WorldWideScience

Sample records for m-9 weapons case

  1. Tsunami Modeling of Hikurangi Trench M9 Events: Case Study for Napier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Nyst, M.; Farahani, R.; Bryngelson, J.; Lee, R.; Molas, G.

    2015-12-01

    RMS has developed a tsunami model for New Zealand for the insurance industry to price and to manage their tsunami risks. A key tsunamigenic source for New Zealand is the Hikurangi Trench that lies offshore on the eastside of the North Island. The trench is the result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island at a rate of 40-45 mm/yr. Though there have been no M9 historical events on the Hikurangi Trench, events in this magnitude range are considered in the latest version of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2012). The RMS modeling approaches the tsunami lifecycle in three stages: event generation, ocean wave propagation, and coastal inundation. The tsunami event generation is modeled based on seafloor deformation resulting from an event rupture model. The ocean wave propagation and coastal inundation are modeled using a RMS-developed numerical solver, implemented on graphic processing units using a finite-volume approach to approximate two-dimensional, shallow-water wave equations over the ocean and complex topography. As the tsunami waves enter shallow water and approach the coast, the RMS model calculates the propagation of the waves along the wet-dry interface considering variable land friction. The initiation and characteristics of the tsunami are based on the event rupture model. As there have been no historical M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench, this rupture characterization posed unique challenges. This study examined the impacts of a suite of event rupture models to understand the key drivers in the variations in the tsunami inundation footprints. The goal was to develop a suite of tsunamigenic event characterizations that represent a range of potential tsunami outcomes for M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench. The focus of this case study is the Napier region as it represents an important exposure concentration in the region and has experience tsunami inundations in the past including during the 1931 Ms7

  2. Analysis method on shoot precision of weapon in small-sample case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jun; Song Baowei; Liang Qingwei

    2007-01-01

    Because of limits of cost, in general, the test data of weapons are shortness. It is always an important topic that to gain scientific results of weapon performance analyses in small-sample case. Based on the analysis of distribution function characteristics and grey mathematics, a weighting grey method in small-sample case is presented. According to the analysis of test data of a weapon, it is proved that the method is a good method to deal with data in the small-sample case and has a high value in the analysis of weapon performance.

  3. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  4. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Search for VLF Precursors to Major Earthquakes: A Case Study with the M9.0 Earthquake of 11-Mar-2011 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Kosovichev, P.; Marshall, R. A.; Droscoll, A.; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed that Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio remote sensing may be used to detect ionospheric changes which may precede major earthquakes by hours or days. We report the results of a search for VLF precursors to the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11-Mar-2011, the fifth most powerful earthquake in recorded history. Broadband and narrowband radio recordings were made at a site in Onagawa, Japan located ~102 km from the epicenter. The receiver operated for about two minutes after the start of the earthquake, after which the receiver lost power. Examination of the VLF data shows no radio emissions preceding or coincident with the onset of the earthquake. However, once the secondary seismic waves reached the receiver, a number of impulses and diffuse noise bands arose which may result from the entire power grid shaking or from radio emissions from compressing or fracturing rocks. Examination of the ELF data (0.2-1 kHz) shows no precursor effect in the hours preceding the seismic activity. We also examine the amplitudes of VLF subionospherically propagating transmitter signals going back months before the earthquake. We apply previously proposed techniques to extract properties of the diurnal amplitude profile that have been thought to correlate with earthquake precursors, but find no anomalous effect despite the remarkable intensity of the earthquake and proximity of the receiver to the epicenter. In general there are anomalous deviations but they cannot be reliably correlated with seismic activity. We also report the results of a global search for a lightning precursor effect on lightning flash rates, using the GLD360 network.

  6. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use.

  7. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear

  8. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear We

  9. Health Effects of Sexual Violence against Woman as a War Weapon: Case of Bosnia War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gogen;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126

  10. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  11. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  12. The proliferation of aerospace weapons technology: Ballistic missiles and the case of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Terrence John

    1993-04-01

    The rationale behind the development of ballistic missile production in Brazil is examined by exploring the political, military, and economic determinants of ballistic missile demand in that country. To ascertain how Brazil developed missile production capabilities, the contributions of aerospace industries in industrialized states, the Brazilian space program, trade between less-developed countries, and illicit trade in missile technology are assessed. It is argued that missile development increasingly became a function of economic as opposed to security considerations, and that technologies transferred from developed country aerospace firms and Brazil's space program were primarily responsible for the creation of production capabilities. It is also contended that the proliferation of missile technology to Brazil was consistent with the workings of a system evident in the aerospace weapons technology market that sustains the horizontal spread of weapons production capabilities.

  13. Neurotoxic Weapons and Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) banned biological and chemical weapons. However, several countries are probably still engaged in their development. Hence, there is risk of these weapons being used in the future. This chapter will focus on neurotoxic weapons (e.g. nerve agents, chemical and biological neurotoxins, psychostimulants), which act specifically or preeminently on the central nervous system and/or the neuromuscular junction. Deeply affecting the function of the nervous system, these agents either have incapacitating effects or cause clusters of casualties who manifest primary symptoms of encephalopathy, seizures, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. The neurologist should be prepared both to notice patterns of symptoms and signs that are sufficiently consistent to raise the alarm of neurotoxic attacks and to define specific therapeutic interventions. Additionally, extensive knowledge on neurotoxic syndromes should stimulate scientific research to produce more effective antidotes and antibodies (which are still lacking for most neurotoxic weapons) for rapid administration in aerosolized forms in the case of terrorist or warfare scenarios. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  15. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire; Moreira, Ildeu C; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democratic institutions put an end to the race. Thus regional and national interests in addition to the establishment of democracies in Latin America have been responsible for the building of trust between the two countries. Meaningful international initiatives are once again needed in the framework of worldwide cooperation. This cooperation is better developed when democratic regimes are in place.

  16. Weapon identification using antemortem CT with 3D reconstruction, is it always possible?--A report in a case of facial blunt and sharp injuries using an ashtray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Cappelletti, Simone; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    An interesting case of homicide involving the use of a heavy glass ashtray is described. The victim, a 81-years-old woman, has survived for few days and died in hospital. The external examination of the victim showed extensive blunt and sharp facial injuries and defense injuries on both the hands. The autopsy examination showed numerous tears on the face, as well as multiple fractures of the facial bones. Computer tomography scan, with 3D reconstruction, performed in hospital before death, was used to identify the weapon used for the crime. In recent years new diagnostics tools such as computer tomography has been widely used, especially in cases involving sharp and blunt forces. Computer tomography has proven to be very valuable in analyzing fractures of the cranial teca for forensic purpose, in particular antemortem computer tomography with 3D reconstruction is becoming an important tool in the process of weapon identification, thanks to the possibility to identify and make comparison between the shape of the object used to commit the crime, the injury and the objects found during the investigations. No previous reports on the use of this technique, for the weapon identification process, in cases of isolated facial fractures were described. We report a case in which, despite the correct use of this technique, it was not possible for the forensic pathologist to identify the weapon used to commit the crime. Authors wants to highlight the limits encountered in the use of computer tomography with 3D reconstruction as a tool for weapon identification when facial fractures occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Penetrating chest trauma caused by a blank cartridge actuated rubber ball projectile: case presentation and ballistic investigation of an uncommon weapon type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Peters, Dieter; Klemm, Wolfram; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta; Seifert, Julia

    2017-05-23

    Recently, an increasing number of an uncommon weapon type based on a caliber 6-mm Flobert blank cartridge actuated revolver which discharges 10-mm-diameter rubber ball projectiles has been confiscated by police authorities following criminal offenses. A recent trauma case presenting with a penetrating chest injury occasioned an investigation into the basic ballistic parameters of this type of weapon. Kinetic energy E of the test projectiles was calculated between 5.8 and 12.5 J. Energy density ED of the test projectiles was close to or higher than the threshold energy density of human skin. It can be concluded that penetrating skin injuries due to free-flying rubber ball projectiles discharged at close range cannot be ruled out. However, in case of a contact shot, the main injury potential of this weapon type must be attributed to the high energy density of the muzzle gas jet which may, similar to well-known gas or alarm weapons, cause life-threatening or even lethal injuries.

  18. M9 Root权限一键拿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    要玩转M9,当然获取Root权限是首要任务,目前魅族并没有完全开放Root权限,这与魅族品牌定制Android不无关系。但是,广大魅族爱好者并没有就此放弃,下面介绍方法教你如何一键获取魅族M9权限。

  19. TEC enhancement immediately before M9 mega-thrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2012-07-01

    event. Only M9 class earthquakes are considered to be immediately preceded by such positive TEC anomalies. Because the raw GPS data files are available on the web, one can easily reproduce the results reported here and apply the method to other (including future) earthquakes. The physical mechanism of the preseismic TEC anomalies is not clear, but concentration of positive electric charges on the ground is a possibility.

  20. Precision radial velocities of 15 M5 - M9 dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, J R; Jones, H R A; Jeffers, S V; Rojo, P; Arriagada, P; Jordan, A; Minniti, D; Tuomi, M; Pinfield, D; Anglada-Escude, G

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocity measurements of a sample of M5V-M9V stars from our Red-Optical Planet Survey, ROPS, operating at 0.65-1.025 micron. Radial velocities for 15 stars, with r.m.s. precision down to 2.5 m/s over a week long time scale are achieved using Thorium-Argon reference spectra. We are sensitive to planets with m_psin(i) >= 1.5 MEarth (3 MEarth at 2-sigma) in the classical habitable zone and our observations currently rule out planets with m_psin(i) > 0.5 MJup at 0.03 AU for all our targets. A total of 9 of the 15 targets exhibit r.m.s. 10 MEarth in 0.03 AU orbits. Since the mean rotation velocity is of order 8 km/s for an M6V star and 15 km/s by M9V, we avoid observing only slow rotators that would introduce a bias towards low axial inclination i << 90 deg systems, which are unfavourable for planet detection. Our targets with the highest vsini values exhibit radial velocities significantly above the photon-noise limited precision, even after accounting for vsini. We therefore monitored st...

  1. [Myocardial infarction after conduction electrical weapon shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, H; Bouzouita, K; Selmi, K; Chelli, M; Mokaddem, A; Ben Ameur, Y; Boujnah, M R

    2013-04-01

    Controversy persists over the safety of conducted electrical weapons, which are increasingly used by law enforcement agencies around the world. We report a case of 33-year-old man who had an acute inferior myocardial infarction after he was shot in the chest with an electrical weapon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. Weapon identification using antemortem computed tomography with virtual 3D and rapid prototype modeling--a report in a case of blunt force head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Rzepecka-Woźniak, Ewa; Moskała, Artur; Pohl, Jerzy; Latacz, Katarzyna; Dybała, Bogdan

    2012-10-10

    A frequent request of a prosecutor referring to forensic autopsy is to determine the mechanism of an injury and to identify the weapons used to cause those injuries. This task could be problematic in many ways, including changes in the primary injury caused by medical intervention and the process of healing. To accomplish this task, the forensic pathologist has to gather all possible information during the post-mortem examination. The more data is collected, the easier it is to obtain an accurate answer to the prosecutor's question. The authors present a case of head injuries that the victim sustained under unknown circumstances. The patient underwent neurosurgical treatment which resulted in alteration of the bone fracture pattern. The only way to evaluate this injury was to analyze antemortem clinical data, especially CT scans, with virtual 3D reconstruction of the fractured skull. A physical model of a part of the broken skull was created with the use of 3D printing. These advanced techniques, applied for the first time in Poland for forensic purposes, allowed investigators to extract enough data to develop a hypothesis about the mechanism of injury and the weapon most likely used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on Inferring ELECTRE-III’s Parameters with Fuzzy information and A Case on Naval Gun Weapon System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shi Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attributes decision making (MADM method is an important measure for system integration. Robustness analysis on MADM is a hotspot in these years which wins academe’s great attention, and is supposed to be an effective way when countering imperfect information. Setting parameters in ELECTRE-III’s is a vital and difficult step. In this paper, a method of inferring ELECTRE-III’s parameters with fuzzy information based on robustness analysis is presented. First, ELECTRE-III is transformed into a continuous smooth function of each parameter vector. Then, robustness analysis structure and a parameters inferring algorithm are provided by maximizing robustness margin based on mathematics programming. Moreover, how to resolve the programming problem is also discussed. At last, a illustrative example of Naval Gun Weapon System Integration is put forward.

  5. Severe craniocerebral trauma with sequelae caused by Flash-Ball® shot, a less-lethal weapon: Report of one case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiquet, Jean; Gromb-Monnoyeur, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    The use of Flash-Ball® as a non-lethal weapon by several special units within the police and police forces started in France in 1995. Little literature is available concerning injuries caused by Flash-Ball® shooting. However, we report the case of a healthy 34-year-old male victim of a Flash-Ball® shooting during a riot following a sports event. This young man presented serious craniocerebral injuries with a left temporal fracture, moderate cerebral oedema, fronto-temporal haemorrhagic contusion along with an extra-dural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring neurological and rehabilitation care for two months leaving important sequelae. Although the risk is obviously lower than with firearms, Flash-Ball® is nonetheless potentially lethal and may cause serious physical injuries, particularly after a shot to the head.

  6. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  7. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  8. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia--A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M; Callaway, Ragan M; Weston, Leslie A

    2015-11-06

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant's capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons.

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Skoneczny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17 by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons.

  11. Operational research in weapon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Varma

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper is divided into three parts: (a The first part deals with what operational research is. (bThe second part gives what we mean by Weapon Systems and discusses considerations that determine the choice of a particular weapon system from a class weapon systems. (cThe third part deals with some aspects of weapon replacement policy.The effectiveness of a weapon system is defined as E=D/C where E is weapon effectiveness (a comparative figure of merit; D is total damage inflicted or prevented and C is total cost, D and C being reduced to common dimensions. During the course of investigations, criteria regarding to choice of weapon or weapons from a set of weapon systems are established through production function and military effect curves. A procedure is described which maximizes the expectation of military utility in order to select a weapon system from the class of weapon systems. This is done under the following simplifying assumptions: (a Non- decreasing utility function; (b Constant average cost for each kind of weapons; and (c Independence of the performance of each unit of weapon. Some of the difficulties which arises when any of these restrictions is relaxed are briefly mentioned. Finally, the policy of weapon replacement and the factors governing the same are described."

  12. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  13. Wounds and weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H; Dootz, B

    2007-08-01

    X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  14. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  15. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand on the sp......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...

  16. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  17. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  18. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  19. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  20. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  1. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    have eased in recent years, with their nuclear tests in 1998 and continued animosity toward each other, India and Pakistan have joined the list of...could be complex, difficult, and very time- consuming . 137 Given the large disparity in the numbers of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons

  2. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  3. Neutrino Counter Nuclear Weapon

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Radiations produced by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole can be used to heat up the primary stage of a thermonuclear warhead and can in principle detonate the device remotely. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation can also be used as a tactical assault weapon to target hideouts that are unreachable by conventional means.

  4. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Calogero, F

    1981-01-01

    Information speech given by Prof. Calogero from the university of Roma to describe the actual situation of nuclear weapons in Europe, the strategical reasons or justifications for this deployment, the prospects of negociations, and what scientists could do and do on this issue.

  5. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Memorandum from Air Commodore Khalid Banuri, 2011. 84 Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role of Nuclear Weapons...Richard P. Cronin , K. Alan Kronstadt, and Sharon Squassoni. Also see CRS Report RL33498, Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 168 For a

  6. Non-lethal weapons and their characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    DAMJANOVIC DRAGAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  7. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  8. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  9. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  10. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  11. The morality of weapons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2004-07-01

    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as 'defensive' weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has in regard to such research. An account is given to ground the injunction not to provide the means to harm as a duty for the engineers. This account is not, however, absolutist, and as such it allows justifiable exceptions. The answer to my question is thus not that weapons research is never justified but there must be a strong assurance that the results will only be used as a just means in a just cause.

  12. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This section...

  13. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.; Wild, Norbert C.; Nunan, Scott C.; Breuner, Dennis; Doft, Frank

    1998-12-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and nonmetallic weapons; and (2) search for metallic and nonmetallic weapons on cooperative subjects at courthouse entrances and other monitored security portals. We have demonstrated that we image weapons concealed under heavy clothing, not just detect them, at ranges up to 15 feet using the same ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) used by commercial rangefinders. The concealed weapons detector operates much as a rangefinder, but at higher peak fluxes and pulse repetition frequencies. The detector alerts the user to concealed weapons audibly and visibly by detecting ultrasound glints above a body/clothing baseline, and by compensating for changing range and attenuation. The detector locates concealed weapons within a 6-inch illuminated spot at 10 feet. The signal processor eliminates any signal from behind the target.

  14. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  15. Insulin as a weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samuel D; Safavi-Hemami, Helena

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of insulin and its use for the treatment of diabetes is undoubtedly one of the true successes of modern medicine. Injectable insulin would prove the first effective treatment for a previously incurable and usually fatal disease. Soon after however, the powerful effects of insulin overdose would be reported, and subsequently exploited for dubious medical and sometimes nefarious purposes. In this article we describe the discovery that certain venomous marine snails of the genus Conus also exploit the powerful effects of insulin overdose, employing it as a weapon for prey capture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biotransformation of indole and its derivatives by a newly isolated Enterobacter sp. M9Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhaojing; Ma, Qiao; Shen, E; Shen, Wenli; Wang, Jingwei; Cong, Longchao; Li, Duanxing; Liu, Ziyan; Li, Huijie; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a novel bacterial strain M9Z with the ability of producing indigoids from indole and its derivatives was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Enterobacter sp. according to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. UV-vis spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the products produced from indole, 5-methylindole, 7-methylindole, and 5-methoxyindole were indigo with different substituent groups, and the possible biotransformation pathways of indole derivatives, i.e., indole(s)-cis-indole-2,3-dihydrodiol(s)-indoxyl(s)-indigoids, were proposed. The conditions of indole transformation and indigo biosynthesis by strain M9Z were optimized, and the maximal indigo yield (68.1 mg/L) was obtained when using 150 mg/L indole, 200 mg/L naphthalene, and 5 g/L yeast extract. The transformation rates of 5-methylindole, 7-methylindole, and 5-methoxyindole by strain M9Z were all close to 100 % under certain conditions, making strain M9Z an efficient indigoid producer. This is the first study of indole biotransformation and indigoid biosynthesis by genus Enterobacter.

  17. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  18. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous

  19. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  20. Musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    Eponyms and colloquialisms are commonly used in orthopaedic literature and convey a great deal of information in a concise fashion. Several orthopaedic conditions have characteristic clinical or radiologic appearances, mimicking the appearance of certain arms or weapons. Most of these are easy to memorise and recognise, provided the orthopaedic surgeon is aware of the colloquialism and familiar with the appearance of the weapon on which it is based. Unfortunately, many such colloquialisms are based on traditional weapons no longer in current use, and their appearances are not familiar to most orthopaedists, creating confusion and difficulty in understanding them. In this paper, we have reviewed the musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons, including a brief description of the weapon with illustrations, highlighting the importance of the colloquialism in diagnosis or treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.

  1. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  2. Validation of streamflow measurements made with M9 and RiverRay acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water (OSW) previously validated the use of Teledyne RD Instruments (TRDI) Rio Grande (in 2007), StreamPro (in 2006), and Broadband (in 1996) acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for streamflow (discharge) measurements made by the USGS. Two new ADCPs, the SonTek M9 and the TRDI RiverRay, were first used in the USGS Water Mission Area programs in 2009. Since 2009, the OSW and USGS Water Science Centers (WSCs) have been conducting field measurements as part of their stream-gaging program using these ADCPs. The purpose of this paper is to document the results of USGS OSW analyses for validation of M9 and RiverRay ADCP streamflow measurements. The OSW required each participating WSC to make comparison measurements over the range of operating conditions in which the instruments were used until sufficient measurements were available. The performance of these ADCPs was evaluated for validation and to identify any present and potential problems. Statistical analyses of streamflow measurements indicate that measurements made with the SonTek M9 ADCP using firmware 2.00–3.00 or the TRDI RiverRay ADCP using firmware 44.12–44.15 are unbiased, and therefore, can continue to be used to make streamflow measurements in the USGS stream-gaging program. However, for the M9 ADCP, there are some important issues to be considered in making future measurements. Possible future work may include additional validation of streamflow measurements made with these instruments from other locations in the United States and measurement validation using updated firmware and software.

  3. On the Problems and Principles of the Ananyino Age Bone Items Classification (the case of weapons, hunting outfit and horse harness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatalov Vasily A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to topical problems related to classification and typology of bone products of the Ananyino cultural and historical area. The analysis of weapons, hunting outfit and horse harness has made it possible to propose a new classification scheme based on formalized descriptions of items, taking into account eventual application of mathematical statistics methods. Given the diversity of the Ananyino bone items, the classification scheme includes nine stages. The items are categorized by their functionality (arrowheads, spears and harpoons, psalia, buckles, etc. into sections: depending on material (bone, horn and morphology (classes, groups, divisions, types with subtypes, and options with sub-options. This scheme allows taking into account individual characteristics of the items, on the one hand, and drawing interregional and intercultural comparisons, on the other.

  4. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  5. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  6. The Weaponization of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    media efforts will be compared to similar Western business and civic social media centric marketing efforts from both a technical and theoretical...THE WEAPONIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...The Weaponization of Social Media 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jack B. Irby III, MAJ 5d

  7. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  8. M9 Tohoku earthquake hydro- and seismic response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelidze Tamaz L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydroseismograms. Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love–Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  9. M9 Tohoku Earthquake Hydro- and Seismic Response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Shengelia, Ia; Zhukova, Natalya; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Melikadze, George; Kobzev, Genady

    2016-06-01

    Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydro-seismograms). Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love-Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves) of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors) of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  10. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  11. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons.

  12. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  13. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Aircraft Dive Angle : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at x-axis VOx VOz x: x-axis z: z-axis : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at z...altitude Impact Velocity (x− axis), Vix = VOx (3.4) Impact Velocity (z− axis), Viz = VOz + (g ∗ TOF) (3.5) Impact Velocity, Vi = �Vix2 + Viz2 (3.6...compute the ballistic partials to examine the effects that varying h, VOx and VOz have on RB using the following equations: ∂RB ∂h = New RB−Old RB

  14. FEATURES ADMINISTRATIVE VIOLATIONS IN THE WEAPONS CIRCULATION SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. KODZOKOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any offense in the area of arms trafficking is the increased danger. On the one hand, the guilty person through weapons reinforces the illegality or even facilitates the commission of their illegal actions, on the other hand, these activities cause significant harm to individuals and society. Offences related to illicit trafficking in arms (activity without the necessary licenses and permits, for the most part involve criminal responsibility (Article 222 -..225 of the Criminal Code, etc., but some violations in this area is not covered by criminlaw. In these cases, the violators shall apply administrative sanctions (for example, when sending weapons, the illicit manufacture of pneumatic weapons, etc.. Specificity of weapons is that it is endowed with certain peculiar features of quality, depending on which branch of law regulates its turnover. Currently, the legal regime of weapons is regulated by several branches of law (civil, administrative, military, criminal, etc., Each of which considers it based on the specifics of its subject and method, and has its own legal framework, regulating the circulation of arms.

  15. Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

    2014-01-01

    This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

  16. Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

    2014-01-01

    This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

  17. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited. (b...

  18. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander or...

  19. Extracellular proteases of Halobacillus blutaparonensis strain M9, a new moderately halophilic bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anderson F.; Valle, Roberta S.; Pacheco, Clarissa A.; Alvarez, Vanessa M.; Seldin, Lucy; Santos, André L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms are source of potential hydrolytic enzymes to be used in industrial and/or biotechnological processes. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus blutaparonensis (strain M9), a novel species described by our group, to release proteolytic enzymes. This bacterial strain abundantly proliferated in Luria-Bertani broth supplemented with 2.5% NaCl as well as secreted proteases to the extracellular environment. The production of proteases occurred in bacterial cells grown under different concentration of salt, ranging from 0.5% to 10% NaCl, in a similar way. The proteases secreted by H. blutaparonensis presented the following properties: (i) molecular masses ranging from 30 to 80 kDa, (ii) better hydrolytic activities under neutral-alkaline pH range, (iii) expression modulated according to the culture age, (iv) susceptibility to phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, classifying them as serine-type proteases, (v) specific cleavage over the chymotrypsin substrate, and (vi) enzymatic stability in the presence of salt (up to 20% NaCl) and organic solvents (e.g., ether, isooctane and cyclohexane). The proteases described herein are promising for industrial practices due to its haloalkaline properties. PMID:24688526

  20. Extracellular proteases of Halobacillus blutaparonensis strain M9, a new moderately halophilic bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson F. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms are source of potential hydrolytic enzymes to be used in industrial and/or biotechnological processes. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus blutaparonensis (strain M9, a novel species described by our group, to release proteolytic enzymes. This bacterial strain abundantly proliferated in Luria-Bertani broth supplemented with 2.5% NaCl as well as secreted proteases to the extracellular environment. The production of proteases occurred in bacterial cells grown under different concentration of salt, ranging from 0.5% to 10% NaCl, in a similar way. The proteases secreted by H. blutaparonensis presented the following properties: (i molecular masses ranging from 30 to 80 kDa, (ii better hydrolytic activities under neutral-alkaline pH range, (iii expression modulated according to the culture age, (iv susceptibility to phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, classifying them as serine-type proteases, (v specific cleavage over the chymotrypsin substrate, and (vi enzymatic stability in the presence of salt (up to 20% NaCl and organic solvents (e.g., ether, isooctane and cyclohexane. The proteases described herein are promising for industrial practices due to its haloalkaline properties.

  1. Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Enforcement, Edward M. Carapezza, Donald Spector, Eds., Proc. SPIE 2938, 110 - 119 (1997). 3. Franklin Felber, Norbert Wild, Scott Nunan , Dennis Breuner... Nunan , D. Breuner, and F. Doft, "Handheld Ultrasound Concealed-Weapons Detector," in Enforcement and Security Technologies, A. Trent DePersia, J. J

  2. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  3. Limited transmission of bla(CTX-M-9)-type-positive Escherichia coli between humans and poultry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ngan, Bui Thi Kim; Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Hirai, Itaru; Tuyen, Le Danh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Escherichia coli isolates that produce CTX-M-9-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are transferred between humans and chickens in a Vietnamese community. The phylogenetic group compositions, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance profiles, the prevalence of plasmid antibiotic resistance genes, and the plasmid replicon types generally differed between the human and chicken E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that transmission of the bla(CTX-M-9)-positive E. coli between humans and poultry was limited.

  4. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ENRAIZAMENTO EX VITRO E ACLIMATIZAÇÃO DO PORTA-ENXERTO DE MACIEIRA M.9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDROTTI ENIO LUIZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação pode ser utilizada para a produção deste porta-enxerto; no entanto, o enraizamento e a aclimatização são pontos de estrangulamento para o uso comercial desta tecnologia. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização simultânea do porta-enxerto de macieira 'M.9'. As bases das miniestacas oriundas do processo de multiplicação in vitro, com 2,5 a 3 cm de altura e dois pares de folhas, foram imersas em AIB nas concentrações de 0; 500; 1000 e 1500 mg.L-1, por 10 segundos. Após, foram transferidas para bandejas de isopor com células contendo 50mL do substrato casca de arroz carbonizada + vermiculita (1:1, v/v. As bandejas foram mantidas durante 30 dias em caixas plásticas cobertas com tampas de vidro para manter o ambiente com alta umidade. Os melhores resultados para a percentagem de enraizamento (82 e 84% foram obtidos nos tratamentos com 500 e 1000 mg.L-1 , respectivamente. O comprimento das raízes não foi afetado pelos tratamentos aplicados, apresentando média de 4,2 cm. As concentrações maiores de AIB determinaram acréscimos lineares no número de raízes emitidas. Para avaliar a aclimatização, as plantas foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em bandejas de isopor com alvéolos maiores, contendo o substrato Plantmax® (Eucatex, São Paulo, BR durante 45 dias. Os maiores índices de sobrevivência das mudas após o transplante para embalagens comerciais (95% foram obtidos com 500 mg.L-1 de AIB; no entanto, as concentrações de AIB empregadas na indução à rizogênese não modificaram o número e comprimento das raízes, número de folhas e altura das plantas.

  6. History of Laser Weapon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    surgery/medicine, hair re- moval, presentation pointers, law enforcement, ranging and sighting devices, welding applications, and much more. Using...other laser technology develop- ments. The first chemical laser, hydrogen fluoride ( HF ), was built in 1965, producing 1 kW. It was then that DoD became...energy laser (HEL) weapons. In industry, the more powerful CO2 lasers are used for weld - ing, drilling, and cutting. There are many different types

  7. Deterrence and Cyber-Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    67, no. 4 (2012): 41. 4 Scott Shackelford , “Estonia Three Years Later,” Journal of Internet Law 8, no. 13 (2010): 25. 3 weapons were employed...effects of 134 Scott Shackelford , “From Nuclear War to Net War: Analogizing Cyber-Attacks in...International Law,” (unpublished paper, Stanford University), 5-6. 135 Shackelford , unpublished paper, 76. 136 Ibid., 73. 137 Mary Ellen O’Connell, “Cyber

  8. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, S.D.

    1996-12-31

    The central purpose of this article is to challenge conventional wisdom about nuclear proliferation. The author argues that the consensus view, focusing on national security considerations as the cause of proliferation, is dangerously inadequate because nuclear weapons programs also serve other, more parochial and less obvious objectives. Nuclear weapons, like other weapons, are more than tools of national security; they are political objects of considerable importance in domestic debates and internal bureaucratic struggles and can also serve as international normative symbols of modernity and identity. The body of this article examines three alternate theoretical frameworks - called {open_quotes}models{close_quotes} in the very informal sense of the term - about why states decide to build or refrain from developing nuclear weapons: {open_quotes}the security model,{close_quotes} according to which states build nuclear weapons to increase national security against foreign threats, especially nuclear threats; {open_quotes}the domestic politics model,{close_quotes} which envisions nuclear weapons as political tools used to advance parochial domestic and bureaucratic interests; and {open_quotes}the norms model,{close_quotes} under which nuclear weapons decisions are made because weapons acquisition, or restraint in weapons development, provides an important normative symbol of a state`s modernity and identity. Although many of the ideas underlying these models exist in the vast case-study and proliferation-policy literatures, they have not been adequately analyzed, nor placed in a comparative theoretical framework, nor properly evaluated against empirical evidence. Models are compared to their theoretical conceptions of the causes of weapons development, present alternative interpretations of the history of some major proliferation decisions, and contrast the models` implications for nonproliferation policy. 71 refs.

  9. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a weapon...

  10. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    process. The program works by first taking in the number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the...MATLAB program is used as the coding tool for the development of this algorithm and the optimization process. The program works by first taking in the...number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the assumed target location. Then, the weapon

  11. New weapons and the arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.

    1983-01-01

    In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the US and the USSR, it is useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, and can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons' application. The author discusses these in reverse order.

  12. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, T E

    1999-01-01

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

  13. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica K.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools – and specifically weapons – can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and ...

  14. Diversion of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Expertise from the Former Soviet Union: Understanding an Evolving Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical cases - Syria and Gen. Kuntsevich - Aum RAND 3. DEMAND FOR PROLIFERATION-CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE This section examines the scope and nature of...prominent example of demand for chemical weapons knowledge is Syria, where General Anatoly Kuntsevich , head of Russia’s chemical weapons program, built a

  15. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed rule titled ``Enhanced Weapons...

  16. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  17. [Contact neck gunshot wound without weapon--suicide or homicide?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, W; Ambach, E; Henn, R

    1992-01-01

    To support police in reenacting criminal acts is one of the most important functions of forensic investigation. This case report deals with the discovery of the corpse of a 42-year old man at the bank of the river Inn. First of all the man was supposed to be drowned, but the autopsy showed a gunshot wound of the neck and a shot-through of the brain-stem. Intensive search for the weapon by the police and by divers was unsuccessful and therefore suspicion of homicide arose. The reconstruction of the act at the site of discovery of the corpse led to the discovery of the weapon and the case became clear to be a suicide.

  18. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s. The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  19. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Yao, Yong-Gang; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao-Ting; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua-Wei; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-10

    Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  20. Visual Analysis on Tidal Triggering Earthquake: the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake being a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lixin; Mao, Wenfei; Ma, Weiyu; Zheng, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    The lunar-solar tidal stresses due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun to the Earth change with time and place inside the lithosphere. Although it is probably at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the tectonic stresses upon which they are superimposed, the tidal stress rates may be two orders of magnitude larger than the tectonic stress rate averaged over the recurrence interval for a seismic region, which is possible to trigger an earthquake as the last straw. For more than a century, researchers have sought to detect the effect of tidal stress on individual earthquake or to make statistical analysis on global earthquake-tide correlations. Unfortunately, not all of the reports on tidal stress triggering earthquake are consistent. Some have found that large and shallow earthquakes are more likely to be triggered by tidal stress than deep and small ones, yet there have been many positive correlations noted for shallow small ones. To observe the possible tidal triggering it is necessary to resolve the tidal stress onto the fault surface or subduction zone to determine if the normal component or shear components are compatible with the fault motion. This analysis requires accurate focal mechanisms and detailed geometry of the fault surface. Although the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Japan was found tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude, the triggering mechanism is not yet clear. After interpolating the irregular triangular network of the subduction zone, produced by Mark Simons et al. (2011), into a regular gridded network, we calculated the tidal stress at each grid in period between 30 days before and 7 days after the great shocking. The dynamical tidal stress were resolved to three components including trend stress, dip stress and normal stress. For the first time, the spatio-temporal evolution of the tidal components on the fault surface or subduction zone are mapped in three dimension. These maps provide good visualization for better understanding the spatio-temporal evolution of tidal stress and easy detecting the tidal triggering mechanism. We discovered with visual analysis: 1) the dip components of tidal stresses on the subduction zone were generally upward at the moment of shocking, which was compatible with the coseismic upward motion of the upper Eurasia block; 2) the trend components of the tidal stresses on the north part of the subduction zone were southward at the moment of shocking, which was compatible with the coseismic southward motion of the upper Eurasia block; 3) the normal components of tidal stresses on the subduction zone beneath the Eurasia block were upward, which reduced the tectonic compressive stress and friction stress on the subduction zone; while the normal components of tidal stresses on the Pacific block were downward, which push the Pacific block downward benefit for subduction. All these particular phenomena were compatible with the fault slip according to Coulomb failure criterion.

  1. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  2. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  3. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  4. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  5. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  6. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  7. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  8. Weapon Control System for Airborne Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The integrated fire' control system (IFCS plays an important role in the present-day fighter aircraft and helicopters. Wecapons, such as missiles (active/passive, rockets and guns may be present on thelfighter aircraft or helicopter .IFCS monitors the status of the weapons present on the vehicle and passes the information to pilot/co-pilot. Depending upon the health/availability of the weapons, IFCS selects/fires the weapons. An attempt has been made to bring out the details of one such IFCS. As a I stepping stone, smaller version is developed and same philosophy can be used for integrating ftlore and I more weapons. Here, emphasis has been made on design and development of weapon control unit which is the heart f IFCS, both in hardware and software. The system has been developed using a 486 DX2 processor, and an elaborate software has been developed in PL/M.

  9. Weapon Involvement in the Victimization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Hamby, Sherry L; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    To report the prevalence of weapons involved in the victimization of youth with particular emphasis on weapons with a "high lethality risk" and how such exposure fits into the broader victimization and life experiences of children and adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence, a nationally representative telephone survey of youth ages 2 to 17 years and caregivers (N = 4114) conducted in 2011. Estimates from the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence indicate that almost 14 million youth, ages 2–17, in the United States have been exposed to violence involving a weapon in their lifetimes as witnesses or victims,or .1 in 5 children in this age group [corrected]. More than 2 million youth in the United States (1 in 33) have been directly assaulted in incidents where the high lethality risk weapons of guns and knives were used. Differences were noted between victimizations involving higher and lower lethality risk weapons as well as between any weapon involvement versus none. Poly-victims, youth with 7 or more victimization types, were particularly likely to experience victimization with any weapon, as well as victimization with a highly lethal weapon compared with nonpoly-victims. Findings add to the field's broadening conceptualization of youth victimization highlighting the potentially highly consequential risk factor of weapon exposure as a component of victimization experiences on the mental health of youth. Further work on improving gun safety practices and taking steps to reduce children's exposure to weapon-involved violence is warranted to reduce this problem. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  11. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  12. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drift issues of tall buildings during the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake, Japan - Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Okawa, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant effects of the M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 is the now well-known long duration (>10 minutes) shaking of buildings in Japan – particularly those in Tokyo (~350-375 km from the epicenter) and in places as far as Osaka (~770 km from the epicenter). Although none collapsed, the strong shaking caused many tall buildings not to be functional for days and weeks.

  14. 魅族M9 SIM卡联系人复制到手机的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华

    2011-01-01

    如果想把SIM卡中的联系人复制到魅族M9中,那么可以在联系人的界面中。点击“右键→更多”,在“SIM卡联系人”中选择“全选→存至手机”,这样就完成了复制SIM卡联系人到手机的工作。

  15. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  16. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  17. Self-inflicted fatal shotgun wound from a homemade weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Akio; Satoh, Fumiko; Seto, Yoshihisa; Osawa, Motoki

    2014-03-01

    A case of suicide, a male shot in the abdomen using a homemade weapon, is described herein. Postmortem examination revealed bleeding into the thoracic and abdominal cavities, a collapsed liver and other organs with numerous pellets. The contact-shot wound was not noticed during the initial investigation at the scene, but it was elucidated during autopsy. A simple launcher had been assembled from pipes of a clothes rack frame made for home use. The deceased had once owned a shotgun, but his firearm license had been relinquished 5 years prior. A shotgun shell that he had kept was used. Presumably, the injuries from the homemade weapon were not noticed initially because of strict gun control rules in Japan. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  19. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  20. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  1. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-01-01

    The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. ...

  2. The Importance of Designating Cyberspace Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PerspectiveSpace Focus Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment / Hunter Weapon System The Air Force Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment ( CVA ) / Hunter  weapon...system can perform defensive sorties worldwide via remote or on-site access. The  CVA /Hunter weapon sys- tem is operated by one active duty unit, the...support all of the mission crews. Developed by the for- mer Air Force Information Operations Center, the  CVA /Hunter  weapon system was fielded to the 688th

  3. 48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weapon systems. 217.173 Section 217.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Mulityear Contracting 217.173 Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. As authorized by 10 U.S.C. 2306b(h... contract for— (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system...

  4. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment Lloyd Hammond Weapons and...Combat Systems Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST Group-TR-3221 ABSTRACT Threat evaluation and weapon assignment...dynamic programming algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment which, after more rigorous testing, could be used as a concept demonstrator and as an auxiliary

  5. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or...

  6. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

  7. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools - and specifically weapons - can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and then searched for changes while holding a weapon or a control object. Results show an effect of training, highlighting the importance of sensorimotor experience for the action-relevant allocation of attention, and a possible interaction between training and the object held during search. Simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness. This result has implications for the interaction between tool use and attentional allocation.

  8. Obtaining Soluble Folded Proteins from Inclusion Bodies Using Sarkosyl, Triton X-100, and CHAPS: Application to LB and M9 Minimal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, Michael A; Wright, Katharine M; Du, Haijuan

    2016-04-01

    This unit describes a straightforward and efficient method of using sarkosyl to solubilize and recover difficult recombinant proteins, such as GST- and His6 -tagged fusion proteins, that are overexpressed in E. coli. This protocol is especially useful for rescuing recombinant proteins overexpressed in M9 minimal medium. Sarkosyl added to lysis buffers helps with both protein solubility and cell lysis. Higher percentage sarkosyl (up to 10%) can extract >95% of soluble protein from inclusion bodies. In the case of sarkosyl-solubilized GST-fusion proteins, batch-mode affinity purification requires addition of a specific ratio of Triton X-100 and CHAPS, while sarkosyl-solubilized His6 -tagged fusion proteins can be directly purified on Ni(2+) resin columns. Proteins purified by this method could be widely used in biological assays, structure analysis and mass spectrum assay.

  9. Repeating Earthquakes Confirm and Constrain Long-Term Acceleration of Aseismic Slip Preceding the M9 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommatis, A. P.; Segall, P.; Uchida, N.; Johnson, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes offshore northern Japan in the period 1996 to 2011 imply long-term acceleration of aseismic slip preceding the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, confirming a previous inference from completely independent GPS data (Mavrommatis et al., 2014, GRL). We test whether sequences of repeating earthquakes exhibit a statistically significant monotonic trend in recurrence interval by applying the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Offshore northern Tohoku, all sequences that pass the test exhibit decelerating recurrence, consistent with decaying afterslip following the 1994 M7.7 Sanriku earthquake. On the other hand, offshore south-central Tohoku, all sequences that pass the test exhibit accelerating recurrence, consistent with long-term accelerating creep prior to the 2011 Μ9 earthquake. Using a physical model of repeating earthquake recurrence, we produce time histories of cumulative slip on the plate interface. After correcting for afterslip following several M~7 earthquakes in the period 2003-2011, we find that all but one sequence exhibit statistically significant slip accelerations. Offshore south-central Tohoku, the estimated slip acceleration is on average 2.9 mm/yr2, consistent with the range of 2.6-4.0 mm/yr2 estimated from independent GPS data (Mavrommatis et al., 2014). From a joint inversion of GPS and seismicity data, we infer that a substantial portion of the plate interface experienced accelerating creep in the 15 years prior to the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The large slip area of the Tohoku-oki earthquake appears to be partly bounded by accelerating creep, implying that most of the rupture area of the M9 earthquake was either locked or creeping at a constant rate during this time period. Accelerating creep would result in increasing stressing rate on locked parts of the interface, thereby promoting nucleation of moderate to large earthquakes.

  10. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  11. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  12. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  13. The sacred weapon: bow and arrow combat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the development of the bow and arrow, and its important role in the history of Iran. The bow always played an important role not only on the battlefield, but also in hunting. It was also considered as a sacred weapon and additionally a royal symbol. Bow and arrow were considered as a superior weapon in comparison with other types of weapons because one could fight with them at a safer distance as one offered by swords, maces and axes. The first part of the article presents a short history of the bow in Iran. Based on historical Persian manuscripts, the next part explains the structure of the composite bow and the materials used for making it. The third part describes some types of bows based on the material, place of production, the usage, and bow type based on the length of the bow and the arrows. The following part talks about different types of arrows based on morphology of arrowheads, the type of plume/feather, the material of the shaft, the material of the arrowhead, the length of arrows, the target of arrows, the place of production of arrowheads and terms for describing its different features of an arrowhead. Then, the article talks about different types of thumb rings, bowstrings, quivers and bow cases and arrow guides for shooting short arrows. The next part discusses different principles of archery as explained in Persian manuscripts. Finally the article describes different archery targets.

  14. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  15. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  16. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  17. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  19. Use of kangri (a traditional firepot) as a weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arsalaan F; Fazili, Rifat; Aggarwal, Akash D

    2014-08-01

    Kangri an earthenware firepot has been traditionally used by people of Kashmir for protecting themselves for harsh winter weather. This study done on patients admitted in the burns ward and general emergency ward of a tertiary care hospital, is perhaps the first of its kind. It analyses the use of this very traditional and useful art form as a weapon that can cause significant damage during interpersonal conflicts. As is clear from the study its use as weapon can inflict considerable damage and can lead to lifelong disabilities. Out of the 20 cases studied over a period of one year 2 cases received grievous injuries over head and face region in form of permanent disfigurement. Almost half of the injuries i.e. 7 cases were mechanical in nature whereas rest 13 cases belong to thermal category. Most of the injuries were simple and healed with preliminary medical attention but in 2 cases there was permanent disfigurement and both were because of deep burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Fluorescent Invisible – UV light visible Paint ball guns NON-LETHAL CASINGS ENCAPSULANTS TAGGERS – ACTIVE Italicized text signifies existing...preliminary legal review include gastrointestinal convulsives , calmative agents, sticky foam, aqueous foam, adhesives, malodorous agents, Oleoresin... convulsives , if classified as riot control agents (and not used on combatants), can be acceptable within the context of the Biological Weapons

  1. Modern weapons and military equipment for issue no. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    ЙЕВТИЧ МИЛОШ М.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  2. MODERN WEAPONS AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT FOR ISSUE NO. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  3. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  4. Detecting necessary and sufficient parts for assembling a functional weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Solomon, Divya; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Adkins, Tracy; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2017-05-01

    Continuing our previous research to visually extract and visually and conceptually match weapons, this study develops a method to determine whether a set of weapon parts visually extracted from images taken from different scenes can be assembled as a firing weapon. This new approach identifies potential weapons in the ontology via tracing detected necessary and sufficient parts through their meronymic relation to the whole weapon. A fast algorithm for identifying potential weapons that can be assembled from a given set of detected parts is presented.

  5. Effects of directed and kinetic energy weapons on spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, A P

    1986-12-01

    The characteristics of the various directed energy beams are reviewed, and their damaging effects on typical materials are examined for a wide range of energy pulse intensities and durations. Representative cases are surveyed, and charts are presented to indicate regions in which damage to spacecraft structures, particularly radiators for power plants, would be likely. The effects of kinetic energy weapons, such as bird-shot, are similarly examined. The charts are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of various measures designed to reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft components, particularly nuclear electric power plants.

  6. Male and Female Single-Victim Sexual Homicide Offenders: Distinguishing the Types of Weapons Used in Killing Their Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Most studies have focused on male sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) without testing whether sex differences exist. Accordingly, little is known about the distinctions between male and female SHOs, particularly with respect to their use of weapons in killing their victims. This study used a sample of 3,160 single-victim sexual homicide cases (3,009 male and 151 female offenders) from the U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports database to explore sex differences in the types of murder weapons used by offenders in killing victims over the 37-year period 1976 to 2012. Findings indicated that significantly more male SHOs used personal weapons (43%) and more female SHOs used firearms (63%) in their offense commission. In general, female offenders predominantly used weapons that were physically less demanding (e.g., firearms and edged and other weapons; 89%). Different trends in the murder weapons used by male and female SHOs from different age groups were observed. Interestingly, findings showed that the type of weapon used by SHOs was in part influenced by the victims and their characteristics.

  7. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  8. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  9. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  10. Task Analyses of Three Selected Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    using weapons is a joint function of the specific weapon system, the goals (missions) of the system, and the environment in which it is used. The first...Identification of fire mission profiles which state general job functions for each type of typical mission. Documentary sources such as Field Manuals...nd Arin,,, Ui, Guni i A,!i" tant uuPnrr No. I Can; n , r Grup - ( nile. .rs and Prir Diff,-ront S, tm: -inch L,,t.’r _, Fort Hood l::t Cavall, I

  11. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...

  12. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  13. Survey of state-of-the-art technology in remote concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1995-09-01

    Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMV), microwave, and infrared (IR) technologies provide the means to detect concealed weapons remotely through clothing and is some cases through walls. Since the developemnt of forward-looking infrared instruments, work has been ongoing in attempting to use these devices for concealed weapon detection based on temperatrue differences between metallic weapons and in the infrared has led to the development of techniques based on lower frequencies. Focal plane arrays operating MMW frequencies are becoming available which eliminate the need for a costly and slow mechanical scanner for generating images. These radiometric sensors also detect temperature differences between weapons and the human body background. Holographic imaging systems operating at both microwave and MMW frequencies have been developed which generate images of near photographic quality through clothing and through thin, nonmetallic walls. Finally, a real- aperture radar is useful for observing people and detecting weapons through walls and in the field under reduced visibility conditions. This paper will review all of these technologies and give examples of images generated by each type of sensor. An assessment of the future of this technology with regard to law enforcement applications will also be given.

  14. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

  15. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  16. A detailed census of variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6333 (M9) from CCD differential photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, A Arellano; Jaimes, R Figuera; Giridhar, Sunetra; Kains, N; Kuppuswamy, K; Jørgensen, U G; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dominik, M; Dreizler, S; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Harpsøe, K; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Vilela, C; Wertz, O

    2013-01-01

    We report CCD $V$ and $I$ time-series photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6333 (M9). The technique of difference image analysis has been used, which enables photometric precision better than 0.05 mag for stars brighter than $V \\sim 19.0$ mag, even in the crowded central regions of the cluster. The high photometric precision has resulted in the discovery of two new RRc stars, three eclipsing binaries, seven long-term variables and one field RRab star behind the cluster. A detailed identification chart and equatorial coordinates are given for all the variable stars in the field of our images of the cluster. Our data together with literature $V$-data obtained in 1994 and 1995 allowed us to refine considerably the periods for all RR Lyrae stars. The nature of the new variables is discussed. We argue that variable V12 is a cluster member and an Anomalous Cepheid. Secular period variations, double mode pulsations and/or the Blazhko-like modulations in some RRc variables are addressed. Through the light curve Fou...

  17. Fatal and non-fatal burn injuries with electrical weapons and explosive fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mark W; Ritter, Mollie B; Williams, Howard E

    2017-08-01

    While generally reducing morbidity and mortality, electrical weapons have risks associated with their usage, including eye injuries and falls. With the presence of explosive fumes or fuels there also exists the possibility of burn injury. We searched for cases of fatal and non-fatal major burns with TASER(®) electrical weapon usage where there was a possibility that the weapon ignited the explosion. We confirmed 6 cases of fatal burn injury and 4 cases of major non-fatal burns out of 3.17 million field uses. The mean age was 35.5 ± 9.7 years which is consistent with the typical arrest-related death. Moderate, minor, and noninjurious fires - typically due to a cigarette lighters in a pocket, petrol, recreational inhalants, or body spray were also noted. The use of electrical weapons presents a small but real risk of death from fatal burn injury. It also presents a small risk of major non-fatal burn injury. The ignition of petrol fumes dominates these cases of major fatal and nonfatal burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position, then fire 2 rounds and reholster 2 15 yards 2 5 seconds Standing, draw weapon, move to kneeling...) Standing, draw weapon, fire 2 rounds, move to kneeling position and fire 2 rounds, reload and reholster Minimum qualifying = 70%. 4 15 yards 2 5 seconds Draw weapon and fire 2 rounds standing, come to low...

  19. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor unless...

  20. Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Shyness Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do? Print A A A ... Why do students bring guns, knives, or other weapons to school? Some are just showing off, others ...

  1. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY..., academia, military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off... requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards Office (OLES) at NIST has developed...

  2. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or items...

  3. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    43 Figure 14: Simulation Study Methodology for the Weapon System Analysis Metrics Definition and Data Collection The analysis plan calls for...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences

  4. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  5. 7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 501.12 Section 501.12... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons... arrows, darts, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as...

  6. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes. ...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is required...

  8. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  9. 44 CFR 15.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 15.15... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.15 Weapons and explosives. No person entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC will carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or items intended to...

  10. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized for...

  11. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will provide...

  12. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

  13. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons...

  14. 7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 500.12 Section 500.12... OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.12 Weapons and... weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No person...

  15. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or explosives...

  16. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a...

  17. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against carriage of weapons... Flight Operations § 135.119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an aircraft being operated by a certificate holder, carry on or about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon...

  18. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items intended...

  19. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or...

  20. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11... FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives...

  1. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears, gigs...

  2. 43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons, firearms, explosives, and... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess... exceptions: (1) You must not have a weapon in your possession when at or in a Reclamation facility. (2) You...

  3. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any person...

  4. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the written...

  5. Demand Analysis of Informational Shipboard Gun Weapon System Interface Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui-chuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to development demand of informational shipboard gun weapon system, design concept of shipboard gun weapon system interface is proposed. System composition is put forward and function demand of interface is analyzed from combat, training and detection aspects. General principle need to be followed in design process. A new concept is provided for development of shipboard gun weapon system interface.

  6. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  7. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Benoist, K.W.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human

  8. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...

  9. The Politics of Weapons Standardization in NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    does raise new and useful perspectives on the problem. And, as he notes, it raises the spectre that instead of attacking the causes of NATO’s malaise...construct- ing his Utopia . 1 58 Two articles, which focus on the weapons procurement process within the United States alone, note the unnecessary

  10. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  11. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  12. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. Virtually without exception, the spear is present wherever there are humans. The spear may claim to be the senior martial art, and the weapon is still in use today. Early techniques are preserved by the small number of Japanese sojutsu schools, and modern Chinese martial artists have developed elegant and impressive gymnastic routines for the spear. The javelin throw is a modern Olympic track and field event, and there are people who have resurrected the Aztec atlatl for sporting competition. Today, the spear is still used in Europe for hunting wild boar, and the continued issue of the obsolete bayonet to modern soldiers testifies to a deep, almost instinctive respect still possessed by the military for the spear.

  13. Removing Solar Radiation Based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition Method for Seismo-Ionospheric Anomaly Before the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yanli; XU Tong; WU Jian

    2013-01-01

    The ionospheric effect from solar activity can be seen as the background in the process of detecting the ionospheric precursor prior to strong earthquakes.The ionospheric variation induced by the forthcoming earthquake can be covered by the strong solar background during the period of high solar activity.The issue of how to remove the ionospheric effect from solar radiation is of outstanding significance.In this paper,a method of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is used to eliminate the solar background.As a case study,the global ionospheric map TEC before the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 is analyzed.After the effect of solar radiation is removed using the EMD method,the precursor of the imminent earthquake is more obvious.The ionospheric anomaly had a local character and only appeared close to the earthquake epicenter while the useful signals were covered by the solar radiation background with traditional method,which implies that the EMD method is effective in eliminating solar radiation background.

  14. Efeito de auxinas e condições de cultivo no enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de macieira 'M-9' Effect of auxin and cultivation conditions in in vitro rooting of root-stoock of apple 'M-9'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas com características desejáveis, tanto genéticas quanto sanitárias, é um fator importante para o sucesso na produção de mudas. A micropropagação, em comparação às formas tradicionais de propagação vegetativa, possibilita aumentar a produção e a qualidade das mudas. Nesta técnica, a rizogênese é uma etapa crucial para o desenvolvimento das plantas propagadas in vitro. Neste contexto, objetivou-se testar condições de cultivo, tipos e concentrações de auxinas para o enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira M-9. Como explantes, foram utilizadas brotações (1cm, as quais foram cultivadas em meio MS/2. As auxinas utilizadas foram AIA, ANA e AIB, nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 5,0; 10; 20; 50 e 100miM. Foram testadas duas condições de incubação: na primeira, os frascos foram mantidos sob luz (30 dias e, na segunda, os frascos foram mantidos por cinco dias no escuro com posterior transferência para luz (25 dias. Em ambas as condições, os explantes foram expostos a tratamentos com auxina, durante todo o tempo ou apenas por dez dias, com posterior transferência para meio sem auxina. As variáveis analisadas foram: porcentagem de enraizamento, número e comprimento de raiz, tipo de raiz e porcentagem de sobrevivência de plantas na fase de aclimatização. O AIA induziu maior porcentagem de enraizamento, plantas com melhor sistema radicular e parte aérea nas concentrações mais altas; porém, quando foi utilizado AIB e ANA, essas características foram observadas nas concentrações mais baixas. Os tratamentos em que os explantes foram cultivados por apenas dez dias, em meios com auxinas, apresentaram, em geral, melhores respostas. Observou-se maior porcentagem de plantas aclimatizadas nos tratamentos com AIA.The utilization of trees with desirable characteristics, genetics and sanitary, is an important factor for the success in plant propagation. The micropropagation, in comparison

  15. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  16. TASER conducted electrical weapons and implanted pacemakers and defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanga, Subba R; Bommana, Sudharani; Kroll, Mark W; Swerdlow, Charles; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2009-01-01

    Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) have generated controversy in recent years regarding their effect on heart rhythm and on their suspected interaction with implanted devices such as the pacemakers and ICDs (implantable cardioverter defibrillators). We review the current evidence available on device interactions and pre-sent a new case series of 6 patients. We used the available case reports and animal studies on TASER or CEW related publications in PubMed. Oversensing of TASER CEW discharges may cause noise reversion pacing in pacemakers and inappropriate detection of VF in ICDs. The nominal 5-second discharge is sufficiently short that neither clinically significant inhibition of bradycardia pacing nor inappropriate ICD shocks have been reported. Current evidence indicates that CEW discharges do not have adverse effects on pacemakers and ICDs.

  17. Biological Weapons Attribution: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    person avian bird flu cases since the epidemic had begun in March of 2003.120 In three years, bird flu spread to over forty countries, affecting...February 15, 2006. 120 Associated Press, “Human spread No. 1 suspect in bird flu cluster,” MSNBC (May 24, 2006). http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12939359...Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the bird flu spreading like wild-fire across the globe all highlight the intrinsic difficulties in identifying

  18. Interim Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on the Survivability of Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapon Effects (NWE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    major platforms for High Altitude EMP ( HEMP ) protection, and the Navy implemented a requirements review process. United States Strategic Command...Army improving process for independent review of survivability – Air Force committing resources for testing major platforms for HEMP protection...battlespaces where nuclear weapons are threatening or are being employed. The most likely case(s) are use of nuclear weapons by others. Although

  19. The effect of less-lethal weapons on injuries in police use-of-force events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John M; Kaminski, Robert J; Smith, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the use of less-lethal weapons, conductive energy devices (CEDs), and oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray on the prevalence and incidence of injuries to police officers and civilians in encounters involving the use of force. We analyzed data from 12 police departments that documented injuries to officers and civilians in 24,380 cases. We examined monthly injury rates for 2 police departments before and after their adoption of CEDs. Odds of injury to civilians and officers were significantly lower when police used CED weapons, after control for differences in case attributes and departmental policies restricting use of these weapons. Monthly incidence of injury in 2 police departments declined significantly, by 25% to 62%, after adoption of CED devices. Injuries sustained during police use-of-force events affect thousands of police officers and civilians in the United States each year. Incidence of these injuries can be reduced dramatically when law enforcement agencies responsibly employ less-lethal weapons in lieu of physical force.

  20. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  1. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  2. Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.

  3. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  4. Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S.; Dolan, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  5. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  6. Development Test II (Service Phase) of Night Vision Sight, Individual Served Weapons, AN/PVS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-20

    Reference H reports as a shortcoming that the shipping case liners are not pliable and prevent repacking of the sight in the case at all...the frozen condition, the eyeguard loses weapon-recoil protection. In 8. The insulation of the low-temperature adapter cable cracks and loses its...25 Is the sight an aid to night vision under all conditions, e.g., brush, open terrain, thickly wooded , moonlight, and starlight con- ditions? 3_

  7. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  8. Adversarial Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    had weaponized 10,000 liters of concentrated botu- linum toxin, 6,500 liters of concentrated anthrax, and 1,580 liters of concentrated aflatoxin .2 The...might cost only $30–50 million, according to the Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. That could be cut in half if safety ...10 Most nations pursuing NBC capabilities today are also consider- ing long-range delivery means. On the strategic level adversaries are likely to use

  9. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of contractors delivering the 10 costliest programs have performed well relative to broad-based market indices, indicating that investors expect...16-329SP Assessments of Major Weapon Programs Two programs—the B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer...expected. The B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer Increment 1 date was revised to reflect the actual delivery of

  10. The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Simon A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...

  11. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  12. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Assessment 56 Figure 13: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 58 Contents Page v GAO-15-342SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Abbreviations...efficiencies realized through contract negotiations (13 programs), • design trades to balance affordability and capability (10 programs), • changed...at the time of our review with a scorecard and narrative summary at the bottom of the first page of each assessment. As illustrated in figure 12

  13. Conventional Weapons Effects on Reinforced Soil Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    of the reinforced soil wall. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Reinforced soil, conventional weapons, protective structures, 388 geosynthetics ...high tensile strength materials such as steel strips or geosynthetics . A single face of a reinforced soil berm can be constructed to approximately...yards of geosynthetics representing $3.1 billion have been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications (Koerner, 1990). Between 1991 and 1992

  14. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of radiation and biological factors; weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of electromagnetic, light, thermal, subsonic or ultrasonic radiation and which have output parameters that exceed the value set by state standards of the Russian Federation and the relevant regulations of the federal executive authority in the field of public health, as well as these weapons and items produced outside the Russian territory " How to regard this provision of the law? As the transfer of new weapons, not specific item. 25 of the Federal Law "On weapons", or items prohibited for circulation in the territory of our state? This inconsistency decreases the effectiveness of the legal regulation of arms trafficking. Unification of definitions in this area will allow applying the law correctly and reasonably, including criminal. But for this it is necessary taking into account the experience and the modern needs of the various branches of law provide a clearer definition of "weapon" and its species. The author's conclusions may be used in law enforcement. 

  15. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders BERGLUND

    2013-01-01

    In sex role reversed species,predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits,such as ornaments and/or weapons.Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species,whether sex role reversed or not.However,sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species,present in both males and females.This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles:males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments.At the same time,females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons,used in competition over resources or in predator defence.Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare,almost absent,in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons,conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation,and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments.Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males,at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits,as trait costs reduce a female's fecundity.I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons.The same may apply to paternally investing males.Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated.

  16. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  17. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  18. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  19. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  20. [Specific features of wounds with a self-defense traumatic weapon "Osa"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodov, A M; Zolotov, A S; Filipchenkov, L S

    2012-01-01

    Specific features and outcomes of wounds with a traumatic weapon of self-defense "Osa" were analyzed in 24 patients. Mean age of the wounded was from 21 to76 years. In 20 patients there was a single wound, in 4 patients it was multiple, in 7--blunt, in 12--perforating and 5 patients had gutter wounds. All the patients were treated according to the principles of field military surgery. Five patients had severe wounds: penetrating fracture of the skull (2 of them died), fracture of the shoulder (1 case), injury of the main artery (1 case), of the pleura (1 case). The wounds were closed up by primary intention in 19 patients, by second intention in 4 patients. The authors' experience shows that a traumatic weapon of self-defense "Osa" rather often caused permanent harm to health and can be mortal. Active surgical strategy in treatment of such patients prevents the development of serious infectious complications.

  1. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  2. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  3. Spinal cord injuries due to close combat weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Youssef H; Fares, Jawad Y; Gebeily, Souheil E; Khazim, Rabi M

    2013-10-01

    A 17-year-old patient was aggressively attacked and stabbed in the dorsal region of his back by a knife. He was admitted to the emergency room of the Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Saida, Lebanon lying in the prone position. The neurological examination revealed that the stabbing object was fixed at the dorsal spine level at the T-7 level, where it was inserted inside the vertebral body. Luckily, the blade of the knife was parallel to the nervous tracts of the spinal cord; thus, he showed no neurological deficits. This case provides an overview of how neurosurgical principles can be applied to trauma patients with spine injuries due to close combat weapons.

  4. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  5. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  6. Small sample Bayesian analyses in assessment of weapon performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant test data are required in assessment of weapon performance.When weapon test data are insufficient,Bayesian analyses in small sample circumstance should be considered and the test data should be provided by simulations.The several Bayesian approaches are discussed and some limitations are founded.An improvement is put forward after limitations of Bayesian approaches available are analyzed and t he improved approach is applied to assessment of some new weapon performance.

  7. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  8. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  9. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun

    2009-01-01

    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  10. ON THE OFFENSE: USING CYBER WEAPONS TO INFLUENCE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fendley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing recognition that cyber warfare is an important area of development for targeting and weaponeering, with far-reaching effects in national defense and economic security. The ability to conduct effective operations in cyberspace relies on a robust situational awareness of events occurring in both the physical and information domains, with an understanding of how they affect the cognitive domain of friendly, neutral, and adversary population sets. The dynamic nature of the battlefield complicates efforts to understand shifting adversary motivations and intentions. There are very few approaches, to date, that systematically evaluate the effects of the repertoire of cyber weapons on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics of the adversary. In this paper, we describe a software environment called Cognitive Cyber Weapon Selection Tool (CCWST that simulates a scenario involving cyber weaponry.This tool provides the capabilities to test weapons which may induce behavioral state changes in the adversaries. CCWST provides the required situational awareness to the Cyber Information Operations (IO planner to conduct intelligent weapon selection during weapon activation in order to induce the desired behavioral change in the perception of the adversary. Weapons designed to induce the cognitive state changes of deception, distraction, distrust and confusion were then tested empirically to evaluate the capabilities and expected cognitive state changes induced by these weapons. The results demonstrated that CCWST is a powerful environment within which to test and evaluate the impact of cyber weapons on influencing cognitive behavioral states during information processing.

  11. Analysis of 16 years of homicides and suicides involving the use of weapons recorded at the Milan Medicolegal Bureau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Guendalina; Clerici, Carlo; De Micheli, Angelo; Merzagora, Isabella; Palazzo, Elisa; Rancati, Alessandra; Veneroni, Laura; Zoja, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The criminal use of weapons is a very topical issue in the industrialized countries and worldwide, and a reconsideration of the legislation governing their possession is warranted. We retrospectively analyzed the homicides and suicides involving the use of firearms and piercing and/or cutting weapons recorded at the Medicolegal Bureau in Milan from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2008. First we considered the clinical histories of the deceased and the circumstantial details of their deaths, then we examined the data relating to the cause of death recorded in the autopsy reports. Our case series consisted of 414 homicides (54.2%) and 350 suicides (45.8%). Firearms were responsible for more deaths (64%) than piercing and/or cutting weapons (36%). The firearms involved were legally licensed in 40% of cases (suicides) and illegal in 22% (homicides). Our findings suggest the need to review the criteria considered for the issue of firearms licenses, in Italy at least.

  12. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  13. [Etiology and prognosis of the eye traumas by war weapons in the Senegalese army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Diakhaté, M; Ndiaye Sow, M N; Dieng, M; Agboton, G; Guèye, N N

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the main weapons causing eye injuries during the campaigns of the Senegalese army in the south of the country, as well as the prognosis of these traumas. This study is retrospective and concerns soldiers wounded by the weapons of war during the exercise of their mission within the Senegalese armed forces of 1991 in 2005. They are mainly soldiers affected in the south of the country during a war, clashes with the rebels or in Guinea-Bissau during operation Gabou in 1998. And they were evacuated to the ophthalmology department of the Principal Hospital in Dakar, which is a level 3. Thirty-seven military all male, with an average age of 30.5 years. Forty-six eyes including 9 bilateral cases. The trauma agent is a burst of RPG7 shells in 62% of cases, mine explosion in 13.5%, offensive grenade 10.8%, assault rifle 5.7% and flame lance-roquette anti-char (LRAC) accounts for 8%. We noted a phthisis of the globe for 14 eyes (30.43%) and for 15 eyes (32.60%) a functional loss of the affected globe. Inability to fight was decided by 29 wounded soldiers (78.37% of the cases), sedentary employment in 27 cases (72.97%) and 10 cases (27.03%) of reformed soldiers. In the conflict in southern Senegal, the RPG7 shell burst causes 62% of eye injuries. This RPG7 shell called "rebel weapon" is frequently used in conflicts in Africa. The prognosis of trauma with these types of weapons is severe. The combat goggles systematically integrated in the equipment of the Senegalese combatant, would be an invaluable contribution on the prevention of the traumatisms of the eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. 论安阳殷墟墓葬青铜武器的组合%Combination of Bronze Weapons in Tombs on the Yin Ruins in Anyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一曼

    2002-01-01

    There are 12 combinations of bronze weapons in Yin tombs at Anyang, with ge dag-ger-axes as the most frequently seen key objects. Among the tombs with bronze weapons, as the tomb-owners varied in status before their death, their funeral weapons bear distinct differences in type, number and quality. High-ranking officers possessed yue battle-axes, ge, spears and arrowheads, with swords added in some cases. Their number ranged from dozens to hundreds, and yue and swords were the symbols of commandership. Middle- and low-ranking officers had some dozen weapons in the ge-spear-arrowhead or ge-spear set. Commanders at the grass-root level used only two types of the ge, spear and arrowhead, which number no more than ten. Ordinary soldiers were armed with one of the ge, spear and arrowhead, in one or two pieces in case of the former two.

  15. Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Tatum, Kelsey B.; Lynn, Jason S.; Brewer, Tess E.; Lu, Stephen; Washburn, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the phages that infect agriculturally important nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Here we report the genome and cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9. This phage and its close relative Rhizobium phage vB_RleM_P10VF define a new group of T4 superfamily phages. These phages are distinctly different from the recently characterized cyanophage-like S. meliloti phages of the ΦM12 group. Structurally, ΦM9 has a T=16 capsid formed from repeating units of an extended gp23-like subunit that assemble through interactions between one subunit and the adjacent E-loop insertion domain. Though genetically very distant from the cyanophages, the ΦM9 capsid closely resembles that of the T4 superfamily cyanophage Syn9. ΦM9 also has the same T=16 capsid architecture as the very distant phage SPO1 and the herpesviruses. Despite their overall lack of similarity at the genomic and structural levels, ΦM9 and S. meliloti phage ΦM12 have a small number of open reading frames in common that appear to encode structural proteins involved in interaction with the host and which may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. These proteins are predicted to encode tail baseplate proteins, tail fibers, tail fiber assembly proteins, and glycanases that cleave host exopolysaccharide. IMPORTANCE Despite recent advances in the phylogenetic and structural characterization of bacteriophages, only a small number of phages of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria have been studied at the molecular level. The effects of phage predation upon beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth remain poorly characterized. First steps in understanding these soil bacterium-phage dynamics are genetic, molecular, and structural characterizations of these groups of phages. The T4 superfamily phages are among the most complex phages; they have large genomes packaged within an icosahedral head and a long

  16. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  17. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  18. Stinging plants: as future bio-weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In the present opinion paper, we have been introducing for the first time the stinging plants and/or their biological toxins as novel bio-threat agents that may be used for the development of bio-weapons for self-defence purpose. The selected studied stinging plants are having dual role as nutraceutical and ethno-pharmacological uses apart from their less explored stinging property. However, future detailed work is required for identification and characterization of the precise stinging chemical components that will be used for the formulation of novel bio-warfare agents for self-defence purpose.

  19. Millimeter Wave Radar Applications to Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    ocity, and azimuth and elevation arRles ; assignment of target to L weapon for engagement; and assessment of the damage by the indication of cessa- tion...paper. 29 D.E. Gray, American institute of Physics Handbook ," McGraw-Hill, New S~York, 1957. --. . - - . .A • -•• =_ . . . . •,,- - - The complex...B-13) is the target-to-clutter power ratio. I. 41I 7 Handbook of Mathematical Functions, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards

  20. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  1. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  2. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    2012) Steyr 15.2 mm 35 g 1450 m/s 39.6 lb 11.4 Burns (2012) Type 97 (Japanese) 20 mm 162 g 790 m/s 130 lb 28.7 Burns (2012) 12HB00 ( Remington ...shotgun 0.727 in 807 gr (12 × 00) 1225 ft/s 7.0 lb 4.37 Remington (2011) Remington Express 12B0 shotgun 0.727 in 580 gr (12 × 0) 1275 ft/s...7.0 lb 3.28 Remington 5 Table 3. Recoil-related characteristics of selected shoulder-fired weapons cited in table 1. Nomenclature

  3. [Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Heidi; Kinnunen, Paula M; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is a flaccid paralysis in which consciousness and nociception are preserved. Natural botulism typically results from ingestion of inadequately heated or unheated vacuum-packed foods. In addition, botulinum toxin is one of the most feared biological weapons. In the diagnosis and treatment of botulism early suspicion is essential. Several coinciding or local clusters without a typical connecting source, or an uncommon type of toxin may indicate an intentionally caused epidemic.

  4. 76 FR 6199 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Regulatory Commission 10 CFR Part 73 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event... Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... revisions in these implementing regulations that address the voluntary application for enhanced weapons and...

  5. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...@bis.doc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 and Commerce Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR) specify the rights...

  6. The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2012-01-01

    The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

  7. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  8. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  9. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but...

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marta Feldmesser, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of...Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0085 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  11. Adapting the Law of Armed Conflict to Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    remains in the realm of theory . Still, several modern highly- automated—and some would call them autonomous—weapon systems already exist. These are...CROSS, 483, 507 (2012). 58. Backstrom & Henderson, supra note 57, at 401. 59. Justin McClelland , The Review of Weapons in Accordance with Article 36

  12. Civilian preparedness and counter-terrorism: conventional weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Edward B

    2006-06-01

    Most terrorist attacks involve conventional weapons. These explosive devices produce injury patterns that are sometimes predict-able. The chaos produced from these weapons can be greatly reduced with prior planning, response practice, and realization by the entire medical community of the need to participate in preparation for these devastating events.

  13. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  14. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  15. HFE (Human Factors Engineering) Technology for Navy Weapon System Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    uncovering of improved propulsion systems, sensors , weapons, etc., by industry or governr-ient agencies, may in.tiate the development of a new weapon system...needs. (No. A-109) _L a f. Tailor an acquisition stratagy for each program, as soon as the agency decides to solict alternative system design concepto

  16. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  17. Weapons Retrieved After the Implementation of Emergency Department Metal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, S Terez; Chisholm, Robin; Doehring, Marla; Chisholm, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Several high-profile violent incidents have occurred within emergency departments (EDs). There are no recent studies reporting the effectiveness of ED metal detection. Our aim was to assess the effect of metal detection on ED weapons retrieval. In September 2011, a metal detector was installed at the entrance of an urban, high-volume teaching hospital ED. The security company recorded retrieved firearms, knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. We performed qualitative analysis of weapons retrieval data for a 26-month period. A total of 5877 weapons were retrieved, an average of 218 per month: 268 firearms, 4842 knives, 512 chemical sprays, and 275 other weapons, such as brass knuckles, stun guns, and box cutters. The number of retrieved guns decreased from 2012 to 2013 (from 182 to 47), despite an increase in metal detection hours from 8 h per day to 16 h per day. The number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons increased. Recovered knives increased from 2062 in 2012 to 2222 in 2013, chemical sprays increased from 170 to 305, and other weapons increased from 51 to 201. A large number of weapons were retrieved after the initiation of metal detection in the ED entrance. Increasing hours of metal detection increased the number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. Retrieved firearms decreased after increasing metal detection hours. Metal detection in the ED entrance is effective in reducing entrance of weapons into the ED. Metal detectors may offer additional benefit in reducing attempts to enter with firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Skye; Day, David M

    2013-07-01

    Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons-only offenders, drugs-only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons-only offenders. Against prediction, weapons-only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life-course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons-only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Transcardiac conducted electrical weapon (TASER) probe deployments: incidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Teacher, Eric; Winslow, James E

    2012-12-01

    TASER (TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are commonly used by law enforcement officers. Although animal studies have suggested that transcardiac CEW discharges may produce direct cardiac effects, this has not been demonstrated in human studies. This study sought to determine the incidence and outcomes of transcardiac CEW probe impact locations in a large series of actual CEW deployments. A multi-center database of consecutive CEW uses by law enforcement officers was retrospectively reviewed. Case report forms were independently reviewed by three investigators to identify cases with paired probe configurations potentially producing a transcardiac discharge vector. Descriptive analysis was performed and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Among 1201 total CEW uses, 813 included probe deployments and 178 cases had paired anterior probe impacts potentially capable of producing a transcardiac discharge vector. This represents 14.8% of all CEW uses (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.9%) and 21.9% of CEW uses in probe mode (95% CI 19.1-24.9%). Inter-rater agreement was very good, with kappa = 0.82. There were no immediate deaths in any cases (97.5% CI 0.0-0.3%) to suggest a cardiac dysrhythmia, including those with transcardiac discharge vector. CEW deployments with probe impact configurations capable of producing a transcardiac discharge occur in a minority of cases in field use conditions. None of these cases, transcardiac or otherwise, produced immediately fatal dysrhythmias. These data support the overall safety of CEWs and provide a benchmark estimate of the likelihood of transcardiac discharge vectors occurring in field use of CEWs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay targeting the blaCTX-M9 gene for detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirapanmethee, Krit; Pothisamutyothin, Kanokporn; Nathisuwan, Surakit; Chomnawang, Mullika T; Wiwat, Chanpen

    2014-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) produced by Enterobacteriaceae are one of the resistance mechanisms to most β-lactam antibiotics. ESBLs are currently a major problem in both hospitals and community settings worldwide. Rapid and reliable means of detecting ESBL-producing bacteria is necessary for identification, prevention and treatment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a technique that rapidly amplifies DNA with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. This study was aimed to develop a convenient, accurate and inexpensive method for detecting ESBL-producing bacteria by a LAMP technique. ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bangkok, Thailand and reconfirmed by double-disk synergy test. A set of four specific oligonucleotide primers of LAMP for detection of bla(CTX-M9) gene was designed based on bla(CTX-M9) from E. coli (GenBank Accession No. AJ416345). The LAMP reaction was amplified under isothermal temperature at 63°C for 60 min. Ladder-like patterns of band sizes from 226 bp of the bla(CTX-M9) DNA target was observed. The LAMP product was further analyzed by restriction digestion with MboI and TaqI endonucleases. The fragments generated were approximately 168, 177 and 250 bp in size for MboI digestion and 165, 193, 229, 281 and 314 bp for TaqI digestion, which is in agreement with the predicted sizes. The sensitivity of the LAMP technique to bla(CTX-M9) was greater than that of the PCR method by at least 10,000-fold. These results showed that the LAMP primers specifically amplified only the bla(CTX-M9) gene. Moreover, the presence of LAMP amplicon was simply determined by adding SYBR Green I in the reaction. In conclusion, this technique for detection of ESBLs is convenient, reliable and easy to perform routinely in hospitals or laboratory units in developing countries.

  1. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  2. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  3. The glass bead game: nuclear tourism at the Australian weapon test sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, S R

    1998-01-01

    In mid-summer 1997, just as the United States National Cancer Institute was acknowledging that the nuclear bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site may ultimately cause up to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer in people who were living in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, the Australian authorities were mooting the possibility that the Maralinga test sites in South Australia should become a tourist attraction. Some Aboriginal tribal leaders welcomed this proposed use when the 20 million Pounds 'clean-up' being paid for by the United Kingdom government as some compensation for using the area for its weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s is completed. This paper surveys the attempts to clean up the site of UK nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s, not least by attempting to vitrify vast tracts of desert.

  4. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  5. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  6. Does Global seismic energy release increase? An analysis based on the Lithospheric Seismic Energy Flow Model (LSEFM). The case of mega - earthquakes (M > 9)

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

    2012-01-01

    In this work the data of the earthquake catalog of the NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) are processed in terms of global seismic energy release. The determined Global Cumulative Seismic Energy Release (GCSER) graph as a function of time, is analyzed in the magnitude domain (discrete energy windows). Characteristic components of the analyzed graph are: its accelerated deformation character observed for energy windows lower than the background seismicity (M = 7.0 - 7.5), its lock state that started on 1923 and long seismic quiescence periods that preceded recent mega - earthquakes. The background GCSER value oscillates during the last century with a period of 60 years and with increasing amplitude. The recent (1952 - 2012) 5 mega - earthquakes are closely related to the amplitude increase of the GCSER oscillation. Hence, it is suggested that more mega - earthquakes are probable due to occur in the future. A global mechanism is postulated for the generation of the mega - earthquakes based on the pri...

  7. Screening adolescents in the emergency department for weapon carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resko, Stella M; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T; Walton, Maureen A

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of past-year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city emergency department (ED). This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14-18 years), 7 days a week, who were seeking care over an 18-month period at an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered, including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior, weapon carriage, and/or weapon use. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past-year frequency of these weapons variables. Adolescents (n = 2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. Fifty-five percent were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife or razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife or gun on someone. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. One-fifth of all adolescents seeking care in this inner-city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED-based injury prevention initiatives. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. K4M9 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  9. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...... comparative angle. Lithic metric data as well as information on presumed Hamburgian projectile shafts are used to demonstrate that the bow-and-arrow was the most likely weapon delivery method. This is reflected in the shape similarity with both later prehistoric arrow-points and shafts of the Ahrensburgian...

  10. 转变观念的法宝--肥胖幼儿个案分析与指导对策%The Magic Weapon of Transforming Ideas:Case-based Analysis and Guidance Countermeasures of Obese Chil-dren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉

    2014-01-01

    With the improvement of people's life, the number of obese children is increasing. Long time of watching TV, abnormal diet and behavior habits, genetic factors and lack of exercise are all reasons resulting in obesity. But most obese children have strong dependence on others, weak hands-on ability and poor self-care ability. Therefore, the writer made a case-based analy-sis on obese children, and explored effective family and kinder-garten guidance countermeasures, in order to help obese children correct their unfavorable habits.%随着生活水平的提高,肥胖儿童日益增多。长时间看电视、不良的饮食习惯、不良的行为习惯、遗传因素及不爱运动都是引起肥胖的原因。而大部分肥胖幼儿依赖性强、动手能力弱、自理能力差。因此,我通过对肥胖幼儿个案的研究分析,探究有效的家园指导对策,帮助肥胖幼儿纠正不良习惯。

  11. 32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552..., Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other devices defined in this subpart, that are confiscated...

  12. 32 CFR 552.122 - Personnel not authorized to possess or retain personal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal weapons. 552.122 Section 552.122 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... authorized to possess or retain personal weapons. (a) Possession, retention or storage of personal weapons or... enforcement officer authorized to carry the weapon under state or federal law, while on Fort Lewis or a sub...

  13. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time, may...

  14. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons... economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  16. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined in...

  17. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  18. Gene analysis for the CTX-M-9 group extended spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella%临床分离志贺菌中CTX-M-9型超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗元; 刘静; 王利萍; 崔京辉; 王永全; 吴本和; 靳博; 苗智慧

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解本地区临床分离志贺菌中CTX-M-9型超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)分布,分析CTX-M-9型基因的种类、数量以及多态性.方法:收集2008年-2011年本地区临床分离非重复的志贺菌94株,聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测CTX-M-9型ESBLs基因,对PCR阳性产物进行测序,测序结果在GenBank上比对确定基因亚型,并通过DNAman软件对核酸序列进行分析,确定SNPs位点.结果:94株志贺菌中,17株携带CTX-M-9型ESBLs基因,阳性率18.09%,并在福氏志贺菌、宋内志贺菌和鲍氏志贺菌中均有检出.对DNA序列进行比对、分析,均为CTX-M-14亚型,未发现SNPs位点.结论:本地区志贺菌中CTX-M-9型ESBLs以CTX-M-14亚型为主,基因结构稳定,未发生变异,并可广泛在志贺菌各血清型中存在.%Objective:To understand the genotype distribution of CTX - M -9 group extended spectrum beta -lactamases (ESBLs) in clinical isolates of Shigella in Xicheng District of Beijing,and to analyze the species, quantity and polymorphism of CTX - M - 9 group gene. Methods: Ninety - four strains of non - reduplicative clinical isolates of Shigella were colleted from 2008 to 2011 in Xicheng District of Beijing,the CTX - M -9 group ESBLs gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ,then sequencing for PCR positive productions were performed, the sequencing results were compared in GenBank to determine gene subtypes, meanwhile the nucleotide sequence was analyzed by means of DNAman software to determine SNPs site. Results: Among 94 strains of Shigella, Seventeen strains( 18.09% ) carried CTX - M - 9 group ESBLs gene, furthermore, which was detected in Shigella flexneri,Shigella sonnei and Shigella boydii. The results of DNA sequence analysis showed that CTX - M - 9 group ESBLs were all CTX - M - 14 subtype,and no SNPs site was found. Conclusion: The CTX - M -9 type ESBLs in Xicheng District of Beijing are mainly CTX - M - 14 subtype,and the gene structure is stable,without gene

  19. Correlates of weapon carrying in school among adolescents in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with weapon carrying in school among Czech, Russian, and US adolescents. Logistic regression was used to analyze data drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Violent behavior (perpetration / victimization) was linked to adolescent weapon carrying in all countries. Substance use was associated with weapon carrying among boys in all countries. Greater parental warmth reduced the odds for weapon carrying among Czech and Russian adolescents. Associating with delinquent peers was important for weapon carrying only among US adolescents. Factors associated with weapon carrying in school vary among countries although violent behavior and substance use may be associated with weapon carrying across countries.

  20. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzaitis, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  1. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  2. the international politics of nuclear weapons: a constructivist analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JK

    interest including India, Pakistan, China, North Korea and the US; and .... and conventions against the development, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. ...... process, the Agency discovered illicit nuclear procurement networks (UN News.

  3. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  4. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The pioneer human re-colonisation of Southern Scandinavia after the Last Ice Age began some time around 12,700 calendar years BC and is associated with the Hamburgian techno-complex. These groups were reindeer hunters whose hunting weapons were tipped with the eponymous shouldered points (pointes á...... cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...... comparative angle. Lithic metric data as well as information on presumed Hamburgian projectile shafts are used to demonstrate that the bow-and-arrow was the most likely weapon delivery method. This is reflected in the shape similarity with both later prehistoric arrow-points and shafts of the Ahrensburgian...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory JOWOG 31 Weapons Engineering Education & Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domzalski, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-03

    The objectives of this report are to recruit talented staff, invest in new and early/mid career staff, retain trained and talented staff and future leaders, and shorten the ~5-10 year time line to realize new Weaponeers.

  6. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space: the US ... 1991 Gulf War that captured the imagination of military planners and policy makers, ... Firstly, very few countries have the financial and technological capability to ...

  7. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  8. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  9. Modeling of C3 I system in laser countermeasure weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-xi; GUO Li-hong

    2008-01-01

    With the spectrum extended in modem Electronic War, Laser Countermeasure Weapon will be re-quested in order to snatch up and keep the Electromagnetism-Power in war field. If Command, Control, Com-munications and Intelligence called Double-Army-Power-Implement is applied to general design of Laser Coun-termeasure Weapon System, the efficiency of Weapon System can be greatly improved. The Object-Oriented a-nalysis and design approach based on UML for C3I system architecture was put forward, by which logical archi-tecture described by class diagrams and behavior diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented analysis,and physical architecture described by component diagrams and deployment diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented design. The framework of Modeling based UML was firstly set forth, the high process of Com-mand, Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and UML Architecture was utilized., Then the Modeling process was particularly discussed through following the core ideology and basic principle of RUP(Rational Unified Process). Next, a series of diagrams of UML diagram which include Activity diagrams, Use Case diagrams, Sequence diagrams, Package diagrams and Class diagrams of system analysis, Component dia-grams, and Deployment diagrams of system design are illustrated in the process of Modeling of C3I system soft-ware. Lastly, some problems that should be noticed in the Modeling process, merit and demerit of model, next works were also put forward.

  10. Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

  11. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  12. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk

  13. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  14. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX ) and blister (mustard gas) agents , possibly weaponized into bombs, shells...largest in the world” during a June 2012 interview.16 Damascus possesses mustard blister agent , sarin nerve agent , and VX nerve agent , according to...chemical weapons stockpile. Syria also has several hundred metric tons of mustard agent in ready-to-use form and several tens of metric tons of VX . The

  15. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  16. Effects of Weapons on Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, Hostile Appraisals, and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Weapons Effect Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin J; Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-01

    Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal. The GAM also proposes that hostile appraisals can facilitate aggression. As predicted by the GAM, the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression. Weapons did not significantly increase angry feelings. Only one study tested the effects of weapons on arousal. These findings also contribute to the debate about social priming by showing that incidental exposure to a stimulus (weapon) can affect subsequent related behavior (aggression).

  17. Widespread seismicity excitation throughout central Japan following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku earthquake and its interpretation by Coulomb stress transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Lin, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity rate following the M=9.0 Tohoku mainshock for M ≥ 2 earthquakes over inland Japan, parts of the Japan Sea and Izu islands, at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high (≥15 m) seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ~80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common.

  18. Structure-based virtual screening to identify the beta-lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitors: An in silico effort to overcome antibiotic resistance in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Kambiz; Nowroozi, Jamileh; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Mirzaie, Sako

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the quick spreads of broad-spectrum beta-lactams antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of bacteria have become a major global health problem. These new emerging resistances cause ineffectiveness of antibiotics and increasing the severity of diseases and treatment costs. Among different and diverse resistance targets, we chose a class A beta lactamase, CTX-M-9, with the aim of identifying new chemical entities to be used for further rational drug design. Based on this purpose, a set of 5000 molecules from the Zinc database have been screened by docking experiments using AutoDock Vina software. The best ranked compound, with respect of the previously proved inhibitor compound 19, was further tested by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our molecular modeling analysis demonstrates that ZINC33264777 has ideal characteristics a potent beta lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitor. In the free form of beta lactamase, NMR relaxation studies showed the extensive motions near the active site and in the Ω-loop. However, our molecular dynamics studies revealed that in the compound 1: beta lactamase complex, the flexibility of Ω-loop was restricted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  20. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  1. Weapon Simulator Test Methodology Investigation: Comparison of Live Fire and Weapon Simulator Test Methodologies and the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    marksmanship performance) mirror those which would be captured in a live fire evaluation . 1 WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION ...METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION : COMPARISON OF LIVE FIRE AND WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGIES AND THE EFFECTS OF CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT ON...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2014 – August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE WEAPON SIMULATOR TEST METHODOLOGY INVESTIGATION

  2. Composite Case Development for Weapons Applications and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Penetrator Project. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I.  INTRODUCTION ...support and ability to help me keep things in perspective. xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND In October...Displacement 12 ----- Ocm 11 --- Scm • 10cm 10 -- 15cm - - 17.7cm I 9 / E’ / ~ 8 / / / Q) (,) /; / ’ ’ c ’ .l!! 7 ’ / / ’ ’ Ul i:5 ’ ’ / / ’ 6

  3. Reducing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearinger, Linda H; Pettingell, Sandra L; Resnick, Michael D; Potthoff, Sandra J

    2010-07-01

    To examine the likelihood of weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people, given the presence of salient risk and protective factors. The study used data from a confidential, self-report Urban Indian Youth Health Survey with 200 forced-choice items examining risk and protective factors and social, contextual, and demographic information. Between 1995 and 1998, 569 American Indian youths, aged 9-15 years, completed surveys administered in public schools and an after-school program. Using logistic regression, probability profiles compared the likelihood of weapon-carrying, given the combinations of salient risk and protective factors. In the final models, weapon-carrying was associated significantly with one risk factor (substance use) and two protective factors (school connectedness, perceiving peers as having prosocial behavior attitudes/norms). With one risk factor and two protective factors, in various combinations in the models, the likelihood of weapon carrying ranged from 4% (with two protective factors and no risk factor in the model) to 80% of youth (with the risk factor and no protective factors in the model). Even in the presence of the risk factor, the two protective factors decreased the likelihood of weapon-carrying to 25%. This analysis highlights the importance of protective factors in comprehensive assessments and interventions for vulnerable youth. In that the risk factor and two protective factors significantly related to weapon-carrying are amenable to intervention at both individual and population-focused levels, study findings offer a guide for prioritizing strategies for decreasing weapon-carrying among urban American Indian young people. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bullying and weapon carrying: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    Studies suggest that adolescents involved in bullying are more likely to carry weapons than their uninvolved peers. To use meta-analyses to determine whether victims, bullies, and bully-victims are more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. PsycINFO, ERIC, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and Dissertation Abstracts International were searched for relevant publications (1950 through January 2014). The reference list of a review article and reference lists of retrieved articles were checked for further relevant studies. Studies were included if they provided an effect size comparing the weapon carrying of adolescent victims, bullies, or bully-victims with that of uninvolved peers. Studies that included individuals older than 21 years were excluded, as were studies that focused on incarcerated youth or youth diagnosed as having a psychopathologic condition. Studies were coded independently by 2 of us. The agreement rate was 93%. Effect sizes were coded that compared victims, bullies, or bully-victims with uninvolved peers. Meta-analyses were based on 22 studies for victims (n = 257 179), 15 studies for bullies (n = 236 145), and 8 studies for bully-victims (n = 199 563). This study focused on weapon carrying among adolescents. Hypotheses were formulated before the study. Victims (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.62-2.39), bullies (3.25; 2.72-3.89), and bully-victims (4.95; 3.77-6.50) were more likely to carry weapons than uninvolved peers. Analyses provided no indication of publication bias. Studies conducted in the United States found stronger relations between being a bully-victim and weapon carrying (odds ratio, 7.84; 95% CI, 6.02-10.21) than studies from other countries (3.62; 2.30-5.68; Q1 = 8.401; P = .004). Involvement in bullying as a victim, bully, or bully-victim is related to weapon carrying.

  5. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  6. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department's Excess Weapons Inventories and Selected Sensitive Equipment used by Protective Forces"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy has, on several occasions, revised its security posture based on identified threats and adversaries. These revisions in security posture have driven Departmental sites to upgrade their defensive and tactical equipment. Subsequent changes in the perceived threats have, in some cases, led to a reduction in the need for certain types of weapons, thus creating a pool of surplus equipment. These surplus weapons could potentially be used by other Department sites and Federal law enforcement agencies. Recent Office of Inspector General reports have raised concerns with the adequacy of controls related to defensive and tactical equipment. For example, our report on Management Controls Over Defense Related High Risk Property (OAS-M-08-06, April 2008) found that administrative controls over certain defense related high risk property were not sufficient for providing accountability over these items. Because of prior reported weaknesses in controls over defensive and tactical equipment, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors were properly managing excess weapons inventories and selected sensitive equipment used by protective forces. Our review disclosed that the Department was not always properly managing its inventories of excess weapons and selected sensitive equipment. We identified issues with the retention of unneeded weapons at many locations and with the identification and tracking of sensitive items. More specifically: Sites maintained large inventories of weapons that were no longer needed but had not been made available for use by either other Departmental sites or other Federal law enforcement agencies. For instance, at six of the locations included in our review we identified a total of 2,635 unneeded weapons with a total acquisition value of over $2.8 million that had not been officially declared as excess - an action that would have made them available for others to use

  7. Challenges in the application of modular open system architecture to weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Jonathan; Rose, Leo; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The overarching objective for Flexible Weapons is to replace current inventory weapons that will not fully utilize the increased capabilities of 6th generation platforms, with a single weapons kit made up of flexible, open architecture components. Flexible Weapon will develop a common architecture to enable modular subsystems to achieve flexible weapons capability while allowing technology refresh at the pace of technology discovery in an affordable and sustainable design. The various combinations of weapons to address multiple missions must be 100% compatible with 6th generation delivery platforms (fighters, bombers, RPAs) and backwards compatible with 4th and 5th generation platforms.

  8. Reflexive retaliation for violent victimization: the effect of social distance on weapon lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Scott; Rennison, Callie Marie

    2013-01-01

    During the course of being victimized, why do people sometimes fight back with their fists; in other cases, with a knife or blunt object; and at other times, with a firearm? One theory is that the weapons involved in self-defense, also known as reflexive retaliation, become less lethal as offenders and victims become more intimate and alike culturally. Using National Crime Victimization Survey data, we test hypotheses derived from this theory and primarily find support. This article concludes by discussing implications for future work.

  9. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  10. Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Glen I

    2012-08-01

    Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW.

  11. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  12. Superação in vitro da dormência de embriões do porta-enxerto de macieira M9 (Malus pumilla Mill. Suppression of in vitro dormancy in embryos of rootstock of apple M9 (Malus pumilla Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A dormência em sementes de macieira é um dos fatores limitantes para o avanço nos programas de melhoramento genético nesta espécie. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou estudar a germinação in vitro de embriões dormentes do porta-enxerto de macieira M9, oriundos da EE São Joaquim da EPAGRI/SC. Os embriões foram excisados de sementes maduras e inoculados em meio basal MS, adicionado de sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6 g.L-1, água de coco (15%, caseína hidrolisada (CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (0 e 14 µM; AG3 (0 e 1,5 µM, Kin (5 µM, 2-iP (12 µM; BAP (4 µM. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 10 dias e transferidas para sala de crescimento sob regime de luz de 16 horas, temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e 40 µmol de radiação luminosa. A maior percentagem de germinação (75% foi obtida em meio MS suplementado com CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e Kin (5 µM. Quando a Kin foi substituída por BAP (4µM, observou-se a formação de calo, sobre o qual se originaram gemas e brotações, cujos valores médios foram de 2,3 brotos por embrião e 12,3 gemas por brotação. Em relação ao comprimento das brotações, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. A maior percentagem de indução de calos ocorreu em meio de cultura suplementado com AIA, Kin e 2-iP. O meio de cultura MS/2 suplementado com CH e água de coco e isento de fitorreguladores, resultou em 25% de germinação. Já, o número de raízes foi maior no meio de cultura MS suplementado com AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e CH. O comprimento médio das raízes (4,0 cm não foi afetado por nenhum tratamento em particular. Desta forma, esta técnica é uma alternativa eficiente ao uso de tratamentos de frio para a superação da dormência.The embryo dormancy in apple is a limiting factor in breeding programs with this species. Thus the present work was carried out in order to study the in vitro germination of M9 apple dormant embryos, originated from the Experimental

  13. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  14. [Penetration depth of missiles fired from a pneumatic weapon with kinetic energy below 17 J, in 20% gelatine blocks as correlated with injuries found during autopsy of a 9-year-old boy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kedzierski, Maciej; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, according to the Act About Weapons and Ammunition, an air weapon which has kinetic energy of the fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreation shooting with this weapon basically have to be performed in shooting ranges, but can be also carried on outside of shooting ranges, providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study, we presented a case of fatal shooting of a 9-year-old boy; the weapon was a Chinese pneumatic device weapon with kinetic energy of the fired projectiles below 17 J. The aim of this study was to compare autopsy findings with penetration depth of missiles fired from this pneumatic weapon in 20% gelatine blocks. During the experiment, we used a Chinese pneumatic weapon with kinetic energy below 17 J, five kinds of lead projectiles with different shape and mass and 20% gelatine blocks at the temperature of 10 degrees C, which were the model of human soft tissues.

  15. On Theft with Lethal Weapons in Criminal Law%论刑法中的携带凶器盗窃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安军

    2012-01-01

    我国刑法中携带凶器型盗窃的立法意图及模式为具体理解与适用提供了基准。作为规范构成要件要素的凶器,除了需要考察凶器的客观因素外,还必须考虑行为人的主观因素,即在具体的案件中应以客观的及主观的要素为根据综合判断。携带凶器的时间段应包括着手实行盗窃行为至盗窃罪构成要件完成(既遂)的全过程。在这一过程中,行为人认识到自己携带了凶器,认识到自己在盗窃他人财物,希望通过携带的凶器排除或阻止他人的反抗,以便非法占有他人财物。与普通盗窃相比,携带凶器型盗窃除了属于行为犯外,更具有抽象危险犯的特征,二者并行不悖。%In Chinese criminal law,the legislative intent and model of theft with lethal weapons provides a benchmark for specific understanding and application.As normative elements of constitutive requirements of lethal weapons,the behavior of subjective factors should also be considered in addition to the objective factors of the weapon;in other words,the judgment should be based on objective and subjective elements in specific cases.The period of carrying lethal weapons should be from the start of acting to execute theft to complete offense of theft.The subject recognized carrying lethal weapons and his stealing behaviors,wished to exclude or block resistance and occupy property of others by carrying lethal weapons in this process.Compared with ordinary theft,theft with lethal weapons has more features of abstract potential damage offense in addition to belonging to behavioral offense,two of which are not contradictary to each other.

  16. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  17. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  18. Revisiting the Interplate Coupling Beneath Northeast Japan Before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) Based on Terrestrial and Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, T.; Hino, R.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large coseismic slip along the Japan Trench during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) highlighted the necessity of the re-examination of the interplate coupling on the boundary between the subducting Pacific and overriding continental plates beneath the northeastern Japanese Islands. Interplate coupling along the shallowest portion of the megathrust before the Tohoku Earthquake must have been persistent, but spatial resolution of the inversion analysis based only on terrestrial geodetic data is generally not high enough to constrain the coupling state in the far offshore area.Meanwhile, seafloor geodetic observation has been developed and applied off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district in this decade, and the secular displacement rates before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake are reported by Japan Coast Guard and Tohoku University. These seafloor geodetic observation data are invaluable to estimate the interplate coupling beneath the northeastern Japan, but have been difficult to be included in the inversion analyses, because the measurements contain large uncertainties and are more sparsely sampled both in temporal and spatial domains than the terrestrial observations. To overcome this difficulty, we have taken into account the correlations between the observed displacement rates at terrestrial GPS stations in the inversion analyisis. We assumed that the covariance between the displacement rates at two different GPS sites depends on the distance, and configured the covariance between the different components, such as EW, NS and UD, by applying the result of raw GPS data processing.We performed numerical test to examine the advantage of involving the covariance matrix, and concluded that the covariance between the observations should be taken into account in the inversion analysis. We appied the inversion to the actual displacement field data obtained before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The results show that evident temporal change of the slip deficit had occurred after an

  19. Long-term acceleration of aseismic slip prior to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Constraints from repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommatis, Andreas; Segall, Paul; Uchida, Naoki; Johnson, Kaj

    2016-04-01

    A very long-duration deformation transient that spanned the period 1996-2011, prior to the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, was reported from continuous GPS observations in northern Honshu, Japan (Mavrommatis et al., 2014; Yokota and Koketsu, 2015). The transient was interpreted as accelerating aseismic slip on the Japan Trench megathrust, i.e. a decadal-scale transient slip event. Here we use independent observations of small repeating earthquakes that occurred on the megathrust to test for the GPS-inferred accelerating slip and improve its spatial resolution. We test whether sequences of repeating earthquakes exhibit a statistically significant monotonic trend in recurrence interval by applying the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Offshore northern Tohoku, all sequences that pass the test exhibit decelerating recurrence, consistent with decaying afterslip following the 1994 M7.7 Sanriku earthquake. On the other hand, offshore south-central Tohoku, all sequences that pass the test exhibit accelerating recurrence, consistent with long-term accelerating creep prior to the 2011 ?9 earthquake. Using a physical model of repeating earthquake recurrence, we produce time histories of cumulative slip on the plate interface. After correcting for afterslip following several M˜7 earthquakes in the period 2003-2011, we find that all but one sequence exhibit statistically significant slip accelerations. Offshore south-central Tohoku, the estimated slip acceleration is on average 2.9 mm/yr^2, consistent with the range of 2.6-4.0 mm/yr2 estimated from independent GPS data (Mavrommatis et al., 2014). From a joint inversion of GPS and seismicity data, we infer that a substantial portion of the plate interface experienced accelerating creep in the 15 years prior to the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The large slip area of the Tohoku-oki earthquake appears to be partly bounded by accelerating creep, implying that most of the rupture area of the Tohoku-oki earthquake was either locked or

  20. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Management Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE. The project’s technical monitor is Jay Jordan, Technical Director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other...CGFs for development costs range from a low of 1.16 for the nine ship weapon systems reviewed in Asher and Mag- gelet (1984) to a high of 2.26 for six...to procurement) for each weapon system 2.26 (n = 6) 1.43 (n = 6) Not reported Asher and Maggelet (1984) Last SAR for program or December 1983 As of

  1. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...... hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...

  2. Blade Weapons of the Perm Cis-Urals Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danich Andrei V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the understudied problem of bladed weapons of the Perm Cis-Urals region. For the first time the work generalizes significant archaeological and museum material dated back to the 8th-15th centuries, including the recent finds not yet interpreted by scholars. Their comprehensive analysis has made it possible to provide a detailed typological and chronological characteristic of certain types and categories of blade weapons and trace their evolution. The data on the role and place of the saber (cavalry sword in the mortuary cult are analyzed.

  3. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 Avionics Modernization Program (C-130 AMP)The Air Force’s C-130 AMP standardizes the cockpit configurations and avionics for...GAO-06-391 Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 AMP Program Technology Maturity All of the C-130 AMP’s six...Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-5 AMPC -5 Avionics Modernization Program (C-5 AMP)The Air Force’s C-5 AMP is the first of two major upgrades

  4. Identification of the murder weapon by intricate patterned injury measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugibe, F T; Costello, J T

    1986-04-01

    Critical studies of an intricate blunt force injury pattern in a brutal homicide led to the identification of the murder weapon. A 50-year-old male was bludgeoned to death in his apartment during a robbery allegedly engineered by his daughter. Careful measurements and overlay construction of the wounds relative to the magazine catch, lanyard ring, magazine chamber, and butt of a 32-caliber Eistegui Hermanos fibar (España) automatic pistol led to the conclusion that either the alleged weapon or one identical to it caused the fatal injuries.

  5. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote. ...

  6. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  7. Photospheric Acne at The Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Doppler Images of M4.5 - M9V Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, John R.; Haswell, Carole A.; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Lohr, Marcus E.; Jenkins, James S.

    2016-07-01

    Starspots are an important manifestation of stellar activity and yet their distribution patterns on the lowest mass stars is notwell known. Time series spectra of fullyconvective M dwarfs taken in the red-optical with UVES reveal numerous line profiledistortions which are interpreted as starspots. New Doppler images of HU Del (GJ 791.2A; M4.5V), BL Ceti (GJ 65A; M5.5V)and UV Ceti (GJ 65B; M6V) attwoepochs separated by three nights are presented. We find that contrastratioscorrespondingto photosphere-spot temperature differences of only 100-400 Kare sufficient to model the time series spectra of M4.5V - M9Vstars. Starspotsare reconstructed at a range of phases and latitudes with mean spot filling factors of only a few per cent.The distribution and low-contrast of the spots/spot-groups that we recover are likely to be responsible for the low amplitudephotometric variability seen in late-M dwarfs. The stability of the spot patterns in the two sets of timeseries observationsenables us to measure the latitude dependent differential rotation, which we find to be consistent with zero.

  8. Influence of Soil Compaction and Drought on the Growth,Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates in Fugi/M.9EMLA Apple Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yun-cong; John G Streeter; David C Ferree

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown 1-year-old potted M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus pumila Borkh) were subjected to the soil compaction and, after growing under compacted or non-compacted conditions for 6 weeks, were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. Soil compaction and drought stress significantly reduced plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Although drought significantly inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, compaction only depressed transpiration. Furthermore, the effects of drought on plant growth, photosynthesis and transpiration were much greater than the effects of compaction. The rate of water loss from compacted plants was lower than the rate from non-compacted controls and this may explain the insignificant impact of compaction on photosynthesis. Sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations increased over time during the drought stress period whereas sucrose concentration declined. In well-watered controls, sucrose concentration was much higher in leaves of compacted plants than in the leaves on non-compacted controls. For most of the sampling dates the leaf sorbitol concentration was lower in leaves on plants growing in compacted soil than in the leaves of those of the non-compacted controls. Although interactions between the effects of compaction and drought were highly significant for plant growth variables during the onset of drought, interactive effects on photosynthesis, transpiration, relative water content and carbohydrate variables were inconsistent. Compaction and drought both have major effects on apple plants and the interactions between these two stresses are complex.

  9. 2004年苏门答腊—安达曼M9级地震的下一代形变模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Masterlark; K.L.H. Hughes; 张华(译); 赵爱华(校)

    2009-01-01

    2004年的苏门答腊—安达曼M9级地震将俯冲的印度—澳大利亚板块和仰冲的缅甸板块分裂开。这次地震的形变属于三维问题,为此我们构建了有限元模型进行模拟,以说明俯冲板块、弧前、火山弧及弧后的物性分布。同震形变的模拟使用一种基于协议的方法。该方法考虑俯冲带的地质复杂性,使用有限元模型反演估计断层滑动分布。结果表明不考虑俯冲带中物性差异的形变预测的灵敏度比近场GPS的测量误差可大一个数量级还多。本文介绍的基于有限元模型的技术可用于地质上相符的形变模型,提高同震与震后形变、应力耦合及海啸发生的基于模拟技术的评估可靠性。

  10. WISE J072003.20-084651.2: An Old and Active M9.5 + T5 Spectral Binary 6 pc from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Melis, Carl; Bowler, Brendan P; Michelsen, Eric L; Gagliuffi, Daniella Bardalez; Gelino, Christopher R; Jehin, E; Delrez, L; Manfroid, J; Blake, Cullen H

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. Astrometric measurements obtained with TRAPPIST improve the distance measurement to 6.0$\\pm$1.0 pc and confirm the low tangential velocity (3.5$\\pm$0.6 km/s) reported by Scholz. Low-resolution optical spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of M9.5 and prominent H$\\alpha$ emission ( = -4.68$\\pm$0.06), but no evidence of subsolar metallicity or Li I absorption. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals subtle peculiarities indicating the presence of a T5 binary companion, and high-resolution laser guide star adaptive optics imaging reveals a faint ($\\Delta$H = 4.1) candidate source 0"14 (0.8 AU) from the primary. We measure a stable radial velocity of +83.8$\\pm$0.3 km/s, indicative of old disk kinematics and consistent with the angular separation of the possible companion. We measure a projected rotational velocity of v sin i = 8.0$\\pm$0.5 km/s, and find evidence of low-level variability (~1.5%) in a 13-day TRAP...

  11. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Seike

    Full Text Available Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010 and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012. During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae, varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  12. The vertical propagation of disturbances triggered by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake over Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chen, C. H.; Tsai, H. F.; Yen, H. Y.; Chum, J.; Lastovicka, J.; Yang, Q. S.; Chen, W. S.; Wen, S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, concurrent/colocated measurements of seismometers, infrasonic systems, magnetometers, HF-CW (high frequency-continuous wave) Doppler sounding systems, and GPS receivers are employed to detect disturbances triggered by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake. No time delay between colocated infrasonic (i.e., super long acoustic) waves and seismic waves indicates that the triggered acoustic and/or gravity waves in the atmosphere (or seismo-traveling atmospheric disturbances, STADs) near the Earth's surface can be immediately activated by vertical ground motions. The circle method is used to find the origin and compute the observed horizontal traveling speed of the triggered infrasonic waves. The speed of about 3.3 km/s computed from the arrival time versus the epicentral distance suggests that the infrasonic waves (i.e., STADs) are mainly induced by the Rayleigh waves. The agreements in the travel time at various heights between the observation and theoretical calculation suggest that the STADs triggered by the vertical motion of ground surface caused by the Tohoku earthquake traveled vertically from the ground to the ionosphere with speed of the sound in the atmosphere over Taiwan.

  13. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and..., 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of... Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has...

  15. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  16. Metal Detector Searches: An Effective Means To Help Keep Weapons Out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Ferraraccio's views and argues that: (1) students do bring illegal weapons to school; (2) metal detectors do detect weapons and help schools to disarm students; (3) disarming students reduces the threat of violence; and (4) courts have repeatedly approved the constitutionality of weapon-related suspicionless student searches…

  17. 48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major weapon systems as... Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon systems as commercial items. The DoD policy for acquiring major weapon systems as commercial items is in Subpart 234.70. ...

  18. Carrying a Weapon to School and Perceptions of Social Support in an Urban Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2003-01-01

    This study of perceived social support and weapon possession surveyed 461 students in an urban middle school. Students who reported carrying weapons to school reported less overall or total perceived social support (from peers, parents, teachers, classmates, and school) than did their peers who did not carry weapons. Perceived social support was a…

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous...

  20. 78 FR 2214 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks... proposing to further revise its regulations that address the voluntary application for enhanced weapons... for preemption or enhanced weapon authority. Section 161A also mandates that all security personnel...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described in...

  2. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...

  3. 36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The... other weapons is prohibited unless: (1) In the possession of a Federal, state or local law enforcement...

  4. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons...

  5. 49 CFR 1540.111 - Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries... § 1540.111 Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals. (a) On an individual's... individual may not have a weapon, explosive, or incendiary, on or about the individual's person or accessible...

  6. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  7. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...) 482-4895, Lawrence.Hall@bis.doc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons... weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use, development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, and...

  8. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on persons...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not bring firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons either openly or concealed...

  10. 76 FR 43937 - Criminal Penalties for Unauthorized Introduction of Weapons and Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Criminal Penalties for Unauthorized Introduction of Weapons and Sabotage AGENCY... the AEA provides Federal criminal sanctions for the wrongful introduction of weapons or explosives... Introduction of Dangerous Weapons'' (119 Stat. 812), amended Section 229 of the AEA, ``Trespass on Commission...

  11. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to the...

  12. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a) of...

  13. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in the...

  14. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other dangerous...

  15. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  16. 76 FR 23515 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event... material and would add new event notification requirements on the theft or loss of enhanced weapons... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (76 FR 6087) , the draft Regulatory Guide DG-5020, ``Applying for Enhanced...

  17. Fatal Injuries of Law Enforcement/Correctional Officers Attacked with Sharp-Edged Weapons().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenpanas, Patsy; Bir, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    According to the National Law Enforcement Memorial Fund, there were 117 law enforcement fatalities in the United States in 2015. Assaults with sharp-edged weapons have resulted in a total of over 400 fatalities in the United States. The goal of the current research was to examine sharp-edged weapon assaults against law enforcement and correctional agents that resulted in a fatal outcome. A total of twelve autopsy reports were reviewed from across the United States. Four cases involved law enforcement officers, seven involved correctional officers, and one was an off-duty border officer. The male-to-female ratio was 11:1. A total of 70.2% of the wounds analyzed were stab wounds (n = 85), and 29.8% of the wounds were slash wounds (n = 36). Based on this review, the neck, shoulder, and chest regions were the most vulnerable to single fatal stab/slash wounds. Multiple stab/slash wounds often resulted in exsanguination. The use of body armor was only noted in one case. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...... of justification and risk management in contemporary conflicts....

  19. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  20. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his se...

  1. Seventy Years of Computing in the Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos has continuously been on the forefront of scientific computing since it helped found the field. This talk will explore the rich history of computing in the Los Alamos weapons program. The current status of computing will be discussed, as will the expectations for the near future.

  2. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    between Z=57 (lanthanum) and Z=72 ( hafnium ), inclusive, are very rare in commerce, making 72 a reasonable boundary between high Z and lower Z elements...materials used in nuclear weapons of other nations (e.g., for alloys ) for purposes of nuclear forensics. (2) Another task is to develop the algorithms

  3. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    electron laser kW Kilo-watt LCS Littoral Combat Ship LAWS Laser Weapon System MLD Maritime Laser Demonstration MW Mega -watt NiMH Nickel metal...and various littoral combat ships. Also, an accurate, working model of the capacitor energy bank is being developed and the flywheel model is being

  4. Determination of the Contribution of Live Firing to Weapons Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    area requirements. These ranges are generally similar to the combat environments in which the weapons would be used. However, numerous factors place...9-foot radius position for miss direction. (5) Transmitter/Receiver— mdio frequency communication of hit-miss information between target and firing

  5. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing USAF Weapon System Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard ........................................................... 87 Bibliography...bolt that, in March 2000, struck a Philips semiconductor plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico , created a 10-minute blaze that contaminated millions of...strategic planning of weapon systems as they mature and progress through the life cycle. 87 Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard 88

  6. Are Weapons Searches in the Job Descriptions of Instructional Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author poses the question "Are weapons searches in the job descriptions of instructional leaders?" which brings to attention changing duties of school principals that were not faced by previous generations. The article reports observations made during time spent with a current high school principal.

  7. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  8. The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany; Wolfson, Ze'ev

    2004-01-01

    The legacy and arsenal of biological weapons Russia inherited from USSR in 1991 became a lingering unsolved issue, in terms of a prime strategic arm that ought to be eliminated, advisably, in accordance with the Biological Weapons Convention Russia is committed to, and considering further undertakings and declarations made by the Russian regime. Indeed, that inheritance was created by USSR as a powerful, highly sophisticated component of utmost importance within the Soviet military paradigm, based on a wide spectrum of virulent, stabilized pathogens and toxins plus delivery systems. Moreover, remarkably advanced biotechnologies were thus applied to procure stockpiles of military-grade pathogens and toxins. Yet, an intriguing debate aroused with regard to the extent of the weaponized biological inventory accumulated by USSR, as well as the in effect attitude of Russia towards perpetuating or wiping out that inheritance. It turned out to form a far reaching and challenging complexity, both strategically and scientifically. The present study concentrates on the strategic as well as scientific spheres shaping that overall issue at large, attempting to thoroughly analyze it through an innovative methodology. One main conclusion thereby reached at is that the Russian military still poses a potential menance, in terms of both stockpiled, probably deployable biological weapons, and prevailing production capacities.

  9. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  10. Mitigation and propagation of sound generated by heavy weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Much environmental research is performed on predicting the noise impact of heavy weapons or explosives, as the shock waves can propagate over large distances. In the densely populated area of the Netherlands this is of particular interest for the Ministry of Defense. In one research program the miti

  11. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  12. The Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Weapon Problem And Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglio, James R.

    1984-08-01

    An amendment to the 1984 Defense Authorization Act prevents testing against objects in space of an American F-15 launched anti-satellite weapon until the President certifies that the testing is necessary to prevent harm to the national security, and that he is willing to negotiate an ASAT treaty with the Soviet Union. This extraordinary action by the Congress was taken because many members of Congress feared that the weapon was being developed without due consideration for its impact on arms control, that temporary technical superiority was being given greater importance than the long-term security of the nation. This increased Congressional scrutiny could have an impact on future weapons development programs. "Now a crucial moment is really coming: Either the interested parties will sit down at the negotiating table without delay to begin drawing up a treaty prohibiting the placement in space of weapons of any kind, or the arms race will spill over into space." YURI ANDROPOV, April 28, 1983, in response to petition from American Scientists.

  13. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) process with regards to Command and ... [81] TE refers to “the part of threat analysis concerned with the ...... makers are more likely to screen options with respect to cut-offs or goals when there is.

  14. Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola M. Ostojić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned air transport mules from IsraelSensor monitoring of land areaSatellite telescope Moiraorbital weapons "cosmic dome"Automat for frogmen from TulaHeckler & Koch HK XM25, smart grenade launcher

  15. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  16. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  17. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests.

  18. Smart Weapons - Can We Fold the Nuclear Umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-17

    However, as a weapon of mass destruction, they present unique doctrina ! problems. Doctrine must address not only their military utility, but their...p. 3. 3. Ibid., p. 4. 4. United States Army TRADOC Regulation 525-58 (Final Draft), Airland Operations, Fort Monroe , VA, 1991, p. 3. 5. Buckley

  19. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  20. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  1. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  2. Radiologic signs of weapons and munitions: How will noncombatants recognize them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlin, Zeev V; Kuruvilla, Mathew; Clement, Jason J; Vos, Patrick M; Brown, Jacqueline A

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to show the radiologic signs named after weapons and munitions along with their military counterparts to help radiologists recognize these signs, which will allow confident interpretation and diagnosis. Numerous pathologic conditions have classic radiologic manifestations that resemble weapons and ammunition. Most of these signs are highly memorable and easy to recognize. However, the names of the weapons (some of them antique and some not commonly known) may confuse radiologists who are not familiar with the appearance of such weapons as the scimitar, bayonet, or dagger. The value of the signs is reduced if the radiologist is unfamiliar with the appearance of the corresponding weapon.

  3. Weapon use increases the severity of domestic violence but neither weapon use nor firearm access increases the risk or severity of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkes, Stephanie E F; Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T

    2013-04-01

    Use of weapons is a risk factor for domestic violence severity, especially lethality. It is not clear, however, whether access to firearms itself increases assault severity, or whether it is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who are more likely to commit severe and repeated domestic assault. This reanalysis of 1,421 police reports of domestic violence by men found that 6% used a weapon during the assault and 8% had access to firearms. We expected that firearm use would be rare compared to other weapons and that actual weapon use rather than firearm access would increase the severity of domestic assaults. Firearm access was associated with assault severity, but this was mostly attributable to use of nonfirearm weapons. Weapon use was associated with older age, lower education, and relationship history as well as to assault severity. Victims were most concerned about future assaults following threats and actual injuries. Although firearm access and weapon use were related to actuarial risk of domestic violence recidivism, neither predicted the occurrence or severity of recidivism. We conclude that, consistent with previous research in the United States and Canada, firearm use in domestic violence is uncommon even among offenders with known firearm access. Weapon use is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who commit more severe domestic violence, and seizure of weapons may be an effective intervention.

  4. Weapon Possession Among College Students: A Study From a Midwestern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunseok; Kang, Ji Hyon; Dierenfeldt, Rick; Lindsteadt, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Weapon possession on college campuses causes great concern, but there remains a lack of research examining the determinants of this phenomenon. Previous studies addressing weapon possession have primarily focused on either K-12 or the general adult population. Unlike previous studies, this study examined the weapon possession among college students using data collected from a mid-sized university in Missouri, and 451 students participated. Weapon possession and other theoretical factors were measured through the self-administered survey. Logistical regression analysis revealed that weapon socialization was the most significant factor in predicting student weapon carrying. Also, gender and age were significant factors in explaining campus-based weapon possession. This research has a limitation with generalizability because the data were collected from only a single university with convenient sampling. Future studies need to cover a wider range of college students from a variety of different universities with random sampling.

  5. The weapon focus effect is weaker with Black versus White male perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickel, Kerri L; Sneyd, Danielle E

    2017-04-23

    We compared the influence of a weapon's presence on eyewitnesses' memory for a White versus a Black male perpetrator. Prior data indicate that unusual objects in visual scenes attract attention and that a weapon's effect depends on how unusual it seems within the context in which it appears. Therefore, given the stereotype linking Black men and weapons, we predicted a weaker weapon focus effect with the Black perpetrator. The results of Experiment 1 supported this hypothesis using White and Black witnesses. Moreover, in Experiment 2 the weapon focus effect became nonsignificant when the Black perpetrator wore a style of clothing that is strongly associated with Black men. We propose that observing an armed Black perpetrator automatically activates a stereotype linking Black men with weapons and crime, which in turn reduces the perceived unusualness of the weapon and thus its ability to attract attention.

  6. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  7. Regional stressing rate appears to control duration and decay of off-fault aftershocks in the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2001 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake brought the unprecedented broad increase in seismicity over inland Japan and far offshore. The seismicity rate increase was observed at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust, which roughly corresponds to the areas over 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase (e.g., Toda et al., 2011). Such stress perturbation in the entire eastern Honshu island gives us a great opportunity to test one of the hypotheses in rate and state friction of Dieterich (1994): aftershock duration (ta) is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate. The Tohoku-oki mainshock indeed started a stopwatch simultaneously for all the off-fault and on-fault aftershocks in various tectonic situations. We have carefully examined the aftershock decays fitting the Omori-Utsu formula in several activated regions, including on the 2011 source fault, several inland areas of Tohoku (Akita, Iwaki, northern Sendai, and Fukushima), Tokyo metropolitan area, Choshi (east of Tokyo), Izu Peninsula, and areas along the most active Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) central Honshu. Comparing the regional aftershock decays with the background rates of seismicity estimated from the JMA catalog from 2000 to 2010, we measured ta. One of the extreme short duration was measured at the Izu Peninsula where the heightened seismicity was rapidly toned down to the normal in one month. Overall seismicity in the Tohoku mainshock zone has been mostly closing to normal in 2 - 3 years. Both regions are characterized by high loading rate due to plate collision and subduction. Seismicity beneath Tokyo, also characterized by complex plate interfaces and brought average 1 bar closer to failure, has not followed the simple Omori decay but being settled a new higher rate after a rapid decay. In contrast to these highly deformed regions, current seismicity in slowly loading Tohoku inland regions are still much higher than background rate, which

  8. Poroelastic stress-triggering of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake by the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K.L.H.; Masterlark, Timothy; Mooney, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) occurred three months prior to the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE). We propose that the NE was mechanically triggered by the SAE, and that poroelastic effects were a major component of this triggering. This study uses 3D finite element models (FEMs) of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) to predict the deformation, stress, and pore pressure fields of the SAE. The coseismic slip distribution for the SAE is calibrated to near-field GPS data using FEM-generated Green's Functions and linear inverse methods. The calibrated FEM is then used to predict the postseismic poroelastic contribution to stress-triggering along the rupture surface of the NE, which is adjacent to the southern margin of the SAE. The coseismic deformation of the SAE, combined with the rheologic configuration of the SASZ produces two transient fluid flow regimes having separate time constants. SAE coseismic pore pressures in the relatively shallow forearc and volcanic arc regions (within a few km depth) dissipate within one month after the SAE. However, pore pressures in the oceanic crust of the down-going slab persist several months after the SAE. Predictions suggest that the SAE initially induced MPa-scale negative pore pressure near the hypocenter of the NE. This pore pressure slowly recovered (increased) during the three-month interval separating the SAE and NE due to lateral migration of pore fluids, driven by coseismic pressure gradients, within the subducting oceanic crust. Because pore pressure is a fundamental component of Coulomb stress, the MPa-scale increase in pore pressure significantly decreased stability of the NE fault during the three-month interval after the SAE and prior to rupture of the NE. A complete analysis of stress-triggering due to the SAE must include a poroelastic component. Failure to include poroelastic mechanics will lead to an incomplete model that cannot account for the time interval between the SAE and NE. Our transient

  9. WISE J072003.20-084651.2: an Old and Active M9.5 + T5 Spectral Binary 6 pc from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gillon, Michaël; Melis, Carl; Bowler, Brendan P.; Michelsen, Eric L.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Gelino, Christopher R.; Jehin, E.; Delrez, L.; Manfroid, J.; Blake, Cullen H.

    2015-03-01

    We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. New astrometric measurements obtained with the TRAPPIST telescope improve the distance measurement to 6.0 ± 1.0 pc and confirm the low tangential velocity (3.5 ± 0.6 km s-1) reported by Scholz. Low-resolution optical spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of M9.5 and prominent Hα emission ( = -4.68 ± 0.06), but no evidence of subsolar metallicity or Li i absorption. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals subtle peculiarities that can be explained by the presence of a T5 binary companion, and high-resolution laser guide star adaptive optics imaging reveals a faint (ΔH = 4.1) candidate source 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 14 (0.8 AU) from the primary. With high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we measure a stable radial velocity of +83.8 ± 0.3 km s-1, indicative of old disk kinematics and consistent with the angular separation of the possible companion. We measure a projected rotational velocity of v sin i = 8.0 ± 0.5 km s-1 and find evidence of low-level variabilty (˜1.5%) in a 13 day TRAPPIST light curve, but cannot robustly constrain the rotational period. We also observe episodic changes in brightness (1%-2%) and occasional flare bursts (4%-8%) with a 0.8% duty cycle, and order-of-magnitude variations in Hα line strength. Combined, these observations reveal WISE J0720-0846 to be an old, very low-mass binary whose components straddle the hydrogen burning minimum mass, and whose primary is a relatively rapid rotator and magnetically active. It is one of only two known binaries among late M dwarfs within 10 pc of the Sun, both of which harbor a mid T-type brown dwarf companion. We show that while this specific configuration is rare (≲1.6% probability), roughly 25% of binary companions to late-type M dwarfs in the local population are likely low-temperature T or Y brown dwarfs. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M

  10. Systematical Search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D.; Peng, Z.; Meng, X.

    2013-12-01

    The continuous collision between the Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate gives rise to the formation of Tibet Plateau, one of the most complex tectonic environments in the world. In this study, we search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias Earthquakes. During 2002 to 2005, the Hi-CLIMB (Himalayan-Tibetan Continental Lithosphere during Mountain Building) experiment (IRIS network code XF) was operated in South-Central Tibet, extending from the Ganges lowland, across the Himalayas and into the central Tibetan plateau. Over 200 sites were occupied over this experiment, providing unprecedented continuous recordings around the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias Earthquakes. On April 7th 2005, nearly 10 days after the 2005 Nias Earthquake, Zhongba was shaken by an Mw 6.3 Earthquake, raising the question on whether this event was delay-triggered by the Nias Earthquake. The Zhongba region is characterized by many NS-trending rift systems that accommodate EW extension, and several moderate-size earthquakes since 2004 suggest that this region is seismically active. Here we use a recently developed matched filter technique to examine seismicity rate changes associated with the 2004 Sumatra and 2005 Nias earthquakes. Specifically, we use 32 relocated earthquakes in Zhongba as templates to detect additional local events between 12/2004 and 05/2005. Although we have detected more than 45 times more events during this time period, we find no statistically significant change in the seismicity rate following the Nias earthquake and before the 2005 Zhongba mainshock. Hence, it is difficult to establish a triggering relationship between these two events. However, after manual inspection of the continuous data during the surface wave trains of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias earthquakes, we identify many triggered microearthquakes 350 km north of Zhongba. These dynamically triggered events were located in southern part

  11. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act. OMB Control Number: 1405... annual report to Congress on projected sales of major weapons and weapons-related defense equipment (if...

  12. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President issued Executive Order 13094 amending Executive...

  13. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Edmunds, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Shot through the heart-firepower and potential lethality of air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Strinovic, Davor; Mayer, Davor

    2014-11-01

    Although certain air weapons attain muzzle velocities comparable to some firearms, their successful use for committing suicide is rarely seen. Herein, we report a case of a young female died shortly after urgent admission to the hospital with penetrating gunshot wound to the chest. The autopsy revealed perforation of the pericardium and two perforative defects to the right heart ventricle. Injury was inflicted by a 0.177 caliber pellet, fired from an air rifle found near her body. Investigation ruled the death as suicide. The used air rifle fired the pellet with the energy density of 1.9 J/mm(2) , substantially above the threshold for inflicting injury. The pellet penetrated through two layers of cotton fabric and several layers of tissue to inflict fatal injury to the heart. In addition, we provide an insight into the wounding potential of air weapons, which illustrates the need for greater caution in handling those devices. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  16. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  17. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  18. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and

  19. The Morality of Employing Remotely Piloted Weapon Systems in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethics of remotely piloted weapon systems involve utilitarianism and Just War Theory. Although the other two perspectives, pacifism and realism, do...perspectives of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these...of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these

  20. An overview of weapons technologies used to improve US healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Kovarik, T.L.

    1995-05-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories the Biomedical Engineering Program uses existing weapons-related technology in medical applications in order to reduce health care costs, improve diagnoses, and promote efficient health care delivery. This paper describes several projects which use Sandia technologies to solve biomedical problems. Specific technical capabilities that are important to this program include sensor data interpretation, robotics, lasers and optics, microelectronics, image processing and materials.

  1. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    access machines , two (2) rocket cutting and shearing lines, two (2) neutralization system sampling stations, and three (3) Supercritical Water Oxidation...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition-Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision

  2. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  3. DoD Nuclear Weapons Personnel Reliability Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Reliability Program ( PRP ),” July 16, 2012 Approved by: Frank Kendall, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics...personnel reliability assurance education and training materials. 2.4. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR HEALTH AFFAIRS (ASD(HA)). Under the authority...policies, standards, and procedures. c. Education and training materials for medical support to nuclear weapons personnel reliability assurance. 2.5

  4. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    1400 Wavelength (nm) 106 Reference line Cataract Erythema Photokeratitis Corneal burns Retinal burns Thermal skin burns 315280 30000 28 Figure 4... pigmentation of the skin (dark skin absorbs more). 5 Advantages and disadvantages of laser weapons One of the greatest advantages of the laser beam...phased array antennas, one HPMW could defend a ship against a concerted attack of many missiles, at least against those approaching from a fixed

  5. Advanced Naval Surface fire support weapon employment against mobile targets

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hung B.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Key threat trends have identified shortfalls in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), a mission area that is undergoing rapid evolution. The Navy's ability to effectively provide sea-based fire support to ground forces is profoundly challenged by mobile and reduced dwell time targets. Furthermore, longer range enemy weapon systems, which must be destroyed at greater ranges prior to their engagement of friendly forces, will make NSFS timel...

  6. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    64 OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 6 Chapter 1 - Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems In a paradigm shift from...past 13 years. The result has been the erosion of perishable maintenance skills. The Army must develop the most effective plan to sustain these...communities to study and effectively manage Army sustainment . One effort is the development of Maintenance Steering Groups (MSG) to perform extensive

  7. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    77 4.20.2 Altitude (Low Air Pressure) ............................................... 78 4.20.3 Proof Firing...test weapon. The chamber is provided with the same dust feeder and electric blower as for the dynamic chamber. Vents are provided to relieve any...USDA permit for ATCC 11797 which is considered a plant pathogen. See USDA site for permit information). 4.20.2 Altitude (Low Air Pressure

  8. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  9. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  10. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  11. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE RESEARCH OF COLD STEEL ARMS AND THROWING WEAPONS AND THEIR TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article point out that the research of cold steel arms and their traces has been considered in detail in the studies of different criminologists. Unfortunately, many scientists, examining cold steel arms as the item of expertise, mainly paid attention to the knives, swords, daggers, etc., but few researchers considered crossbows as cold steel weapon. In accordance with part. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of Russia for illegal manufacture, alteration or repair of throwing weapons, as well as the illegal sale of throwing weapons (Art. 4, Art. 222 of the Criminal Code, criminal liability is stipulated. Thus, the authors agree with the opinions expressed in the literature according to which attention should be paid to the fuzzy wording of p. 4 Art. 222 of the Criminal Code and p. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: "Cold steel weapons, including throwing weapons". Throwing weapons are not included in the number of cold steel arms; it is an independent type of weapon that is different from the cold steel by its technical characteristics. The common feature of cold steel arms and throwing weapons is striking of a target due to the muscle power of a man. The main difference is that there is no projectile with directional movement in cold steel arms and striking occurs due to the direct contact with the object. The definitions of these types of weapons are contained in the Federal Act "About Weapons"

  12. Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasjit Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature.Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped.The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is only meant to further the narrow self-interest of the nuclear weapon states and their allies.The World Court’s far-reaching 1996 advisory opinion concluded that almost any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons would violate international humanitarian law and law applicable in armed conflict, undermining most claims of nuclear weapon states regarding the legitimacy of possession, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The next logical step would be an initiative for a nuclear convention banning the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons in Asia and the adjoining oceans. But as long as the dominant elites in society and the nation-state believe in the utility of nuclear weapons for national security or as the currency of power, abolition of nuclear weapons will remain a mirage.

  13. Girls and weapons: an international study of the perpetration of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Patricia G; Butters, Jennifer E; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; Korf, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe delinquent girls' weapons preferences where and how often they carried weapons and to identify the most important factors that explained four different weapon-related violent outcomes. A large, high-risk sample of female adolescents consisting of 510 girls aged 14-17 in four cities were interviewed using the same questionnaire and methods. Tabular and logistic regression analyses were applied. Knives emerged as the most frequently reported weapon in all cities. Rates of both lifetime victimization and perpetration of violence with weapons were high in all sites. Starting to carry a weapon as a result of violence was reported by 40% of the girls in Toronto, 28% in Philadelphia, 25% in Amsterdam, and 16% in Montreal. The major predictors of weapon perpetrated violent behaviours included ethnic origin, early onset of delinquent activities, participation in delinquent acts in the past 12 months, gang fighting and carrying a weapon as a result of violence. Site, age and heavy alcohol consumption had a minor impact, and drug use, drug selling, and neighborhood features, none. Despite numerous differences in weapons' prevalence across cities, the logistic regression found that site was only significant in use of an object (Toronto) and not significant in threatening or hurting someone with either a knife or a gun or actually hurting others with a weapon. These findings suggest commonality in serious female violence that extends beyond borders and cultures.

  14. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  15. Analysis of the design concept of 'Nora' family artillery weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas L. Paligorić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the NORA family started as far as back to 1976 at the Military Technical Institute of the Yugoslav's People's Army. The programme covered development of several types of the main artillery weapon: the 152 mm NORA-A towed gun-howitzer, the 152 mm NORA-B self-propelled gun-howitzer and the 152 mm gun-howitzer with APU. Under the same programme, the conversion of the Russian 130 mm towed gun M46 into the 155 mm M46/84 gun (for export needs and the 152 mm M46/86 gun respectively (for the needs of the YPA was completed. Only the 152 mm M84 (NORA-A towed howitzer was introduced in service, while the development of the NORA-B and NORA-C weapons was carried on until 1992. After it had been suspended for many years, the development of the NORAB weapon was continued in 2003, followed by serial production of the 155 mm NORA-B52 self-propelled system for the export needs.

  16. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Concepts on the fields and weapons of the competition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Celso Contador

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the Fields and Weapons of the Competition Model has been publicized as a theoretical framework for many studies and, as such, it has appeared in a fragmented manner. Due to the level of consolidation the model has achieved, now is the time to present it integrally, so as to expose it to the appreciation of the scientific community dedicated to Corporate Strategy. Belonging to the Competitiveness theory and having scientific validity, the model is both qualitative and quantitative, and therefore presents some advantages over Porter’s model, as well as over the RBV and the Balanced Scorecard models. A simple idea has originated it: according to the customer’s interest, separating the so-called competitive advantages, so as to sort out those that interest him/her from those that do not. The first group consists of the fields of the competition; the latter corresponds to the weapons of the competition. The fields of the competition relate to the business´ competitive strategy, and the weapons of the competition related to the operational competitive strategies. This is the first of a series of three articles.

  18. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  19. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  20. Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

    2002-03-25

    A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are

  1. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  2. China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Geoffrey

    2008-04-01

    Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly

  3. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P rhythm and blues (6.9%), and country (6.3%) videos (P = .002). The videos with the highest level of sexuality or eroticism were found to be less likely to contain violence (P < or

  4. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  5. Fatal injuries caused by guns using shotshell: case reports and ballistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, D; Telmon, N; Alengrin, D; Marril, G; Bras, P M; Arbus, L

    1994-05-01

    The authors present six cases of homicide and suicide in which the weapon involved was a handgun using shotshell. The injuries caused are described and the ballistic characteristics of the weapons are studied. Such weapons, which are relatively easy to obtain, are not as innocuous as they may appear, since they may be modified either by changing the barrel or by removal of the device inside the barrel which is intended to prevent the firing of solid slugs.

  6. Detecting buried metallic weapons in a controlled setting using a conductivity meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Charles A; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A

    2011-05-20

    Forensic personnel may face a daunting task when searching for buried weapons at crime scenes or potential disposal sites. In particular, it is common to search for a small firearm that was discarded or buried by a perpetrator. When performing forensic searches, it is recommended to first use non-invasive methods such as geophysical instruments to minimize damage to evidence and to the crime scene. Geophysical tools are used to pinpoint small areas of interest across a scene for invasive testing, rather than digging large areas throughout the site. Prior to this project, there was no published research that tested the utility of the conductivity meter to search for metallic weapons such as firearms and blunt and sharp edged weapons. A sample comprised of 32 metallic weapons including firearms, blunt and sharp edged weapons, and scrap metals was buried in a controlled setting to test the applicability of a conductivity meter for forensic searches. Weapons were tested at multiple depths and after data collection was performed for one depth, the weapons were reburied 5 cm deeper until they were no longer detected. Variables such as weapon size, burial depth, transect interval spacing (25 and 50 cm), and metallic composition were tested. All of the controlled variables influenced maximum depth of detection. For example, size was a factor as larger weapons were detected at deeper depths compared to smaller weapons. Metal composition affected maximum depth of detection as the conductivity meter detected items comprised of ferrous metals at deeper depths than non-ferrous metals. Searches for large buried items may incorporate a transect interval spacing of 50 cm but small weapons may be undetected between transects and therefore a transect interval spacing of 25 cm is recommended. Overall, the conductivity meter is a geophysical tool to consider when searching for larger-sized metallic weapons or to use in conjunction with an all-metal detector, particularly when

  7. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  8. Strengthening the biological weapons convention and implications on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabriskie, D

    1998-06-01

    The development, production, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons are banned by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Reflecting the realities of the Cold War era in which it was negotiated, the BWC lacks means for compliance verification or enforcement. International efforts to remedy this deficiency are accelerating in the face of evidence that covert biological weapon programs are proliferating at the national and subnational levels.

  9. Security after the revolutions of 1989 and 1991: The future with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Political scientists typically view weapons within the realm of effects, not within the realm of cause. That is, weapons are a consequence of the great causal factors in international relations. Insecurity is the most important of these factors; it follows from the uneven distribution of power among states, the security dilemma, and the ever-present possibility that violence will be used to settle disagreements because there is no higher authority above states capable of enforcing rules. According to this logic weapons cause neither war nor peace. They are simply tools that states use to gain a share of the scarcest commodity - security - by fighting other states or by threatening to do so if necessary. Nuclear weapons are a product of great industrial capabilities, knowledge, and other resources. The United States and the Soviet Union had the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons because they were superpowers, not the other way around. On this logic, nuclear weapons reflect and reinforce a distribution of power that would exist in their absence. As the distribution of power among states changes, the status of nuclear weapons in the world will also change in a way that reflects the more fundamental causes that continue to drive state-state relationships in an anarchic world. In this chapter the author treat nuclears weapons within the realm of great causes. Arguing that nuclear weapons were a fundamental cause in bringing the Cold War, and with it the last vestiges of bipolarity, to an end. International life in the 1990s will not be the same as it was between 1945 and 1989. Will it be more like the multipolar world of the 1800s, with nuclear weapons simply grafted on the way other new weapons innovations have been in the past? That is not expected because nuclear weapons have altered the fundamental causal forces that drove previous international systems from peace to war and back again. 21 refs.

  10. The Training Implications of Directed Energy Weapons for the U.S. Army: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Study B-l C: Washington Post Article, Saturday, December 17, 1983, Laser Weapon Sparks Debate Over Ethics by Michael Schrange C-l LIST OF...7 power bOmm binoculars used by the platoon leader and platoon sergeant. Each squad is also issued one set. The M17 binoculars are used to acquire...Washington Post Article Saturday, December 17, 1983 Laser Weapon Sparks Debate Over Ethics By Michael Schrange The Army has developed a portable weapons

  11. Multidisciplinary model-based-engineering for laser weapon systems: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steve; Panthaki, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    We are working to develop a comprehensive, integrated software framework and toolset to support model-based engineering (MBE) of laser weapons systems. MBE has been identified by the Office of the Director, Defense Science and Engineering as one of four potentially "game-changing" technologies that could bring about revolutionary advances across the entire DoD research and development and procurement cycle. To be effective, however, MBE requires robust underlying modeling and simulation technologies capable of modeling all the pertinent systems, subsystems, components, effects, and interactions at any level of fidelity that may be required in order to support crucial design decisions at any point in the system development lifecycle. Very often the greatest technical challenges are posed by systems involving interactions that cut across two or more distinct scientific or engineering domains; even in cases where there are excellent tools available for modeling each individual domain, generally none of these domain-specific tools can be used to model the cross-domain interactions. In the case of laser weapons systems R&D these tools need to be able to support modeling of systems involving combined interactions among structures, thermal, and optical effects, including both ray optics and wave optics, controls, atmospheric effects, target interaction, computational fluid dynamics, and spatiotemporal interactions between lasing light and the laser gain medium. To address this problem we are working to extend Comet™, to add the addition modeling and simulation capabilities required for this particular application area. In this paper we will describe our progress to date.

  12. Non-Lethal Weapon Psychological Effects Based on“Stress”Theory%基于“应激”的非致命武器心理效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项德海; 庄弘炜; 卢玲

    2014-01-01

    针对非致命武器的实际使用效果与其预期效果总是存在差距这一现状,借助心理学的“应激”理论对其进行研究。以一起使用非致命武器处理暴乱事件为例,对非致命武器心理效应的产生、发展、结果进行分析,并建立心理效应的量化数学模型。结果表明,该研究对指导非致命武器在处突、反恐和解救人质中的应用具有一定的现实意义。%The author aims at the current present condition that there always exists some gap between the non-lethal weapons' practical effects and intended effects, conducts a study with the help of the“stress”theory of psychology. Taking a disposal riots case by using non-lethal weapons as example, analyses the generation, development and result of non-lethal weapon psychological effects, and establishes a quantitative mathematical model of psychological effect. The results show that it has great significance on the guidance of non-lethal weapons application in the conflict, terrorism and rescuing the hostages.

  13. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  14. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  15. The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-07-30

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Emergency department evaluation after conducted energy weapon use: review of the literature for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Bozeman, William P; Chan, Theodore C

    2011-05-01

    Conductive energy weapons (CEWs) are used daily by law enforcement, and patients are often brought to an emergency department (ED) for medical clearance. To review the medical literature on the topic of CEWs and to offer evidence-based recommendations to Emergency Physicians for evaluation and treatment of patients who have received a CEW exposure. A MEDLINE literature search from 1988 to 2010 was performed and limited to human studies published from January 1988 to January 20, 2010 for English language articles with the following keywords: TASER, conductive energy device(s), electronic weapon(s), conductive energy weapon(s), non-lethal weapon(s), conducted energy device(s), conducted energy weapon(s), conductive electronic device(s), and electronic control device(s). Studies identified then underwent a structured review from which results could be evaluated. There were 140 articles on CEWs screened, and 20 appropriate articles were rigorously reviewed and recommendations given. These studies did not report any evidence of dangerous laboratory abnormalities, physiologic changes, or immediate or delayed cardiac ischemia or dysrhythmias after exposure to CEW electrical discharges of up to 15 s. The current medical literature does not support routine performance of laboratory studies, electrocardiograms, or prolonged ED observation or hospitalization for ongoing cardiac monitoring after CEW exposure in an otherwise asymptomatic awake and alert patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  18. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  19. Examination of Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Weapons in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This observation implies that the popular view on nuclear weapons amongst Korean public is in part due to lack of knowledge about overall implications of possessing nuclear weapons. In this regard, pros and cons of nuclear weapons development need to be better characterized and understood by the public to support nuclear nonproliferation culture development. Noting lack of literature on characterizing the economics of nuclear weapons development, this study aims at performing economic feasibility analysis of nuclear weapons development in the ROK. For this purpose, an approach called Index technique based on the US experiences was applied to Korean historical data along with cost-benefit analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis. In this study, the scenario of nuclear weapons development against North Korean nuclear threat was compared with conventional weapons-based defense strategy. The comparison was based on cost benefit analysis and qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis. Results indicate that nuclear weapons development is not a desirable option. However, as this work was a rather simplistic academic exercise, further work is needed to support the outcome of the study. Outcome of these investigations would be useful for communication with the public regarding the need for nuclear weapons for national defense and to develop nuclear nonproliferation culture in the ROK.

  20. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. PMID:15793142

  1. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-01-01

    Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss

  2. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Cham E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this

  3. Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon%Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建彬; 吕小强

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that the energy and mass exchange phenomena exist between barrel and gas-operated device of the automatic weapon, for describing its interior ballistics and dynamic characteristics of the gas-operated device accurately, a new variable-mass thermodynamics model is built. It is used to calculate the automatic mechanism velocity of a certain automatic weapon, the calculation results coincide with the experimental results better, and thus the model is validated. The influences of structure parameters on gas-operated device' s dynamic characteristics are discussed. It shows that the model is valuable for design and accurate performance prediction of gas-operated automatic weapon.

  4. Long range thermal weapon sights for the German future infantryman program IdZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Rainer; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Münzberg, Mario; Rode, Werner

    2007-04-01

    In December 2004 AIM started the series production of the HuntIR long range thermal weapon sight. The sight is fielded in the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system and since that time in continuous service in various out of area missions with German participation. For very long identification ranges >1500m cooled technology still outperforms uncooled sights, even with respect to smaller size and lower weight because the typical F/1 design of uncooled systems overcompensates cooler weight for focal length >175mm. The HuntIR sight is therefore based on a cooled MWIR detection module for long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement. The device specifically is a perfect match to state of the art small arms like 0.50 cal sniper rifles or crew served weapons like the 40mm high velocity grenade machine gun (GMG) which provide engagement ranges >1500m and need an adequate sight performance beyond that. A recent modification of HuntIR was done to provide a wider field of view for improved situation awareness in urban operations and specifically to allow the engagement of the 40mm GMG in ranges between 250-1200m. The qualification tests of the sight by the German infantry were successfully completed mid 2006. To match the demand of the follow-up program IdZ-ES additional components have to be integrated. Most important are a laser range finder (LRF), 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a wireless data link. LRF and DMC together with a highly sophisticated fire control computer provide improved first round hit probability, the DMC additionally improves the fire control in any case of steep trajectories or for pronounced ballistic trajectories to avoid any need to precisely level the GMG. This new sight is done under the brand name RangIR. An important additional feature is the interface for air burst ammunition (ABM). The optical distance is measured by the LRF, the fire control computer accurately evaluates the trajectory under the given angle

  5. Induced Expression of Recombinant Bacillus Subtilis Glutamine Synthetase in Optimized M9 Medium%重组枯草芽孢杆菌谷氨酰胺合成酶蛋白在改良M9培养基中的诱导表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺谊; 殷志敏

    2007-01-01

    以重组枯草芽孢杆菌谷氨酰胺合成酶(L-谷氨酸:氨连接酶,Glutamine Synthetase, GS EC 6.3.1.2)蛋白表达宿主菌株BL21(DE3) (pET3C/谷氨酰胺合成酶)作为研究对象,借助SDS PAGE分析方法,对于用乳糖诱导由T7lac启动子控制的重组目的产物蛋白的各种基本参数进行了初步的研究.研究了最佳本底培养基、最佳碳源及其最佳添加比例、碳源与诱导物的最适组合,并探索了适用于改良型培养基的诱导参数.实验结果表明,对于重组目的产物蛋白,改良型M9培养基完全可以替代LB培养基;以甘油为碳源,可以避免葡萄糖对T7lac启动子的屏蔽作用.以乳糖为诱导物,目的蛋白的表达量、可溶性及酶活与以IPTG为诱导物基本接近.研究结果为酶法合成谷氨酰胺的工业化生产提供了一定的参考.

  6. Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

  7. Tank Weapon System Management. A Program for Maximum Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-19

    flow is minimal and positive. Authorizations: Current Proposed 76D10 9100 (8571) 8850 (81%) 76D20 1400 (15%) 1650 (19,) RECOMMENDATION: Etab &~h Mte...weapon system. RECOIMENtrATION: Etab &6h a Ppon4ive, ,ositve technicat c nnee to puvidc gqudaince and to kece u Jeedbacia on’ tank .6upp’PX irazteuL...System. An integrated group of procedures, methods, policies and may include the computer(s) and its software which is used to obtain, process and analyze

  8. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  9. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential

  10. 武器装备体系能力矩阵评估方法%Matrix Methodology Based Capability Evaluation of Weapon System of Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹强; 荆涛; 周少平

    2016-01-01

    针对武器装备体系能力难以客观、定量评估的问题,引入复杂网络理论,提出了基于矩阵运算的武器装备体系能力评估方法。分析了武器装备体系能力的概念,建立了武器装备体系的复杂层次网络模型,描述了装备网络的组成、运行过程,定义了装备网络的矩阵描述方法和矩阵运算规则,提出了装备网络作战能力描述参数,给出了装备网络能力的矩阵计算方法,进行了影响因素分析,最后通过实例验证了方法可行性、有效性和灵活性。%In order to evaluate capability of weapon system of systems more objectively and quantitively,complex networks theory is introduced,and a new matrix capability evaluation methodology is put forward. The capability definitions of weapon system of systems are analyzed,a layered complex network model of weapon system of systems is built,the components and operation process of the weapon network model are also described. Then matrix expression methods of weapon network and its special calculate rules are defined,tailor-made operation capability indexes of weapon network are brought out. The algorithm of using single-layer-matrixes and inter-layer-matrixes to compute whole weapon network’s capability is present; the influence factors of the algorithm are detailly analyzed. By the case study of a nominal operation network,the feasibility,validity and flexibility of proposed methodology are proved.

  11. New Wine in Old Bottles? The New Salience of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Y.E.

    2007-07-01

    Assessing continuity and change in the world's nuclear landscape is no small task. Since the end of the fierce East-West ideological and political conflict, escalating arms race, and brinkmanship, known as the Cold War, and mainly as a result of its end, the global strategic environment has fundamentally changed, and continues to change. Yet as one French scholar has written, 'We may know that the world is being transformed, but we do not know what the world is being transformed into... What this will look like is as imaginable to us now as the Treaties of Westphalia, which closed the Thirty Years War in 1648-49 would have been to a European of 1618'. There are various, often contradictory interpretations of basic trends and alternative hypothesis about their driving forces. In particular, some analysts still believe that after the Cold War the world is moving toward a democratic reconciliation and hence the 'end of history'. If that is the case then nuclear weapons are becoming less important. However, there is an increasing body of evidence to support Jean Baudrillard's theory that current geopolitical convulsions are the initial manifestations of a fourth world war. If so, the questions, as yet unanswered, are what the fundamental nature of this war is; what political and social actors are colliding with each other; and what the role of nuclear weapons will be in the conflicts and confrontations that may be pushing us toward another global conflagration. (author)

  12. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  13. Violence and weapon-related trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa S; Gaither, Catherine; Goycochea, Elena; Verano, John W; Cock, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Conquest of indigenous peoples in North America is understood primarily through ethnohistorical documents, archaeological evidence, and osteological analyses. However, in the Central Andes, the colonial enterprise and its effects are understood only from postcontact historical and ethnohistorical sources. Few archaeological and bioarchaeological studies have investigated Spanish Conquest and colonialism in the Andean region [for exceptions see Klaus and Tam: Am J Phys Anthropol 138 (2009) 356-368; Wernke, in press; and Quilter, in press]. Here we describe bioarchaeological evidence of violence from the cemeteries of Huaquerones and 57AS03 within the archaeological zone of Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru (circa A.D. 1470-1540). A total of 258 individuals greater than 15 years of age were analyzed for evidence of traumatic injuries. Individuals were examined macroscopically and evidence of traumatic injuries was analyzed according to the skeletal element involved, the location of the injury on the skeletal element, and any additional complications of the injury. This study examines and compares the evidence of perimortem injuries on skeletonized individuals from the two cemeteries and focuses specifically on the interpretation of weapon-related perimortem injuries. Evidence of perimortem trauma is present in both cemeteries (18.6%, 48/258); however, the frequency of injuries in 57AS03 is greater than that in Huaquerones (25.0% vs. 13.0%). Several injuries from 57AS03 are consistent with documented cases of injuries from firearms and 16th Century European weapons. We believe that the nature and high frequency of perimortem trauma at 57AS03 provide evidence of the violence that occurred with Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Kinetic expression analysis of the cluster mdv1-mir-M9-M4, genes meq and vIL-8 differs between the lytic and latent phases of Marek's disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupeau, D; Dambrine, G; Rasschaert, D

    2012-07-01

    Marek's disease virus (GaHV-2) is an alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphoma in chickens. The infection includes both lytic and latent stages. GaHV-2 encodes three clusters of microRNAs (miRNAs) located in the internal (I)/terminal (T) repeat (R) regions. We characterized transcripts encompassing the mdv1-mir-M9-M4 and mir-M11-M1 clusters located in the IR(L)/TR(L) region, upstream and downstream from the meq oncogene, respectively. By 5'- and 3'-RACE-PCR and targeted RT-PCR, we showed that mdv1-mir-M9-M4 could be transcribed from an unspliced transcript or from at least 15 alternatively spliced transcripts covering the IR(L)/TR(L) region, encompassing the meq and vIL-8 genes and localizing the mdv1-mir-M9-M4 cluster to the first intron at the 5'-end. However, all these transcripts, whether spliced or unspliced, seemed to start at the same transcriptional start site, their transcription being driven by a single promoter, prmiRM9M4. We demonstrated alternative promoter usage for the meq and vIL-8 genes, depending on the phase of GaHV-2 infection. During the latent phase, the prmiRM9M4 promoter drove transcription of the meq and vIL-8 genes and the mdv1-mir-M9-M4 cluster in the first intron of the corresponding transcripts. By contrast, during the lytic phase, this promoter drove the transcription only of the mdv1-mir-M9-M4 cluster to generate unspliced mRNA, the meq and vIL-8 genes being transcribed principally from their own promoters. Despite the expression of meq and the mdv1-mir-M9-M4 cluster under two different transcriptional processes during the latent and lytic phases, our data provide an explanation for meq expression and mdv1-mir-M4-5P overexpression in miRNA libraries from GaHV-2-infected cells, regardless of the phase of infection.

  15. Corrosion and conservation of weapons and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the conditions for the occurrence of corrosion processes on historically important weapons and military equipment made of steel during the period in outdoor environment. A considerable attention has been given to the characteristics of the most important corrosion products formed on the steel surface. The formation of akaganite, β-FeOOH is a sign of active corrosion under a layer of corrosion products. The conditions that cause the formation and regeneration of hydrochloric and sulphuric acid during the exposure to the elements were analyzed. The most often applied methods of diagnostics and procedures of removing active corrosion anions (desalination were described as well. The NaOH solution of certain pH values still has the most important application for the desalination process. The procedures for cleaning the surface before the application of protective coatings and the application of chemicals that transform rust into stable compounds were discussed. As protective coatings, different types of organic coatings plated on well-prepared steel surfaces were used and sometimes special types of waxes as well. This paper presents the results of the tests of corrosion products taken from the exhibits of weapons and military equipment from the Military Museum in Belgrade.

  16. A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.

    1990-08-01

    The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

  17. Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

  18. The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin

    2006-05-01

    The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

  19. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  20. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  1. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  2. Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  3. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  4. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  5. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, H

    2011-03-03

    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  6. An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-03-01

    Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

  7. Preparing for Response to a Nuclear Weapon of Mass Destruction, Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    57 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...58 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...Command, (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 2005), PM 2- 5. 59 Ibid, PM 2-9. 60 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX

  8. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, Christina J; Probert, Anna F; Townsend, Daniel J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2015-11-06

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance.

  9. Aggression and attitudes to time and risk in weapon-using violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Iain R; Moore, Simon C; Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2010-08-15

    The use of weapons in violence increases both the severity of harm to victims and the severity of legal consequences for offenders, but little is known of the characteristics of violent offenders who choose to use weapons. Levels of anger, attitude to risk, time discounting, and antisocial history among a sample of weapon-using violent offenders (n=15) were compared to violent offenders who had not used a weapon (n=10) and nonviolent offenders (n=15). Results showed that weapon-using violent offenders displayed greater trait aggression and were more risk seeking than other offender types. In addition, weapon-using violent offenders were first convicted at an earlier age and truanted from school more frequently compared to other offender types. The results indicate that weapon users are more aggressive and more risk taking, but no more present focused than other violent and nonviolent offenders. Further research into the cognitive and social factors that influence weapon use is required if this dangerous behavior is to be reduced. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Kelley, Norma J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Bousman, Chad A.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Ji, Ming; Clapp, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties. Methods: Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Results: The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying,…

  11. Biomechanical and performance implications of weapon design: comparison of bullpup and conventional configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Moeller, Brandon F; Mayer, Robert R; Rosenquist, Bryce; Van Ryswyk, Darin; Eichorn, Drew

    2014-06-01

    Shooter accuracy and stability were monitored while firing two bullpup and two conventional configuration rifles of the same caliber in order to determine if one style of weapon results in superior performance. Considerable debate exists among police and military professionals regarding the differences between conventional configuration weapons, where the magazine and action are located ahead of the trigger, and bullpup configuration, where they are located behind the trigger (closer to the user). To date, no published research has attempted to evaluate this question from a physical ergonomics standpoint, and the knowledge that one style might improve stability or result in superior performance is of interest to countless military, law enforcement, and industry experts. A live-fire evaluation of both weapon styles was performed using a total of 48 participants. Shooting accuracy and fluctuations in biomechanical stability (center of pressure) were monitored while subjects used the weapons to perform standard drills. The bullpup weapon designs were found to provide a significant advantage in accuracy and shooter stability, while subjects showed considerable preference toward the conventional weapons. Although many mechanical and maintenance issues must be considered before committing to a bullpup or conventional weapon system, it is clear in terms of basic human stability that the bullpup is the more advantageous configuration. Results can be used by competitive shooter, military, law enforcement, and industry experts while outfitting personnel with a weapon system that leads to superior performance.

  12. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in

  13. NATO's targeting process: ensuring human control over (and lawful use of) 'autonomous' weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, M.; Williams, A.P.; Scharre, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of the use of so-called autonomous weapon systems has raised significant legal and moral concerns. This chapter contributes to the debate by providing an alternative perspective to the current dominant focus on the technological capabilities of future weapons. The author argues that

  14. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  15. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  16. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the Organisa

  17. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  18. Weapon System Requirements: Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    contractor subsequently discovered problems with the aircraft wiring and aerial refueling systems and encountered a fuel contamination incident, all...WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-17-77, a report to congressional committees November 2016 WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems

  19. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    precision is not required, an inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) could be used to deliver a HEMP weapon over 7,000 miles away.72 Finally, if the...STATEMENT. Use agency-mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of the report. If additional...9 HEMP Weapons ...................................................................................................................... 10 NNEMP

  20. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in th

  1. Geometry-Of-Fire Tracking Algorithm for Direct-Fire Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE ...TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS by Caleb K. Khan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Zachary Staples Co-Advisor: Xiaoping...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS

  2. 77 FR 55195 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Weapons Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Weapons Systems Training Facility Boardman, OR AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... and proposed DoN and Oregon National Guard training and testing activities at Naval Weapons Systems...

  3. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Luef, Stefan; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated...... at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included. Incidence rates were estimated following stratification by gender...... rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. CONCLUSION: Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase...

  4. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Incidence of weapon injuries not related to interfactional combat in Afghanistan in 1996: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Markus; Meddings, David R; Ramez, Salah; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the descriptive epidemiology of weapon injuries not directly attributable to combat during armed conflict. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nangarhar region of Afghanistan, which experienced effective peace, intense fighting, and then peace over six months in 1996. Subjects 608 people admitted to Jalalabad hospital because of weapon injuries. Main outcome measures Estimated incidence of injuries from combat or otherwise (non-combat injury) before, during, and after the fall of Kabul. Results Incidence of non-combat injury was initially 65 per 100 000. During the intense military campaign for Kabul the incidence declined dramatically, and then differentially increased dependent on injury subcategory—that is, whether injuries were accidental or intentional and whether they were inflicted by firearms or fragmenting munitions. Non-combat injuries accounted for 51% of weapon injuries observed over the study period. Civilians were more likely to have non-combat injuries than combat injuries. Conclusions Weapon injuries that are not attributable to combat are common. Social changes accompanying conflict and widespread availability of weapons may be predictive of use of weapons that persists independently of conflict. Key messagesA region in Afghanistan experienced peace, intense combat, and then peace in 1996During peace the incidence of injury from weapons was high, the incidence of injury from firearms being similar to that in the United StatesOver half of all weapon injuries were not attributable to interfactional combatWeapon availability and social breakdown accompanying conflict may be important factors in the occurrence of weapon injuries that persist independently of conflict PMID:10445923

  6. Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

  7. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such other...

  8. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons or...

  9. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify...

  10. How to Make Historical Surveys of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    2003-05-01

    In 1998 SKI initiated a project in order to make a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research during the period 1945-2000. The survey is now fulfilled and contains of three reports. IAEA became interested in the project and accepted it in 2000 as a support program to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. In the eyes of IAEA, the most important aim is to create knowledge and refine tools to enhance the means to strengthen the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. Other countries have now showed interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of the nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research of their pasts. A co-operation between Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia has now been initiated in order to make such historical reviews. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is the initiator and financial supporter of the project. The cooperation project has three comprehensive goals: a. to create transparency in the nuclear energy field of the past. The intention is that the results of the conducted studies could be attached to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol in order to enhance transparency b. to account for the nuclear material traffic of the past and; c. to develop the competence in nuclear energy matters in general, and in particular, to extend the knowledge regarding each participating State's nuclear experience in the past. The first purpose of this paper is to describe the project and its aims. The second purpose is to present a general model of how a historical review of a State's nuclear related activities and nuclear weapons research can be designed. The model has been created in order to serve as a guide for other countries strengthening of their safeguards systems in the framework of the Additional Protocol. The third purpose is to present the pedagogy that has been used as a teaching method in order to train

  11. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  12. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  13. Advances in neuroscience and the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  14. Microcontroller based ground weapon control system(Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Armoured vehicles and tanks generally consist of high resolution optical (both infrared and visible and display systems for recognition and identification of the targets. Different weapons/articles to engage the targets may be present. A fire control system (FCS controls all the above systems, monitors the status of the articles present and passes the information to the display system. Depending upon the health and availability of the articles, the FCS selects and fires the articles. Design and development of ground control unit which is the heart of the FCS, both in hardware and software, has been emphasised. The system has been developed using microcontroller and software developed in ASM 51 language. The system also has a facility to test all the systems and articles as initial power on condition. From the safety point of view, software and hardware interlocks have been provided in the critical operations, like firing sequence. "

  15. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his...... senior military associates to experience fear of imminent nuclear war or conventional regime change. I show that the effect of such fear would depend on whether or not Kim believes that he has control over the occurrence of these events. I argue that if he experiences fear and believes that he has some...... control over whether these extreme events actually happen, he will moderate his nuclear threats and behave more like other experienced nuclear powers. But if he experiences fear and believes that he has no control, he will likely pursue policies that could cause nuclear war. I use this insight...

  16. Weaponization and Prisonization of Toronto’s Black Male Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Crichlow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Informed by Galtung (1969, Anderson (2012 and Wacquant (2001, this paper argues that a lifetime of spiralling and everyday state structural violence and overtly racist criminal profiling principally targeted at young Black men living in the Toronto Community Housing Corporation prepares them for prison. Moreover, it contends that interpersonal violence, transmitted from generation to generation and producing a vicious cycle, is a manifestation of institutionalized and systemic inequity. In the context of a hypermasculine culture, young Black men are both victims and participants in a dialectic of interpersonal-structural violence. Routinely precipitated by powerful state actors and agencies of criminal justice, public policy and assorted ‘moral entrepreneurs’, young Black men have their masculinity weaponized and prisonized by the state’s low-intensity declaration of war against them, and, among others, the poor, LGBTQ, immigrants, and First Nations and other people of colour.

  17. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  18. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Dando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  19. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  20. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.