also increased. This study is the first to demonstrate that B. fragilis enhances the phagocytic functions of macrophages, polarising them to an M1 phenotype. Our findings provide insight into the close relationship between B. fragilis and the innate immune system. PMID:27381366

  11. Tramadol differentially regulates M1 and M2 macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Sun, Yunyun; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-17

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, tramadol inhibits production and secretion of cytokines in M1 macrophages, but facilitates the production of inflammation-responding molecules, synthesized in M2 macrophages. We also found that STAT6 cascade pathway in M2 macrophages was significantly enhanced by tramadol. Therefore, this study reveals that tramadol regulates inflammation by inhibiting M1 macrophages (killing process), but promoting the function of M2 macrophages (healing process).

  12. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  13. Chronic treatment with simvastatin upregulates muscarinic M1/4 receptor binding in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zengin, A; Ying, W; Newell, K A; Wang, P; Yeo, W; Wong, P T-H; Yenari, M A; Huang, X-F

    2008-06-26

    Statins are increasingly being used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original indication for cholesterol lowering. We previously reported that simvastatin affected the dopaminergic system in the rat brain. This study aims to investigate regional changes of muscarinic M1/4 receptors in the rat brain after 4-week administration of simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day). M1/4 receptor distribution and alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [(3)H]pirenzepine binding autoradiography. Simvastatin (1 mg/kg/day) increased [(3)H]pirenzepine binding, predominantly in the prefrontal cortex (171%, Ppirenzepine binding were observed in the examined regions following simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) treatment. Our results also provide strong evidence that chronic simvastatin administration, especially at a low dosage, up-regulates M1/4 receptor binding, which is likely to be independent of its muscarinic agonist-like effect. Alterations in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in the examined brain areas may represent the specific regions that mediate the clinical effects of simvastatin treatment on cognition and memory via the muscarinic cholinergic system. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of simvastatin in treating neurodegenerative disorders, via muscarinic receptors.

  14. The mechanism of the anticancer function of M1 macrophages and their use in the clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Qing Pan

    2012-01-01

    M1-type macrophages are capable of inducing lysis in various types of cancer cells,but the mechanism of action is unclear.It has been noted that an "unknown protein" produced together with protease by activated macrophages is responsible for this action.Activated M1 macrophages have been recently reported to produce family 18 chitinases,all of which have been named chitotriosidase.Our experiments have demonstrated that family 18 chitinases work together with proteases and can damage various cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.Thus,in this article,we suggest that the 50-kDa chitotriosidase is the reported "unknown protein".In addition,we discuss how to properly stimulate activated M1 macrophages to produce 50-kDa chitotriosidases and proteases for destroying cancer cells.Because family 19 chitinase has recently been reported to kill cancer cells,we also discuss the possibility of directly using human family 18 chitotriosidase and the humanized plant family 19 chitinase for cancer treatment.

  15. The detection of C60 in the well-characterized planetary nebula M1-11

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, S; Sargent, B A; Meixner, M; Tajitsu, A; Yanagisawa, K

    2013-01-01

    We performed multiwavelength observations of the young planetary nebula (PN) M1-11 and obtained its elemental abundances, dust mass, and the evolutionary status of the central star. The AKARI/IRC, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer/IRS spectra show features due to carbon-rich dust, such as the 3.3, 8.6, and 11.3 um features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a smooth continuum attributable to amorphous carbon, and the broad 11.5 and 30 um features often ascribed to SiC and MgS, respectively. We also report the presence of an unidentified broad feature at 16-22 um, similar to the feature found in Magellanic Cloud PNe with either C-rich or O-rich gas-phase compositions. We identify for the first time in M1-11 spectral lines at 8.5 (blended with PAH), 17.3, and 18.9 um that we attribute to the C60 fullerene. This identification is strengthened by the fact that other Galactic PNe in which fullerenes are detected, have similar central stars, similar gas-phase abundances, and a similar dust composition to M1-11. T...

  16. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  17. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in Qazvin Province, Iran: a seasonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A; Barani, Afshin; Nasiri, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was determined in 254 samples of raw milk obtained from dairy cow farms of Qazvin Province, Iran. Aflatoxin M1 analysis was carried out by using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for confirmatory purposes. The limit of detection and quantification of the confirmatory method were 0.003 and 0.01 µg/l, respectively. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 204 analysed samples (80.3%), ranging from 0.011 to 0.321 μg/l, and 144 samples (56.7%) had levels above the Iranian national standard limit of 0.050 μg/l. Considering the seasonal variability, the occurrence and levels of AFM1 in samples obtained in winter were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained in summer. The results of this survey indicate the usefulness of a monitoring programme to supervise food safety for consumers.

  18. Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable Resistance to Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulec, Emilia; Abdelwahed Bagga, Rym Ben; Chevallier, Lucie; O'Donnell, Hope; Guillas, Chloé; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2017-09-15

    Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined. SEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis-induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague. MPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach.

  19. Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates mitotic entry and prevents spindle defects in cerebellar granule neuron precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schueller, Ulrich; Zhao, Qing; Godinho, Susana A.; Heine, Vivi M.; Medema, Rene H.; Pellman, David; Rowitch, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 has been reported to regulate, variously, proliferation and/or spindle formation during the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle. Here we define specific functions of FoxM1 during brain development by the investigation of FoxM1 loss-of-function mutations in the

  20. HE-2+-H2 COLLISIONS - NONDISSOCIATIVE AND DISSOCIATIVE ONE-ELECTRON CAPTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, R; FOLKERTS, HO; BEIJERS, JPM; MORGENSTERN, R; DEHEER, FJ

    1994-01-01

    Electron-redistribution processes in collisions of He-2+ ions on H-2 are studied for energies from 1 to 25 keV amu-1. One-electron capture and target excitation cross sections are determined by photon-emission spectroscopy. At energies exceeding approximately 5 keV amu-1 capture into excited states

  1. Thermal-neutron capture gamma rays from natural magnesium and enriched 25Mg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilling, P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Kamp, A.M.F. op den

    1967-01-01

    Gamma rays from neutron capture in natural magnesium and in enriched 25Mg have been studied with Ge(Li) detectors. Altogether 101 γ-rays have been observed. Most of these γ-rays could be fitted into the level schemes of 25Mg, 26Mg and 27Mg. If it is assumed that the capture cross section for natura

  2. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  3. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed.

  4. Astrophysically Relevant Neutron Capture near the Border of Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, P J; Beer, H

    1996-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section on $^{26}$Mg was measured in the astrophysically relevant energy region from 25 keV to 220 keV. The experimental results agree well with a calculation using the Direct Capture (DC) model together with systematic folding potentials. This experiment confirms for the $^{26}$Mg(n,$\\gamma$)$^{27}$Mg reaction that the DC process is at least comparable to the Compound--Nucleus (CN) process. The reliability of DC calculations is discussed, and we present some ideas for future experiments which could reduce the theoretical uncertainties of DC calculations.

  5. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    in the near future due to the complexity of crafting new treaties across countries. We discuss how multinational firms are dealing with the challenges of capturing value from their know-how and reputation in the existing global IP system, and review mechanisms, both market and non-market, that have been...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region....

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  7. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  8. Effect of pirenzepine, a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, on amygdala kindling in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eşkazan, E; Aker, R; Onat, F; Köseoğlu, S; Gören, M Z; Hasanoğlu, A

    1999-11-01

    Kindling, an animal model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, is performed by daily application of low-intensity electrical brain stimulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of muscarinic M1 receptors on amygdala kindling in the rat. Bipolar nichrome stimulation and recording electrodes were stereotaxically implanted into the right and left basolateral amygdala. Extradural recording electrodes were also placed bilaterally in the skull over the cortex. Amygdala stimulation was applied twice daily at the current intensity of afterdischarge threshold. Seizure intensity was graded by using Racine's standard five-stage scale. In the first group of experiments, saline or pirenzepine (10, 25, 50 and 100 nmol), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 h before the electrical stimulation. In the second group of experiments, rats were kindled to full stage 5 seizures. After a recovery period, 50 nmol of pirenzepine was administered intracerebroventricularly to kindled animals. In the first group of experiments, none of the animals pretreated with the doses of 50 and 100 nmol of pirenzepine reached a stage 5 seizure. Pirenzepine significantly retarded kindling seizure development and increased the total number of stimulations required to reach the first stage 5 seizure. Afterdischarge duration was also reduced in the pirenzepine 10 nmol group as compared with that in the saline-pretreated group. In the second group, seizure stage and afterdischarge duration were not affected by pirenzepine in fully-kindled animals. The findings of this study suggest that muscarinic M1 receptors may have a critical role in the development of kindling epileptic activity, but not in already kindled seizures.

  9. Spatio-kinematics of the optical nebula M1-92 with HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Medina, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, C.; Sahai, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Morris, M.

    2014-04-01

    We report optical long-slit spectroscopy with HST/STIS of the well known pre-Planetary Nebula (pPN) M1-92 (a.k.a. Minkowski's footprint). Complementary long-slit echelle spectra obtained with Keck II+ESI have been also used. We have used our high-angular (~0.1arcsec) resolution spectra to characterize the spatio-kinematic structure of the optical nebula of this object. From the analysis of the Halpha two-dimensional profile we identify several distinct nebular components at different spatial scales. The blue-shifted absorption component of the broad 'P cygni'-like profile of the Halpha emission is spatially and spectrally resolved and is found to be composed of not one but two different features centered at Vlsr~-600 and -200 km/s. To assist in the interpretation of the data, we have used a simple spatio-kinematic model which has allowed us to describe the main properties of the fast, bipolar winds (expanding with velocities of up to ~700 km/s) running inside the reflection lobes of M1-92 and that produce the absorptions. At the nebula center, we also discover an equatorially extended H-alpha emitting region that is expanding at moderate velocity (~300 km/s) in the direction perpendicular to the lobes. We have estimated the column density of the inner post-AGB winds and other physical parameters that have helped improving our understanding of the evolutionary history of M1-92.

  10. Relationship between pattern of ischemic manifestation and hemodynamics in symptomatic M1 stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumitsu, Naoki; Sako, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Shizuka; Shirai, Wakako [Nayoro City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The mechanism through which ischemic manifestations develop in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis is still uncertain. It may cause ischemic symptoms through both embolic and hemodynamic mechanisms. In this study, we compared the findings from cerebral angiograms with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with M1 stenosis to determine the pathogenesis of ischema. At our hospital from 1994 to 2000, 14 patients (12 males and 2 females; mean age, 60.9; range, 31 to 85 years) with angiographically demonstrated symptomatic M1 stenosis were enrolled in this study. In 10, their stenotic lesion was located at the proximal site of the perforating arteries and for the other 4, stenosis was found at the distal site. Nine presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 5 with completed stroke for an initial episode. The discrepancy in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in relation to the site and degree of stenosis, type of ischemic presentation, and frequency of ischemic events. There was no significant difference in CBF between the patients with stenosis involving the proximal site and those with distal stenosis; but the cortical CBF decreased significantly in those with severe stenosis compared with moderate stenosis. The cortical CBF of those who had a complete stroke is similar to that of the patients with TIA; but CBF of BGA decreased significantly in those with a complete stroke. The single ischemic event group showed a significant decrease in cortical CBF. On the other hand, the group with multiple ischemic events exhibited normal hemodynamics. We concluded that multiple ischemic events that occurred in M1 stenosis are caused by an embolic mechanism. (author)

  11. ISSR Analysis of M_1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of famous cutting flowers,being famous of big size,bright color,various shapes and long bloom period.New species should be cultivated in order to meet consumers' needs.Mutagenic breeding is a shortcut to cultivate new species of flowers.In this study,corm bud of G.hybridus Hort was treated with different concentrations of EMS.Then M 1 generation was analyzed by ISSR.Results showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G.hybridus Hort.With the increa...

  12. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  13. Daniel Hertz SA M1落地式音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许成文

    2011-01-01

    Daniel Hertz SA M1落地式音箱在箱体结构上取经典造型。毫无疑问,Daniel Hertz的SAM1落地式音箱甫一亮相干市场,便已经奠定了它作为一代经典作品的基础——这不仅使其采用最经典的前障板布局和单元配置,在更大的程度上还包括它的综合技术内涵。

  14. THE DETECTION OF C60 IN THE WELL-CHARACTERIZED PLANETARY NEBULA M1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, F. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hyung, S. [School of Science Education (Astronomy), Chungbuk National University, CheongJu, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sargent, B. A.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Yanagisawa, K., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO), NAOJ, Kamogata, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan)

    2013-02-10

    We performed multiwavelength observations of the young planetary nebula (PN) M1-11 and obtained its elemental abundances, dust mass, and the evolutionary status of the central star. The AKARI/IRC, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer/IRS spectra show features due to carbon-rich dust, such as the 3.3, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a smooth continuum attributable to amorphous carbon, and the broad 11.5 and 30 {mu}m features often ascribed to SiC and MgS, respectively. We also report the presence of an unidentified broad feature at 16-22 {mu}m, similar to the feature found in Magellanic Cloud PNe with either C-rich or O-rich gas-phase compositions. We identify for the first time in M1-11 spectral lines at 8.5 (blended with PAH), 17.3, and 18.9 {mu}m that we attribute to the C{sub 60} fullerene. This identification is strengthened by the fact that other Galactic PNe in which fullerenes are detected have similar central stars, similar gas-phase abundances, and a similar dust composition to M1-11. The weak radiation field due to the relatively cool central stars in these PNe may provide favorable conditions for fullerenes to survive in the circumstellar medium. Using the photoionization code CLOUDY, combined with a modified blackbody, we have fitted the {approx}0.1-90 {mu}m spectral energy distribution (SED) and determined the dust mass in the nebula to be {approx}3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun }. Our chemical abundance analysis and SED model suggest that M1-11 is perhaps a C-rich PN with C/O ratio in the gas phase of +0.19 dex, and that it evolved from a 1-1.5 M {sub Sun} star.

  15. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of helium \\|M\\|=1 Rydberg atoms in a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kips, Annemieke; Vassen, Wim; Hogervorst, Wim; Dando, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. \\|M\\|=1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 1S0 metastable state. Spectra were recorded for ɛ=-2.940(4), ɛ=-2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and ɛ=-1.760(4), above the saddle point. Closed-orbit theory was applied to interpret the spectra. A recent extension to closed-orbit theory, incorporating core effects, was used. This significantly improved agreement between experiment and theory.

  16. Enhancement of M1 Transition Rates at High Spin in 90Mo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Guang; YANG Chun-Xiang; LI Guang-Sheng; PENG Zhao-Hua; WEN Shu-Xian; HAN Guang-Bing; LI Cheng-Po; LU Shao-Jun; WU Shao-Yong; YUAN Guan-Jun

    2001-01-01

    High spin states in 90Mo have been populated through the 59Co (35C1,2p2n) 90Mo reaction at a beam energy of116 Me V. Level lifetimes of the positive-parity decay sequence are measured by using the Doppler shift attenuationmethod. It is observed that the M1 transition strengths show a substantial enhancement at high spin. Thisbehaviour may be related to occupation of high Ω orbitals by a pair of g9/2 protons. A deformed, oblate, shapeis suggested above the 13+ state.

  17. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  18. AN M/M/1/N FEEDBACK QUEUING SYSTEM WITH REVERSE BALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with reverse balking. Reverse balking is a type of customer behavior according to which an arriving customer joins a system with high probability if he encounters large system size and vice-versa. This behavior of a customer can be observed in many businesses such as investment. Feedback customer in queuing literature refers to a customer who is unsatisfied with incomplete, partial or unsatisfactory service. We derive the steady-state solution of the model and obtain some important measures of performance. Sensitivity analysis of the model is also performed with respect to the parameters involved.

  19. E1M1 and E1E2 transition probabilities in one-electron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labzowsky, L. N.; Shonin, A. V.

    2004-12-01

    The quantum electrodynamical (QED) theory of the two-photon transitions in hydrogenlike ions is presented. The emission probability for 2s→2γ(E1)+1s transitions is calculated and compared to the results of the previous calculations. The emission probabilities 2p→γ(E1)+γ(E2)+1s and 2p→γ(E1)+γ(M1)+1s are also calculated for the nuclear charge Z values 1⩽Z⩽100. This is the first calculation of the two latter probabilities. The results are given in two different gauges.

  20. STS-34 crewmembers sit in M1-13 APC during emergency egress training at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers sit in M1-13 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) during emergency egress training at KSC's shuttle landing facility (SLF) prior to terminal countdown demonstration test (TCDT) activities. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), are (from left) Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker, MS Shannon W. Lucid, Commander Donald E. Williams (right side, in back), MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, and Pilot Michael J. McCulley (holding headset). View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-89PC-871.

  1. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joi...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  2. Optic capture pars plana lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joo Eun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South KoreaObjective: To describe an optic capture pars plana lensectomy technique.Methods: After core vitrectomy, pars plana lensectomy is performed with preservation of the anterior capsule. Capsulorhexis is performed on the preserved anterior capsule through a 2.8 mm clear corneal incision. An intraocular lens (IOL is placed in the ciliary sulcus, and then the optic of the IOL is pushed back to the vitreous cavity so that the optic is captured by the surrounding capsulorhexis margin.Results: The captured IOL-capsule diaphragm remained stable during air–fluid exchange and prevented air prolapse to the anterior chamber. IOL stability and a clear visual axis were preserved during the follow-up period.Conclusion: With this modified pars plana lensectomy technique, stable IOL position and clear visual axis can be maintained when a pars plana approach is needed during combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery.Keywords: lensectomy, optic capture, pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy

  3. 49 CFR 563.9 - Data capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... frontal or side air bag deployment crash, capture and record the current deployment data, up to two events... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data capture. 563.9 Section 563.9 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.9 Data capture. The EDR must capture and record...

  4. M1-46: A Case Study on Multiple-Shell Planetary Nebula Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Manchado, A.; Stanghellini, L.; Herrero, A.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss in detail the evolutionary path of the multiple-shell planetary nebula M1-46, in the light of our new observations. The velocities of the halo and main nebula correspond to a dynamical time lap between the shells of about 6.8 x 104 yr. By means of a non-LTE analysis of the central star's spectrum, we derived a stellar temperature of Teff = 45,000 K, which, coupled to the visual magnitude and an appropriate bolometric correction, gives a stellar luminosity of 5370 Lsun. The mass of the central star has been evaluated to be 0.6 Msun, and its interpulse time on the asymptotic giant branch is 7.6 x 104 yr. The agreement between the observed intershell time lap and the evolutionary interpulse time lap points to the fact that the formation of this planetary nebula could be ascribed to the gasping mass loss associated with the thermal pulses at the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch. The high-resolution spatially resolved observations reveal the presence of different kinematical components in the main nebula which cannot be understood in a homogeneous expanding shell scenario. As regards the chemical abundances, M1-46 has the typical abundances of a type II planetary nebula. No definite abundance gradient between the shells is found.

  5. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J.; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M.; Golding, Sarah J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; DeGori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH2]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite. PMID:19196988

  6. 新加坡M1与Vodafone达成漫游协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    为了让经常旅游的客户能够更方便有效地使用数据业务。新加坡M1用户推出了数据漫游业务。用户在Vodafone的网络上进行数据漫游时,将只需支付本地数据资费,从而节省了60%的数据使用费。这一优惠目前可以在8个有Vodafone网络运营的国家实现,今年早些时候将有超过30个国家可以享受到这项服务,包括一些很流行的漫游目的地,如香港、法国、英国、澳大利亚和德国。随着数据漫游资费的推出,M1成为新加坡第一个提供在Vodafone网络上的单一数据漫游资费的移动运营商。

  7. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M; Golding, Sarah J; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Trenholme, Katharine R; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Degori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M; Gardiner, Donald L; Whisstock, James C; Dalton, John P

    2009-02-24

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.

  8. Determination of aflatoxin M1 levels in Iranian white and cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A; Jafari, Tina; Fallah, Ali; Rahnama, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    A screening survey on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was accomplished on 210 cheese samples composed of white cheese (116 samples) and cream cheese (94 samples) purchased from popular markets in central part of Iran (Esfahan and Yazd provinces). The quantitative analysis of AFM1 levels in the samples was performed by using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Aflatoxin M1 at measurable level (50 ng/kg) was detected in 161 (76.6%) samples, consisting of 93 (80.1%) white and 68 (72.3%) cream cheese samples. The concentration of AFM1 in the samples ranged from 52.1 to 785.4 ng/kg. Comparing to legal regulation (250 ng/kg) accepted by some of the countries, 24.2% of the samples exceeded the accepted limit. Among these, the AFM1 levels in 28.4% of white and 19.1% of cream cheese samples were not in accordance with the safety limit. The results indicated that contamination of the samples with AFM1 in such a level appear to be a potential hazard for public health. This paper represents the data of the first survey on the occurrence of AFM1 in cheeses consumed in central part of Iran.

  9. Pirenzepine Promotes the Dimerization of Muscarinic M1 Receptors through a Three-step Binding Process*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B.; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state. PMID:19451648

  10. Fluorescent pirenzepine derivatives as potential bitopic ligands of the human M1 muscarinic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtaoui, Chouaib; Parrot, Isabelle; Klotz, Philippe; Guillier, Fabrice; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Hibert, Marcel; Ilien, Brigitte

    2004-08-12

    Following a recent description of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused human muscarinic M1 receptors and Bodipy-labeled pirenzepine, we synthesized seven fluorescent derivatives of this antagonist in order to further characterize ligand-receptor interactions. These compounds carry Bodipy [558/568], Rhodamine Red-X [560/580], or Fluorolink Cy3 [550/570] fluorophores connected to pirenzepine through various linkers. All molecules reversibly bind with high affinity to M1 receptors (radioligand and energy transfer binding experiments) provided that the linker contains more than six atoms. The energy transfer efficiency exhibits modest variations among ligands, indicating that the distance separating EGFP from the fluorophores remains almost constant. This also supports the notion that the fluorophores may bind to the receptor protein. Kinetic analyses reveal that the dissociation of two Bodipy derivatives (10 or 12 atom long linkers) is sensitive to the presence of the allosteric modulator brucine, while that of all other molecules (15-24 atom long linkers) is not. The data favor the idea that these analogues might interact with both the acetylcholine and the brucine binding domains. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  11. Pirenzepine promotes the dimerization of muscarinic M1 receptors through a three-step binding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-07-17

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state.

  12. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-05-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  13. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Emre, E-mail: etabar@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Yakut, Hakan, E-mail: hyakut@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Kuliev, Ali Akbar [Azerbaijan National Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-01-15

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed {sup 229–233}Th and {sup 233–239}U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even {sup 228–232}Th and {sup 232–238}U nuclei. For {sup 235}U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5–2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  14. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, V. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D. [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K}=1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode of deformed nuclei has been studied extensively in (e,e{sup '}) and (γ,γ{sup '}) experiments over the last 30 years with the main focus on strong M1 transitions to the ground state band. In the framework of the semiclassical two-rotor-model it has its origin in quadrupole deformation. A considerable E2 matrix element between the rotational band of the scissors mode and the ground band is predicted which has not been addressed experimentally. A photon-scattering experiment with linearly-polarized quasi monoenergetic vector (γ)-rays has been performed at the High Intensity vector (γ)-ray Source (HIvector (γ)S) at Duke University, Durham, NC, exploiting the γ{sup 3} setup. We have measured an E2/M1-multipole mixing ratio for the 1{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition for the first time. The Alaga rule is applicable and delivers a first estimate of the transition strength B(E2:2{sup +}{sub sc}→0{sup +}{sub 1}). A candidate for a 2{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition is discussed.

  15. The Truth-Telling Motor Cortex: Response Competition in M1 Discloses Deceptive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad A. Hadar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that circuits associated with response conflict and response inhibition are strongly implicated in deception. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, we examined whether conflict between competing responses in primary motor cortex (M1 can be used for discriminating between intentionally false and true facial recognition. Participants used little finger and thumb key-presses to lie or tell the truth regarding their familiarity with a series of famous and nonfamous faces. Single-pulse TMS was administered to M1 at three intervals prior to response execution in order to evoke motor evoked potentials (MEPs in both Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM and first dorsal interosseous (FDI of the right hand. As predicted, we found that the MEP of the nonresponding digit was greater than the MEP of the responding digit when participants prepared to engage in deception, while a mirror-reversed pattern was observed for truth telling. This effect did not interact with the stimulation interval suggesting consistent activation of the motor plan representing the truth throughout the response preparation process. We discuss these results with reference to models of response selection and procedures for the detection of deception.

  16. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, Emre; Yakut, Hakan; Kuliev, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed 229-233Th and 233-239U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even 228-232Th and 232-238U nuclei. For 235U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5-2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  17. Carboxyl- and amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles differentially affect the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ann-Kathrin; Syrovets, Tatiana; Haas, Karina A; Loos, Cornelia; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to microenvironmental stimuli determines their polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. M1 exhibit high expression of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β, and M2 promote tissue repair, but likewise support tumor growth and cause immune suppression by expressing IL-10. Thus, the M1/M2 balance critically determines tissue homeostasis. By using carboxyl- (PS-COOH) and amino-functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles, the effects of surface decoration on the polarization of human macrophages were investigated. The nanoparticles did not compromise macrophage viability nor did they affect the expression of the M1 markers CD86, NOS2, TNF-α, and IL-1β. By contrast, in M2, both nanoparticles impaired expression of scavenger receptor CD163 and CD200R, and the release of IL-10. PS-NH2 also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by both, M1 and M2. PS-COOH did not impair phagocytosis by M2, but increased protein mass in M1 and M2, TGF-β1 release by M1, and ATP levels in M2. Thus, nanoparticles skew the M2 macrophage polarization without affecting M1 markers. Given the critical role of the M1 and M2 polarization for the immunological balance in patients with cancer or chronic inflammation, functionalized nanoparticles might serve as tools for reprogramming the M1/M2 polarization.

  18. Optical surface profiling of orb-web spider capture silks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D M; Joyce, A M; Staib, G R [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Herberstein, M E, E-mail: deb.kane@mq.edu.a [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    Much spider silk research to date has focused on its mechanical properties. However, the webs of many orb-web spiders have evolved for over 136 million years to evade visual detection by insect prey. It is therefore a photonic device in addition to being a mechanical device. Herein we use optical surface profiling of capture silks from the webs of adult female St Andrews cross spiders (Argiope keyserlingi) to successfully measure the geometry of adhesive silk droplets and to show a bowing in the aqueous layer on the spider capture silk between adhesive droplets. Optical surface profiling shows geometric features of the capture silk that have not been previously measured and contributes to understanding the links between the physical form and biological function. The research also demonstrates non-standard use of an optical surface profiler to measure the maximum width of a transparent micro-sized droplet (microlens).

  19. Consequences of electrical conductivity in an orb spider's capture web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Edmonds, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The glue-coated and wet capture spiral of the orb web of the garden cross spider Araneus diadematus is suspended between the dry silk radial and web frame threads. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the capture spiral is electrically conductive because of necks of liquid connecting the droplets even if the thread is stretched. We examine how this conductivity of the capture spiral may lead to entrapment of charged airborne particles such as pollen, spray droplets and even insects. We further describe and model how the conducting spiral will also locally distort the Earth's ambient electric field. Finally, we examine the hypothesis that such distortion could be used by potential prey to detect the presence of a web but conclude that any effect would probably be too small to allow an insect to take evasive action.

  20. Involvement of an Arginine Triplet in M1 Matrix Protein Interaction with Membranes and in M1 Recruitment into Virus-Like Particles of the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Panthu, Baptiste; Prchal, Jan; Décimo, Didier; Ohlmann, Théophile; Lina, Bruno; Favard, Cyril; Decroly, Etienne; Ottmann, Michèle; Roingeard, Philippe; Muriaux, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. In this study, we wanted to decipher the role of conserved basic residues of the viral M1 matrix protein in virus assembly and release. M1 plays many roles in the influenza virus replication cycle. Specifically, it participates in viral particle assembly, can associate with the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes and can bind to the cell plasma membrane and/or the cytoplasmic tail of viral transmembrane proteins. M1 contains an N-terminal domain of 164 amino acids with two basic domains: the nuclear localization signal on helix 6 and an arginine triplet (R76/77/78) on helix 5. To investigate the role of these two M1 basic domains in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus molecular assembly, we analyzed M1 attachment to membranes, virus-like particle (VLP) production and virus infectivity. In vitro, M1 binding to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), which contain negatively charged lipids, decreased significantly when the M1 R76/77/78 motif was mutated. In cells, M1 alone was mainly observed in the nucleus (47%) and in the cytosol (42%). Conversely, when co-expressed with the viral proteins NS1/NEP and M2, M1 was relocated to the cell membranes (55%), as shown by subcellular fractionation experiments. This minimal system allowed the production of M1 containing-VLPs. However, M1 with mutations in the arginine triplet accumulated in intracellular clusters and its incorporation in VLPs was strongly diminished. M2 over-expression was essential for M1 membrane localization and VLP production, whereas the viral trans-membrane proteins HA and NA seemed dispensable. These results suggest that the M1 arginine triplet participates in M1 interaction with membranes. This R76/77/78 motif is essential for M1 incorporation in virus particles and the importance of this motif was confirmed by reverse genetic demonstrating that its mutation is lethal for the virus. These results highlight the molecular

  1. Neutron capture measurements on 62Ni, 63Ni and 197Au and their relevance for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, Claudia

    Neutron capture reactions in stars are responsible for forming about 99% of the elemental abundances heavier than Fe. Two processes contribute about equally to the overall abundance pattern: the slow neutron capture process (s process) where neutron densities are small and therefore radioactive decay is generally faster than subsequent neutron capture on radionuclides, and the rapid neutron capture process (r process) which takes place in environments of high neutron densities, driving the reaction path towards the neutron rich side. The key nuclear physics input for s process studies are stellar neutron capture cross sections, called MACS (Maxwellian-averaged cross section). In the course of this work, dierent reactions relevant to s process nucleosynthesis have been studied. To improve and check existing information, neutron capture cross sections of most stable Fe and Ni isotopes were measured via the time-of-flight technique at the n TOF facility at CERN. This campaign was triggered by a work of Sneden et...

  2. ¹H, ¹³C and ¹⁵N resonance assignments and second structure information of Gad m 1: a β-parvalbumin allergen from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A H; Ackerbauer, D; Kostadinova, M; Bublin, M; Ferreira, F; Almeida, F C L; Breiteneder, H; Valente, A P

    2013-10-01

    Gad m 1 is the major allergen from Atlantic cod. It belongs to β-parvalbumin protein family and is characterized by the presence of two calcium-binding sites so called EF-hand motifs. β-Parvalbumins such as Gad m 1 are the most important fish allergens and their high cross-reactivity is the cause of the observed polysensitization to various fish species in allergic patients. Despite extensive efforts, the complete elucidation of β-parvalbumin-IgE complexes has not been achieved yet. Allergen structural studies are essential for the development of novel immunotherapy strategies, including vaccination with hypoallergenic derivatives and chimeric molecules. Here, we report for the first time the NMR study of a β-parvalbumin: Gad m 1. This report includes: (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of Gad m 1 as well as the second structure information based on the (13)C chemical shifts.

  3. Resonance neutron capture in {sup 60}Ni below 450 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvi, F.; Fioni, G. E-mail: gfioni@cea.fr; Gunsing, F.; Mutti, P.; Zanini, L

    2002-01-28

    High-resolution neutron capture cross-section measurements on {sup 60}Ni have been performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator in the energy range from 1 to 450 keV. An experimentally determined weighting function, obtained by a total energy detection set-up, has been applied to the measured capture spectra. The parameters of 275 resonances have been determined in a recent reanalysis using the FANAC R-matrix shape fitting code. Accurate values of the maxwellian-averaged capture cross section for stellar temperatures ranging from kT=5 to 100 keV, corresponding to different scenarios of s-process stellar nucleosynthesis, have been calculated. The distributions of partial radiative widths for s- and p-wave resonances have been derived. A correlation of 0.64 between capture and reduced neutron widths is compatible with the presence of nonstatistical effects in the capture of {sup 60}Ni.

  4. Resonance neutron capture in sup 6 sup 0 Ni below 450 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Corvi, F; Gunsing, F; Mutti, P; Zanini, L

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution neutron capture cross-section measurements on sup 6 sup 0 Ni have been performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator in the energy range from 1 to 450 keV. An experimentally determined weighting function, obtained by a total energy detection set-up, has been applied to the measured capture spectra. The parameters of 275 resonances have been determined in a recent reanalysis using the FANAC R-matrix shape fitting code. Accurate values of the maxwellian-averaged capture cross section for stellar temperatures ranging from kT=5 to 100 keV, corresponding to different scenarios of s-process stellar nucleosynthesis, have been calculated. The distributions of partial radiative widths for s- and p-wave resonances have been derived. A correlation of 0.64 between capture and reduced neutron widths is compatible with the presence of nonstatistical effects in the capture of sup 6 sup 0 Ni.

  5. The capture of dark matter particles through the evolution of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Ilídio; Eugénio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We studied the rate at which stars capture dark matter (DM) particles, considering different assumptions regarding the DM characteristics and in particular investigating how the stellar physics influences the capture rate. Two scenarios were considered: firstly, we assumed the maximal values for the spin-dependent and spin-independent DM particle-nucleon scattering cross sections allowed by the limits from direct detection experiments. Secondly, we considered that both scattering cross sections are of the same order, with the aim of studying the dependencies of the capture rate on stellar elements other than hydrogen. We found that the characteristics of the capture rate are very different in the two scenarios. Furthermore, we quantified the uncertainties on the computed capture rate (C_x) and on the ratio between the luminosities from DM annihilations and thermonuclear reactions (L_x/L_nuc) derived from an unprecise knowledge of the stellar structure and DM parameters. For instance, while an uncertainty of 1...

  6. Direct radiative capture of p-wave neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mengoni, A; Ishihara, M

    1995-01-01

    The neutron direct radiative capture (DRC) process is investigated, highlighting the role of incident p-wave neutrons. A set of calculations is shown for the 12-C(n,gamma) process at incoming neutron energies up to 500 keV, a crucial region for astrophysics. The cross section for neutron capture leading to loosely bound s, p and d orbits of 13-C is well reproduced by the DRC model demonstrating the feasibility of using this reaction channel to study the properties of nuclear wave functions on and outside the nuclear surface. A sensitivity analysis of the results on the neutron-nucleus interaction is performed for incident s- as well as p-waves. It turned out that the DRC cross section for p-wave neutrons is insensitive to this interaction, contrary to the case of incident s-wave neutrons. PACS number(s): 25.40Lw,21.10Gv,23.40.Hc

  7. The human Müller cell line MIO-M1 expresses opsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollborn, Margrit; Ulbricht, Elke; Rillich, Katja; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Wurm, Antje; Wagner, Lysann; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Limb, Gloria Astrid; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the human Müller cell line Moorfields/Institute of Ophthalmology-Müller 1 (MIO-M1) expresses opsins. The gene expression of opsins was determined by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The presence of opsin proteins was determined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The light sensitivity of the cells was examined with imaging experiments using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4. MIO-M1 cells express glial (glutamine synthase [GLUL], vimentin [VIM], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein [RLBP1], glial high-affinity glutamate transporter [SLCA1], aquaporin-4 [AQP4], inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 [Kir4.1]), neuronal (Thy-1 cell surface antigen [THY1], heavy neurofilament polypeptide [NEFH], microtubule-associated protein 2 [MAP2], neurogenic differentiation 1 [NEUROD1], neuronal nuclei [NEUN]), and neural progenitor markers (Nestin [NES], paired-type homeobox transcription factor [PAX6], neurogenic locus notch homolog 1 [NOTCH1]). The cells contain mRNA for the following opsins: blue opsin (OPN1SW), rhodopsin (OPN2), panopsin (OPN3), melanopsin (OPN4), neuropsin (OPN5), and peropsin (RRH), as well as for the transducins (guanine nucleotide binding protein [GNAZ], alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 [GNAT1], alpha transducing activity polypeptide 2 [GNAT2]). The presence of blue opsin and melanopsin was confirmed with immunocytochemistry and western blotting. The immunoreactivity and mRNA of red-green opsin were found in some but not all cultures, while the immunoreactivity for rhodopsin was absent in all cultures investigated. Repetitive stimulation with 480 nm light evoked slow and fast transient calcium responses in the majority of cells investigated, while irradiation with 600 nm light was ineffective. The human Müller cell line MIO-M1 expresses opsins. This suggests immortalized Müller cells could be used as a cellular source to produce human opsins for their potential

  8. State-dependent and timing-dependent bidirectional associative plasticity in the human SMA-M1 network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Noritoshi; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Murakami, Takenobu; Bliem, Barbara; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-10-26

    The supplementary motor area (SMA-proper) plays a key role in the preparation and execution of voluntary movements. Anatomically, SMA-proper is densely reciprocally connected to primary motor cortex (M1), but neuronal coordination within the SMA-M1 network and its modification by external perturbation are not well understood. Here we modulated the SMA-M1 network using MR-navigated multicoil associative transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects. Changes in corticospinal excitability were assessed by recording motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude bilaterally in a hand muscle. We found timing-dependent bidirectional Hebbian-like MEP changes during and for at least 30 min after paired associative SMA-M1 stimulation. MEP amplitude increased if SMA stimulation preceded M1 stimulation by 6 ms, but decreased if SMA stimulation lagged M1 stimulation by 15 ms. This associative plasticity in the SMA-M1 network was highly topographically specific because paired associative stimulation of pre-SMA and M1 did not result in any significant MEP change. Furthermore, associative plasticity in the SMA-M1 network was strongly state-dependent because it required priming by near-simultaneous M1 stimulation to occur. We conclude that timing-dependent bidirectional associative plasticity is demonstrated for the first time at the systems level of a human corticocortical neuronal network. The properties of this form of plasticity are fully compatible with spike-timing-dependent plasticity as defined at the cellular level. The necessity of priming may reflect the strong interhemispheric connectivity of the SMA-M1 network. Findings are relevant for better understanding reorganization and potentially therapeutic modification of neuronal coordination in the SMA-M1 network after cerebral lesions such as stroke.

  9. Nuclear halo effect on nucleon capture reaction rates at stellar energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zu-Hua; Zhou Hong-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The capture cross sections at stellar energies are very difficult to measure directly. Hence, data are usually evaluated by using indirect methods or extrapolations from the experimental data obtained at the lowest possible energies. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) approach of the transfer reactions provides a reliable way for the determination of the capture cross sections at stellar energies. By virtue of its reliability, we have calculated the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ)11Be reaction by using nuclear ANC method. 11Be is a well-known neutron halo nucleus with two weakly bound states. As a typical example, we have shown that the radiative cross sections for a nucleon captured into a halo state are obviously enhanced. The enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo. The 10Be(n,γ)11Be capture reaction is involved in the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis. We have evaluated its reaction rates at stellar energies with the nuclear ANC method.

  10. New aspects of the neutron capture in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoni, A. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Several neutron capture cross sections of light nuclei (A {<=} 40) for neutron energies up to the MeV region have been recently calculated. Examples are (target nuclei): {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 10}Be. The results of these calculations will be shown together with a comparison with the most recent experimental data. In the case of n + {sup 10}Be case, the cross section of the inverse process (Coulomb dissociation of {sup 11}Be) is considered and compared with the measurement. A discussion on the relevant nuclear structure information required for the evaluation of nuclear data of light nuclei is given. (author)

  11. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  12. Irreducible Modular Representations of the Reflection Group G(m,1,n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in 1980, Farahat and Peel realized the irreducible modular representations of the symmetric group. One year later, Al-Aamily, Morris, and Peel constructed the irreducible modular representations for a Weyl group of type Bn. In both cases, combinatorial methods were used. Almost twenty years later, using a geometric construction based on the ideas of Macdonald, first Aguado and Araujo and then Araujo, Bigeón, and Gamondi also realized the irreducible modular representations for the Weyl groups of types An and Bn. In this paper, we extend the geometric construction based on the ideas of Macdonald to realize the irreducible modular representations of the complex reflection group of type G(m,1,n.

  13. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V.; Baecklin, A.; Fogelberg, B.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in dairy products in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-12-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM(1) was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM(1) in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM(1) threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  15. Excretion of Aflatoxin M1 in milk of goats fed diet contaminated by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the excretion of aflatoxin M1(AFM1 in milk of three goats fed a single dose (0.8mg/head of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The values of AFM1 concentration excreted in milk was highly variable among goats, even if the pattern of excretion over time was very similar among the three animals. AFM1 was first detected at the milking performed 1h after the AFB1 administration. The highest values of AFM1 concentration in milk were reached 3 and 6h after the AFB1 intake. The trend of clearance of AFM1 in milk over time was expressed by a decreasing exponential equation. AFM1 concentration was below the EU maximum allowed level (50 ng/L in milk collected 36 h after the AFB1 administration.

  16. Robinson-Schensted-Knuth Correspondence and Weak Polynomial Identities of M1,1(E)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onofrio Mario Di Vincenzo; Roberto La Scala

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, it is proved that the ideal Iω of the weak polynomial identities of the superalgebra M1,1(E) is generated by the p roper polynomials [x1,x2, x3] and [x2,x1][xa,x1][x4, x1]. This is proved for any infinite field F of characteristic different a basis and the dimension of any multihomogeneous component of the quotient algebra B/(B ∩ Iw). We also compute the Hilbert series of this algebra. One of the main tools of this paper is a variant we found of the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence defined for single semistandard tableaux of double shape.

  17. Solvent affects the conformation of virginiamycin M1 (pristinamycin IIA, streptogramin A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jason; Bergdahl, Mikael; Separovic, Frances; Brownlee, Robert T C; Metzger, Robert P

    2004-10-21

    The streptogramins are antibiotics which act by binding two different components at separate nearby sites on the bacterial 50S ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis. The first component, a macrolactone, is common to many of the streptogramin antibiotics and, thus, is referred to by many names including virginiamycin M1(VM1), pristinamycin IIA, ostreogrycin A and streptogramin A. X-Ray crystallographic studies of VM1 bound to ribosomes and to a deactivating enzyme show a different conformation to that of VM1 in chloroform solution. We now report the results of high resolution 2D NMR experiments that show that the conformation of VM1 in dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol differs from both that in chloroform solution and in the bound form. The 3D structure and the 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shifts of VM1 in dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol are described.

  18. RAPD Analysis of M1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; GUO Ying; CHE Daidi; LIU Shenkui; YANG Chuanpin

    2009-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of the world's famous cutting flowers. It is very popular because of the big size, bright color, various shape, and long period of bloom. New species should be cultivated in order to meet the consumers' need of asking for the new. Among the technologies of cultivating new species of flowers, mutagenic breeding is a shortcut. This study treated corm bud of G. hybridus Hort with EMS of different consistency. Then M1 after treated was analyzed by RAPD. The result showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G. hybridus Hort. With the increase of consistency, the mutagenic range increased first, then decreased, among which 0.6% EMS treatment had the biggest influence. However, with the same EMS consistency, there was not close relevancy between the amount of mutagenic agent and the divergence of plant's genomes, which offered a molecular basis for selecting plants with good mutation.

  19. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  20. An Automatic Detection Method of Nanocomposite Film Element Based on GLCM and Adaboost M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic detection model adopting pattern recognition technology is proposed in this paper; it can realize the measurement to the element of nanocomposite film. The features of gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM can be extracted from different types of surface morphology images of film; after that, the dimension reduction of film can be handled by principal component analysis (PCA. So it is possible to identify the element of film according to the Adaboost M1 algorithm of a strong classifier with ten decision tree classifiers. The experimental result shows that this model is superior to the ones of SVM (support vector machine, NN and BayesNet. The method proposed can be widely applied to the automatic detection of not only nanocomposite film element but also other nanocomposite material elements.