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Sample records for m-4 lx lm

  1. LX-10 Explosive Damage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    opposite end of the vessel. The inside of the bomb is fitted with a stainless steel liner to protect the inner surface and to change the bomb...19  18. Size Fractions for Spherical LX-10 Samples Impact Damaged Between 312 and 416 ft/s...19  19. Spherical LX-10 Sample Impact Damaged at 416 ft/s ....................................... 20  20

  2. Detonation measurements on damaged LX-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter; Souers, P.C.; Chidester, Steve; Alvarez, John; De Haven, Martin; Garza, Raul; Harwood, Pat; Maienschein, Jon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We have applied thermal insults on LX-04 at 185 C and found that the material expanded significantly, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 12%. Subsequent detonation experiments (three cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally damaged LX-04 samples and pristine low-density LX-04 samples and the results showed that the fractions reacted were close to 1.0. The thermally damaged LX-04 and pristine low-density LX-04 showed detonation velocities of 7.7-7.8 mm {mu}s{sup -1}, significantly lower than that (8.5 mm {mu}s{sup -1}) of pristine high-density LX-04. Detonation energy densities for the damaged LX-04, low-density pristine LX-04, and hot cylinder shot of LX-04 were 6.48, 6.62, and 6.58 kJ cm{sup -3}, respectively, lower than the detonation energy density of 8.11 kJ cm{sup -3} for the high density pristine LX-04. The break-out curves for the detonation fronts showed that the damaged LX-04 had longer edge lags than the high density pristine LX-04, indicating that the damaged explosive is less ideal. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Developments in the LM2500 and LM5000 aircraft derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honebrink, R W; Nichols, T B; Spector, R B; Sailer, E D

    1983-03-01

    When first introduced into industrial service in 1970, the General Electric LM2500 (the first of the second generation aircraft derivative units to enter industrial service) represented a significant advance in gas turbine technology in the areas of improved simple cycle efficiency--now up to 37 per cent on natural gas fuel--on site maintenance capability and high levels of reliability/availability. During the 11 years since initial introduction numerous product improvements have been introduced to expand the power range, extend the scheduled maintenance levels, further improve reliability/availability and increase the application flexibility of the LM2500. The higher power LM5000 gas turbine, which is derived from the CF6-50 aircraft turbofan engine, is also described in this article.

  4. Gas Retention in a Heated Plastic Bonded Explosive (LX-14).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kaneshige, Michael J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetics Components Center; Erikson, William W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Meirs, Kevin T. [U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In prior work, we found that the nitroplasticizer in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501 played a crucial role in cookoff, especially when predicting response in larger systems [1]. We have recently completed experiments with a similar explosive, LX-14, that has a relatively nonreactive binder. We expected the ignition times for LX-14 to be longer than PBX 9501 since PBX 9501 has a more reactive binder. However, our experiments show the opposite trend. This paradox can be explained by retention of reactive gases within the interior of LX-14 by the higher strength binder resulting in faster ignition times. In contrast, the binder in PBX 9501 melts at low temperatures and does not retain decomposition gases as well as the LX-14 binder. Retention of reactive gases in LX-14 may also explain the more violent response in oblique impact tests [2] when compared to PBX 9501.

  5. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  6. Temperature-dependent shock initiation of LX-17 explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Druce, R.L.; Moua, K.

    1995-02-01

    LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250 C, were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide, 50.8-mm-long strips of 0.13-mm-thick Kapton polyimide film at velocities up to 7.7 km/s. The Kapton strips were laminated onto a thin aluminum bridge foil and were launched to the desired velocity by discharging a capacitor bank through the foil, causing the foil to explode. The LX-17 samples were confined in a steel holder and heated in an oven to the desired temperature. After the capacitor bank was charged, the LX-17 sample in its steel holder was remotely drawn out of the oven on rails and positioned over the bridge-foil/Kapton-strip laminate. When the sample was in position, the bank was discharged, launching the Kapton strip against the LX-17 surface. The shock initiation threshold was measured for 3, 7, and 10-mm-wide strips at room temperature, 200 C and 250 C. The authors found a significant reduction in the velocity threshold and in the critical area for initiation when the samples were heated. The authors compare the results with the earlier data of Bloom, who measured the initiation threshold of LX-17 over the density range 1.8--1.91 g/cm{sup 3} at room temperature and {minus}54 C. LX-17 has a large coefficient of thermal expansion, as reported by Urtiew, et al., which reduces its density significantly t elevated temperatures. They find that the change of shock initiation threshold with temperature is consistent with the change in sample density, using the relation between threshold and density reported by Bloom.

  7. CompTIA Linux+ study guide exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104

    CERN Document Server

    Bresnahan, Christine

    2015-01-01

    CompTIA Authorized Linux+ prepCompTIA Linux+ Study Guide is your comprehensive study guide for the Linux+ Powered by LPI certification exams. With complete coverage of 100% of the objectives on both exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104, this study guide provides clear, concise information on all aspects of Linux administration, with a focus on the latest version of the exam. You'll gain the insight of examples drawn from real-world scenarios, with detailed guidance and authoritative coverage of key topics, including GNU and Unix commands, system operation, system administration, system services, secu

  8. CompTIA Linux+ Complete Study Guide (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102)

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roderick W

    2010-01-01

    Prepare for CompTIA's Linux+ Exams. As the Linux server and desktop markets continue to grow, so does the need for qualified Linux administrators. CompTIA's Linux+ certification (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102) includes the very latest enhancements to the popular open source operating system. This detailed guide not only covers all key exam topics—such as using Linux command-line tools, understanding the boot process and scripts, managing files and file systems, managing system security, and much more—it also builds your practical Linux skills with real-world examples. Inside, you'll find:. Full co

  9. ONE-DIMENSIONAL TIME TO EXPLOSION (THERMAL SENSITIVITY) TESTS ON PETN, PBX-9407, LX-10, AND LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strout, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellsworth, Fred Ellsworth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to thermal explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the results of our recent ODTX experiments on PETN powder, PBX-9407 pressed part, LX-10 pressed part, LX-17 pressed part and compares the test data that were obtained decades ago with the older version of ODTX system. Test results show the thermal sensitivity of various materials tested in the following order: PETN> PBX-9407 > LX-10 > LX-17.

  10. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  11. LM2500+ Brush Seal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Fred G.

    2006-01-01

    The LM2500+ industrial aeroderivative gas turbine, a 25% enhanced power derivative of the LM2500 gas turbine, recently completed its development test program during the period 5/96 - 10/96. Early in the engine program a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process was used to determine customer needs for this project.The feedback obtained from the QFD process showed without doubt that gas turbine customers now emphasize product reliability and availability at the top of their needs. One area of development on the LM2500+ was to investigate the use of a brush seal as a means to reduce undesirable turbine cooling leakages within the turbine mid frame in order to enhance part life. This presentation presents a case study on the factors that went into evaluating a brush seal during engine test, test results, and the ultimate decision not to implement the brush seal for cost and other reasons.

  12. Initiation sensitivity of LX-10 by a small diameter confined LX-13. Period covered: January--March 1976. Normal process development endeavor No. 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitivity test, previously developed to study the configuration dependent excess transit time for transfer of detonation from a small diameter confined donor to a larger diameter unconfined acceptor via the detonation electric effect technique has been utilized for evaluation of an LX-13 donor/LX-10 acceptor system.

  13. Nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations in Lm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a result of regularity of weak solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations with lower-order term when the right-hand side is an Lm function, with m being ”small”. This work generalizes some results given in [2] and [3].

  14. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  15. M4GB : Efficient Groebner Basis algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Makarim (Rusydi); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce a new efficient algorithm for computing Groebner-bases named M4GB. Like Faugere's algorithm F4 it is an extension of Buchberger's algorithm that describes: how to store already computed (tail-)reduced multiples of basis polynomials to prevent redundant work in the reduction

  16. Classical stability of M4 x SN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wursmer, D.

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested that a theory of gravity in more than four dimensions will include terms of quadratic and higher order in the curvature. Given a theory of gravity that includes a quadratic term corresponding to the Euler invariant in four dimensions, stability equations for the vacuum M 4 x S N have been derived

  17. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Moskalik, Pawel; Drury, Jason A.

    2017-10-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  18. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  19. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  20. Neodymium-140 DOTA-LM3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Kristensen, Lotte K.; Nielsen, Carsten H.

    2017-01-01

    analogue, DOTA-LM3 (1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, 1,4,7- tri acetic acid, 10- acetamide N - p-Cl-Phecyclo(D-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl)-Lys-Thr-Cys)D-Tyr-NH2) and injected into H727 xenograft bearing mice. Comparative pre- and post-mortem PET imaging at 16 h postinjection was used to quantify......140Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days), owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter 140Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min), has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET). However, the electron capture decay of 140Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning...... the in vivo redistribution of 140Pr following 140Nd decay. The somatostatin receptor-positive pancreas exhibited the highest tissue accumulation of 140Nd-DOTA-LM3 (13% ID/g at 16 h) coupled with the largest observed redistribution rate, where 56 ± 7% (n = 4, mean ± SD) of the in situ produced 140Pr washed out...

  1. A NEW REDDENING LAW FOR M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; VandenBerg, Don A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Dall'Ora, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    We have used a combination of broadband near-infrared and optical Johnson-Cousins photometry to study the dust properties in the line of sight to the Galactic globular cluster M4. We have investigated the reddening effects in terms of absolute strength and variation across the cluster field, as well as the shape of the reddening law defined by the type of dust. All three aspects had been poorly defined for this system and, consequently, there has been controversy about the absolute distance to this globular cluster, which is closest to the Sun. Here, we determine the ratio of absolute to selective extinction (R V ) in the line of sight toward M4, which is known to be a useful indicator for the type of dust and therefore characterizes the applicable reddening law. Our method is independent of age assumptions and appears to be significantly more precise and accurate than previous approaches. We obtain A V /E(B – V) = 3.76 ± 0.07 (random error) for the dust in the line of sight to M4 for our set of filters. That corresponds to a dust-type parameter R V = 3.62 ± 0.07 in the Cardelli et al. reddening law. With this value, the distance to M4 is found to be 1.80 ± 0.05 kpc, corresponding to a true distance modulus of (m – M) 0 = 11.28 ± 0.06 (random error). A reddening map for M4 has been created, which reveals a spatial differential reddening of δE(B – V) ≥ 0.2 mag across the field within 10' around the cluster center; this is about 50% of the total mean reddening, which we have determined to be E(B – V) = 0.37 ± 0.01. In order to provide accurate zero points for the extinction coefficients of our photometric filters, we investigated the impact of stellar parameters such as temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity on the extinction properties and the necessary corrections in different bandpasses. Using both synthetic ATLAS9 spectra and observed spectral energy distributions, we found similarly sized effects for the range of temperature and surface

  2. A NEW REDDENING LAW FOR M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Stetson, Peter B. [National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Dall' Ora, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiarello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We have used a combination of broadband near-infrared and optical Johnson-Cousins photometry to study the dust properties in the line of sight to the Galactic globular cluster M4. We have investigated the reddening effects in terms of absolute strength and variation across the cluster field, as well as the shape of the reddening law defined by the type of dust. All three aspects had been poorly defined for this system and, consequently, there has been controversy about the absolute distance to this globular cluster, which is closest to the Sun. Here, we determine the ratio of absolute to selective extinction (R{sub V} ) in the line of sight toward M4, which is known to be a useful indicator for the type of dust and therefore characterizes the applicable reddening law. Our method is independent of age assumptions and appears to be significantly more precise and accurate than previous approaches. We obtain A{sub V} /E(B - V) = 3.76 {+-} 0.07 (random error) for the dust in the line of sight to M4 for our set of filters. That corresponds to a dust-type parameter R{sub V} = 3.62 {+-} 0.07 in the Cardelli et al. reddening law. With this value, the distance to M4 is found to be 1.80 {+-} 0.05 kpc, corresponding to a true distance modulus of (m - M){sub 0} = 11.28 {+-} 0.06 (random error). A reddening map for M4 has been created, which reveals a spatial differential reddening of {delta}E(B - V) {>=} 0.2 mag across the field within 10' around the cluster center; this is about 50% of the total mean reddening, which we have determined to be E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.01. In order to provide accurate zero points for the extinction coefficients of our photometric filters, we investigated the impact of stellar parameters such as temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity on the extinction properties and the necessary corrections in different bandpasses. Using both synthetic ATLAS9 spectra and observed spectral energy distributions, we found similarly sized effects for the

  3. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  4. Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.

  5. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence

  6. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  7. exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (lm6/tic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum casting alloy (LM6), and particles of (TiC) which make it the first choice in many applications like airplane and marine industries. During this research the extrudability and mechanical specifications of this composite ...

  8. Exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (LM6/TIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum ... ABAQUS/CAE software has been successfully employed for Modeling and ... Experimental results show that, many mechanical properties are improved and ...

  9. De Novo Synthesis and Degradation of Lx and V Cycle Pigments during Shade and Sun Acclimation in Avocado Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Britta; Osmond, C. Barry; Pogson, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotective role of the universal violaxanthin cycle that interconverts violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), and zeaxanthin (Z) is well established, but functions of the analogous conversions of lutein-5,6-epoxide (Lx) and lutein (L) in the selectively occurring Lx cycle are still unclear. We investigated carotenoid pools in Lx-rich leaves of avocado (Persea americana) during sun or shade acclimation at different developmental stages. During sun exposure of mature shade leaves, an unusual decrease in L preceded the deepoxidation of Lx to L and of V to A+Z. In addition to deepoxidation, de novo synthesis increased the L and A+Z pools. Epoxidation of L was exceptionally slow, requiring about 40 d in the shade to restore the Lx pool, and residual A+Z usually persisted overnight. In young shade leaves, the Lx cycle was reversed initially, with Lx accumulating in the sun and declining in the shade. De novo synthesis of xanthophylls did not affect α- and β-carotene pools on the first day, but during long-term acclimation α-carotene pools changed noticeably. Nonetheless, the total change in α- and β-branch carotenoid pools was equal. We discuss the implications for regulation of metabolic flux through the α- and β-branches of carotenoid biosynthesis and potential roles for L in photoprotection and Lx in energy transfer to photosystem II and explore physiological roles of both xanthophyll cycles as determinants of photosystem II efficiency. PMID:19060099

  10. EBSD study of hydrogen-induced cracking in API-5 L-X46 pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, V.; Caleyo, F.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Baudin, T.; Hallen, J.M.; Penelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of plastic deformation and grain orientation surrounding hydrogen-induced cracks (HIC) is investigated in samples of API-5L-X46 pipeline steel using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). This work shows direct experimental evidence of the influence of microstructure, microtexture and mesotexture on HIC crack path

  11. Pre-ignition confinement and deflagration violence in LX-10 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W., E-mail: tringe2@llnl.gov; Glascoe, E. A.; McClelland, M. A.; Greenwood, D.; Chambers, R. D.; Springer, H. K.; Levie, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In thermal explosions of the nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501, the pre-ignition spatial and temporal heating profile defines the ignition location. The ignition location then determines the extent of inertial confinement and the violence of the resulting deflagration. In this work, we present results of experiments in which ∼23 g cylinders of LX-10 and PBX 9501 in thin-walled aluminum confinement vessels were subjected to identical heating profiles but which presented starkly different energy release signatures. Post-explosion LX-10 containment vessels were completely fragmented, while the PBX 9501 vessels were merely ruptured. Flash x-ray radiography images show that the initiation location for the LX-10 is a few mm farther from the end caps of the vessel relative to the initiation location of PBX 9501. This difference increases deflagration confinement for LX-10 at the time of ignition and extends the pressurization time during which the deflagration front propagates in the explosive. The variation in the initiation location, in turn, is determined by the thermal boundary conditions, which differ for these two explosives because of the larger coefficient of thermal expansion and greater thermal stability of the Viton binder in LX-10 relative to the estane and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) acetal/formal binder of the PBX 9501. The thermal profile and initiation location were modeled for LX-10 using the hydrodynamics and structures code ALE3D; results indicate temperatures in the vicinity of the ignition location in excess of 274 °C near the time of ignition. The conductive burn rates for these two explosives, as determined by flash x-ray radiography, are comparable in the range 0.1–0.2 mm/μs, somewhat faster than rates observed by strand burner experiments for explosives in the temperature range 150–180 °C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The thinnest-wall aluminum containment vessels

  12. Pre-ignition confinement and deflagration violence in LX-10 and PBX 9501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Glascoe, E. A.; McClelland, M. A.; Greenwood, D.; Chambers, R. D.; Springer, H. K.; Levie, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    In thermal explosions of the nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501, the pre-ignition spatial and temporal heating profile defines the ignition location. The ignition location then determines the extent of inertial confinement and the violence of the resulting deflagration. In this work, we present results of experiments in which ∼23 g cylinders of LX-10 and PBX 9501 in thin-walled aluminum confinement vessels were subjected to identical heating profiles but which presented starkly different energy release signatures. Post-explosion LX-10 containment vessels were completely fragmented, while the PBX 9501 vessels were merely ruptured. Flash x-ray radiography images show that the initiation location for the LX-10 is a few mm farther from the end caps of the vessel relative to the initiation location of PBX 9501. This difference increases deflagration confinement for LX-10 at the time of ignition and extends the pressurization time during which the deflagration front propagates in the explosive. The variation in the initiation location, in turn, is determined by the thermal boundary conditions, which differ for these two explosives because of the larger coefficient of thermal expansion and greater thermal stability of the Viton binder in LX-10 relative to the estane and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) acetal/formal binder of the PBX 9501. The thermal profile and initiation location were modeled for LX-10 using the hydrodynamics and structures code ALE3D; results indicate temperatures in the vicinity of the ignition location in excess of 274 °C near the time of ignition. The conductive burn rates for these two explosives, as determined by flash x-ray radiography, are comparable in the range 0.1–0.2 mm/μs, somewhat faster than rates observed by strand burner experiments for explosives in the temperature range 150–180 °C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The thinnest-wall aluminum containment vessels

  13. Recombinant HT{sub m4} gene, protein and assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B.; Adra, C.N.; Lelias, J.M.

    1996-09-03

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein and a recombinant HT{sub m4} protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy. 2 figs.

  14. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Schober

    Full Text Available Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S. Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  15. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Douglas A; Croy, Carrie H; Ruble, Cara L; Tao, Ran; Felder, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon) that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S). Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine) demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  16. Thermal safety characterization on PETN, PBX-9407, LX-10-2, LX-17-1 and detonator in the LLNL's P-ODTX system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strout, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kahl, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellsworth, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Healy, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Incidents caused by fire and other thermal events can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Thus, it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One-Dimensional-Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been used for decades to characterize thermal safety of energetic materials. In this study, an integration of a pressure monitoring element has been added into the ODTX system (P-ODTX) to perform thermal explosion (cook-off) experiments (thermal runaway) on PETN powder, PBX-9407, LX-10-2, LX-17-1, and detonator samples (cup tests). The P-ODTX testing generates useful data (thermal explosion temperature, thermal explosion time, and gas pressures) to assist with the thermal safety assessment of relevant energetic materials and components. This report summarizes the results of P-ODTX experiments that were performed from May 2015 to July 2017. Recent upgrades to the data acquisition system allows for rapid pressure monitoring in microsecond intervals during thermal explosion. These pressure data are also included in the report.

  17. Range Information Characterization of the Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Cooper

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the data measurements that the Hokuyo UST-20LX Laser Rangefinder produces, which compiles into an overall characterization of the LiDAR sensor relative to indoor environments. The range measurements, beam divergence, angular resolution, error effect due to some common painted and wooden surfaces, and the error due to target surface orientation are analyzed. It was shown that using a statistical average of sensor measurements provides a more accurate range measurement. It was also shown that the major source of errors for the Hokuyo UST-20LX sensor was caused by something that will be referred to as “mixed pixels”. Additional error sources are target surface material, and the range relative to the sensor. The purpose of this paper was twofold: (1 to describe a series of tests that can be performed to characterize various aspects of a LIDAR system from a user perspective, and (2 present a detailed characterization of the commonly-used Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR sensor.

  18. Development of a Detonation Profile Test for Studying Aging Effects in LX-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T; Lewis, P; Tarver, C; Maienschein, J; Druce, R; Lee, R; Roeske, F

    2002-01-01

    A new small-scale Detonation Profile Test (DPT) is being developed to investigate aging effects on the detonation behavior of insensitive high explosives. The experiment involves initiating a small LX-17 cylindrical charge (12.7-19.1 mm diameter x 25.4-33 mm long) and measuring the velocity and curvature of the emerging detonation wave using a streak camera. Results for 12.7 mm diameter unconfined LX-17 charges show detonation velocity in the range between 6.79 and 7.06 km/s for parts up to 33 mm long. Since LX-17 can not sustain detonation at less than 7.3 km/s, these waves were definitely failing. Experiments with confined 12.7 mm diameter and unconfined 19.1 mm diameter samples showed wave velocities in the range of 7.4-7.6 km/s, values approaching steady state conditions at infinite diameter. Experiments with unconfined 19.1 mm diameter specimens are expected to provide reproducible and useful range of detonation parameters suitable for studying aging effects

  19. Development of a Detonation Profile Test for Studying Aging Effects in LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T; Lewis, P; Tarver, C; Maienschein, J; Druce, R; Lee, R; Roeske, F

    2002-03-25

    A new small-scale Detonation Profile Test (DPT) is being developed to investigate aging effects on the detonation behavior of insensitive high explosives. The experiment involves initiating a small LX-17 cylindrical charge (12.7-19.1 mm diameter x 25.4-33 mm long) and measuring the velocity and curvature of the emerging detonation wave using a streak camera. Results for 12.7 mm diameter unconfined LX-17 charges show detonation velocity in the range between 6.79 and 7.06 km/s for parts up to 33 mm long. Since LX-17 can not sustain detonation at less than 7.3 km/s, these waves were definitely failing. Experiments with confined 12.7 mm diameter and unconfined 19.1 mm diameter samples showed wave velocities in the range of 7.4-7.6 km/s, values approaching steady state conditions at infinite diameter. Experiments with unconfined 19.1 mm diameter specimens are expected to provide reproducible and useful range of detonation parameters suitable for studying aging effects.

  20. Fluctuations in a mixed IS-LM business cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Talibi Alaoui

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we extend a delayed IS-LM business cycle model by introducing an additional advance (anticipated capital stock in the investment function. The resulting model is represented in terms of mixed differential equations. For the deviating argument $au$ (advance and delay being a bifurcation parameter we investigate the local stability and the local Hopf bifurcation. Also some numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis.

  1. Lx t

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Thus, particle technology in general has to be supported by elements of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics ... The objectives of this paper are to propose a two- .... +. ∂. ∂. −= ∂. ∂. +. ∂. ∂. 0. 1 ρφ. µ φρ φρ φρ. (5). Darcy's Law: 0. = +. ∂. ∂ rv x. P. (6). The equation of State: M. R. R. TR. P g g φ ρ. = = ,. ,. (7) where..

  2. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-12-21

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  3. Clinical Experience with the M4 Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluch, Ilya; Gudgel, Brett; Dvorak, Justin; Anne Ahluwalia, Mary; Ding, Kai; Vold, Steve; Sarkisian, Steven

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the M4 (porous polyethylene plate) Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) drainage implant in a multicenter retrospective study. A retrospective chart review of medical records of patients who had undergone the M4 Ahmed valve was performed from January 2013 to April 2015. The primary outcome measure was surgical failure defined as: Less than a 20% reduction in baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to last follow-up visit, final IOP less than 5 mm Hg or greater than 18 mm Hg, reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception vision. All eyes not meeting the above criteria were defined as success. A total of 291 eyes met all study inclusion criteria. The average follow-up in the study was 6 months (±7.6 months) with 112 patients achieving 12-month follow-up (38.5%). 208 eyes (71.5%) met the study success criteria at final follow-up. No statistically significant spikes in postoperative IOP at 1 and 4 months were detected. The average preoperative IOP was 26.0 on an average of 2.8 medications. At 6 months, the average IOP dropped to 16.7 on 0.9 medications and stayed relatively stable at 15.8 on 1.2 medications at 12-month follow-up. The M4 valve appears to have less of a hypertensive phase compared with the other Ahmed class valves with a similar safety profile. While 71.5% success rate was achieved at final follow-up, the failure rate steadily increased over time. While the M4 production has been discontinued, the porous design of the M4 may avoid a pressure spike in the Ahmed valve class and warrants future investigation for valve design. How to cite this article: Sluch I, Gudgel B, Dvorak J, Ahluwalia MA, Ding K, Vold S, Sarkisian S. Clinical Experience with the M4 Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(3):92-96.

  4. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  6. M4SF-17LL010301071: Thermodynamic Database Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Physical & Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC

    2017-09-05

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010301071) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number M4SF-17LL01030107. The DR Argillite Disposal R&D control account is focused on the evaluation of important processes in the analysis of disposal design concepts and related materials for nuclear fuel disposal in clay-bearing repository media. The objectives of this work package are to develop model tools for evaluating impacts of THMC process on long-term disposal of spent fuel in argillite rocks, and to establish the scientific basis for high thermal limits. This work is contributing to the GDSA model activities to identify gaps, develop process models, provide parameter feeds and support requirements providing the capability for a robust repository performance assessment model by 2020.

  7. 300 K Isothermal Equations of State of DADNE, DNAN, and LX-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph; Stavrou, Elissaios; Grivickas, Paulius; Pagoria, Phil; Hansen, Donald; Gagliardi, Franco; Sain, John; Bastea, Sorin

    2017-06-01

    Using a direct optical-based measurement approach, we report 10 GPa scale, 300 K isothermal equations of state (EOS) of single crystal 1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (DADNE, FOX-7), single crystal 2,4, Dintrosoanisole (DNAN) and a polymer blended explosive (PBX) composite LX-17 (92.5% triamino trinitro benzene (TATB), and 7.5% KEL-F 800). Results from quasi-statically compressed LX-17 represent the first-ever isothermal EOS measurements of a PBX. Recently, we published a paper outlining the utility of using in-house optical microscopy and interferometry (OMI) diagnostics to directly measure pressure dependent sample volumes of single crystals TATB and alpha-NTO compressed within diamond-anvil cell sample chambers. (Our TATB OMI results agree remarkably well with two independent powder x-ray diffraction EOS studies.) In addition, here we report single crystal pressure dependent indices of refraction from DADNE that clearly signal the onset of electronic and/or molecular (structural) transitions that are otherwise indistinguishable in 300 K plotted pressure-volume EOS isotherms. EOS model parameters are reported from weighted and unweighted fits to the OMI experimental data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Determination of acoustoelastic constant in API-5L-X70 welded pipes; Determinacao da constante acustoelastica de tubos API-5L-X70 com solda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz; Fonseca, Manoel Antonio da Costa [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Francisco de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To preserve the environment and avoid financial losses resulting from leaks in the transport of natural oil and gas the industry is particularly concerned to ensure the structural integrity of their pipelines. Grounded pipes may be exposed to damages due to unstable soil movement, and in extreme cases, to failure. Then, techniques to assess stress in pipelines are of central importance. The ultrasonic birefringence technique is an efficient method to measure residual stress. It is based on the changing velocity of the shear wave when it crosses a material under stress; this phenomenon is known as acoustoelasticity. The knowledge of the parameter called acoustoelastic constant is necessary to measure stress using this technique. By the mechanical conformation in the manufacture of welded tubes, from rolled plates, different anisotropy degrees are showed around the cross section of these tubes. In this paper it was studied the acoustoelastic constant for the API-5L-X70 steel pipes, with different thicknesses, diameters and manufacturing processes so as to be able to use this technique to stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  10. Resonance Raman study on the structure of the active sites of microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes LM2 and LM4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, P; Greinert, R; Stier, A; Taniguchi, H

    1989-12-08

    The isozymes 2 and 4 of rabbit microsomal cytochrome P-450 (LM2, LM4) have been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Based on high quality spectra, a vibrational assignment of the porphyrin modes in the frequency range between 100-1700 cm-1 is presented for different ferric states of cytochrome P-450 LM2 and LM4. The resonance Raman spectra are interpreted in terms of the spin and ligation state of the heme iron and of heme-protein interactions. While in cytochrome P-450 LM2 the six-coordinated low-spin configuration is predominantly occupied, in the isozyme LM4 the five-coordinated high-spin form is the most stable state. The different stability of these two spin configurations in LM2 and LM4 can be attributed to the structures of the active sites. In the low-spin form of the isozymes LM4 the protein matrix forces the heme into a more rigid conformation than in LM2. These steric constraints are removed upon dissociation of the sixth ligand leading to a more flexible structure of the active site in the high-spin form of the isozyme LM4. The vibrational modes of the vinyl groups were found to be characteristic markers for the specific structures of the heme pockets in both isozymes. They also respond sensitively to type-I substrate binding. While in cytochrome P-450 LM4 the occupation of the substrate-binding pocket induces conformational changes of the vinyl groups, as reflected by frequency shifts of the vinyl modes, in the LM2 isozyme the ground-state conformation of these substituents remain unaffected, suggesting that the more flexible heme pocket can accommodate substrates without imposing steric constraints on the porphyrin. The resonance Raman technique makes structural changes visible which are induced by substrate binding in addition and independent of the changes associated with the shift of the spin state equilibrium: the high-spin states in the substrate-bound and substrate-free enzyme are structurally different. The formation of the inactive form

  11. Characterization and mapping of complementary lesion-mimic genes lm1 and lm2 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qin; Zhou, Ronghua; Fu, Tihua; Wu, Weiren; Zhu, Zhendong; Li, Aili; Jia, Jizeng

    2009-10-01

    A lesion-mimic phenotype appeared in a segregating population of common wheat cross Yanzhan 1/Zaosui 30. The parents had non-lesion normal phenotypes. Shading treatment and histochemical analyses showed that the lesions were caused by light-dependent cell death and were not associated with pathogens. Studies over two cropping seasons showed that some lines with more highly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes exhibited significantly lower grain yields than those with the normal phenotype, but there were no significant effects in the lines with weakly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes. Among yield traits, one-thousand grain weight was the most affected by lesion-mimic phenotypes. Genetic analysis indicated that this was a novel type of lesion mimic, which was caused by interaction of recessive genes derived from each parent. The lm1 (lesion mimic 1) locus from Zaosui 30 was flanked by microsatellite markers Xwmc674 and Xbarc133/Xbarc147 on chromosome 3BS, at genetic distances of 1.2 and 3.8 cM, respectively, whereas lm2 from Yanzhan 1 was mapped between microsatellite markers Xgwm513 and Xksum154 on chromosome 4BL, at genetic distances of 1.5 and 3 cM, respectively. The linked microsatellite makers identified in this study might be useful for evaluating whether potential parents with normal phenotype are carriers of lesion-mimic alleles.

  12. BVI CCD photometry of the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.

    1988-01-01

    CCD BV1 main-sequence (MS) photometry of M4, the globular cluster closest to the sun, is presented. The photometry is matched to the BVI isochrones of VandenBerg and Bell (1985). The MS turnoffs are found to be at V = 16.90 + or - 0.05, B-V = 0.81 + or - 0.02, V-I = 0.96 + or - 0.02, and B - I = 1.77 + or - 0.02. The magnitude difference between the MS turnoff and the horizontal branch is Delta M(V) = 3.52 + or - 0.1 for all three color indices. Using Y = 0.2, (Fe/H) = - 1.27, and alpha = 1.65, with a distance modulus of (m-M)V = 12.7 and E(B-V) = 0.41, a consistent age for M4 is deduced in all three color indices of 17 + or - 1.5 Gyr. 34 references

  13. Autopista M-4, de Almondsbury a Tormarton, Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The motor road network in Britain is progressively increasing. This paper gives information on the construction of the 19.2 km long section of the M-4 motor road in the south of Gloucestershire. The work has been recently completed, almost six months ahead of the initial time schedule. The total width of the motor road is 38.32 m, and there are 24 bridges in this section. Eight of them have been designed by Harry Brompton and Partners, engineering advisers to the project. The other bridges are the work of the County delegate, Mr. R. A. Downs, general inspector of the whole project. The total cost of this section of the motor road has been 1.218.943.000 Ptas.La red de autopistas inglesa va ampliándose paulatinamente. El trabajo presente detalla la construcción de un tramo de 19,2 km de la autopista M-4, al sur de Gloucestershire. Las obras se han terminado recientemente con un adelanto de casi seis meses sobre el plazo previsto. La anchura total de la autopista es de 38,32 m, y en su trazado aparecen 24 puentes: 8 de ellos realizados por Harry Brompton and Partners, ingenieros asesores del proyecto, y los restantes, por el delegado del Condado, Mr. R. A. Downs, supervisor general de todas las obras realizadas. El costo total de la obra se eleva a 1.218.943.000 pesetas.

  14. Accelerated fatigue testing of LM 19.1 blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole Jesper Dahl; Jørgensen, E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of 19.1 metre wind turbine blades manufactured by LM Glasfiber A/S of Lunderskov, Denmark were subjected to a series of flapwise fatigue tests. The object of these fatigue tests is to evaluate the impact of an increased load on the blade in afatigue test and to give information...... if it is possible to increase the load in fatigue test to shorten test time. The tests were carried out as a part of a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. During the fatigue tests the blades have beensurveyed with thermal imaging equipment to determine how an increase in fatigue load affects the blade...... material. In addition to the thermal imaging surveillance the blades were instrumented with strain gauges. This report presents the temperature duringtest, calibration test results, moment range measurements, strain statistics, thermal imaging registrations and a determination of the size and cause...

  15. LM-research opportunities and activities at Beer-Sheva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesin, S.

    1996-01-01

    Energy conversion concepts based on liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology was intensively investigated at the Center for MHD Studies (CMHDS), in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. LMMHD energy conversion systems operate in a closed cycle as follows: heat intended for conversion into electricity is added to a liquid metal contained in a closed loop of pipes. The liquid metal is mixed with vapor or gas introduced from outside so that a two-phase mixture is formed. The gaseous phase performs a thermodynamic cycle, converting a certain amount of heat into mechanical energy of the liquid metal. This energy is converted into electrical power as the metal flows across a magnetic field in the MHD channel. Those systems where the expanding thermodynamic fluid performs work against gravitational forces (natural circulation loops) and using heavy liquid metals are named ETGAR systems. A number of different heavy-metal facilities have been specially constructed and tested with fluid combinations of mercury and steam, mercury and nitrogen, mercury and freon, lead-bismuth and steam, and lead and steam. Since the experimental investigation of such flows is a very difficult task and all the known measurment methods are incomplete and not fully reliable, a variety of experimental approaches have been developed. In most experiments, instantaneous pressure distribution along the height of the upcomer were measured and the average void fraction was calculated numerically using the one-dimensional equation for the two-phase flow. The research carried out at the CMHDS led to significant improvements in the characterization of the two-phase phenomena expected in the riser of ETGAR systems. One of the most important outcomes is the development of a new empirical correlation which enables the reliable prediction of the velocity ratio between the LM and the steam (slip), the friction factor, as well as of the steam void fraction distribution along the riser

  16. Improved Reactive Flow Modeling of the LX-17 Double Shock Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehagen, Thomas J.; Vitello, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Over driven double shock experiments provide a measurement of the properties of the reaction product states of the insensitive high explosive LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight). These experiments used two flyer materials mounted on the end of a projectile to send an initial shock through the LX-17, followed by a second shock of a higher magnitude into the detonation products. In the experiments, the explosive was initially driven by the flyer plate to pressures above the Chapman-Jouguet state. The particle velocity history was recorded by Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes pointing at an aluminum foil coated LiF window. The PDV data shows a sharp initial shock and decay, followed by a rounded second shock. Here, the experimental results are compared to 2D and 3D Cheetah reactive flow modeling. Our default Cheetah reactive flow model fails to accurately reproduce the decay of the first shock or the curvature or strength of the second shock. A new model is proposed in which the carbon condensate produced in the reaction zone is controlled by a kinetic rate. This allows the carbon condensate to be initially out of chemical equilibrium with the product gas. This new model reproduces the initial detonation peak and decay, and matches the curvature of the second shock, however, it still over-predicts the strength of the second shock. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Double shock experiments and reactive flow modeling on LX-17 to understand the reacted equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence E; Tarver, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments.

  18. "Cunt": On the Perception and Handling of Verbal Dynamite by L1 and Lx Users of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    "Cunt" is currently one of the most offensive words in the English language and is usually censored in the English press and media. The present study looks firstly at differences between 1159 first (L1) and 1165 foreign (LX) users of English in their perceived understanding of the word, its perceived offensiveness and their self-reported…

  19. Period variation studies of six contact binaries in M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmini, Jagirdar; Shanti Priya, Devarapalli

    2018-04-01

    We present the first period study of six contact binaries in the closest globular cluster M4 the data collected from June 1995‑June 2009 and Oct 2012‑Sept 2013. New times of minima are determined for all the six variables and eclipse timing (O-C) diagrams along with the quadratic fit are presented. For all the variables, the study of (O-C) variations reveals changes in the periods. In addition, the fundamental parameters for four of the contact binaries obtained using the Wilson-Devinney code (v2003) are presented. Planned observations of these binaries using the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) and the 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) operated by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES; Nainital) can throw light on their evolutionary status from long term period variation studies.

  20. THE HELIUM CONTENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: NGC 6121 (M4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Piotto, G.; Gratton, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the multiple stellar population scenario in globular clusters, helium (He) has been proposed as a key element to interpret the observed multiple main sequences, subgiant branches, and red giant branches, as well as the complex horizontal branch (HB) morphology. In particular, second-generation stars belonging to the bluer part of the HB are thought to be more He-rich (ΔY = 0.03 or more) but also more Na-rich/O-poor than those located in the redder part that should have Y equal to the cosmological value. Up to now this hypothesis was only partially confirmed in NGC 6752, where stars of the redder zero-age HB showed an He content of Y = 0.25 ± 0.01, fully compatible with the primordial He content of the universe, and were all Na-poor/O-rich. Here we study hot blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the GC NGC 6121 (M4) to measure their He plus O/Na content. Our goal is to complete the partial results obtained for NGC 6752, focusing our attention on targets located on the bluer part of the HB of M4. We observed six BHB stars using the VLT2/UVES spectroscopic facility. Spectra of signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 150 were obtained and the very weak He line at 5875 Å measured for all our targets. We compared this feature with synthetic spectra to obtain He abundances. In addition O, Na, and Fe abundances were estimated. Stars turned out to be all Na-rich and O-poor and to have a homogeneous He content with a mean value of Y = 0.29 ± 0.01(random) ± 0.01(systematic), which is enhanced by ΔY ∼ 0.04 with respect to the most recent measurements of the primordial He content of the universe (Y ∼ 0.24/0.25). The high He content of blue HB stars in M4 is also confirmed by the fact that they are brighter than red HB stars (RHB). Theoretical models suggest the BHB stars are He-enhanced by Δ(Y) = 0.02/0.03 with respect to the RHB stars. The whole sample of stars has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.06 ± 0.02 (internal error), in agreement with other studies

  1. The Helium Content of Globular Clusters: NGC 6121 (M4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Piotto, G.; Gratton, R. G.

    2012-03-01

    In the context of the multiple stellar population scenario in globular clusters, helium (He) has been proposed as a key element to interpret the observed multiple main sequences, subgiant branches, and red giant branches, as well as the complex horizontal branch (HB) morphology. In particular, second-generation stars belonging to the bluer part of the HB are thought to be more He-rich (ΔY = 0.03 or more) but also more Na-rich/O-poor than those located in the redder part that should have Y equal to the cosmological value. Up to now this hypothesis was only partially confirmed in NGC 6752, where stars of the redder zero-age HB showed an He content of Y = 0.25 ± 0.01, fully compatible with the primordial He content of the universe, and were all Na-poor/O-rich. Here we study hot blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the GC NGC 6121 (M4) to measure their He plus O/Na content. Our goal is to complete the partial results obtained for NGC 6752, focusing our attention on targets located on the bluer part of the HB of M4. We observed six BHB stars using the VLT2/UVES spectroscopic facility. Spectra of signal-to-noise ratio ~ 150 were obtained and the very weak He line at 5875 Å measured for all our targets. We compared this feature with synthetic spectra to obtain He abundances. In addition O, Na, and Fe abundances were estimated. Stars turned out to be all Na-rich and O-poor and to have a homogeneous He content with a mean value of Y = 0.29 ± 0.01(random) ± 0.01(systematic), which is enhanced by ΔY ~ 0.04 with respect to the most recent measurements of the primordial He content of the universe (Y ~ 0.24/0.25). The high He content of blue HB stars in M4 is also confirmed by the fact that they are brighter than red HB stars (RHB). Theoretical models suggest the BHB stars are He-enhanced by Δ(Y) = 0.02/0.03 with respect to the RHB stars. The whole sample of stars has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.02 (internal error), in agreement with other studies available in

  2. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  3. A dynamic IS-LM model with delayed taxation revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Some recent contributions to Economic Dynamics have shown a new interest for delay differential equations. In line with these approaches, we re-proposed the problem of the existence of a finite lag between the accrual and the payment of taxes in a framework where never this type of lag has been considered: the well known IS-LM model. The qualitative study of the system of functional (delay) differential equations shows that the finite lag may give rise to a wide variety of dynamic behaviours. Specifically, varying the length of the lag and applying the 'stability switch criteria', we prove that the equilibrium point may lose or gain its local stability, so that a sequence of alternated stability/instability regions can be observed if some conditions hold. An important scenario arising from the analysis is the existence of limit cycles generated by sub-critical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations. As numerical simulations confirm, if multiple cycles exist, the so called 'crater bifurcation' can also be detected. Economic considerations about a stylized policy analysis stand by qualitative and numerical results in the paper

  4. LX4211 increases serum glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels by reducing sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated absorption of intestinal glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Harris, Angela; Zhao, Sharon; DaCosta, Christopher; Mseeh, Faika; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    LX4211 [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(methylthio)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol], a dual sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 inhibitor, is thought to decrease both renal glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT2 and intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1. In clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), LX4211 treatment improved glycemic control while increasing circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). To better understand how LX4211 increases GLP-1 and PYY levels, we challenged SGLT1 knockout (-/-) mice, SGLT2-/- mice, and LX4211-treated mice with oral glucose. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice had increased levels of plasma GLP-1, plasma PYY, and intestinal glucose during the 6 hours after a glucose-containing meal, as reflected by area under the curve (AUC) values, whereas SGLT2-/- mice showed no response. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice also had increased GLP-1 AUC values, decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC values, and decreased blood glucose excursions during the 6 hours after a challenge with oral glucose alone. However, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not increased in LX4211-treated mice and were decreased in SGLT1-/- mice, 5 minutes after oral glucose, consistent with studies linking decreased intestinal SGLT1 activity with reduced GLP-1 and GIP levels 5 minutes after oral glucose. These data suggest that LX4211 reduces intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1, resulting in net increases in GLP-1 and PYY release and decreases in GIP release and blood glucose excursions. The ability to inhibit both intestinal SGLT1 and renal SGLT2 provides LX4211 with a novel dual mechanism of action for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  5. Characterization of the Hokuyo URG-04LX laser rangefinder for mobile robot obstacle negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoichi; Ye, Cang; Borenstein, Johann

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a characterization study of the Hokuyo URG-04LX scanning laser rangefinder (LRF). The Hokuyo LRF is similar in function to the Sick LRF, which has been the de-facto standard range sensor for mobile robot obstacle avoidance and mapping applications for the last decade. Problems with the Sick LRF are its relatively large size, weight, and power consumption, allowing its use only on relatively large mobile robots. The Hokuyo LRF is substantially smaller, lighter, and consumes less power, and is therefore more suitable for small mobile robots. The question is whether it performs just as well as the Sick LRF in typical mobile robot applications. In 2002, two of the authors of the present paper published a characterization study of the Sick LRF. For the present paper we used the exact same test apparatus and test procedures as we did in the 2002 paper, but this time to characterize the Hokuyo LRF. As a result, we are in the unique position of being able to provide not only a detailed characterization study of the Hokuyo LRF, but also to compare the Hokuyo LRF with the Sick LRF under identical test conditions. Among the tested characteristics are sensitivity to a variety of target surface properties and incidence angles, which may potentially affect the sensing performance. We also discuss the performance of the Hokuyo LRF with regard to the mixed pixels problem associated with LRFs. Lastly, the present paper provides a calibration model for improving the accuracy of the Hokuyo LRF.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  7. Design and Simulation of a PIC16F877A and LM35 Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a temperature virtual monitoring system using proteus (Labcenter electronics). The device makes use of the PIC16F877A, LM35, 2x16 LCD and other discrete components. The lm35 serve as the temperature sensor, whose output is fed into the PIC16F877A for further ...

  8. Eesti ekspositsioon "Gaasitoru" Veneetsia XI arhitektuuribiennaalil / Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ill.: situatsiooniplaan, 3 vaadet; fotod: Reio Avaste; autorid: M. Kask, R. Lõoke (Salto), N. Külm, kuraator: I. Ruudi, komissar: L. Põdra. Eesti Kultuurkapitali peapreemia ja arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia 2008 pälvisid M. Kask, R. Lõoke, N. Külm ja I. Ruudi

  9. “Cunt”: on the perception and handling of verbal dynamite by L1 and LX users of English

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    “Cunt” is currently one of the most offensive words in the English language and is usually censored in the English press and media. The present study looks firstly at differences between 1159 first (L1) and 1165 foreign (LX) users of English in their understanding of the word, its perceived offensiveness and their self-reported frequency of use. Secondly, it considers the relationships between the three dependent variables and a number of psychological, sociobiographical and linguistic profil...

  10. Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, . LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyung Park

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular α-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20 α-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0–6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for α-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by β-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20 α-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.

  11. Correlation between Biosurfactants and Antifungal Activity of a Biocontrol Bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LM11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LM11 was isolated from the feces of larvae of the rhino beetle and showed strong antifungal activities against various phytopathogenic fungi by producing biosurfactants. In this study, our overall goal was to determine relationship between biosurfactants produced from the LM11 strain and its role in growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. Production and expression levels of B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 biosurfactants were significantly differed depending on growth phases. Transcriptional and biochemical analysis indicated that the biosurfactants of the LM11 strain were greatly enhanced in late log-phase to stationary phase. Inhibitions of phytopathogenic mycelial growth and spore germination were directly correlated (P<0.001, R=0.761 with concentrations of the LM11 cell-free culture filtrates. The minimum inhibitory surface tension of the culture filtrate of the B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 grown in stationary phase to inhibit mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi was 38.5 mN/m (P<0.001, R=0.951–0.977. Our results indicated that the biosurfactants of B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 act as key antifungal metabolites in biocontrol of plant diseases, and measuring surface tension of the cell-free culture fluids can be used as an easy indicator for optimal usage of the biocontrol agents.

  12. Technology Improvement for the High Reliability LM-2F Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tong; RONG Yi; ZHENG Liwei; ZHANG Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The Long March 2F (LM-2F) launch vehicle,the only launch vehicle designed for manned space flight in China,successfully launched the Tiangong 2 space laboratory and the Shenzhou ll manned spaceship into orbits in 2016 respectively.In this study,it introduces the technological improvements for enhancing the reliability of the LM-2F launch vehicle in the aspects of general technology,control system,manufacture and ground support system.The LM2F launch vehicle will continue to provide more contributions to the Chinese Space Station Project with its high reliability and 100% success rate.

  13. Possibilities and testing of CPRNG in block cipher mode of operation PM-DC-LM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacek, Petr; Jasek, Roman; Malanik, David [Faculty of applied Informatics, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic zacek@fai.utb.cz, jasek@fai.utb.cz, dmalanik@fai.utb.cz (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    This paper discusses the chaotic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG), which is used in block cipher mode of operation called PM-DC-LM. PM-DC-LM is one of possible subversions of general PM mode. In this paper is not discussed the design of PM-DC-LM, but only CPRNG as a part of it because designing is written in other papers. Possibilities, how to change or to improve CPRNG are mentioned. The final part is devoted for a little testing of CPRNG and some testing data are shown.

  14. Possibilities and testing of CPRNG in block cipher mode of operation PM-DC-LM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Petr; Jasek, Roman; Malanik, David

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the chaotic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG), which is used in block cipher mode of operation called PM-DC-LM. PM-DC-LM is one of possible subversions of general PM mode. In this paper is not discussed the design of PM-DC-LM, but only CPRNG as a part of it because designing is written in other papers. Possibilities, how to change or to improve CPRNG are mentioned. The final part is devoted for a little testing of CPRNG and some testing data are shown.

  15. Possibilities and testing of CPRNG in block cipher mode of operation PM-DC-LM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Petr; Jasek, Roman; Malanik, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the chaotic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG), which is used in block cipher mode of operation called PM-DC-LM. PM-DC-LM is one of possible subversions of general PM mode. In this paper is not discussed the design of PM-DC-LM, but only CPRNG as a part of it because designing is written in other papers. Possibilities, how to change or to improve CPRNG are mentioned. The final part is devoted for a little testing of CPRNG and some testing data are shown.

  16. Sample dependent correlation between TL and LM-OSL in Al2O3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, G.I.; Polymeris, G.S.; Stefanaki, E.C.; Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Kitis, G.

    2008-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 :C single crystals are known to exhibit different, sample dependent, glow-curve shapes. The relation between the Thermoluminescence (TL) traps and the linear modulated optically stimulation luminescence (LM-OSL) traps is of high importance. In the present work a correlation study is attempted using 23 single crystals with dimensions between 400 and 500μm. The correlation study involved two steps. In the first step, both TL glow curves and LM-OSL decay curves are deconvoluted and a one-to-one correlation between TL peaks and LM-OSL components is attempted. In the second step the TL glow-curves are corrected for thermal quenching, the corrected curves are deconvoluted and a new correlation between TL and LM-OSL individual components is performed

  17. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  18. Studies on the concentration dependence of specific rotation of Alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) aqueous solutions and growth of α-LM single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, K.; Divya Bharathi, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Lactose is an optically active substance. As it is one of the reducing sugars, exhibits mutarotation in solution when it dissolves in any solvent. In solution, lactose exists in two isomeric forms, alpha-Lactose (α-L) and beta-lactose (β-L) through the mutarotation reaction. Mutarotation produces a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers in a solution and kinetics of this process determines the growth rate of alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals. Since no data were available on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C, the initial experiments were carried out on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C. The specific rotations of the solutions were decreased with increasing time through the mutarotation reaction. The initial and final (equilibrium) specific rotations of the solutions were determined by using automatic digital polarimeter. The compositions of α and β-L in all prepared solutions were calculated from initial and final optical rotations by the method of Sharp and Doob. The composition of α-L decreased whereas, the composition of β-L increased in solutions with increasing concentration of α-LM at 33 °C. Experimental results revealed that this method could be easily and safely employed to study the dependence of specific rotation of solutions on their concentration. The effect of β-lactose on the morphology of nucleated α-LM single crystals has been studied at different experimental conditions.

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-4 - Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. [Reserved] 1.401(m)-4 Section 1.401(m)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-4 Special rules for mergers, acquisitions and similar events. [Reserved] ...

  20. Influence of preheating on API 5L-X80 pipeline joint welding with self shielded flux-cored wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.; Silva, J. H. F.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (1G), with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 degree centigree, 160 degree centigree). These temperatures were maintained as inter pass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in under matched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary. (Author) 22 refs

  1. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  2. Xenon spectator and diagram L3-M4,5M4,5 Auger intensities near the L3 threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armen, G.B.; Levin, J.C.; Southworth, S.H.; LeBrun, T.; Arp, U.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations based on the theory of radiationless resonant Raman scattering are employed in the interpretation of new XeL 3 -M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger spectra recorded using synchrotron radiation tuned to energies across the L 3 edge. Fits of theoretical line shapes to the spectra are employed in separating intensities due to nd spectator (resonant) and diagram Auger processes. Near-threshold Auger intensity, previously attributed to diagram decay, is found to be due to the large-n spectator lines that result from postcollision-interaction endash induced open-quotes recaptureclose quotes of threshold photoelectrons to nd orbitals. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. In pursuit of vehicle landmine occupant protection: Evaluating the dynamic response characteristic of the military lower extremity leg (MiL-Lx) compared to the Hybrid III (HIII) lower leg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available typical mine-protected vehicle landmine blast load conditions. Tests were performed using the Lower Limb Impactor (LLI) on both the MiL-Lx leg and the Hybrid III leg, and the relative responses compared. The results show that the MiL-Lx leg appears...

  4. A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M Scott

    2014-04-01

    Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison.

  5. Antipsychotic-induced catalepsy is attenuated in mice lacking the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Schmidt, Lene S; Dencker, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    of the striatum, suggesting a role for muscarinic M4 receptors in the motor side effects of antipsychotics, and in the alleviation of these side effects by anticholinergics. Here we investigated the potential role of the muscarinic M4 receptor in catalepsy induced by antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone...

  6. Incidence of lung tumors in LX mice exposed to (1) free radicals; (2) SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, P R; Spence, J B

    1967-01-01

    60 to 65 3-month-old LX mice were exposed to either radio frequency-generated free radicals for 3 hr/day, 5 days/week, or 500 ppM SO/sub 2/ for 5 min/day, 5 days/week, for more than 2 yr (results only on mice surviving > 300 days). Incidence of primary neoplasia (adenoma) in mice exposed to SO/sub 2/ increased from 31% (control) to 54% in males and from 17% to 43% in females. Incidence of neoplasia in mice exposed to free radicals increased 10 and 6% above controls for males and females, respectively. The action of SO/sub 2/ was thought to be that of nonspecific inflammation leading to hyperplasia and lymphatic engorgement, which precede and predispose adenoma.

  7. Measurement and reactive burn modeling of the shock to detonation transition for the HMX based explosive LX-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. D.; Ma, Xia; Clements, B. E.; Gibson, L. L.; Gustavsen, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun driven plate-impact techniques were used to study the shock to detonation transition in LX-14 (95.5 weight % HMX, 4.5 weight % estane binder). The transition was recorded using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Initial shock pressures, P, ranged from 2.5 to 8 GPa and the resulting distances to detonation, xD, were in the range 1.9 to 14 mm. Numerical simulations using the SURF reactive burn scheme coupled with a linear US -up / Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for the reactant and a JWL equation of state for the products, match the experimental data well. Comparison of simulation with experiment as well as the ``best fit'' parameter set for the simulations is presented.

  8. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt sz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt sz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Large-scale Effects During Cookoff of Plastic-Bonded Explosives (PBX 9501 PBX 9502 and LX-14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kaneshige, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erikson, William W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have made reasonable cookoff predictions of large-scale explosive systems by using pressure-dependent kinetics determined from small-scale experiments. Scale-up is determined by properly accounting for pressure generated from gaseous decomposition products and the volume that these reactive gases occupy, e.g. trapped within the explosive, the system, or vented. The pressure effect on the decomposition rates has been determined for different explosives by using both vented and sealed experiments at low densities. Low-density explosives are usually permeable to decomposition gases and can be used in both vented and sealed configurations to determine pressure-dependent reaction rates. In contrast, explosives that are near the theoretical maximum density (TMD) are not as permeable to decomposition gases, and pressure-dependent kinetics are difficult to determine. Ignition in explosives at high densities can be predicted by using pressure-dependent rates determined from the low-density experiments as long as gas volume changes associated with bulk thermal expansion are also considered. In the current work, cookoff of the plastic-bonded explosives PBX 9501 and PBX 9502 is reviewed and new experimental work on LX-14 is presented. Reactive gases are formed inside these heated explosives causing large internal pressures. The pressure is released differently for each of these explosives. For PBX 9501, permeability is increased and internal pressure is relieved as the nitroplasticizer melts and decomposes. Internal pressure in PBX 9502 is relieved as the material is damaged by cracks and spalling. For LX-14, internal pressure is not relieved until the explosive thermally ignites. The current paper is an extension of work presented at the 26th ICDERS symposium [1].

  10. Fabrikasi Sistem Alat Ukur Temperatur Lapisan Buah Mangga dengan Menggunakan Sensor Waterproof LM35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sarif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dibuat sistem alat ukur untuk memonitoring secara real time pada temperatur lapisan buah mangga dan temperatur lingkungan lemari pendingin. Ada tiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimonitoring dengan menggunakan sensor waterproof LM35. ketiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimaksud adalah lapisan 1 lapisan dekat dengan biji buah, lapisan 2 merupakan lapisan daging buah, dan lapisan 3 adalah lapisan di sekitar kulit buah mangga. Sinyal tegangan keluaran probe sensor LM35 dikondisikan dengan penguat tak mebalik yang mengaplikasikan IC OP07. Keluaran dari penguat tak membalik yang berupa data analog selanjutnya diolah menjadi data digital dengan modul mikrokontroler ATMega8535. Data digital hasil pengolahan mikrokontroler ATMega8535 di tampilkan ke unit penampil berupa liquid crystal display (LCD 20x4 karakter. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari kalibrasi probe sensor LM35 menunjukkan performa yang sangat baik terlihat dari hasil karakterisasi yang memiliki linieritas tinggi. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari masing masing probe sensor LM35 adalah probe sensor 1 dengan V = (9,663T – 6,054 milivolt, probe sensor 2 dengan V = (9,656 T – 2,517 milivolt, probe sensor 3 dengan V = (9,771T – 9,826 milivolt, dan probe sensor 4 dengan V = (9,782T – 8,092 milivolt.

  11. Synthetic methyl hexagalacturonate hapten inhibitors of antihomogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Willats, William George Tycho; Knox, J. Paul

    2003-01-01

    A range of synthetic methyl hexagalacturonates were used as potential hapten inhibitors in competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with anti-homogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7. The selective inhibition of these antibodies by different haptens...... provides insight into the structures of the partially methyl-esterified pectin epitopes of these widely used monoclonal antibodies....

  12. HUMAN CAPSULE EPITHELIAL-CELL DEGENERATION A LM, SEM AND TEM INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.

  13. EBaLM-THP - A neural network thermohydraulic prediction model of advanced nuclear system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Manic, Milos; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2009-01-01

    In lieu of the worldwide energy demand, economics and consensus concern regarding climate change, nuclear power - specifically near-term nuclear power plant designs are receiving increased engineering attention. However, as the nuclear industry is emerging from a lull in component modeling and analyses, optimization for example using ANN has received little research attention. This paper presents a neural network approach, EBaLM, based on a specific combination of two training algorithms, error-back propagation (EBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), applied to a problem of thermohydraulics predictions (THPs) of advanced nuclear heat exchangers (HXs). The suitability of the EBaLM-THP algorithm was tested on two different reference problems in thermohydraulic design analysis; that is, convective heat transfer of supercritical CO 2 through a single tube, and convective heat transfer through a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) using CO 2 . Further, comparison of EBaLM-THP and a polynomial fitting approach was considered. Within the defined reference problems, the neural network approach generated good results in both cases, in spite of highly fluctuating trends in the dataset used. In fact, the neural network approach demonstrated cumulative measure of the error one to three orders of magnitude smaller than that produce via polynomial fitting of 10th order

  14. A study on lead myristate (LM) soap film crystal by positron annihilation life spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zikang; Yu xianchun

    1992-01-01

    The quality of the LM soap film crystal is determined by means of the positron annihilation life spectroscopy. It is found that the technology to be used to make soap film will influence the film quality and the film quality can be improved by a reasonable heat treatment

  15. Recombination Narratives to Accompany "A-LM French One," First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Dorothy

    Supplementary recombination narratives intended for use with the 1961 edition of the text "A-LM French One" are designed to help students learn to manipulate basic textual materials. The sample narratives correlate with Units 4-14 of the text. The teacher is urged to make use of the overhead projector when using the narratives for the…

  16. A dynamic IS-LM business cycle model with two time delays in capital accumulation equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lujun; Li, Yaqiong

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze a augmented IS-LM business cycle model with the capital accumulation equation that two time delays are considered in investment processes according to Kalecki's idea. Applying stability switch criteria and Hopf bifurcation theory, we prove that time delays cause the equilibrium to lose or gain stability and Hopf bifurcation occurs.

  17. LM-OSL from single grains of quartz: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Solongo, S.

    2002-01-01

    the easy-to-bleach component, those with only the hard-to-bleach component, and those exhibiting all components. The results of this preliminary study show that LM-OSL experiments carried out at the single grain level may give important insights into the luminescence properties observed when viewing...

  18. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  19. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, 'evaporite' refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where 'salt' can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  20. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  1. M4SF-17LL010302072: The Roles of Diffusion and Corrosion in Radionuclide Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balboni, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, Cindy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010302072) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030207 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030208. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  2. ultraLM and miniLM: Locator tools for smart tracking of fluorescent cells in correlative light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brama, Elisabeth; Peddie, Christopher J; Wilkes, Gary; Gu, Yan; Collinson, Lucy M; Jones, Martin L

    2016-12-13

    In-resin fluorescence (IRF) protocols preserve fluorescent proteins in resin-embedded cells and tissues for correlative light and electron microscopy, aiding interpretation of macromolecular function within the complex cellular landscape. Dual-contrast IRF samples can be imaged in separate fluorescence and electron microscopes, or in dual-modality integrated microscopes for high resolution correlation of fluorophore to organelle. IRF samples also offer a unique opportunity to automate correlative imaging workflows. Here we present two new locator tools for finding and following fluorescent cells in IRF blocks, enabling future automation of correlative imaging. The ultraLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with an ultramicrotome, which enables 'smart collection' of ultrathin sections containing fluorescent cells or tissues for subsequent transmission electron microscopy or array tomography. The miniLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with serial block face scanning electron microscopes, which enables 'smart tracking' of fluorescent structures during automated serial electron image acquisition from large cell and tissue volumes.

  3. 77 FR 17568 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G Trailers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-0030, Notice 1] Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G... Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G trailers that... capable of being altered to comply with, all applicable FMVSS based on destructive test data or such other...

  4. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  5. Power management implementation in FreeRTOS on LM3S3748

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Mirela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become a major concern of embedded systems today. With the aim to reduce power consumption during the runtime, operating systems are dealing with power management. In this work, the FreeRTOS port is extended with power management features on LM3S3748 microcontroller. Tickless idle technique is implemented to provide more powersaving during the processor idle periods.

  6. Development of improved bricks (LM) and use of new technologies for ecological bricks (LE) elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zuñiga-Suárez, Alonso; Hernández-Olivares, Francisco; Fernández-Martínez, Francisco; Zuñiga, Berenice; Sánchez, Luis; Paladines, Juan; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2017-01-01

    Brick is a material that has been widely used in construction sector, however, it has not received the necessary attention in order to improve its performance, which has resulted a general lack of knowledge about its manufacturing processes such as: clay mines over-exploitation, ignorance of mixtures dosages and greenhouse gas emissions from wood burning. This research therefore aims to find a suitable mixture to produce improved bricks (LM) by analysing its mechanical prope...

  7. Wear and microstructural characteristics of spray atomized zircon sand reinforced LM13 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, K.; Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-07-15

    The requirement of the high performance light weight materials demands the development of varieties of materials within the economical range to get it commercialized. Light weight aluminium alloys are used in several structural applications like automotive, aerospace, defense industry and other fields of engineering. The ceramic particle reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (AMCs) have emerged as a suitable candidate for commercial applications. A variety of processing routes have been adopted to manufacture AMCs. In the present work LM13 alloy reinforced with zircon sand is formed via spray forming. During experimentation a self prepared convergent-divergent nozzle is used for inert gas atomization of the melt which is subsequently deposited on copper substrate placed vertically below the atomizer. The zircon sand particles are injected in the atomization zone by external injectors aligned perpendicular to the gas atomization axis. Zircon sand has been found to have new promising economical commercial candidate due to its easy availability and good mechanical properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity and good thermal stability. The microhardness of cast alloy and spray formed composite shows that the spray formed zircon sand reinforced composite has higher hardness. Also the lower wear rate has been observed in case of the zircon sand reinforced AMC as compared to LM13 alloy. This behaviour is further analyzed in light of microstructural features of the spray deposited composite using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A comparative study of this material (LM13/Zircon sand) with the parent alloy (LM13) is presented in this work. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Expression of Leishmania major LmSTI1 in Yeast Pichia Pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shokri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania major LmSTI1 is a conserved protein among different species of leishmania, and expressed in both amastigote and promastigote forms of L. major life cycle. It has previously been expressed in bacterial systems.Materials and Methods: To express LmSTI1 in the methylotrophic yeast         Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris, the shuttle vector pPICZA containing gene lmsti1 was constructed under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant vector was electro-transformed into P. pastoris, and induced by 0.5% methanol in the buffered medium. The expression of the LmSTI1 protein was visualized in the total soluble protein of P. pastoris by 12% SDS-PAGE, and further confirmed by Western blotting with L.major-infected mouse sera and HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as the first and secondary antibodies, respectively.Results: The expression level was 0.2% of total soluble proteins.Conclusion: It might be possible to use this formulation as a whole yeast candidate vaccine against cutaneous leishmanization.

  9. Enhanced growth and fatty acid accumulation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by two types of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Guo-Hua; Wu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae are potential candidates for the production of valuable products, such as renewable biodiesel, health products and pigments. However, low biomass productivity has restricted their large-scale applications. In this study, the effects of two auxins (one natural type of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the other synthetic type of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on the growth and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production of a freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were investigated. Both auxins showed a "low dosage-promotion and high dosage-inhibition" effect on the growth and FAMEs accumulation. The optimum dosage of IAA and 2,4-D were 1mgL -1 and 0.1mgL -1 , respectively. Moreover, the IAA could increase the monounsaturated fatty acid content. The auxins may promote the growth by enhancing the photosynthetic activity through increasing chlorophyll contents. Therefore, auxin significantly enhanced microalgal growth and FAMEs accumulation, and has a potential for application in developing efficient microalgal cultivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Linear stability analysis of the gas injection augmented natural circulation of STAR-LM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon-Jong Yoo; Qiao Wu; James J Sienicki

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A linear stability analysis has been performed for the gas injection augmented natural circulation of the Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal (STAR-LM). Natural circulation is of great interest for the development of Generation-IV nuclear energy systems due to its vital role in the area of passive safety and reliability. One of such systems is STAR-LM under development by Argonne National Laboratory. STAR-LM is a 400 MWt class modular, proliferation-resistant, and passively safe liquid metal-cooled fast reactor system that uses inert lead (Pb) coolant and the advanced power conversion system that consists of a gas turbine Brayton cycle utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to obtain higher plant efficiency. The primary loop of STAR-LM relies only on the natural circulation to eliminate the use of circulation pumps for passive safety consideration. To enhance the natural circulation of the primary coolant, STAR-LM optionally incorporates the additional driving force provided by the injection of noncondensable gas into the primary coolant above the reactor core, which is effective in removing heat from the core and transferring it to the secondary working fluid without the attainment of excessive coolant temperature at nominal operating power. Therefore, it naturally raises the concern about the natural circulation instability due to the relatively high temperature change in the core and the two-phase flow condition in the hot leg above the core. For the ease of analysis, the flow path of the loop was partitioned into five thermal-hydraulically distinct sections, i.e., heated core, unheated core, hot leg, heat exchanger, and cold leg. The one-dimensional single-phase flow field equations governing the natural circulation, i.e., continuity, momentum, and energy equations, were used for each section except the hot leg. For the hot leg, the one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow field

  11. Reduced Latency in the Metastatic Niche Contributes to the More Aggressive Phenotype of LM8 Compared to Dunn Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. E. Arlt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death of osteosarcoma patients and its diagnosis remains difficult. In preclinical studies, however, forced expression of reporter genes in osteosarcoma cells has remarkably improved the detection of micrometastases and, consequently, the quality of the studies. We recently showed that Dunn cells equipped with a lacZ reporter gene disseminated from subcutaneous primary tumors as frequently as their highly metastatic subline LM8, but only LM8 cells grew to macrometastases. In the present time-course study, tail-vein-injected Dunn and LM8 cells settled within 24 h at the same frequency in the lung, liver, and kidney of mice. Furthermore, Dunn cells also grew to macrometastases, but, compared to LM8, with a delay of two weeks in lung and one week in liver and kidney tissue, consistent with prolonged survival of the mice. Dunn- and LM8-cell-derived ovary and spine metastases occurred less frequently. In vitro, Dunn cells showed less invasiveness and stronger contact inhibition and intercellular adhesion than LM8 cells and several cancer- and dormancy-related genes were differentially expressed. In conclusion, Dunn cells, compared to LM8, have a similar capability but a longer latency to form macrometastases and provide an interesting new experimental system to study tumor cell dormancy.

  12. Double Shock Experiments Performed at -55°C on LX-17 with Reactive Flow Modeling to Understand the Reacted Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaven, Martin R.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Strickland, Shawn L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were performed at -55°C to measure the reacted state of LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight) using a double shock technique using two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on a projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. Information on the reacted state is obtained by measuring the relative timing and magnitude of the first and second shock waves. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include a comparison to prior work at ambient temperature, the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... of drug addiction...

  14. K2 and M4: A Unique Opportunity to Unlock the Mysteries of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Stello, Dennis; Campbell, Simon; Drury, Jason; de Silva, Gayandhi; Maclean, Ben; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most exciting opportunities presented by K2 is the ability to study variable stars in globular clusters (GCs). The K2 observations allow us to perform ensemble asteroseismology of a population that is much older than that in the open clusters in the original Kepler field. This should help us answer long-standing questions concerning mass loss on the red giant branch and the spread in masses along the horizontal branch. By combining the asteroseismic data with chemical tagging of sub-populations from spectroscopy, we hope to better constrain stellar evolution models and potentially shed some light on the formation history of GCs. The very crowded nature of stars in GCs poses a challenge, however, due to Kepler's large pixels. M4, observed during K2's campaign 2, presents an excellent opportunity to study GCs with a combination of K2 and ground-based data. M4 is one of the two nearest GCs and thus should appear less crowded and brighter; in fact M4 is likely the only GC whose horizontal branch stars, other than RR Lyraes, will be accessible with K2. We discuss our method of obtaining photometry for the stars in M4 and present sample lightcurves for different classes of oscillating stars in the cluster. We also discuss efforts to use ground-based observations to increase the utility of the K2 dataset.

  15. Predicted stability, structures, and magnetism of 3d transition metal nitrides: the M4N phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.M.; Koster, R.S.; Li, W.F.; van Huis, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The 3d transition metal nitrides M4N (Sc4N, Ti4N, V4N, Cr4N, Mn4N, Fe4N, Co4N, Ni4N, and Cu4N) have unique phase relationships, crystal structures, and electronic and magnetic properties. Here we present a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study on these transition metal nitrides, assessing

  16. LM1-64: a Newly Reported Lmc-Pn with WR Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M.; Olguin, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    1993-05-01

    The object LM1-64 was reported by Lindsay & Mullan (1963, Irish Astron. J., 5, 51) as a probable PN in the LMC. Optical and UV spectra taken by us confirm that suggestion. LM1-64 is a high excitation planetary nebulae which shows evidence of having a WC central star. Broad stellar emission at lambda 4650 is detected in the optical spectrum obtained with the CTIO 4m telescope, in 1989. A UV spectrum in the range from 1200 Angstroms to 2000 Angstroms was obtained with IUE in 1990. We have measured all the emission line fluxes available and determined values for the physical conditions and chemical abundances of the nebular ionized gas. The derived values are T(OIII) = 14000K, log He/H = 11.05, log C/H = 9.48, log O/H = 8.55 and log Ne/H = 7.94. LM1-64 shows a large C enhancement in the envelope as result of the central star activity, while He, O and Ne are comparable to the average values reported for the LMC-PNe (Monk, Barlow & Clegg, 1988, MNRAS, 234, 583). We have estimated the He II Zanstra temperature of the central star to be ~ 80,000 K. This temperature is much higher than the values reported for the known LMC-PNe with WR nucleus that Monk et al. have classified as W4 to W8. The only other high temperature WR nucleus in a LMC-PN is N66 which recently showed evidence of undergoing a WR episode (Torres-Peimbert, Ruiz, Peimbert & Pe\\ na, 1993, IAU Symp. 155, eds. A. Acker & R. Weinberger, in press).

  17. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  18. Numerical study of hydrogen absorption in a LM-Ni5 hybride reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinisik, K.; Tekin, M.; Mat, M. D.; Altinisik, A.; Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Metal hydride formation in an Lm-Ni5 storage tank is numerically studied with a continuum mathematical model. The model considers complex heat, and mass transfer and chemical reaction in the reaction bed. It is found that hydride formation enhances at regions with lower equilibrium pressure. Absorbed hydrogen mass increases exponentially at earlier times of hydriding process and slow down after temperature of reaction bed increases due to the heat of reaction. Numerical results agree satisfactorily with the experimental data in the literature

  19. Impact of neutron-induced displacement damage on the ATREE response in LM124 operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, F.; Roche, N.J.H.; Marec, R.; Calvel, P.; Bezerra, F.; Ecoffet, R.; Azais, B.

    2014-01-01

    The synergistic effect between displacement damage dose (DDD) and analog transient radiation effects on electronics (ATREE) in an operational amplifier (LM124) (op-amp) from three different manufacturers is investigated. Pulsed X-ray experiments have highlighted ATREE sensitivity on devices significantly more important following exposure to fission neutrons than for unirradiated devices. A previously developed simulation tool is used to model ATREE responses taking into account the electrical parameters degradation due to displacement damage phenomenon. A good agreement is observed between model outputs and experimental ATREE results. (authors)

  20. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power optimization in the star-LM modular, natural convection reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Farmer, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    The secure, transportable, autonomous reactor (STAR) project addresses the needs of developing countries and independent power producers for small, multi-purpose energy systems, which operate near autonomously for very long term. The STAR-LM variant described here is a liquid metal cooled, fast reactor system. Previous development of STAR-LM resulted in a 300 MWt modular, pool-type reactor based on criteria for factory fabrication, full transportability (barge, overland, rail), and fast construction and startup. Steam generator modules are placed directly into the primary heat transport circuit, eliminating the intermediate heat transport loop. Natural convection heat transport at all power levels eliminates the need for main coolant pumps. Seismic isolation eliminates concern about seismic and sloshing-related loads in the pool configuration. Even end-of-spectrum postulated events such as loss-of-heat sink with failure to scram are terminated passively by inherent core power shutdown, and decay heat is passively rejected to the atmospheric air inexhaustible heat sink by guard vessel exterior cooling. Recent concept development has focused on maximizing the power achievable in a small module size based on preserving key criteria for: full spectrum of modes of module transport from factory to site (including rail transport); 100% natural circulation heat transport; ultra-long core cartridge lifetime; coolant and cladding peak temperatures well within the existing (Russian) database for Pb/Bi coolant and ferritic steel core materials. (author)

  2. Preliminary structural evaluations of the STAR-LM reactor vessel and the support design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary structural evaluations of the reactor vessel and support design of the STAR-LM (The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal variant), which is a lead-cooled reactor, are carried out with respect to an elevated temperature design and seismic design. For an elevated temperature design, the structural integrity of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel is investigated by using a detail structural analysis and the ASME-NH code rules. From the results of the structural analyses and the integrity evaluations, it was found that the design concept of a direct coolant contact to the reactor vessel cannot satisfy the ASME-NH rules for a given design condition. Therefore, a design modification with regards to the thermal barrier is introduced in the STAR-LM design. For a seismic design, detailed seismic time history response analyses for a reactor vessel with a consideration of a fluid-structure interaction are carried out for both a top support type and a bottom support type. And from the results of the hydrodynamic pressure responses, an investigation of the minimum thickness design of the reactor vessel is tentatively carried out by using the ASME design rules

  3. [Model and analysis of spectropolarimetric BRDF of painted target based on GA-LM method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Luo, Li; Pan, Quan; Cheng, Yong-Mei; Wang, Kai

    2010-03-01

    Models based on microfacet were used to describe spectropolarimetric BRDF (short for bidirectional reflectance distribution function) with experimental data. And the spectropolarimetric BRDF values of targets were measured with the comparison to the standard whiteboard, which was considered as Lambert and had a uniform reflectance rate up to 98% at arbitrary angle of view. And then the relationships between measured spectropolarimetric BRDF values and the angles of view, as well as wavelengths which were in a range of 400-720 nm were analyzed in details. The initial value needed to be input to the LM optimization method was difficult to get and greatly impacted the results. Therefore, optimization approach which combines genetic algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) was utilized aiming to retrieve parameters of nonlinear models, and the initial values were obtained using GA approach. Simulated experiments were used to test the efficiency of the adopted optimization method. And the simulated experiment ensures the optimization method to have a good performance and be able to retrieve the parameters of nonlinear model efficiently. The correctness of the models was validated by real outdoor sampled data. The parameters of DoP model retrieved are the refraction index of measured targets. The refraction index of the same color painted target but with different materials was also obtained. Conclusion has been drawn that the refraction index from these two targets are very near and this slight difference could be understood by the difference in the conditions of paint targets' surface, not the material of the targets.

  4. M4D: a powerful tool for structured programming at assembly level for MODCOMP computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.R.; Basso, R.A.J.

    1984-04-01

    Structured programming techniques offer numerous benefits for software designers and form the basis of the current high level languages. However, these techniques are generally not available to assembly programmers. The M4D package was therefore developed for a large project to enable the use of structured programming constructs such as DO.WHILE-ENDDO and IF-ORIF-ORIF...-ELSE-ENDIF in the assembly code for MODCOMP computers. Programs can thus be produced that have clear semantics and are considerably easier to read than normal assembly code, resulting in reduced program development and testing effort, and in improved long-term maintainability of the code. This paper describes the M4D structured programming tool as implemented for MODCOMP'S MAX III and MAX IV assemblers, and illustrates the use of the facility with a number of examples

  5. A Multi-Wavelength Study of Parent Volatile Abundances in Comet C/2006 M4 (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Zack, Lindsay N.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Mumma, Michael; Ziurys, Lucy M.; Anderson, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Volatile organic emissions were detected post-perihelion in the long period comet C/2006 M4 (SWAN) in October and November 2006. Our study combines target-of-opportunity, observations using the infrared Cryogenic Echelle Spectrometer (CSHELL) at the NASA-IRTF 3-m telescope, and millimeter wavelength observations using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12-m telescope. Five parent volatiles were measured with CSHELL (H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, and C2H6), and two additional species (HCN and CS) were measured with the ARID 12-m. These revealed highly depleted CO and somewhat enriched CH3OH compared with abundances observed in the dominant group of long-period (Oort cloud) comets in our sample and similar to those observed recently in Comet 8P/Tuttle. This may indicate highly efficient H-atom addition to CO at very low temperature (approx.10-20 K) on the surfaces of interstellar (pre-cometary) grains. Comet C12006 M4 had nearly "normal" C2H6, and CH4, suggesting a processing history similar to that experienced by the dominant group. When compared with estimated water production at the time of the millimeter observations, HCN was slightly depleted compared with the normal abundance in comets based on 1R observations but was consistent with the majority of values from the millimeter. The ratio CS/HCN in C/2006 M4 was within the range measured in ten comets at millimeter wavelengths. The higher apparent H-atom conversion efficiency compared with most comets may indicate that the icy grains incorporated into C/2006 M4 were exposed to higher H-atom densities, or alternatively to similar densities but for a longer period of time.

  6. A Business Case Analysis of the M4/AR-15 Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    appear to be a direct correlation between manufacturer and customer locations. This might be because, unlike the restaurant market or other point of...trade shows, and demonstration of gun performance through testing and expert shooter reviews, in order to establish credibility and customer loyalty ...market. The market analysis was conducted to fill missing gaps on the M4/AR-15 market size, customer demographics, and supplier base. Data was collected

  7. Westinghouse-GOTHIC modeling of NUPEC's hydrogen mixing and distribution test M-4-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofstun, R.P.; Woodcock, J.; Paulsen, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    NUPEC (NUclear Power Engineering Corporation) ran a series of hydrogen mixing and distribution tests which were completed in April 1992. These tests were performed in a 1/4 linearly scaled model containment and were specifically designed to be used for computer code validation. The results of test M-4-3, along with predictions from several computer codes, were presented to the participants of ISP-35 (a blind test comparison of code calculated results with data from NUPEC test M-7-1) at a meeting in March 1993. Test M-4-3, which was similar to test M-7-1, released a mixture of steam and helium into a steam generator compartment located on the lower level of containment. The majority of codes did well at predicting the global pressure and temperature trends, however, some typical lumped parameter modeling problems were identified at that time. In particular, the models had difficulty predicting the temperature and helium concentrations in the so called 'dead ended volumes' (pressurizer compartment and in-core chase region). Modeling of the dead-ended compartments using a single lumped parameter volume did not yield the appropriate temperature and helium response within that volume. The Westinghouse-GOTHIC (WGOTHIC) computer code is capable of modeling in one, two or three dimensions (or any combination thereof). This paper describes the WGOTHIC modeling of the dead-ended compartments for NUPEC test M-4-3 and gives comparisons to the test data. 1 ref., 1 tab., 14 figs

  8. Initial Experience With the New Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Model M4: Short-term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvintal, Victor; Moster, Marlene R; Shyu, Andrew P; McDermott, Katie; Ekici, Feyzahan; Pro, Michael J; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of the new Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) model M4. The device consists of a porous polyethylene shell designed for improved tissue integration and reduced encapsulation of the plate for better intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Medical records of patients with an AGV M4 implantation between December 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were reviewed. The main outcome measure was surgical failure, defined as either (1) IOP21 mm Hg and/or glaucoma, and/or (3) loss of light perception. Seventy-five eyes of 73 patients were included. Postoperative IOP at all follow-up visits significantly decreased from a baseline IOP of 31.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). However, IOP increased significantly at 3 months (20.4 mm Hg), 6 months (19.3 mm Hg), and 12 months (20.3 mm Hg) compared with 1 month (13.8 mm Hg) postoperatively (P<0.05). At 6 months and 1 year, the cumulative probability of failure was 32% and 72%, respectively. The AGV M4 effectively reduced IOP in the first postoperative month, but IOP steadily increased thereafter. Consequently, failure rates were high after 1 year of follow-up.

  9. Getting ready for the real data-taking with M4

    CERN Multimedia

    Giuseppe Mornacchi

    M4 (Milestone 4), the fourth global commissioning period, took place from August 23rd to September 3rd. As for M3, this run included almost all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, with only the Pixels and Cathode Strip Chambers missing, but featured more detector hardware, new releases of offline and online software and many new functions. These are outlined below. The more mature state of systems integration called for a different organization of M4 with respect to M1-M3: following a 2-day setup time, we spent the rest of M4 running formal shifts: two shifts a day (9:00 to 17:00 and 17:00 to 24:00) with a full crew during week days, that is 13 control room desks staffed by at least one shifter each, and a single shift (9:00 to 17:00) with reduced crew of 5-7 people during weekends. While most of the time was dedicated to combined running with cosmics muons, four of the day shifts were dedicated to more technical issues such as: high rate (many kHz) runs, tests related to synchronization (Bunch Counter Reset and Eve...

  10. lert/lx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period at Mchinji District Hospital, patients requiring surgical procedures for the following conditions were involved in the study: in- complete abortion (II), septic abortion (4), retained placenta (7), infertility (I), and hyper- menorrhea (I). Our intension was to include any patient requiring a uterine evacuation proce- dure.

  11. The s-process enrichment of the globular clusters M4 and M22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Marino, Anna F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hirschi, Raphael, E-mail: luke.shingles@anu.edu.au [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the enrichment in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in the globular clusters M4 (NGC 6121) and M22 (NGC 6656). Stars in M4 have homogeneous abundances of Fe and neutron-capture elements, but the entire cluster is enhanced in s-process elements (Sr, Y, Ba, Pb) relative to other clusters with a similar metallicity. In M22, two stellar groups exhibit different abundances of Fe and s-process elements. By subtracting the mean abundances of s-poor from s-rich stars, we derive s-process residuals or empirical s-process distributions for M4 and M22. We find that the s-process distribution in M22 is more weighted toward the heavy s-peak (Ba, La, Ce) and Pb than M4, which has been enriched mostly with light s-peak elements (Sr, Y, Zr). We construct simple chemical evolution models using yields from massive star models that include rotation, which dramatically increases s-process production at low metallicity. We show that our massive star models with rotation rates of up to 50% of the critical (break-up) velocity and changes to the preferred {sup 17}O(α, γ){sup 21}Ne rate produce insufficient heavy s-elements and Pb to match the empirical distributions. For models that incorporate asymptotic giant branch yields, we find that intermediate-mass yields (with a {sup 22}Ne neutron source) alone do not reproduce the light-to-heavy s-element ratios for M4 and M22, and that a small contribution from models with a {sup 13}C pocket is required. With our assumption that {sup 13}C pockets form for initial masses below a transition range between 3.0 and 3.5 M {sub ☉}, we match the light-to-heavy s-element ratio in the s-process residual of M22 and predict a minimum enrichment timescale of between 240 and 360 Myr. Our predicted value is consistent with the 300 Myr upper limit age difference between the two groups derived from isochrone fitting.

  12. Efecto de la imidazolina [IM-NH17] en el proceso de corrosión del acero api5l-x52 en salmueras acidificadas

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud-Morales, A.G.; Casales-Díaz, M.; Chacón-Nava, J.G.; Martínez-Gómez, L.; Martínez-Villafañe, A.; González-Rodríguez, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Se estudia la eficiencia de inhibición del compuesto Imidazolina Aminoetil Oleica [IM-NH17]) en la corrosión de un acero API5L-X52 en tres soluciones de salmuera acidificada a pH 3 a una temperatura de 50°C, empleando pruebas de polarización potenciodinámica y mediciones de resistencia de polarización. Bajo las condiciones de prueba, los resultados de curvas de polarización indicaron que el inhibidor se comporta como un inhibidor de tipo mixto. Los resultados de resistencia de polarización li...

  13. The evaluation of MiL-Lx and Hybrid III Leg using Hybrid III and EUROSID2-re Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available are 2.6 kN for the Mil-Lx and 5.4 kN for HIII instrumented lower legs [4]. This value was determined by recording the load likely to result in a lower limb injury with an Ankle and Foot Injury Scales (AFIS). AFIS is divided into an injury severity... and long term impairment scale. AFIS is a seven-point numerical rating system and evaluates a comprehensive list of lower limb injuries. AFIS also describes the relative severity (AFIS-S) and long term impairment (AFIS-I) [6]. The variation in mass...

  14. Determination of /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu ratio in the environmental samples based on the measurement of Lx/. cap alpha. -ray activity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K.; Sakanoue, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1984-06-01

    The determination of the /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu isotopic ratio in environmental samples has been attempted by the measurement of the Lx/..cap alpha..-ray activity ratio using a Ge-LEPS (low-energy photon spectrometer) and a surface-barrier Si detector. By this method, interesting data were obtained for various samples collected from Thule, Greenland, Bikini Atoll and Nagasaki, as well as for some soils collected from near and off-site locations of atomic power stations.

  15. Cyanogen distribution of M4 and the possible connection between horizontal branch morphology and chemical inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.

    1981-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of 45 red giants in the globular cluster M4 has been completed with a view to ascertaining whether the bimodal distribution of stars on the horizontal branch (Lee) is accompanied by a cyanogen dichotomy on the giant branch, similar to the situation found in NGC 6752. From analysis of some 118 spectra, it is concluded that the red giants in M4 (in the magnitude range M/sub V/approx.0.3 to -1.2) do show a bimodal cyanogen distribution. There appears also to be an anticorrelation between the behavior of CN and CH. A working hypothesis is proposed which will explain most of the known peculiarities of the three globular clusters 47 Tuc, M4, and NGC 6752, for which comprehensive cyanogen surveys are available. It is suggested that there is a spectrum of core rotational velocity in the main-sequence stars of globular clusters. Beyond some critical value of the rotational velocity, a star will mix the products of the CN cycle into its outer layers, while still on or near the main sequence. The range in angular momentum leads also to a range in luminosity at which helium flash occurs and, thereby, to a range in envelope mass on the horizontal branch. Both the distribution of the products of mixing in the red giants and that of stars along the horizontal branch are thus determined by the spectrum of angular velocities in the cluster stars. This work thus supports the contention that core rotation is a parameter which effects horizontal branch morphology (the case is made that it should be regarded as the third parameter). The hypothesis has the advantage that it makes several predictions which are open to observational test

  16. BVRI main-sequence photometry of the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1984-01-01

    We present BV and RI photographic photometry of 1421 and 189 stars, respectively, in the intermediate metallicity globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). This investigation includes the first results of RI main-sequence photometry of a globular cluster. The use of longer wavelengths and longer color baselines provides the potential of improved isochrone fittings and underscores the urgent need for calculations of RI synthetic isochrones to be compared with observations. The Pickering-Racine wedge was used with the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the Las Campanas 2.5 m du Pont telescope, and the CTIO 1 m Yale telescope to extend the photoelectric limit from Vroughly-equal16.1 to Vroughly-equal19.1. We have determined the position of the main-sequence turnoff to lie at V = 16.6 +- 0.2 (m.e.) and B-V = 0.80 +- 0.03 (m.e.). A comparison of our BV observations with the CCD data of Richer and Fahlman shows excellent agreement: the two fifucial main sequences agree at all points to within 0.025 mag and, on average, to 0.013 mag. For the cluster we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/ = 12.52 +- 0.2 and reddening E(B-V) = 0.44 +- 0.03, results which confirm that at a distance of 2 kpc, M4 is the closest globular clusters to the Sun. Using the isochrones of VandenBerg, we deduce an age 13 +- 2 Gyr. As noted in several other investigations, there is a striking deficiency of stars in certain parts of the color-magnitude diagram; in M4 we find a pronounced gap over approx.0.6 mag at the base of the subgiant branch

  17. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2017-06-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  18. NACA0015 measurements in LM wind tunnel and turbulence generated noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2008-11-15

    A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze these measurement data, including the turbulent inflow characteristics. The airfoil surface pressure data are considered in the perspective of turbulent inflow noise in order to identify the potential for using these data to validate and possibly improve associated noise models from the literature. In addition, these data are further analyzed in the context of trailing edge noise modeling which is directly related to the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing edge. (au)

  19. MARKETING DE INFORMAÇÕES PARA O VAREJO: O MÉTODO ZAPROS-LM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Luiz Veiga Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra, através de um caso real, como o uso de um método formal de apoio à tomada de decisão pode tornar mais efetiva a administração de marketing para o varejo. A organização objeto do estudo foi numa entidade tradicional da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, que atua como um grande banco de dados do varejo, utilizado por empresas comerciais da região. Utilizou-se aqui o método ZAPROS-LM, da Análise Verbal de Decisões. Os resultados globais deste estudo mostram que a adoção de tal método pode enriquecer significativamente o processo de administração em marketing de uma organização que armazena e dissemina informações do setor de varejo.

  20. The theory of endogenous money and the LM schedule: prelude to a reconstruction of ISLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS I. PALLEY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Money is at the center of macroeconomics, which makes understanding the money supply central for macroeconomic theory. This paper presents the Post Keynesian theory of endogenous money supply and shows how it is fundamentally different from the conventional money supply theory. The conventional approach relies on the money multiplier and bank lending is invisible. Post Keynesian theory discards the money multiplier and focuses on bank lending which drives money creation. The paper emphasizes the structuralist version of Post Keynesian theory which retains Keynes’ liquidity preference theory of long term interest rates and also recognizes banks are subject to financial constraints that limit their lending activities. The paper then shows how to derive the LM schedule in an endogenous money economy, which is a necessary prelude to reconstructing the ISLM model.

  1. Rancang Bangun Alat Ukur Kelajuan Udara Tipe Thermal Terintegrasi Termometer Udara Berbasis Sensor LM35 dan PT100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Katriani

    2017-11-01

    INTEGRATED WITH AIR THERMOMETER USING  LM35 SENSOR AND PT100 SENSOR This research aimed to design a thermal type anemometer integrated with air thermometer using Lm35 sensor and PT100 sensor. The study began in Mei until Oktober 2016. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Electronics and Instrumentation, Department of Physics Education, State University of Yogyakarta. The design of the thermal type anemometer consists of two stages, namely, the design of the hardware and software design. Hardware design consists of a sensor system design (LM35 and PT100,  LM317 design, system design for data processing and display. Software design using C language. Based on the results of tests that had been done, shows that the sensor output LM35, whic is voltage is proportional to temperature changes, which had a sensitivity of 0.009 volts / ºC and initial output voltage of the sensor when the temperature reach 0 °C is 0,041 volts. PT100 sensor output, which is resistance is proportional to temperature changes, which had sensitivity of 0.391 Ω/oC and initial output resistance of the sensor when temperature reach 28 °C is 100,8 Ω. Error percent of thermal-type air speed measuring instrument testing is 4%.

  2. E Durans Strain M4-5 Isolated From Human Colonic Flora Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avram-Hananel, L.; Stock, J.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    to examine in vivo effects of prevention and therapy with E durans on clinical, biochemical, and histologic parameters of inflammation. RESULTS: In the coculture model, treatment with E durans and with butyrate reduced basal as well as E coli stimulated secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased...... inflammation, and inhibited colonic transcription of proinflammatory immune factors. The effect of therapeutic treatment alone on these parameters was more moderate but still significant. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that E durans strain M4 to 5 and its metabolic product butyrate induce significant anti...

  3. Particle creation effect on M4 X S7 Kaluza-Klein cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koikawa, T.; Maeda, K.

    1984-01-01

    The particle creation effect on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein cosmologies with M 4 xS 7 topology is studied. This quantum effect is found to change the classical behavior of the internal and external scale factors drastically in the early stage of the expansion, so that the dimensional reduction seems to fail. However, at the later stage two scale factors get separated from each other and the internal scale factor approaches the final singularity just like the vacuum case. (orig.)

  4. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  5. M4FT-16LL080302052-Update to Thermodynamic Database Development and Sorption Database Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC; Atkins-Duffin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Global Security

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080302052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number FT-16LL08030205. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  6. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Susan; Dayvault, Jalena

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and-the focus of this report-evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014-2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  7. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  8. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  9. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Cortés, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  10. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  11. LM-OSL signals from some insulators: an analysis of the dependency of the detrapping probability on stimulation light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from various insulators including quartz, Al2O3 : C, BeO and NaCl have been studied using the linear modulation OSL (LM-OSL) technique. LM-OSL is based on the linear increase of the stimulation light power from zero to a maximum during the measurement...... is not always correct. The initial decay rates of the blue (similar to 470 nm) light stimulated constant power OSL decay curves were examined to test the relation between the detrapping rates and the stimulation light intensity. In SiO2, Al2O3 : C and BeO a linear relation between the detrapping rates....... The resultant OSL curve initially increases and then decays after reaching a maximum, The analysis of LM-OSL data usually assumes a linear relationship between the detrapping rate and the stimulation light intensity. However, experiments carried out using various insulators have shown that this assumption...

  12. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  13. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hiroki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Seikou [Department of Pharmacognosy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Chisaki, Yugo [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takada, Tetsuya [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Toda, Yuki [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Murata, Hiroaki [Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyuki [Department of Biology, Osaka Medical Center of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Yano, Yoshitaka [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takata, Kazuyuki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Ashihara, Eishi, E-mail: ash@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-26

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  14. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Nakamura, Seikou; Chisaki, Yugo; Takada, Tetsuya; Toda, Yuki; Murata, Hiroaki; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Yano, Yoshitaka; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  15. Nu mår man? : en kvalitativ studie om tidspress och välmående

    OpenAIRE

    Asfedai Larsson, Joel; Falk, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Tidigare forskning visar att många akademiker upplever hög arbetsbelastning och påtaglig tidspress på arbetsplatsen. Det kan leda till en konflikt mellan arbete och fritid. Tidspress och välmående är aktuella ämnen, vilket dagspressen styrker. Tidigare forskning upplever dessutom en kunskapslucka vad gäller forskning om obalans mellan arbete och fritid, samt vilket effekt det får på individens välmående. Studiens syfte är således att utforska hur redovisningskonsulten upplever tidspress utifr...

  16. Genetics of leaf rust-resistant mutant WH 147-LM-1 in hexaploid wheat variety WH 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.; Viswanathan, P.

    1999-01-01

    By applying gamma rays, EMS and their combination in hexaploid wheat variety WH 147, a total of 20 mutants (0.0226%) exhibiting complete leaf rust resistance were isolated from segregating M2 rows.When one of the rust-resistant mutants, WH 147-LM-1 was crossed with the universally susceptible, suggesting that the mutant character is controlled by one dominant gene and one recessive gene.The F2 plants derived by crossing the mutant WH 147-LM with seven near-isogenic wheat lines showed segregation for susceptibility, indicating that the mutant character was indeed generated through induced mutations

  17. Study of synergism effect between TID and ATREE on the response of the LM124 operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, N.J.H.; Perez, S.; Mekki, J.; Gonzalez Velo, Y.; Dusseau, L.; Boch, J.; Saigne, F.; Vaille, J.R.; Vaille, J.R.; Marec, R.; Calvel, P.; Bezerra, F.; Auriel, G.; Azais, B.; Buchner, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Synergistic effect between Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Analog Transient Radiation Effects in Electronics (ATREE) in an operational amplifier (LM124) is investigated. A predictive methodology, based on a previously developed ATREEs simulation tool, is used to model the synergistic phenomena. This phenomenon is simulated for the first time and the duration of the ATREEs' is found to be identical to those measured experimentally. ATREEs induced by high dose-rate X-ray pulses are investigated using a flash X-ray facility. The ATREEs induced in the LM124 operational amplifier configured in three different bias configurations are investigated and simulated. (authors)

  18. A New Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for AISI M4 High-Speed Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Jalel; Ben Slima, Souad

    2008-12-01

    The increasing evolution of dilatometric techniques now allows for the identification of structural transformations with very low signal. The use of dilatometric techniques coupled with more common techniques, such as metallographic, hardness testing, and x-ray diffraction allows to plot a new CCT diagram for AISI M4 high-speed tool steel. This diagram is useful for a better selection of alternate solutions, hardening, and tempering heat treatments. More accurate determination of the various fields of transformation of austenite during its cooling was made. The precipitation of carbides highlighted at high temperature is at the origin of the martrensitic transformation into two stages (splitting phenomena). For slow cooling rates, it was possible to highlight the ferritic, pearlitic, and bainitic transformation.

  19. VBLUM photometry of RR Lyrae stars in ω Cen and M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBruijn, J.W.; Lub, J.

    1987-01-01

    Multicolour VBLUW photometry of RR Lyrae stars in the globular clusters M4 and ω Cen is used to derive information on reddening, blanketing, effective temperatures and gravity of these stars. The methods employed in the literature to determine the reddening of globular clusters from the UBV colours of the RR Lyrae stars are in complete agreement with the results from VBLUW photometry. The most important conclusions of the present work are: the close similarity between the RR Lyrae variables in the field and in globular clusters, and the agreement between the reddenings derived for RR Lyrae in the field and in globular clusters. This means that at least one parameter which normally is taken as a free parameter in studying globular cluster colour magnitude diagrams can be constrained very precisely

  20. Atmospheric Parameters and Metallicities for 2191 Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Sneden, Christopher; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Nascimbeni, Valerio

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V 14.7, we obtain lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  1. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Sneden, Christopher; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2014-01-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions

  2. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, Luigi R., E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: valerio.nascimbeni@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  3. An allosteric enhancer of M4muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M4 acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in the regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M4 receptors could...

  4. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  5. Symbol error rate performance evaluation of the LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, H.

    1981-01-01

    The LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit was tested for evaluation of its symbol error rate (SER) performance. Using an automated test setup, the SER tests were carried out at various symbol rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), ranging from +10 to -10 dB. With the aid of a specially designed error detector and a stabilized signal and noise summation unit, measurement of the SER at low SNR was possible. The results of the tests show that at symbol rates below 20 megasymbols per second (MS)s) and input SNR above -6 dB, the SER performance of the modem is within the specified 0.65 to 1.5 dB of the theoretical error curve. At symbol rates above 20 MS/s, the specification is met at SNR's down to -2 dB. The results of the SER tests are presented with the description of the test setup and the measurement procedure.

  6. Optimization of the Machining parameter of LM6 Alminium alloy in CNC Turning using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, S.; Muthuraman, V.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.

    2017-03-01

    Due to widespread use of highly automated machine tools in the industry, manufacturing requires reliable models and methods for the prediction of output performance of machining process. In machining of parts, surface quality is one of the most specified customer requirements. In order for manufactures to maximize their gains from utilizing CNC turning, accurate predictive models for surface roughness must be constructed. The prediction of optimum machining conditions for good surface finish plays an important role in process planning. This work deals with the study and development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining LM6 aluminum alloy. Two important tools used in parameter design are Taguchi orthogonal arrays and signal to noise ratio (S/N). Speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant are taken as process parameter at three levels. Taguchi’s parameters design is employed here to perform the experiments based on the various level of the chosen parameter. The statistical analysis results in optimum parameter combination of speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant as the best for obtaining good roughness for the cylindrical components. The result obtained through Taguchi is confirmed with real time experimental work.

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Lactococcus lactis M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hooi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A superoxide dismutase (SOD gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172.

  8. Current status of muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors as drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Goldsmith, Paul J; Jackson, Kimberley; Sanger, Helen E; Evans, David A; Mogg, Adrian J; Broad, Lisa M

    2018-01-25

    The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects. More recent compound screening and medicinal chemistry optimization of orthosteric and allosteric agonists, and positive allosteric modulators binding to sites distinct from the highly homologous acetylcholine binding pocket have yielded a collection of highly selective tool compounds for preclinical validation studies. Several M1 selective ligands have progressed to early clinical development and in time will hopefully lead to useful therapeutics for treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (IG, with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C, 160 °C. These temperatures were maintained as interpass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in undermatched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary.

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas de uniones soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido, de acero API 5L-X80. En este sentido, se evalúa la influencia de la temperatura de precalentamiento, manteniendo el aporte de calor uniforme. Todas las uniones soldadas se realizaron en la posición plana (IG, con la antorcha fíja y la tubería girando. Se utilizó un tubo de 762 mm de diámetro exterior y 16 mm de espesor. Las soldaduras se aplicaron sobre una unión de tope con bisel en V simple, utilizando 6 pasadas, con tres niveles de temperatura de precalentamiento (ambiente, 100 °C y 160 °C. Estas temperaturas se mantuvieron como temperatura entre pasadas. El metal de aporte, del tipo E71T8-K6, se utilizó en la

  10. Efecto de la corrosión por h 2 so 4 en la difusividad térmica de acero api5l-x52.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work present a study of the effect of the H2SO4 corrosion to constant pH of 1.4 in the thermal diffusivity of API5L-X52 pipeline steel. The samples were exposed by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days to the corrosive solution, in an atmosphere with relative average humidity of 57.16% and temperature of 23.6°C. The thermal diffusivity measure was carried out using the photoacoustic technique in a heat transmission configuration. Our results show a decrease of the thermal diffusivity ( a with the corrosion time, presenting a behavior that is adjusted to a logistical curve of type decreasing with a saturation limit of 52% of a initial value.

  11. The Effect of Impingement Velocity and Angle Variation on the Erosion Corrosion Performance of API 5L-X65 Carbon Steel in a Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan UlHaq Toor

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erosion corrosion performance of API 5L-X65 carbon steel was investigated at three different impingement velocities (3, 6 & 12 m/s, five different angles (15, 30, 45, 60, & 90°, and with/without solid particles (average particle size of 314 µm. The experiments were conducted in 0.2 M NaCl solution at room temperature for a duration of 24 h and the results showed that the maximum erosion corrosion rate was observed at 45° irrespective of the velocity. The highest erosion corrosion rate at 45° was due to the balance between the shear and normal impact stress at this angle. Ploughing, deep craters, and micro-forging/plastic deformation were found to be the main erosion corrosion mechanisms. The maximum wear scar depth measured using optical profilometery was found to be 51 µm (average at an impingement angle of 45°.

  12. AlgM4: A New Salt-Activated Alginate Lyase of the PL7 Family with Endolytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyuan Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alginate lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of alginates into oligosaccharides or monosaccharides. These enzymes have been widely used for a variety of purposes, such as producing bioactive oligosaccharides, controlling the rheological properties of polysaccharides, and performing structural analyses of polysaccharides. The algM4 gene of the marine bacterium Vibrio weizhoudaoensis M0101 encodes an alginate lyase that belongs to the polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7. In this study, the kinetic constants Vmax (maximum reaction rate and Km (Michaelis constant of AlgM4 activity were determined as 2.75 nmol/s and 2.72 mg/mL, respectively. The optimum temperature for AlgM4 activity was 30 °C, and at 70 °C, AlgM4 activity dropped to 11% of the maximum observed activity. The optimum pH for AlgM4 activity was 8.5, and AlgM4 was completely inactive at pH 11. The addition of 1 mol/L NaCl resulted in a more than sevenfold increase in the relative activity of AlgM4. The secondary structure of AlgM4 was altered in the presence of NaCl, which caused the α-helical content to decrease from 12.4 to 10.8% and the β-sheet content to decrease by 1.7%. In addition, NaCl enhanced the thermal stability of AlgM4 and increased the midpoint of thermal denaturation (Tm by 4.9 °C. AlgM4 exhibited an ability to degrade sodium alginate, poly-mannuronic acid (polyM, and poly-guluronic acid (polyG, resulting in the production of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP of 2–9. AlgM4 possessed broader substrate, indicating that it is a bifunctional alginate lyase. Thus, AlgM4 is a novel salt-activated and bifunctional alginate lyase of the PL7 family with endolytic activity.

  13. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA for palliation of pain from osseous metastases: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    The physical and biological attributes of 117m Sn(4+)-DTPA indicate that it should be an effective agent for palliative therapy of painful bony metastatic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not this agent could effectively reduce pain while sparing the hemopoietic marrow from adverse effects. Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with painful bony metastases from various primary cancers were included in the study. Seven patients received 1.22 to 3.11 MBq/kg of 117m Sn intravenously (Group 1) and eight patients received 4.85 to 5.77 MBq/kg (Group 2). All but one were treated as outpatients and followed for a minimum of 2 mo. In the first group, pain relief was nonassessable in four patients because of death or additional treatment of soft-tissue disease by another modality. One patient had no relief of pain, one had complete relief of pain and one had transient relief of pain. No myelotoxicity was observed. For Group 2, three patients achieved complete relief of pain, two good relief, two partial relief and one began to experience pain relief when he suffered a pathological fracture 2 mo most-treatment. None of these patients had myelotoxicity. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA can reduce pain from metastatic disease to bone without inducing adverse reactions related to bone marrow. Further studies are needed to assess tolerance levels for the bone marrow and to evaluate response rates and duration of effect. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  15. Discovery of VU0467485/AZ13713945: An M4 PAM Evaluated as a Preclinical Candidate for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Poslusney, Michael S; Nance, Kellie D; Hurtado, Miguel A; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Bubser, Michael; Blobaum, Anna L; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-02-09

    Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M 4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Compound 6c (VU0467485) possesses robust in vitro M 4 PAM potency across species and in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Coupled with an attractive DMPK profile and suitable predicted human PK, 6c (VU0467485) was evaluated as a preclinical development candidate.

  16. Selective Activation of M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reverses MK-801-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Enhances Associative Learning in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25137629

  17. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae M-4 strain with self-protection transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Li, Jianlong; Yao, Kai; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Kang; Hu, Xinjie; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Liu, Aiping; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-11-01

    A novel filamentous fungus M-4 strain was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as Aspergillus oryzae (Collection number: CGMCC 11645) on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence. M-4 could degrade 80.62 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L -1 ) within 5 days. 3-PBA degradation occurred in accordance with first-order kinetics. The degradation metabolites of 3-PBA were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated, which indicated that M-4 could effectively degrade the intermediates of 3-PBA. Base on analysis of these metabolites, a novel biochemical pathway for the degradation of 3-PBA was proposed. There exists a mutual transformation between 3-phenoxy-benzyl alcohol and 3-PBA, which was firstly reported about the degradation of 3-PBA and may be attributed to self-protection transformation of M-4; subsequently, 3-PBA was gradually transformed into phenol, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid. The safety of M-4 was evaluated via an acute toxicity test in vivo. The biodegradation ability of M-4 without toxic effects reveals that this fungus may be likely to be used for eliminating 3-PBA from contaminated environment or fermented foods.

  18. Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Micro Hardness of Aluminium (LM25 - SiC Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Elango

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this paper is to increase awareness amongst the researchers and to draw their attention towards the present approach to deal with the cryogenic treatment for the nonferrous metals. Cryogenic treated nonferrous metals will exhibit longer wear and more durability. During metal making process, when solidification takes place, some molecules get caught in a random pattern. The molecules do move about at subzero and deep cryogenic treatment slowly. In this experimental study, the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure changes and the hardness properties varies for LM25 alloy and LM25-SiC metal matrix composite at -196°C. It is analyzed for different durations. The execution of cryogenic treatment on both alloy and MMCs changed the distribution of

  19. Alat Monitoring Suhu Melalui Aplikasi Android Menggunakan Sensor LM35 dan Modul SIM800L Berbasis Mikrokontroler ATMega16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Kadek Agus Sara Sawita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been successfully designed a temperature monitoring instrument through android application using LM35 sensor and SIM800L module based on ATMega16 microcontroller. The temperature is measured using a LM35 sensor which produces a voltage and sent to ADC. Microcontroller ATMega16 is using as the main processor of this monitoring instrument to calculate the program, so that analog data in the form of input voltage are converted into digital data form a measurable temperature. The measurable temperature is sent and saved in the database on the server computer using the SIM800L module so it can be displayed on the website. The website pages are accessed with android programs that installed on the smartphone so that measurable temperature data can be monitored using a smartphone. The measurable temperature results can be displayed on a 2x16-character LCD in the instrument designed. Compatibility of monitoring instrument with comparison instrument is 99,97 %.

  20. Modeling and investigations on TID-ASETs synergistic effect in LM124 operational amplifier from three different manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, F.; Dusseau, L.; Privat, A.; Vaille, J.R.; Boch, J.; Saigne, F.; Ribeiro, P.; Auriel, G.; Khachatrian, A.; Roche, N.J.H.; Warner, J.H.; Buchner, S.P.; Mc- Morrow, D.; Azais, B.; Marec, R.; Calvel, P.; Bezerra, F.; Ecoffet, R.

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect between Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Analog Single Event Transient (ASET) in LM124 operational amplifiers (op-amps) from three different manufacturers is investigated. This effect is clearly identified on only two manufacturers by three, highlighting manufacturer dependent. In fact, significant variations were observed on both the TID sensitivity and the ASET response of LM124 devices from different manufacturers. Hypotheses are made on the cause of the differences observed. A previously developed ASET simulation tool is used to model the transient response. The effects of TID on devices are taken into account in the model by injecting the variations of key electrical parameters obtained during Co irradiation. An excellent agreement is observed between the experimental responses and the model outputs, independently of the TID level, the bias configuration and the manufacturer of the device. (authors)

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisacchi, Davide [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy); Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Bordo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.bordo@istge.it [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3 1 21/P3 2 21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å

  3. The Effects of Low Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation on the Shapes of Transients in the LM124 Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent; Pease, Ron L.

    2008-01-01

    Shapes of single event transients (SETs) in a linear bipolar circuit (LM124) change with exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation. SETs shape changes are a direct consequence of TID-induced degradation of bipolar transistor gain. A reduction in transistor gain causes a reduction in the drive current of the current sources in the circuit, and it is the lower drive current that most affects the shapes of large amplitude SETs.

  4. Photosynthesis Is Widely Distributed among Proteobacteria as Demonstrated by the Phylogeny of PufLM Reaction Center Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different photosystems for performing bacteriochlorophyll-mediated photosynthetic energy conversion are employed in different bacterial phyla. Those bacteria employing a photosystem II type of photosynthetic apparatus include the phototrophic purple bacteria (Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Chloroflexus with their photosynthetic relatives. The proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center PufL and PufM are essential components and are common to all bacteria with a type-II photosynthetic apparatus, including the anaerobic as well as the aerobic phototrophic Proteobacteria. Therefore, PufL and PufM proteins and their genes are perfect tools to evaluate the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and to study the diversity of the bacteria employing this photosystem in nature. Almost complete pufLM gene sequences and the derived protein sequences from 152 type strains and 45 additional strains of phototrophic Proteobacteria employing photosystem II were compared. The results give interesting and comprehensive insights into the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and clearly define Chromatiales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales as major groups distinct from other Alphaproteobacteria, from Betaproteobacteria and from Caulobacterales (Brevundimonas subvibrioides. A special relationship exists between the PufLM sequences of those bacteria employing bacteriochlorophyll b instead of bacteriochlorophyll a. A clear phylogenetic association of aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria to anaerobic purple bacteria according to their PufLM sequences is demonstrated indicating multiple evolutionary lines from anaerobic to aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria. The impact of pufLM gene sequences for studies on the environmental diversity of phototrophic bacteria is discussed and the possibility of their identification on the species level in environmental samples is pointed out.

  5. PEMANFAATAN LM35 SEBAGAI SENSOR SUHU OTOMATIS PADA SISEM PENGONTROLAN SUHU RUANGAN PENGERING (STUDI KASUS : PENGERING TIPE RAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Rahayuningtyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliran udara dan suhu pada ruang pengering memegang peranan penting dalam proses pengeringan suatu produk. Laju penguapan air bahan dalam pengeringan sangat ditentukan oleh kenaikan suhu. Pada penelitian ini pengontrolan suhu ruang pengering dilakukan dengan merancang bangun sensor suhu dengan menggunakan LM35 dan berbasis mikrokontroler ATMEGA 8535. Input berupa suhu disensor oleh LM35 yang kemudian diolah dan dikontrol oleh mikrokontroler. Keluaran dari mikrokontroler berupa nilai bacaan suhu yang akan ditampilan pada LCD display 16 x 2. Pengamatan ini bertujuan untuk menguji parameter teknis yang terkait dengan unjuk kerja mesin pengering tipe rak meliputi sebaran suhu dengan konveksi paksa menggunakan kipas mekanik. Pengamatan dilakukan pada suhu 50ºC dan 60ºC, dengan 2 buah kipas dengan kecepatan masing-masing 3,9 m/dt dan 4,7 m/dt. Setiap 30 menit data suhu pada 6 titik diambil dalam ruang pengering. Dengan membandingkan hasil pengukuran dengan menggunakan sensor suhu LM35 dan termometer raksa dapat terlihat bahwa tidak terjadi perbedaan suhu yang jauh. Jika terdapat perbedaan hasil pembacaan, hal tersebut masih diijinkan karena nilainya berada dalam jangkauan toleransi. Perbedaan ini juga dipengaruhi oleh tata letak kipas yang mengakibatkan perbedaan hembusan udara dan berpengaruh pada rataan suhu dalam ruang pengering.

  6. Multi-Scale Parameter Identification of Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Models Using a PSO-LM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-scale parameter identification algorithm for the lithium-ion battery (LIB electric model by using a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithms. Two-dimensional Poisson equations with unknown parameters are used to describe the potential and current density distribution (PDD of the positive and negative electrodes in the LIB electric model. The model parameters are difficult to determine in the simulation due to the nonlinear complexity of the model. In the proposed identification algorithm, PSO is used for the coarse-scale parameter identification and the LM algorithm is applied for the fine-scale parameter identification. The experiment results show that the multi-scale identification not only improves the convergence rate and effectively escapes from the stagnation of PSO, but also overcomes the local minimum entrapment drawback of the LM algorithm. The terminal voltage curves from the PDD model with the identified parameter values are in good agreement with those from the experiments at different discharge/charge rates.

  7. Influence of preheating on API 5L-X80 pipeline joint welding with self shielded flux-cored wire; Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.; Silva, J. H. F.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2004-07-01

    The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (1G), with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 degree centigree, 160 degree centigree). These temperatures were maintained as inter pass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in under matched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary. (Author) 22 refs.

  8. IgE-Api m 4 Is Useful for Identifying a Particular Phenotype of Bee Venom Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, B; Serrano, P; Moreno, C

    Different clinical behaviors have been identified in patients allergic to bee venom. Compound-resolved diagnosis could be an appropriate tool for investigating these differences. The aims of this study were to analyze whether specific IgE to Api m 4 (sIgE-Api m 4) can identify a particular kind of bee venom allergy and to describe response to bee venom immunotherapy (bVIT). Prospective study of 31 patients allergic to bee venom who were assigned to phenotype group A (sIgE-Api m 4 Api m 4 ≥0.98 kU/L), treated with purified aqueous (PA) extract. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk, severity of preceding sting reaction, exposure to beekeeping, and immunological data (intradermal test, sIgE/sIgG4-Apis-nApi m 1, and sIgE-rApi m 2-Api m 4 were analyzed. Systemic reactions (SRs) during bVIT build-up were analyzed. Immunological and sting challenge outcomes were evaluated in each group after 1 and 2 years of bVIT. Phenotype B patients had more severe reactions (P=.049) and higher skin sensitivity (P=.011), baseline sIgE-Apis (P=.0004), sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.0004), and sIgG4-Apis (P=.027) than phenotype A patients. Furthermore, 41% of patients in group B experienced SRs during the build-up phase with NA; the sting challenge success rate in this group was 82%. There were no significant reductions in serial intradermal test results, but an intense reduction in sIgE-nApi m 1 (P=.013) and sIgE-Api m 4 (P=.004) was observed after the first year of bVIT. Use of IgE-Api m 4 as the only discrimination criterion demonstrated differences in bee venom allergy. Further investigation with larger populations is necessary.

  9. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubohara, Yuzuru, E-mail: ykuboha@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Health Science, Juntendo University Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Inzai 270-1695 (Japan); Komachi, Mayumi [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Homma, Yoshimi [Department of Biomolecular Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru [Laboratory of Natural Product Chemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aoba-yama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  10. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  11. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisong eMa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  12. Discovery of a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline-6-carboxamide M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) chemotype via scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Madeline F; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Niswender, Colleen M; Bridges, Thomas M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-11-15

    This Letter details our efforts to replace the 3-amino moiety, an essential pharmacophore for M 4 PAM activity in most M 4 PAMs to date, within the thieno[2,3-b]pyridine core, as the β-amino carboxamide motif has been shown to engender poor solubility, varying degrees of P-gp efflux and represents a structural alert. A scaffold hopping exercise identified a novel 2,4-dimethylquinoline carboxamide core that provided M 4 PAM activity and good CNS penetration without an amino moiety. In addition, MacMillan photoredox catalysis chemistry was essential for construction of the 2,4-dimethylquinoline core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  14. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801....... VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant...

  15. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design

  16. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    AChRs are coexpressed with D(1) dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M(4) mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(4) mAChRs only in D(1) dopamine....... Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance....

  17. Effect of sodium and strontium modifiers on microstructure and tensile properties of LM-13 Al-Si Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Q.A.; Ikram, N.; Ahmed, R.

    2006-01-01

    During present research work LM 13 aluminium silicon alloy was prepared using high purity aluminium ingot and various master alloys of Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe and Al-Mg. A gas fired crucible pit type furnace was used to prepare various heats of LM 13 alloy. Degassing procedure was carried out by using perforated bell type plunger using the degassing tablet. Modification was performed by plunging the modifier at the bottom of the crucible containing the molten metal. Three types of modifiers sodium salt, metallic sodium and strontium in the form of Al-Sr master alloy were used in order to evaluate the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloy. Degassed, unmodified and modified test samples for metallurgical testing purposes were prepared according to the standard procedures. An optical UFX-DX Nikon microscope and Hitachi S3400N scanning electron microscope were used for the observation of microstructural studies of the samples. Similarly tensile properties were determined using Autograph AG-IS series, 20KN Shimadzu Universal Tester. However hardness measurements were carried out using Shimadzu HMV micro hardness testing machine. Experimental results proved that the addition of modifiers improved the microstructures as well as the mechanical properties of the alloy. The present result also showed that sodium and strontium modifiers had almost similar beneficial effects on the microstructure but Sr-modifier showed improved tensile properties of LM 13 alloy. However, the salt method was not so effective if the same was compared to the metallic sodium and strontium modifiers. (author)

  18. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  19. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  20. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...

  1. Modelling and multi objective optimization of LM13 aluminium alloy squeeze cast process parameters using taguchi and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vellingiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This present investigation deals with squeeze casting process in order to produce a component with good mechanical properties such as micro-hardness(VH, tensile strength(Rm, and density(ρ on LM13 by varying squeeze pressure(P, molten temperature(Tm and die temperature(Td. Taguchi experimental design L9 orthogonal array was used to determine the signal to noise ratio. The results specified that the squeeze pressure and die preheat temperature are the most influencing parameters for mechanical properties improvement. Genetic algorithm (GA has been applied to optimize the casting parameters that simultaneously maximize the responses.

  2. Terminal (Mis)diagnosis and the Physician–Patient Relationship in LM Montgomery’s The Blue Castle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    LM Montgomery’s The Blue Castle was first published in 1926, yet contains many insights into medical practice that remain relevant today. The protagonist, Valancy, mistakenly receives a terminal diagnosis in a letter from her physician, who has sent her a note intended for another patient. Her interactions with the physician raise issues that are still relevant in contemporary medical education and practice, primarily the importance of effective communication in the physician–patient relationship, especially in the context of diagnosing terminal illness and handling a diagnostic error. The Blue Castle offers a useful starting point for debate and discussion in medical education about these topics. PMID:20473640

  3. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  4. ultraLM and miniLM: Locator tools for smart tracking of fluorescent cells in correlative light and electron microscopy [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Brama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In-resin fluorescence (IRF protocols preserve fluorescent proteins in resin-embedded cells and tissues for correlative light and electron microscopy, aiding interpretation of macromolecular function within the complex cellular landscape. Dual-contrast IRF samples can be imaged in separate fluorescence and electron microscopes, or in dual-modality integrated microscopes for high resolution correlation of fluorophore to organelle. IRF samples also offer a unique opportunity to automate correlative imaging workflows. Here we present two new locator tools for finding and following fluorescent cells in IRF blocks, enabling future automation of correlative imaging. The ultraLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with an ultramicrotome, which enables ‘smart collection’ of ultrathin sections containing fluorescent cells or tissues for subsequent transmission electron microscopy or array tomography. The miniLM is a fluorescence microscope that integrates with serial block face scanning electron microscopes, which enables ‘smart tracking’ of fluorescent structures during automated serial electron image acquisition from large cell and tissue volumes.

  5. An integrated microalgal growth model and its application to optimize the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under the nutrient level of domestic secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Li, Xin; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Li, Feng-Min

    2013-09-01

    Microalgal growth is the key to the coupled system of wastewater treatment and microalgal biomass production. In this study, Monod model, Droop model and Steele model were incorporated to obtain an integrated growth model describing the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and light intensity on the growth rate of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. The model parameters were obtained via fitting experimental data to these classical models. Furthermore, the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under nutrient level of secondary effluent was analyzed based on the integrated model, predicting a maximal microalgal biomass production rate about 20 g m(-2) d(-1). In order to optimize the biomass production of open pond the microalgal biomass concentration, light intensity on the surface of open pond, total depth of culture medium and hydraulic retention time should be 500 g m(-3), 16,000 lx, 0.2 m and 5.2 d in the conditions of this study, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sistem Pengendali Peralatan Elektronik dalam Rumah secara Otomatis Menggunakan Sensor PIR, Sensor LM35, dan Sensor LDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Desyantoro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Listrik merupakan hal yang sangat penting di kehidupan kita. Setiap pekerjaan kita pasti dibantu dengan adanya listrik. Mulai dari penerangan hingga pengaturan suhu ruangan pun semuanya dibantu oleh listrik. Ketergantungan manusia terhadap listrik ini menimbulkan kebiasaan buruk. Banyak orang yang terkadang membiarkan suatu peralatan elektronik hidup pada saat tidak dibutuhkan. Terjadi suatu permasalahan untuk menciptakan suatu desain sistem embedded untuk mengendalikan peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis. Makalah ini membahas tentang perancangan sistem pengendali peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis. Sistem terdiri dari sensor PIR yang berfungsi untuk mendeteksi objek bergerak (manusia, sensor LM35 yang berfungsi untuk mendeteksi suhu, dan sensor LDR berfungsi sebagai sensor cahaya. Mikrokontroller ATMega16 sebagai pengendali jalannya sistem dari pembacaan sensor, menampilkan data sensor pada LCD dan mengatur kontak relay untuk menghidup dan mematikan listrik. Sistem pengendali peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis menunjukan sensor LDR dapat membedakan gelap dan terang, sensor suhu LM35 dapat mendeteksi suhu dalam ruangan dengan toleransi kesalahan pembacaan kurang lebih 2o Celcius, dan sensor PIR dapat mendeteksi pergerakan manusia sejauh 5 meter.

  7. Power optimization in the STAR-LM modular natural convection reactor system. Topic 2.1 advanced reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Farmer, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    The secure, transportable, autonomous reactor (STAR) project addresses the needs of developing countries and independent power producers for a small (300 MWt), multi-purpose energy system. The STAR-LM variant described here is a liquid metal cooled, fast spectrum reactor system. Previous development of a reference STAR-LM design resulted in a 300 MWt modular, pool- type reactor based on criteria for factory fabrication of modules, full transportability of modules (barge, rail, overland), fast construction and startup, and semi-autonomous operation. Earlier work on the reference 300 MWt concept focused first on addressing whether 100% natural circulation heat transport was achievable under the module size constraints for full transportability and under the coolant and cladding peak temperature limitations imposed by the existing Russian database for ferritic-martensitic core material with oxide-layer corrosion protection. Secondly, owing to uncertainties and limitations in the available Russian materials compatibility database, the objective of the reference design was to address how low the coolant and cladding peak temperatures could be commensurate with achieving 300 MWt power level with 100% natural circulation in a fully transportable module size. In the present work we have refocused the approach to attempt to maximize the power achievable in the reactor module based on preserving the criteria for full module transportability and remaining within the materials compatibility database limits. (author)

  8. Palyno-morphological characteristics of gymnosperm flora of pakistan and its taxonomic implications with LM and SEM methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Ul Abidin, Sheikh Zain; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Liu, Jie; Amina, Hafiza

    2018-01-01

    The present study is intended to assess gymnosperms pollen flora of Pakistan using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for its taxonomic significance in identification of gymnosperms. Pollens of 35 gymnosperm species (12 genera and five families) were collected from its various distributional sites of gymnosperms in Pakistan. LM and SEM were used to investigate different palyno-morphological characteristics. Five pollen types (i.e., Inaperturate, Monolete, Monoporate, Vesiculate-bisaccate and Polyplicate) were observed. Six In equatorial view seven types of pollens were observed, in which ten species were sub-angular, nine species were Traingular, six species were Perprolate, three species were Rhomboidal, three species were semi-angular, two species were rectangular and two species were prolate. While five types of pollen were observed in polar view, in which ten species were Spheroidal, nine species were Angular, eight were Interlobate, six species were Circular, two species were Elliptic. Eighteen species has rugulate and 17 species has faveolate ornamentation. Eighteen species has verrucate and 17 have gemmate type sculpturing. The data was analysed through cluster analysis. The study showed that these palyno-morphological features have significance value in classification and identification of gymnosperms. Based on these different palyno-morphological features, a taxonomic key was proposed for the accurate and fast identifications of gymnosperms from Pakistan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Photodynamic Therapy of the Murine LM3 Tumor Using Meso-Tetra (4-N,N,N-Trimethylanilinium) Porphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, L L; Juarranz, A; Cañete, M; Villanueva, A; Stockert, J C

    2007-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is based on the cytotoxicity induced by a photosensitizer in the presence of oxygen and visible light, resulting in cell death and tumor regression. This work describes the response of the murine LM3 tumor to PDT using meso-tetra (4-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium) porphine (TMAP). BALB/c mice with intradermal LM3 tumors were subjected to intravenous injection of TMAP (4 mg/kg) followed 24 h later by blue-red light irradiation (λmax: 419, 457, 650 nm) for 60 min (total dose: 290 J/cm(2)) on depilated and glycerol-covered skin over the tumor of anesthetized animals. Control (drug alone, light alone) and PDT treatments (drug + light) were performed once and repeated 48 h later. No significant differences were found between untreated tumors and tumors only treated with TMAP or light. PDT-treated tumors showed almost total but transitory tumor regression (from 3 mm to less than 1 mm) in 8/9 animals, whereas no regression was found in 1/9. PDT response was heterogeneous and each tumor showed different regression and growth delay. The survival of PDT-treated animals was significantly higher than that of TMAP and light controls, showing a lower number of lung metastasis but increased tumor-draining lymph node metastasis. Repeated treatment and reduction of tissue light scattering by glycerol could be useful approaches in studies on PDT of cancer.

  10. Luminescence characteristics of quartz from the Southern Kenyan Rift Valley: Dose estimation using LM-OSL SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Duller, G.A.T.; Wintle, A.G.; Cheong, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Linearly modulated (LM) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements have revealed that some sedimentary quartz samples from the Kenyan Rift Valley do not have a fast OSL component, but contain a medium component and several slow components. It was impossible to recover a known dose for these samples using the conventional single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure. The dose-response curves and continuous wave (CW) OSL decay curves for these samples showed several undesirable properties for dating. We have compared various luminescence characteristics of these samples with other quartz samples from elsewhere in the world for which the SAR procedure has been shown to be appropriate; the latter were dominated by a fast OSL component. The characteristics include photoionisation cross-sections for each component and the relative proportions of the different components in the initial and total OSL signals. It was found that those samples that had greater than 90% of the initial 0.8 s of their OSL signal from the fast component were suitable for dating using the conventional SAR protocol. A novel method of displaying the relative contributions of the different OSL components in a ternary diagram is proposed. The thermal stability of each component was investigated using pulse-annealing experiments. We then examined the possibility of applying an LM-OSL SAR protocol to samples that have a substantial medium component

  11. Spontaneous compactification of a (4+d)-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory into M4xG/H for arbitrary G and H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Percacci, R.

    1982-05-01

    Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in 4+d dimensions admits a solution of the form M 4 xG/H, where M 4 is Einstein and G/H is symmetric, if the gauge group is H (or larger). The gauge fields of this solution are topologically nontrivial. The symmetry group is G 4 xGxH, G 4 being the isometry group of M 4 ; M 4 could be Minkowski or anti-de-Sitter space. (author)

  12. Internal conversion coefficients of M4 isomeric transitions in /sup 125/ /sup 127/ /sup 129/Te decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, S K; Kumar, A; Gupta, S L; Pancholi, S C [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1977-01-01

    The internal conversion coefficients have been measured using a high resolution low energy Ge(Li) detector for the following M4 transitions: /sup 125/Te: 109.27 keV transition ..cap alpha..sub(T) = 357 +- 11; RG method, /sup 127/Te: 88,26 keV transition ..cap alpha..sub(K) = 484 +- 23; XPG method, /sup 129/Te: 105.50 keV transition ..cap alpha..sub(K) = 213 +- 10; XPG method. It is observed that these values are lower by 2.5-3.6% as compared with Hager and Seltzer's calculations. A comparison between experimental and theoretical ..cap alpha..sub(K) and ..cap alpha..sub(T) values for eleven M4 transitions shows that the experimental values are systematically lower.

  13. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  14. Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-X52 steel in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen permeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se evalúa la influencia del acabado superficial, tanto en la corrosión generalizada como en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52 en solución de Na2SO4 0,1M, a pH=2. El comportamiento electroquímico del acero se estudió mediante las curvas de polarización potenciodinámicas, mientras que la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno se evaluó mediante la técnica de permeación de Devanathan- Stachurski. Además, se determinaron los parámetros de rugosidad a las muestras de acero con diferentes acabados superficiales, para luego correlacionarlos con los cambios en las corrientes de permeación de hidrógeno. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran, claramente, que, cuando la rugosidad superficial del acero

  15. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Primo, Valeria C; Zhang, Qing-yin; Arnaout, M Amin; Serhan, Charles N; Nikolic, Boris

    2005-02-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA(4) are potent endogenous lipid mediators thought to define the inflammatory set-point. We used single prophylactic administrations of a synthetic aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) signal mimetic, ATLa, to probe dynamics of early host-donor interactions in a mouse model for the inflammation-associated multifactorial disease of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) -induced graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). We first demonstrated that both host and donor are responsive to the ATLa signals. The simple and restricted regimen of a single prophylactic administration of ATLa [100 ng/mL to donor cells or 1 microg (approximately 50 microg/kg) i.v. to host] was sufficient to delay death. Clinical indicators of weight, skin lesions, diarrhea and eye inflammation were monitored. Histological analyses on day 45 post-BMT showed that the degree of cellular trafficking, particularly neutrophil infiltrate, and protection of end-organ target pathology are different, depending on whether the host or donor was treated with ATLa. Taken together, these results chart some ATLa protective effects on GvHD cellular dynamics over time and identify a previously unrecognized effect of host neutrophils in the early phase post-BMT as important determinants in the dynamics of GvHD onset and progression.-Devchand, P. R., Schmidt, B. A., Primo, V. C., Zhang, Q.-y., Arnaout, M. A., Serhan, C. N., Nikolic, B. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

  16. Fabrication of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere(F-LM) By Two Steps Double-Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and Characterization of Fucoxanthin before and after Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviendri, Dedi; Jaswir, Irwandi; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali; Octavianti, Fitri; Lestari, Widya; Hendri, Ridar; Ahmad, Hasna; Miyashita, Kazuo; Abdullah, Alias

    2016-08-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated. Among the surfactants tested, PVA showed the best results with smallest particle size (9.18 µm) and a smooth spherical surface. Increasing the homogenization speed resulted in a smaller mean F-LM particle size [d(0.50)] from 17.12 to 9.18 µm. Best particle size results and good morphology were attained at homogenization speed of 20 500 rpm. Meanwhile, increased PLGA concentration from 1.5 to 11.0 (% w/v) resulted in increased F-LM particle size. The mean particle size [d(0.5)] of F-LM increased from 3.93 to 11.88 µm. At 6.0 (% w/v) PLGA, F-LM showed the best structure and external morphology. Finally, increasing PVA concentration from 0.5 to 3.5 (% w/v) resulted in decreased particle size from 9.18 to 4.86 µm. Fucoxanthin characterization before and after microencapsulation was carried out to assess the success of the microencapsulation procedure. Thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA), glass transition (Tg) temperature of F-LM and fucoxanthin measured using DSC, ATR-FTIR and XRD indicated that fucoxanthin was successfully encapsulated into the PLGA matrix, while maintaining the structural and chemical integrity of fucoxanthin.

  17. Involvement of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztaou, Samira; Maurice, Nicolas; Camon, Jeremy; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne; Liberge, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2016-08-31

    Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal

  18. Effect of troglitazone on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development of the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Junichi; Sakayama, Kenshi; Kamei, Setsuya; Kidani, Teruki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ) is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group) or ethanol (control group) on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD) within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34. TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the control group. Inhibition of Akt signaling by

  19. Effect of troglitazone on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development of the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidani Teruki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. Methods LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group or ethanol (control group on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34. Results TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the

  20. Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsushi; Aizawa, Junichi; Sakayama, Kenshi; Kidani, Teruki; Takata, Tomoyo; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2012-09-26

    One of the problems associated with osteosarcoma is the frequent formation of micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis because the development of metastatic lesions often causes a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases during the early stage of tumor development is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In Japan, soy is consumed in a wide variety of forms, such as miso soup and soy sauce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, on the invasive and motile potential of osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of genistein. The effect of genistein on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. The assays of cell invasion and motility were performed using the cell culture inserts with either matrigel-coated membranes or uncoated membranes in the invasion chambers. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. The subcellular localization and cellular level of β-catenin were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. For examining cell morphology, the ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genistein dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. Genistein-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were lower in the genistein-treated cultures than in the untreated cultures. β-Catenin in untreated cells was located in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus, while in genistein-treated cells it was translocated near to the plasma membrane. The level of β-catenin was higher in genistein-treated cells than in untreated cells. Treatment of LM8 cells with genistein induced morphological

  1. Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems associated with osteosarcoma is the frequent formation of micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis because the development of metastatic lesions often causes a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases during the early stage of tumor development is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In Japan, soy is consumed in a wide variety of forms, such as miso soup and soy sauce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, on the invasive and motile potential of osteosarcoma cells. Methods LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of genistein. The effect of genistein on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation study. The assays of cell invasion and motility were performed using the cell culture inserts with either matrigel-coated membranes or uncoated membranes in the invasion chambers. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. The subcellular localization and cellular level of β-catenin were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. For examining cell morphology, the ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Genistein dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. Genistein-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were lower in the genistein-treated cultures than in the untreated cultures. β-Catenin in untreated cells was located in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus, while in genistein-treated cells it was translocated near to the plasma membrane. The level of β-catenin was higher in genistein-treated cells than in untreated cells

  2. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayasekara, Dumidu, E-mail: wija2589@vandals.uidaho.edu [Department of Computer Science, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Manic, Milos [Department of Computer Science, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Utgikar, Vivek [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Performance prediction of PCHE using artificial neural networks. > Evaluating artificial neural network performance for PCHE modeling. > Selection of over-training resilient artificial neural networks. > Artificial neural network architecture selection for modeling problems with small data sets. - Abstract: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or over-learning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the testing

  3. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayasekara, Dumidu; Manic, Milos; Sabharwall, Piyush; Utgikar, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Performance prediction of PCHE using artificial neural networks. → Evaluating artificial neural network performance for PCHE modeling. → Selection of over-training resilient artificial neural networks. → Artificial neural network architecture selection for modeling problems with small data sets. - Abstract: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or over-learning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the

  4. Application of accelerated evaluation method of alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation on bipolar linear regulator LM317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wei; Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Zhang Jinxin; Zhang Xiaofu; Zheng Qiwen; Ma Wuying; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa

    2014-01-01

    With different irradiation methods including high dose rate irradiation, low dose rate irradiation, alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation, and US military standard constant high temperature and constant dose rate irradiation, the ionizing radiation responses of bipolar linear regulator LM317 from three different companies were investigated under the operating and zero biases. The results show that compared with constant high temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method, the alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method can not only very rapidly and accurately evaluate the dose rate effect of three bipolar linear regulators, but also well simulate the damage of low dose rate irradiation. Experiment results make the alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method successfully apply to bipolar linear regulator. (authors)

  5. Machinability and Tribological Properties of Stir Cast LM6/SiC/GR Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahat Montasser S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis on machining characteristics in turning of LM6/SiC/Gr hybrid metal matrix composites is made of (Al-11.8%Si/SiC/Gr hybrid metal matrix composites. The process performances such as porosity, wear rate of the composites, tool wear, tool life, specific modulus, surface roughness and material removal rate with equal weight fraction of SiC and Gr particulates of 3%, 7%, 10% and 13% reinforcement are investigated. This experimental analysis and test results on the machinability of Al/SiCMMC will provide essential guidelines to the manufacturers. Hybird metal matrix composites reinforced with graphite particles posses better machinability and tribological properties.

  6. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  7. Derivation of airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade based on 3D CFD rotor calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C; Soerensen, N N; Madsen, H A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade are derived from 3D CFD computations on a full-scale 41-m rotor. Based on 3D CFD the force distributions on the blades are determined, from which airfoil characteristics are derived using the momentum theory. The final airfoil characteristics are constructed using both wind tunnel measurements and 3D CFD. Compared to 2D wind tunnel measurements they show a low lift in stall for the airfoil sections at the tip. At the airfoil sections at the inner part of the blade, they show a high lift in stall. At about 60% radius the lift agrees well to 2D wind tunnel measurements. Aero-elastic calculations using the final airfoil characteristics show good agreement to measured power and flap moments. Furthermore, a fatigue load analysis shows a reduction of up to 15% of the load compared to commonly used data. (au)

  8. LmSmdB: an integrated database for metabolic and gene regulatory network in Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A database that integrates all the information required for biological processing is essential to be stored in one platform. We have attempted to create one such integrated database that can be a one stop shop for the essential features required to fetch valuable result. LmSmdB (L. major and S. mansoni database is an integrated database that accounts for the biological networks and regulatory pathways computationally determined by integrating the knowledge of the genome sequences of the mentioned organisms. It is the first database of its kind that has together with the network designing showed the simulation pattern of the product. This database intends to create a comprehensive canopy for the regulation of lipid metabolism reaction in the parasite by integrating the transcription factors, regulatory genes and the protein products controlled by the transcription factors and hence operating the metabolism at genetic level. Keywords: L.major, S.mansoni, Regulatory networks, Transcription factors, Database

  9. Comparative SEM and LM foliar epidermal and palyno-morphological studies of Amaranthaceae and its taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amara Noor; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Raees; Yaseen, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Nazir, Abdul; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Shaheen, Shabnum

    2018-05-01

    Palynological features as well as comparative foliar epidermal using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of 17 species (10genera) of Amaranthaceae have been studied for its taxonomic significance. Different foliar and palynological micro-morphological characters were examined to explain their value in resolving the difficulty in identification. All species were amphistomatic but stomata on abaxial surface were more abundant. Taxonomically significant epidermal character including stomata type, trichomes (unicellular, multicellular, and capitate) and epidermal cells shapes (polygonal and irregular) were also observed. Pollens of this family are Polypantoporate, pores large, spheroidal, mesoporous region is sparsely to scabrate, densely psilate, and spinulose. All these characters can be active at species level for identification purpose. This study indicates that at different taxonomic levels, LM and SEM pollen and epidermal morphology is explanatory and significant to identify species and genera. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Study and modeling of the impact of TID on the ATREE response in LM124 operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, F.; Dusseau, L.; Privat, A.; Vaille, J.R.; Boch, J.; Saigne, F.; Ribeiro, P.; Auriel, G.; Roche, N.J.H.; Marec, R.; Calvel, P.; Bezerra, F.; Ecoffet, R.; Azais, B.

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of ATREEs (Analog Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics) in a bipolar integrated circuit change with exposure to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) radiation. The impact of TID on ATREEs is investigated in the LM124 operational amplifier (op-amp) from three different manufacturers. Significant variations are observed on the ATREE responses from different manufacturers. The ATREEs are produced by pulsed X-ray experiments. ASET laser mappings are performed to highlight the sensitive bipolar transistors, explaining the ATREE phenomena variations from one manufacturer to another one. ATREE modeling results are presented using a previously developed simulation tool. A good agreement is observed between experimental ATREE responses and model outputs whatever the TID level, the prompt dose level, the amplifier configuration and the device manufacturer. (authors)

  11. Inferred L/M cone opsin polymorphism of ancestral tarsiers sheds dim light on the origin of anthropoid primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Matsushita, Yuka; Moritz, Gillian L; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Kawamura, Shoji

    2013-05-22

    Tarsiers are small nocturnal primates with a long history of fuelling debate on the origin and evolution of anthropoid primates. Recently, the discovery of M and L opsin genes in two sister species, Tarsius bancanus (Bornean tarsier) and Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier), respectively, was interpreted as evidence of an ancestral long-to-middle (L/M) opsin polymorphism, which, in turn, suggested a diurnal or cathemeral (arrhythmic) activity pattern. This view is compatible with the hypothesis that stem tarsiers were diurnal; however, a reversion to nocturnality during the Middle Eocene, as evidenced by hyper-enlarged orbits, predates the divergence of T. bancanus and T. syrichta in the Late Miocene. Taken together, these findings suggest that some nocturnal tarsiers possessed high-acuity trichromatic vision, a concept that challenges prevailing views on the adaptive origins of the anthropoid visual system. It is, therefore, important to explore the plausibility and antiquity of trichromatic vision in the genus Tarsius. Here, we show that Sulawesi tarsiers (Tarsius tarsier), a phylogenetic out-group of Philippine and Bornean tarsiers, have an L opsin gene that is more similar to the L opsin gene of T. syrichta than to the M opsin gene of T. bancanus in non-synonymous nucleotide sequence. This result suggests that an L/M opsin polymorphism is the ancestral character state of crown tarsiers and raises the possibility that many hallmarks of the anthropoid visual system evolved under dim (mesopic) light conditions. This interpretation challenges the persistent nocturnal-diurnal dichotomy that has long informed debate on the origin of anthropoid primates.

  12. Effects of thermal and fast neutrons and of ENU on generations M3 and M4 of Lens culinaris (medicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlik, J.; Urban, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plants in which the selection of the most fertile plants had not been made in the preceding generations showed a significantly lower emergence rate in the M3 and M4 generation after an ethyl nitroso urea (ENU) application, in comparison with material treated with neutrons. In the evaluation of the plants obtained after an exposure to the most effective doses in the induction of chlorophyll mutants, significant differences of the average values in relation to the control were found in the M3 generation in the number of seeds per plant after the application of both neutron radiations and ENU. In addition, after the application of thermal neutrons and ENU a significant difference was found in the average values of plant weight. A difference in the overall range of variability in relation to the control was found in plant weight after the application of neutrons and ENU, and in seed weight after the application of ENU and fast neutrons. The differences between the treated plants and controls in the M4 generation plants with fusarium disease were insignificant. The evaluation of the progenies exposed to various doses of the highest mutation effectiveness showed in the M3 generation significant differences (in relation to the control) in the mean values of plant height, seed weight, plant weight, seed proportion in plants, in the bottom-pod insertion level, and in the number of pods set. Despite a considerable attack by fusarium disease, the greatest number of plants having more seeds than 50 was selected in the M4 generation of the material exposed to the dose of 8 fast neutrons (0.95% of plants) while in the control the proportion of highly fertile plants was only 0.05%. The widest range of overall variability in the characteristics under study was found after irradiation with thermal neutrons. From this viewpoint they can be recommended for wide practical utilization. (author)

  13. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    (EPS) at therapeutically relevant doses. In the present study, we examined whether the xanomeline-induced functional dopamine antagonism found in rodent studies could also be observed in nonhuman primates. In addition, we studied whether the lack of EPS observed in rodents also applies to primates......Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects...

  14. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  15. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  16. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-10

    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Verginin Ağırlıklandırılmış Fiyat Elastikiyetinin Hesaplanması: Türkiye (1998-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin YILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma içerisinde, enflasyonun vergi gelirleri üzerindeki etkilerini inceleyen ilk çalışmalarda ortaya konulan, “gelişmekte olan ülkelerde verginin ağırlıklandırılmış fiyat elastikiyetinin birim olduğu” varsayımı Türkiye için 1998 -2013 periyodu için yeniden değerlendirilecektir. Ağırlıklandırılmış fiyat elastikiyetinin hesaplanmasında Türk vergi gelirleri ve fiyat endeksleri verileri kullanılmıştır. Dinamik En Küçük Kareler (DOLS yöntemiyle, vergi sisteminin uzun dönem ağırlıklandırılmış fiyat elastikiyeti tahmin edilmiştir. Çalışmanın önemi Türkiye için verginin ağırlıklandırılmış fiyat elastikiyetini hesaplamaya yönelik ilk çalışma olmasıdır. Bu anlamda “gelişmekte olan ülkelerde verginin ağırlıklandırılmış fiyat elastikiyetinin birim olduğu” varsayımının yeniden gözden geçirilmesi için yol gösterici bir çalışma olacaktır.

  18. Suppression of immunodeficiency virus-associated neural damage by the p75 neurotrophin receptor ligand, LM11A-31, in an in vitro feline model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Rick B; Poulton, Winona; Feng, Wen-hai; Hudson, Lola; Longo, Frank M

    2012-06-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), produces systemic and central nervous system disease in its natural host, the domestic cat, that parallels the pathogenesis seen in HIV-infected humans. The ability to culture feline nervous system tissue affords the unique opportunity to directly examine interactions of infectious virus with CNS cells for the development of models and treatments that can then be translated to a natural infectious model. To explore the therapeutic potential of a new p75 neurotrophin receptor ligand, LM11A-31, we evaluated neuronal survival, neuronal damage and calcium homeostasis in cultured feline neurons following inoculation with FIV. FIV resulted in the gradual appearance of dendritic beading, pruning of processes and shrinkage of neuronal perikarya in the neurons. Astrocytes developed a more activated appearance and there was an enhanced accumulation of microglia, particularly at longer times post-inoculation. Addition of 10 nM LM11A-31, to the cultures greatly reduced or eliminated the neuronal pathology as well as the FIV effects on astrocytes and microglia. LM11A-31 also, prevented the development of delayed calcium deregulation in feline neurons exposed to conditioned medium from FIV treated macrophages. The suppression of calcium accumulation prevented the development of foci of calcium accumulation and beading in the dendrites. FIV replication was unaffected by LM11A-31. The strong neuroprotection afforded by LM11A-31 in an infectious in vitro model indicates that LM11A-31 may have excellent potential for the treatment of HIV-associated neurodegeneration.

  19. The role of exochitinase type A1 in the fungistatic activity of the rhizosphere bacterium Paenibacillus sp. M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankiewicz Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect the activity and characterize potentially fungistatic chitinases synthesized by rhizosphere bacteria identified as Paenibacillus sp. M4. Maximum chitinolytic activity was achieved on the fifth day of culturing bacteria in a growth medium with 1% colloidal chitin. Analysis of a zymogram uncovered the presence of four activity bands in the crude bacterial extract. The used three-stage protein purification procedure resulted in a single band of chitinase activity on the zymogram. The purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.5 and temperature 45oC, and thermal stability at 40oC for 4 h. In terms of substrate specificity, it is an exochitinase (chitobiose. The amino acid sequence obtained after mass spectrometry showed similarity to chitinase A1 synthesized by Bacillus circulans. The M4 isolate demonstrated the highest growth inhibiting activity against plant pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Alternaria. Fungistatic activity, although to a somewhat lesser degree, was also demonstrated by purified chitinase. The obtained results confirm the participation of the studied exochitinase in antagonism towards pathogenic molds. However, the lower fungistatic effectiveness of the chitinases points to the synergistic action of different metabolites in biocontrol by these bacteria.

  20. O modelo IS-LM-EE para economias abertas e distinções dos efeitos para as economias nacionais The IS-LM-EE model for open economies and particular effects on the national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Inácio de Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O meio ambiente tem-se tornado uma crescente fonte de preocupações e o debate acerca das incompatibilidades entre crescimento econômico e preservação ambiental está muito distante de findar. Dentro desse contexto, diversas propostas de incorporação das restrições ambientais na macroeconomia foram feitas, sendo o modelo IS-LM-EE um dos mais interessantes. Sua grande limitação, entretanto, provém do fato de ele ter sido construído para economias fechadas. Quando utilizado para economias abertas, os resultados são completamente distintos na medida em que os países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos estão em situação oposta à exploração dos recursos naturais. Nesse sentido, há uma acentuada diferença entre eles quanto à adoção de políticas e às respostas aos choques econômicos, diferença essa ampliada quando as restrições ambientais são levadas em consideração, principalmente, no caso dos choques exógenos derivados do comércio internacional.The environment is a growing source of concern and the debate on the incompatibilities between economic growth and environmental conservation is far from over. In this context, a number of proposals for introducing environmental restrictions into macroeconomics have been made, the IS-LM-EE model being the most interesting one. However, this model has a serious limitation insofar as it was built for closed economies. When this model is used for open economies, the outcome differs greatly, given that developing and developed economies show major differences with respect to the exploitation of natural resources. There are considerable differences between them with respect to policies to be adopted as well as solutions required to combat economic shocks. These differences intensify when environmental restrictions are taken into consideration, principally in the case of exogenous shocks resulting from international trade.

  1. Situaciones a-didácticas para la enseñanza de la homotecia utilizando CabriLM como medio

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta una serie de situaciones a-didácticas, en las que los alumnos interactúan con el software CabriLM como medio, y gracias a dichas interacciones construyen conocimientos relacionados con el concepto de homotecia. El funcionamiento geométrico de los objetos de CabriLM garantiza que los fenómenos visuales corresponden a propiedades teóricas, y las posibilidades que ofrece para controlar las interacciones permiten introducir restricciones para bloquear estrategias no matemáticas para r...

  2. Effects of Al content and annealing on the phases formation, lattice parameters, and magnetization of A lxF e2B2 (x =1.0 ,1.1 ,1.2 ) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.; Jensen, B. A.; Barua, R.; Lejeune, B.; Howard, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Lewis, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    AlF e2B2 is a ferromagnet with the Curie temperature around 300 K and has the potential to be an outstanding rare-earth free candidate for magnetocaloric applications. However, samples prepared from the melt contain additional phases which affect the functional response of the AlF e2B2 phase. We report on the effects of Al content in samples with the initial (nominal) composition of A lxF e2B2 , where x =1.0 , 1.1, and 1.2 prepared by arc-melting followed by suction casting and annealing. The as-cast A lxF e2B2 alloys contain AlF e2B2 as well as additional phases, including the primary solidifying FeB and A l13F e4 compounds, which are ferromagnetic and paramagnetic, respectively, at 300 K. The presence of these phases makes it difficult to extract the intrinsic magnetic properties of AlF e2B2 phase. Annealing of A lxF e2B2 alloys at 1040 °C for 3 days allows for reaction of the FeB with A l13F e4 to form the AlF e2B2 phase, significantly reduces the amount of additional phases, and results in nearly pure AlF e2B2 phase as confirmed with XRD, magnetization, scanning electron microscopy, and electronic transport. The values of the magnetization, effective magnetic moment per Fe atom, specific heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient for the AlF e2B2 compound have been established.

  3. Discovery of a novel, CNS penetrant M4 PAM chemotype based on a 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Blake R; Spearing, Paul K; Weiner, Rebecca L; Luscombe, Vincent B; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Rodriguez, Alice L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Engers, Darren W; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-09-15

    This Letter details the discovery and subsequent optimization of a novel M 4 PAM scaffold based on an 6-fluoro-4-(piperidin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile core, which represents a distinct departure from the classical M 4 PAM chemotypes. Optimized compounds in this series demonstrated improved M 4 PAM potency on both human and rat M 4 (4 to 5-fold relative to HTS hit), and displayed attractive physicochemical and DMPK profiles, including good CNS penetration (rat brain:plasma K p =5.3, K p,uu =2.4; MDCK-MDR1 (P-gp) ER=1.1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neodymium-140 DOTA-LM3: Evaluation of an In Vivo Generator for PET with a Non-Internalizing Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Gregory W.; Kristensen, Lotte K.; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Fonslet, Jesper; Jensen, Andreas I.; Frellsen, Anders F.; Jensen, K. M.; Elema, Dennis R.; Maecke, Helmut; Kjær, Andreas; Johnston, Karl; Köster, Ulli

    2017-01-01

    140Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days), owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter 140Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min), has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET). However, the electron capture decay of 140Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning that an in vivo redistribution of the daughter 140Pr is expected before positron emission. The purpose of this study was to determine how the delayed positron from the de-labeled 140Pr affects preclinical imaging with 140Nd. To explore the effect, 140Nd was produced at CERN-ISOLDE, reacted with the somatostatin analogue, DOTA-LM3 (1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, 1,4,7- tri acetic acid, 10- acetamide N - p-Cl-Phecyclo(d-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl)-Lys-Thr-Cys)d-Tyr-NH2) and injected into H727 xenograft bearing mice. Comparative pre- and post-mortem PET imaging at 16 h postinjection was used to quantify the in vivo redistribution of 140Pr following 140Nd decay. The somatostatin receptor-positive pancreas exhibited the highest tissue accumulation of 140Nd-DOTA-LM3 (13% ID/g at 16 h) coupled with the largest observed redistribution rate, where 56 ± 7% (n = 4, mean ± SD) of the in situ produced 140Pr washed out of the pancreas before decay. Contrastingly, the liver, spleen, and lungs acted as strong sink organs for free 140Pr3+. Based upon these results, we conclude that 140Nd imaging with a non-internalizing vector convolutes the biodistribution of the tracer with the accumulation pattern of free 140Pr. This redistribution phenomenon may show promise as a probe of the cellular interaction with the vector, such as in determining tissue dependent internalization behavior. PMID:28748183

  5. Neodymium-140 DOTA-LM3: Evaluation of an In Vivo Generator for PET with a Non-Internalizing Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Severin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 140Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days, owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter 140Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min, has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET. However, the electron capture decay of 140Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning that an in vivo redistribution of the daughter 140Pr is expected before positron emission. The purpose of this study was to determine how the delayed positron from the de-labeled 140Pr affects preclinical imaging with 140Nd. To explore the effect, 140Nd was produced at CERN-ISOLDE, reacted with the somatostatin analogue, DOTA-LM3 (1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, 1,4,7- tri acetic acid, 10- acetamide N - p-Cl-Phecyclo(d-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl-Lys-Thr-Cysd-Tyr-NH2 and injected into H727 xenograft bearing mice. Comparative pre- and post-mortem PET imaging at 16 h postinjection was used to quantify the in vivo redistribution of 140Pr following 140Nd decay. The somatostatin receptor-positive pancreas exhibited the highest tissue accumulation of 140Nd-DOTA-LM3 (13% ID/g at 16 h coupled with the largest observed redistribution rate, where 56 ± 7% (n = 4, mean ± SD of the in situ produced 140Pr washed out of the pancreas before decay. Contrastingly, the liver, spleen, and lungs acted as strong sink organs for free 140Pr3+. Based upon these results, we conclude that 140Nd imaging with a non-internalizing vector convolutes the biodistribution of the tracer with the accumulation pattern of free 140Pr. This redistribution phenomenon may show promise as a probe of the cellular interaction with the vector, such as in determining tissue dependent internalization behavior.

  6. Granulocytic Sarcoma by AML M4eo (inv16 after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation without Bone Marrow Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zaenker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS represents a rare type of extramedullar manifestation from the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We report the case of a patient with recurrences of AML M4eo leukaemia in the uterus and the small intestine at 3 and 5 years, respectively, after matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. The patient underwent the withdrawal of immunosuppression, hysterectomy, and local irradiation at first relapse, as well as systemic chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions at second recurrence, inducing a second and third complete remission, respectively. At year six after transplantation, the patient experienced disease progression by meningeosis leukaemia to which she succumbed despite intrathecal chemotherapy. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, awareness for atypical manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma appears prudent, the cellular immunotherapy should aim at immunological disease control.

  7. Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of benzene-(water)n-(methanol)m clusters with n+m=4, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemeister, F.C.; Gruenloh, C.J.; Zwier, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization and resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectra of benzene-(water) n -(methanol) m clusters (hereafter shortened to BW n M m ) have been recorded for a total of seven clusters with n+m=4 and 5. The infrared spectra in the OH and CH stretch regions show absorptions characteristic of H-bonded W n M m clusters which are bound to benzene by a π H-bond involving a dangling OH on the W n M m sub-unit. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify a number of conformational isomers in the n+m=4 series which meet the general criteria imposed by the experimental spectra. The structures, binding energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities for these isomers have been calculated for comparison with experiment. Based on the calculations, tentative assignments of several of the observed species are given. The calculations uncover the fact that complexation of benzene to the cyclic water tetramer imposes much the same perturbations on the cycle as substitution of methanol for water. In particular, the single-donor OH stretch spectra of W n M m and BW n+1 M m-1 are calculated to be virtually identical to one another. The comparison of experiment and theory for this series of cyclic structures is used to assess the strengths and limitations of the calculations at the DFT Becke3LYP/6-31+G * level of theory. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Klawonn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT, during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG expression (cFos and FosB induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  9. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, Anna M; Wilhelms, Daniel B; Lindström, Sarah H; Singh, Anand Kumar; Jaarola, Maarit; Wess, Jürgen; Fritz, Michael; Engblom, David

    2018-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs) in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT) than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG) expression ( cFos and FosB ) induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  10. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used as a...

  11. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in Brassica napus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, T.; Valentová, O.; Balesdent, M.H.; Rouxel, T.; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2016), s. 818-831 ISSN 1464-6722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26798S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AvrLm4-7 * Brassica napus * effector Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 4.697, year: 2016

  12. Complexity and Hopf Bifurcation Analysis on a Kind of Fractional-Order IS-LM Macroeconomic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo

    On the basis of our previous research, we deepen and complete a kind of macroeconomics IS-LM model with fractional-order calculus theory, which is a good reflection on the memory characteristics of economic variables, we also focus on the influence of the variables on the real system, and improve the analysis capabilities of the traditional economic models to suit the actual macroeconomic environment. The conditions of Hopf bifurcation in fractional-order system models are briefly demonstrated, and the fractional order when Hopf bifurcation occurs is calculated, showing the inherent complex dynamic characteristics of the system. With numerical simulation, bifurcation, strange attractor, limit cycle, waveform and other complex dynamic characteristics are given; and the order condition is obtained with respect to time. We find that the system order has an important influence on the running state of the system. The system has a periodic motion when the order meets the conditions of Hopf bifurcation; the fractional-order system gradually stabilizes with the change of the order and parameters while the corresponding integer-order system diverges. This study has certain significance to policy-making about macroeconomic regulation and control.

  13. LM5000 gas turbine generating plant for Tenaga Nasional Berhad Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz power station (Malaysia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, T.; Shioya, Y.; Furuya, M.; Saito, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indutries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The LM5000 gas turbine generating plant (35,000 kW) for Tenaga Nasional Berhad Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station (Malaysia) was outlined. The lightweight power turbine of 16 ton was adopted to reduce an on-site installation time, and integrated into a single package together with the gas generator, while all the auxiliary units were assembled completely before delivery. Because the plant was for peak cut use, the hydraulic starting unit was adopted, in particular, considering starting operation, and the diesel engine generator was provided to drive the unit in complete power failure. The reliability of operation and monitoring was also enhanced by triplicated digital control. The plant output capacity was well beyond the required one during actual operation, and the thermal efficiency of 36.0-36.3% was obtained. Because the power plant was installed in the rainy western part of Malaysia, protective measures of the plant from rain were taken into careful consideration, for example, the air intake port of the air-cooled generator was faced downward, and provided with a condensation eliminator. 4 figs.

  14. Neodymium-140 DOTA-LM3: Evaluation of an In Vivo Generator for PET with a Non-Internalizing Vector

    CERN Document Server

    Severin, Gregory W.; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Fonslet, Jesper; Jensen, Andreas I.; Frellsen, Anders F.; Jensen, K. M.; Elema, Dennis R.; Maecke, Helmut; Kjær, Andreas; Johnston, Karl; Köster, Ulli

    2017-01-01

    140Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days), owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter 140Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min), has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET). However, the electron capture decay of 140Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning that an in vivo redistribution of the daughter 140Pr is expected before positron emission. The purpose of this study was to determine how the delayed positron from the de-labeled 140Pr affects preclinical imaging with 140Nd. To explore the effect, 140Nd was produced at CERN-ISOLDE, reacted with the somatostatin analogue, DOTA-LM3 (1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, 1,4,7- tri acetic acid, 10- acetamide N - p-Cl-Phecyclo(d-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl)-Lys-Thr-Cys)d-Tyr-NH2) and injected into H727 xenograft bearing mice. Comparative pre- and post-mortem PET imaging at 16 h postinjection was used to quantify the in vivo redistribution of 140Pr following 140Nd decay. The somatostatin receptor-positive pancreas exhibited the hi...

  15. Propagação vegetativa de jambeiro vermelho [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] Vegetative propagation of malay apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O jambeiro vermelho [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] se apresenta como opção ao fruticultor por apresentar frutos atrativos e bem aceitos pelo consumidor. A dificuldade de cultivo dessa espécie reside no fato de que a planta possui um porte demasiadamente alto e longo período juvenil quando propagada por semente, com isso, é desejável sua multiplicação vegetativa visando a antecipar o período produtivo e diminuir seu porte. Foi estudada a possibilidade de clonagem dessa espécie pelas técnicas de estaquia, alporquia e enxertia. No experimento por estaquia, testaram-se três doses de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0, 1.000 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 em dois comprimentos de estacas herbáceas (15 e 25 cm. No experimento de alporquia, avaliaram-se duas épocas de realização do alporque (verão e outono e quatro doses de AIB (0, 1.000, 4.000, 7.000 e 10.000 mg kg-1. Na enxertia, analisou-se a compatibilidade do jambeiro vermelho (S. malaccense sobre o jambeiro rosa [Syzygium jambos (L. Alston] com dois diâmetros de porta-enxertos (0,5 e 0,8 cm em duas épocas (inverno e verão, pelo método de enxertia de topo em fenda cheia. A estaquia obteve até 20% de enraizamento, independentemente da dose de AIB, exceto na dose de 5.000 mg L-1, que apresentou efeito negativo ao enraizamento entre estacas de 15 cm; não houve sucesso para alporquia e enxertia, nas condições estudadas.The Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] is an option for the producer as its fruits are attractive and well accepted by the consumer. The difficulty of culture of this species is that the plant is very tall and has a long juvenile period when propagated by seed, making its vegetative propagation necessary to anticipate the productive period and decrease its size. The possibility of vegetative propagation of this species was studied by cutting, layering, and grafting. In the cutting experiment, three doses of indolbutyric acid (IBA (0, 1,000, 3

  16. Rupture directivity and slip distribution of the M 4.3 foreshock to the 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.

    1996-01-01

    Details of the M 4.3 foreshock to the Joshua Tree earthquake were studied using P waves recorded on the Southern California Seismic Network and the Anza network. Deconvolution, using an M 2.4 event as an empirical Green's function, corrected for complicated path and site effects in the seismograms and produced simple far-field displacement pulses that were inverted for a slip distribution. Both possible fault planes, north-south and east-west, for the focal mechanism were tested by a least-squares inversion procedure with a range of rupture velocities. The results showed that the foreshock ruptured the north-south plane, similar to the mainshock. The foreshock initiated a few hundred meters south of the mainshock and ruptured to the north, toward the mainshock hypocenter. The mainshock (M 6.1) initiated near the northern edge of the foreshock rupture 2 hr later. The foreshock had a high stress drop (320 to 800 bars) and broke a small portion of the fault adjacent to the mainshock but was not able to immediately initiate the mainshock rupture.

  17. Numerical investigation of the LM MHD flows in a curved duct with an FCI with varying slot locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Hoon; Yan, Yue; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a curved duct with an FCI. • The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. • The influence of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. - Abstract: This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with an FCI having three different slot locations and having no slot under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the duct. The flow velocity, current density, electric potential, Lorentz force, and pressure in different flow situations are presented in detail. The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. The flow field is examined with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current, allowing us to analyze the interdependency of the flow variables. The effect of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. The result shows that and the case with an FCI slot located in the neutral position yields the smallest pressure gradient in the main flow direction among the cases with an FCI slot, resulting in the smallest pressure drop. Also, in a flow situation with smaller radius of curvature with the FCI slot in the neutral position, the axial velocity near the inner (in terms of the curvature) part of a cross-section is higher than that near the outer part.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters in Drilling LM25 Composites Coated with Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tubes Using Sonication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites are widely used in automobile components such as cardan shaft of Chevrolet corvette, disc brake and engine push rod. In this experiment a Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites (HMMC are fabricated and drilled. Drilling is the process of making slots in disc brake and thread in the engine parts. The surface quality of the drilled specimen depends on the speed, feed, drill type and the thrust force. Thrust force plays the major role in drilling the specimen. In this experiment HMMCs are fabricated using two processes-called, sonication and casting. Sonication is the process of coating the carbon nanotubes over the silicon carbide particles (SiCp. Semisolid stir casting is used to reinforce the coated SiCp in the LM 25 alloy. A drilling process is performed on HMMC to analyse the extent to which the input parameters influence the thrust force and Ovality. The tools used for drilling are solid carbide tools of three different diameters. Taguchi’s experimental design is adopted for the drilling operation. A mathematical model is used to determine the influence of input parameters on the outputs thrust force and ovality. This paper proves the combination of N3, f1 and d1 of the carbide tool results in the lowest value of thrust force and ovality while drilling HMMCs. In this work the HMMC is prepared by coating the abrasive nature, silicon carbide particle and there is a good interfacial bonding between the reinforced particle and matrix and the drilling process becomes smoother. The new being of this article is the treated ceramics, SiCp with carbon nanotubes. This HMMC shows the improved mechanical properties compared to other metal matrix composites surveyed in the literatures.

  19. Knockdown of AMPKα decreases ATM expression and increases radiosensitivity under hypoxia and nutrient starvation in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Takuma; Urushihara, Yusuke; Shiga, Soichiro; Takeda, Kazuya; Jingu, Keiichi; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2018-01-22

    Presence of unperfused regions containing cells under hypoxia and nutrient starvation contributes to radioresistance in solid human tumors. It is well known that hypoxia causes cellular radioresistance, but little is known about the effects of nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity. We have reported that nutrient starvation induced decrease of mTORC1 activity and decrease of radiosensitivity in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217, and that nutrient starvation induced increase of mTORC1 activity and increase of radiosensitivity in human liver cancer cell lines, HepG2 and HuH6 (Murata et al., BBRC 2015). Knockdown of mTOR using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for mTOR suppressed radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone in HepG2 cells, which suggests that mTORC1 pathway regulates radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone. In the present study, effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity were investigated using the same cell lines. LM217 and HepG2 cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on cellular radiosensitivity, mTORC1 pathway including AMPK, ATM, and HIF-1α, which are known as regulators of mTORC1 activity, and glycogen storage, which is induced by HIF-1 and HIF-2 under hypoxia and promotes cell survival. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, AMPK activity and ATM expression were increased in LM217 cells and decreased in HepG2 cells compared with AMPK activity under nutrient starvation alone or ATM expression under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, radiosensitivity was decreased in LM217 cells and increased in HepG2 cells compared with radiosensitivity under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, knockdown of AMPK decreased ATM activity and increased radiation sensitivity in LM217 cells. In both cell lines, mTORC1 activity was decreased under hypoxia and nutrient starvation. Under hypoxia alone, knockdown of mTOR slightly increased ATM

  20. Hydrocoil Turbine Performance at 3 m, 4 m, and 5 m Head Analysis Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfie, A. A.; Pratiwi, S. E.; Hidayatulloh, P.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is a country which has abundant renewable energy resources, comprises of water, solar, geothermal, wind, bioenergy, and ocean energy. Utilization of water energy through MHP is widely applied in remote areas in Indonesia. This utilization requires a water-converting device known as a water turbine. Rosefsky (2010) developed a water turbine known as the Hydrocoil turbine. This turbine is an axial turbine which is a modification of screw turbine. This turbine has a pitch length that decreases in the direction of the water flow and is able to work at relatively low water flow and head. The use of Hydrocoil turbine has not been widely applied in Indonesia, therefore this research is focused on analyzing the performance of Hydrocoil turbine. The analysis was performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. Hydrocoil turbine performance analysis was performed at 3 m, 4 m, and 5 m head respectively as well as rotational speed variations of 100 rpm, 300 rpm, 500 rpm, 700 rpm, 900 rpm, 1,100 rpm, 1,300 rpm, 1,500 rpm, 1,700 rpm, and 1,900 rpm. Based on simulation result, the largest power generated by the turbine at 3 m head is 1,134.06 W, while at 4 m and 5 m are 1,722.39 W and 2,231.49 W respectively. It is also found that the largest turbine’s efficiency at 3 m head is 93.22% while at 4 m and 5 m head are 94.6% and 89.88% respectively. The result also shows that the larger the head the greater the operational rotational speed range.

  1. Mustafa Bin Bâlî ve İlm-i Firâset’i Mustafa Bin Bâlî And İlm-i Firâset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SARIÇİÇEK

    2012-12-01

    alışma niteliğindedir. Yalnızca Fahreddin Razi ve Muhyiddin-i Arabî değil Hamdullah Hamdi’den İbni Sina’ya kadar daha birçok ilim adamının eserlerinden de yararlanılmıştır. Bu yönüyle alanında tektir diyebiliriz. Zira bu alanda yazılan eserler genellikle firâset ilminin uygulaması üzerinedir. Yani bu ilmin temel kıstasları üzerinde durmak yerine sonuçları üzerinde dururlar. Halbuki bu eser bütün olarak firâset üzerine yapılmış derli toplu bir çalışmadır. Diğer eserlerde bilgiler bölük pörçük ve dağınık iken bu eser firâsetle ilgili bilgileri bir akademisyen titizliğiyle derleyip bir araya getirmiştir.Ayrıca eser mensur olmasına rağmen içinde Arapça, Farsça ve Türkçe olmak üzere çeşitli manzumeler de bulunmaktadır. Dil bakımından ise Eski Anadolu Türkçesine ait dil malzemeleri içermektedir.

  2. Biodistribution of 99mTc labelled anti TAG 72 chimeric McAb ccM4 in nude mice and preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingjie; Zhao Jie; Zhang Yingnan; Gao Fengtong; Liu Shuqing

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric McAb ccM 4 was labelled with 99m Tc by direct method. The antibody was reduced by molar excess 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME; Ab, 1000:1). The reduced ccM 4 chimeric McAb was mixed with 99m Tc reduced by SnCl 2 and 99m Tc labelling efficiency was 98%. The immunoreactivity did not change after labelling. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-ccM 4 was performed in nude mice and patients with stomach carcinoma. There was significantly more radioactivity in tumor than in the rest of the body in nude mice. Radioimmunoimaging of ccM 4 in 10 patients of gastric cancer was also presented

  3. Socialt stöd, arbetsrelaterad stress samt fysisk aktivitets påverkan på individens välmående : En kvantitativ fallstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ysberg, Cecilia; Pettersson, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilken effekt socialt stöd, arbetsrelaterad stress samt fysisk aktivitet har på individens välmående. Dessutom undersöktes vilken påverkan kön och ålder har på individens välmående. Karasek´s krav-kontroll-stödmodell utgjorde grund vid analys av resultatet (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). Studien utfördes på en organisation och bygger på en enkätundersökning (n=124) där bekvämlighetsurval användes. Mätinstrumentet består av fem delar som utgörs av demografiska ...

  4. The human CD8β M-4 isoform dominant in effector memory T cells has distinct cytoplasmic motifs that confer unique properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshi Thakral

    Full Text Available The CD8 co-receptor influences T cell recognition and responses in both anti-tumor and anti-viral immunity. During evolution in the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, the CD8B gene acquired two additional exons. As a result, in humans, there are four CD8β splice variants (M1 to M4 that differ in their cytoplasmic tails. The M-1 isoform which is the equivalent of murine CD8β, is predominantly expressed in naïve T cells, whereas, the M-4 isoform is predominantly expressed in effector memory T cells. The characteristics of the M-4 isoform conferred by its unique 36 amino acid cytoplasmic tail are not known. In this study, we identified a dihydrophobic leucine-based receptor internalization motif in the cytoplasmic tail of M-4 that regulated its cell surface expression and downregulation after activation. Further the M-4 cytoplasmic tail was able to associate with ubiquitinated targets in 293T cells and mutations in the amino acids NPW, a potential EH domain binding site, either enhanced or inhibited the interaction. In addition, the M-4 tail was itself mono-ubiquitinated on a lysine residue in both 293T cells and a human T cell line. When peripheral blood human T cells expressed CD8αβ M-4, the frequency of MIP-1β secreting cells responding to antigen presenting cells was two-fold higher as compared to CD8αβ M-1 expressing T cells. Thus, the cytoplasmic tail of the CD8β M-4 isoform has unique characteristics, which likely contributed to its selective expression and function in human effector memory T cells.

  5. Component resolved bleaching study in natural calcium fluoride using CW-OSL, LM-OSL and residual TL glow curves after bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Vasiliki; Polymeris, George S.; Sfampa, Ioanna K.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2017-01-01

    Natural calcium fluoride has been commonly used as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeter due to its high luminescence intensity. The aim of this work includes attempting a correlation between specific TL glow curves after bleaching and components of linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) as well as continuous wave OSL (CW-OSL). A component resolved analysis was applied to both integrated intensity of the RTL glow curves and all OSL decay curves, by using a Computerized Glow-Curve De-convolution (CGCD) procedure. All CW-OSL and LM-OSL components are correlated to the decay components of the integrated RTL signal, apart from two RTL components which cannot be directly correlated with either LM-OSL or CW-OSL component. The unique, stringent criterion for this correlation deals with the value of the decay constant λ of each bleaching component. There is only one, unique bleaching component present in all three luminescence entities which were the subject of the present study, indicating that each TL trap yields at least three different bleaching components; different TL traps can indicate bleaching components with similar values. According to the data of the present work each RTL bleaching component receives electrons from at least two peaks. The results of the present study strongly suggest that the traps that contribute to TL and OSL are the same. - Highlights: • A component resolved bleaching study was attempted to CaF_2:N in terms of CW-OSL, LM-OSL and RTL. • Bleaching decay constants originating from different TL peaks yield overlapping values. • Three to five individual components were used in order to describe the bleaching behavior in all luminescence entities. • There is only one, unique bleaching component present in all three luminescence entities.

  6. In Depth Analyses of LEDs by a Combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Light Microscopy (LM) Correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jörg; Thomas, Christian; Tappe, Frank; Ogbazghi, Tekie

    2016-06-16

    In failure analysis, device characterization and reverse engineering of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and similar electronic components of micro-characterization, plays an important role. Commonly, different techniques like X-ray computed tomography (CT), light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used separately. Similarly, the results have to be treated for each technique independently. Here a comprehensive study is shown which demonstrates the potentials leveraged by linking CT, LM and SEM. In depth characterization is performed on a white emitting LED, which can be operated throughout all characterization steps. Major advantages are: planned preparation of defined cross sections, correlation of optical properties to structural and compositional information, as well as reliable identification of different functional regions. This results from the breadth of information available from identical regions of interest (ROIs): polarization contrast, bright and dark-field LM images, as well as optical images of the LED cross section in operation. This is supplemented by SEM imaging techniques and micro-analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  7. O EFEITO DO TRICLOSAN NO PROCESSO FIBROSANTE DE CÉLULAS HEPÁTICAS LX-2 MEDIANTE A AÇÃO NA SÍNTESE DE ÁCIDO GRAXO DE NOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fabiani Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fibrose hepática é uma condição clínica presente na maioria das doenças hepáticas, caracterizada pelo aumento na síntese dos componentes da matriz extracelular na tentativa de cicatrização do tecido lesionado. A principal célula responsável pelo desenvolvimento da fibrose hepática é a célula estrelada hepática, localizada no espaço de Disse. Esta apresenta dois fenótipos: o quiescente e o ativado. O metabolismo de lipídeo na célula estrelada está relacionado com o fornecimento de energia para a iniciação e perpetuação do seu estado ativado. Dentro deste contexto a ácido graxo sintase (FASN, proteína chave da síntese de ácido graxo de novo torna-se alvo do estudo, uma vez que o metabolismo de lipídeos está intimamente relacionado ao processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sabe-se que o fármaco triclosan (TCS é inibidor da proteína FASN na síntese de ácido graxo de novo, com potencial alteração do processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sendo assim, avaliamos os aspectos celulares e moleculares do efeito do fármaco TCS na modulação do metabolismo de lipídeo através da inibição da FASN em modelo de células estreladas hepáticas LX-2. Os resultados demonstraram que o TCS na concentração 50 µM em cultura celular LX-2 crescida em 10% de soro bovino fetal (SBF – estado ativado- promove alterações morfofuncionais nas células; tanto pela despolimerização dos filamentos de actina quanto pela formação de estruturas globulares de actina no citoesqueleto celular. Desta maneira, o fármaco TCS apresentou características possivelmente citotóxicas em células LX-2 com 10% de SBF. Por outro lado, o estudo da inibição da proteína FASN demonstrou resultados que sugerem uma transdiferenciação celular correlacionada com a reversão do quadro pró-fibrosante hepático em células LX-2, com o aumento das gotículas de lipídeo no citoplasma e aumento da expressão dos

  8. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Stimulating muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. We tested whether stimulating M 1 and/or M 4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding extinguished to ≤30% of cocaine-reinforced responding. Immediately after each extinction session, mice received saline, the M 1 /M 4 receptor-preferring agonist xanomeline, the M 1 receptor-selective allosteric agonist VU0357017, the M 4 receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator VU0152100, or VU0357017 + VU0152100. In additional experiments, xanomeline was administered delayed after the session or in the home cage before extinction training began. In the latter group, reinstatement of responding by a 10-mg/kg cocaine injection was also tested. Stimulating M 1  + M 4 receptors significantly expedited extinction from 17.2 sessions to 8.3 using xanomeline or 7.8 using VU0357017 + VU0152100. VU0357017 alone and VU0152100 alone did not significantly modify rates of extinction (12.6 and 14.6 sessions). The effect of xanomeline was fully preserved when administered delayed after or unpaired from extinction sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. These findings show that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation modulated or reversed some neurochemical effects of cocaine exposure.

  10. Length and amino acid sequence of peptides substituted for the 5-HT3A receptor M3M4 loop may affect channel expression and desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K McKinnon

    Full Text Available 5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4 and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-A(n = 2-7. Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC(50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT. The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A(2, 5-HT3A-A(4, 5-HT3A-A(6, and 5-HT3A-A(7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A(3 and 5-HT3A-A(5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A(1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function.

  11. Plot of the distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the four-lepton invariant mass, m4l, for the selected candidates in the data. The estimated background, as well as the expected SM Higgs boson signal for mH = 124.3 GeV (scaled by the signal strength obtained from fits to the data), are also shown. The single-resonant peak at m4l ∼ 90 GeV includes contribu- tions from s-channel Z/γ∗ and t-channel (Z∗/γ∗)(Z∗/γ∗) production.

  12. Development and application of MASKA-LM code for calculation of thermal hydraulics and mass transfer of lead cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Ya Kumaev; Andrei A Lebezov; Victor V Alexeev

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The report is devoted to the development and application of the two-dimensional MASKA-LM computer code intended for numerical calculations of lead coolant flows, temperatures and transport of impurities in BREST-type reactors of the integral design. The description of heat and mass transfer in liquid metal systems, proceeding in the coolant and at the interface 'coolant - structural materials', is a complex problem involving the joint simulation of thermal-hydraulic, physical and chemical processes in view of the real configuration of the reactor circuit. The report presents the state-of-the-art in the development of the two-dimensional code MASKA-LM and the results of trial calculations of heat and mass transfer in the primary circuit of the lead cooled reactor. The set of governing equations to be solved is based on the porous body model and describes the thermal-hydraulic processes in the reactor as a whole. The numerical method for solution of the governing equations is discussed. To check the code workability and study the technique by the way of solution of a particular task, calculations were performed in reference to the chosen version of the lead cooled BREST reactor under design. The examined domain of the reactor was simulated by a porous body with the parameters corresponding to those of the real reactor medium in terms of heat generation, resistance and the geometry of the hydraulic path of coolant. Analysis of the calculated two-dimensional fields of velocities, pressure and temperatures shows the existence of a complex coolant flow with stagnant and vortex zones. A nonuniform distribution of the coolant flow rate along the core radius was obtained. The results of calculations of the impurity transport of iron, oxygen and magnetite in the primary reactor circuit are discussed as well. The developed code MASKA-LM allows one to evaluate the issue of components of structural materials into coolant as impurities, their

  13. [Anniversaries of the foundation of the dental clinics. II. The dental clinics at the Mikszáth Kálmán Square in Budapest, Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kóbor, András

    2010-03-01

    After 1952 the building of the Department of Stomatology was no more able to fulfill the increased demands, when the independent dental education had been started at the Medical University of Budapest. The leadership of the new Dental Faculty--officially founded in 1955--was looking for a solution to find a new building for clinical purposes. Finally in 1959 the new dental departments moved to a once residential building at Mikszáth Kálmán Square converted into dental clinics. This site had been in operation until the opening of the New Dental Education Center in 2007.

  14. Characterisation of phase composition, microstructure and microhardness of electroless nickel composite coating co-deposited with SiC on casting aluminium LM24 alloy substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, M.; Sha, Wei; Malinov, Savko

    2013-01-01

    Electroless Ni-P (EN) and composite Ni-P-SiC (ENC) coatings were developed on cast aluminium alloy, LM24. The coating phase composition, microstructure and microhardness were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness tester, respectively, on as-plated and heat-treated specimens. The original microstructure of the Ni-P matrix is not affected by the inclusion of the hard particles SiC. No formation of Ni-Si phase was observed upto 500°C of ...

  15. Impact of switched dose-rate irradiation on the response of the LM124 operational amplifier to pulsed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, N.J.H.; Dusseau, L.; Mekki, J.; Perez, S.; Gonzalez Velo, Y.; Boch, J.; Saigne, F.; Vaille, J.R.; Vaille, J.R.; Marec, R.; Calvel, P.; Bezerra, F.; Auriel, G.; Azais, B.; Buchner, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Synergistic effect between TID and ATREEs (Analog Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics) in an operational amplifier (opamp) (LM124) is investigated for three different bias configurations. An accelerated irradiation technique is used to study these synergistic effects. The impact of TID on ATREEs is found to be identical regardless of whether the irradiation is performed at low dose rate or whether the dose rate is switched from high to low using the Dose Rate Switching (DRS) technique. The correlation between the deviations of the opamp's electrical parameters and the changes of ATREE widths is clearly established. (authors)

  16. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  17. FT-IR spectroscopic study on the hofmann-Td type complex: M(4-Phenylpyridine)2M'(CN)4 (M=Ni; M'=Cd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlak, C.

    2005-01-01

    New Hofmann-Td type complex in the form of M(4-Phenylpyridine) 2 M'(CN) 4 (M = Ni, M' = Cd) was prepared in powder form and its infrared spectra is reported in the region of 4000-200 cm-1. From the spectral findings, this compound is similar in structure to the Hofmann-Td type complexes

  18. Long-term activation upon brief exposure to xanomleline is unique to M1 and M4 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Šantrůčková

    Full Text Available Xanomeline is an agonist endowed with functional preference for M1/M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It also exhibits both reversible and wash-resistant binding to and activation of these receptors. So far the mechanisms of xanomeline selectivity remain unknown. To address this question we employed microfluorometric measurements of intracellular calcium levels and radioligand binding to investigate differences in the short- and long-term effects of xanomeline among muscarinic receptors expressed individually in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 1/One-min exposure of cells to xanomeline markedly increased intracellular calcium at hM1 and hM4, and to a lesser extent at hM2 and hM3 muscarinic receptors for more than 1 hour. 2/Unlike the classic agonists carbachol, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine 10-min exposure to xanomeline did not cause internalization of any receptor subtype. 3/Wash-resistant xanomeline selectively prevented further increase in intracellular calcium by carbachol at hM1 and hM4 receptors. 4/After transient activation xanomeline behaved as a long-term antagonist at hM5 receptors. 5/The antagonist N-methylscopolamine (NMS reversibly blocked activation of hM1 through hM4 receptors by xanomeline. 6/NMS prevented formation of xanomeline wash-resistant binding and activation at hM2 and hM4 receptors and slowed them at hM1, hM3 and hM5 receptors. Our results show commonalities of xanomeline reversible and wash-resistant binding and short-time activation among the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. However long-term receptor activation takes place in full only at hM1 and hM4 receptors. Moreover xanomeline displays higher efficacy at hM1 and hM4 receptors in primary phasic intracellular calcium release. These findings suggest the existence of particular activation mechanisms specific to these two receptors.

  19. Evaluation of some mutant lines of rice induced by gamma radiation treatment 1. mean performance of rice mutants in M4 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.N.; El-Wakil, H.M.F.; Ebaid, R.A.; Sallam, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Grains of eight rice mutants; SC 1, SC 6, RTY 1, RTY 3, HY 14, HYI 17, EH 4 and HYPI 22 were secured from Botany Department Faculty of Agriculture Cairo university. The procedures and the methodology for induction these mutants as well as the original mean performance of such mutants are presented else where; Sabbour, (1989) and Sabbour etal. (2002). Grains were sown (M4 generation) at the experimental farm in Itai EI-Baroud Agricultural Research Station Behaira Governorate Agricultural Research Center (ARC) in the summer season (2007). The mean performance of such mutants was studied during M4 generation. The most exciting results were as follows: the selected line SC 1 showed in M4 generation superior agronomic and yield traits. Sc 1 mutant line is not bred truly and it need more generations to reach stability. SC 6 in M4 generation showed considerable number of individuals scored low mean values toward the negative direction and lowering the overall trait mean performance. The rice lines RTY 1 and RTY 3 proved that, the average number of fertile tillers per plant of the selected lines maintained previously recorded mean values of M3 generation in M4. The traits showed significant differences among their progeny that recorded high CV% values as compared with those showed no significant differences. The rice lines HY 14 and HYI 17 showed a true breeding signs and no more breeding generations are required. Rice lines EH 4, showed a considerable reduction in number of days elapsed from date of cultivation till harvest. As, this mutant maintained 86.58 days till heading. Rice mutant line HYPI 22 did not bred truly for the original selected traits (high yield and high protein content) and it still need more generations of selection to reach considerable stability

  20. Atlas(®) Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay Using Transcription Mediated Amplification to Detect Listeria monocytogenes in Selected Foods and Stainless Steel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bres, Vanessa; Yang, Hua; Hsu, Ernie; Ren, Yan; Cheng, Ying; Wisniewski, Michele; Hanhan, Maesa; Zaslavsky, Polina; Noll, Nathan; Weaver, Brett; Campbell, Paul; Reshatoff, Michael; Becker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay, developed by Roka Bioscience Inc., was compared to a reference culture method for seven food types (hot dogs, cured ham, deli turkey, chicken salad, vanilla ice cream, frozen chocolate cream pie, and frozen cheese pizza) and one surface (stainless steel, grade 316). A 125 g portion of deli turkey was tested using a 1:4 food:media dilution ratio, and a 25 g portion for all other foods was tested using 1:9 food:media dilution ratio. The enrichment time and media for Roka's method was 24 to 28 h for 25 g food samples and environmental surfaces, and 44 to 48 h for 125 g at 35 ± 2°C in PALCAM broth containing 0.02 g/L nalidixic acid. Comparison of the Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay to the reference method required an unpaired approach. For each matrix, 20 samples inoculated at a fractional level and five samples inoculated at a high level with a different strain of Listeria monocytogenes were tested by each method. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay was compared to the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL 993.12 method for dairy products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 8.08 method for ready-to-eat meat and environmental samples, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10 method for frozen foods. In the method developer studies, Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 126 positives out of 200 total inoculated samples, compared to 102 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. In the independent laboratory studies, vanilla ice cream, deli turkey and stainless steel grade 316 were evaluated. Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 64 positives out of 75 total inoculated samples compared to 54 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay detected all 50

  1. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and in vivo characterization of a series of 3-aminoazetidine-derived amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Bertron, Jeanette L; Weiner, Rebecca L; Rodriguez, Alice L; Lamsal, Atin; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-07-01

    This letter details the continued chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core by incorporating a 3-amino azetidine amide moiety. The analogs described within this work represent the most potent M 4 PAMs reported for this series to date. The SAR to address potency, clearance, subtype selectivity, CNS exposure, and P-gp efflux are described. This work culminated in the discovery of VU6000918, which demonstrated robust efficacy in a rat amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion reversal model at a minimum efficacious dose of 0.3mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R4M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Cervantes S, T.; Cruz T, E. De la

    2007-01-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of 60 Co in the generation R 4 M 4 (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  3. Co-Metabolic Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid by Co-Culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiayuan; Chi, Yuanlong; Xu, Yingchao; Jia, Dongying; Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The degradation efficiency of organic contaminants and their associated metabolites by co-culture of microbes is mainly limited by toxic intermediates from co-metabolic degradation. In this study, we investigated the degradation of β-cypermethrin (β-CY) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) by co-culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4, as well as the influences of β-CY and 3-PBA metabolites on their degradation and the growth of strains B-1 and M-4. Our results indicated that 100 mg/L β-CY was degraded by 78.85%, and 3-PBA concentration was 0.05 mg/L after 72 h. Compared with using only strain B-1, the half-life (t1/2) of β-CY by using the two strains together was shortened from 84.53 h to 38.54 h, and the yield coefficient of 3-PBA was decreased from 0.846 to 0.001. At 100 mg/L of 3-PBA and gallic acid, β-CY and 3-PBA degradation were only 17.68% and 40.45%, respectively. As the toxic intermediate derived from co-metabolic degradation of β-CY by strain B-1, 3-PBA was efficiently degraded by strain M-4, and gallic acid, as the toxic intermediate from co-metabolic degradation of 3-PBA by strain M-4, was efficiently degraded by strain B-1. These results provided a promising approach for efficient biodegradation of β-CY and 3-PBA.

  4. Co-Metabolic Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid by Co-Culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan Zhao

    Full Text Available The degradation efficiency of organic contaminants and their associated metabolites by co-culture of microbes is mainly limited by toxic intermediates from co-metabolic degradation. In this study, we investigated the degradation of β-cypermethrin (β-CY and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA by co-culture of Bacillus licheniformis B-1 and Aspergillus oryzae M-4, as well as the influences of β-CY and 3-PBA metabolites on their degradation and the growth of strains B-1 and M-4. Our results indicated that 100 mg/L β-CY was degraded by 78.85%, and 3-PBA concentration was 0.05 mg/L after 72 h. Compared with using only strain B-1, the half-life (t1/2 of β-CY by using the two strains together was shortened from 84.53 h to 38.54 h, and the yield coefficient of 3-PBA was decreased from 0.846 to 0.001. At 100 mg/L of 3-PBA and gallic acid, β-CY and 3-PBA degradation were only 17.68% and 40.45%, respectively. As the toxic intermediate derived from co-metabolic degradation of β-CY by strain B-1, 3-PBA was efficiently degraded by strain M-4, and gallic acid, as the toxic intermediate from co-metabolic degradation of 3-PBA by strain M-4, was efficiently degraded by strain B-1. These results provided a promising approach for efficient biodegradation of β-CY and 3-PBA.

  5. Characterisation of the borgwaldt LM4E system for in vitro exposures to undiluted aerosols from next generation tobacco and nicotine products (NGPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Jason; Jaunky, Tomasz; Thorne, David; Gaça, Marianna D

    2018-03-01

    Traditional in vitro exposure to combustible tobacco products utilise exposure systems that include the use of smoking machines to generate, dilute and deliver smoke to in vitro cell cultures. With reported lower emissions from next generation tobacco and nicotine products (NGPs), including e-cigarettes and tobacco heating products (THPs), diluting the aerosol is potentially not required. Herein we present a simplified exposure scenario to undiluted NGP aerosols, using a new puffing system called the LM4E. Nicotine delivery from an e-cigarette was used as a dosimetry marker, and was measured at source across 4 LM4E ports and in the exposure chamber. Cell viability studies, using Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, were performed using H292 human lung epithelial cells, testing undiluted aerosols from an e-cigarette and a THP. E-cigarette mean nicotine generated at source was measured at 0.084 ± 0.005 mg/puff with no significant differences in delivery across the 4 different ports, p = 0.268 (n = 10/port). Mean nicotine delivery from the e-cigarette to the in vitro exposure chamber (measured up to 100 puffs) was 0.046 ± 0.006 mg/puff, p = 0.061. Aerosol penetration within the LM4E was 55% from source to chamber. H292 cells were exposed to undiluted e-cigarette aerosol for 2 h (240 puffs) or undiluted THP aerosol for 1 h (120 puffs). There were positive correlations between puff number and nicotine in the exposed culture media, R 2  = 0.764 for the e-cigarette and R 2  = 0.970 for the THP. NRU determined cell viability for e-cigarettes after 2 h' exposure resulted in 21.5 ± 17.0% cell survival, however for the THP, full cytotoxicity was reached after 1-h exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the

  7. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  8. K1M4 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  9. Towards a new vision of economic policy: Discussion around the new paradigm proposed by David Romer in “Keynesian macroeconomics without the LM curve”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Leonardo Penagos Rozo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New Keynesians (NK refer to an advanced posture compared to the traditional paradigm of the IS-LM equilibrium, which, as a tool, satisfied economic policy explanations for the moment. The model had critics like be considered not to have microeconomic foundations, among others. Perhaps at the times presented: Keynes, in 1936, with the General Theory, Hicks, in 1937, with Mr. Keynes and the classics; Samuelson in 1948 and subsequent years, with his work Economy, it provided important elements in the balance. However, a new approach was needed for the Twenty-First Century, and it is the one proposed by David Romer. The purpose of this article is to make an initial review for understanding how some aspects of economic policy are linked as elements of economic growth.

  10. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-01

    seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding...... sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that M1/M4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests...

  11. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM Cortex-M4 processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidó Cairol, Mercè; Font Calafell, Davinia; Pallejà Cabrè, Tomàs; Tresánchez Ribes, Marcel; Nogués Aymamí, Miquel; Palacín Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future...

  12. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM in vivo tool compound: The discovery of VU0467154 and unexpected DMPK profiles of close analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Lamsal, Atin; Chang, Sichen; Luscombe, Vincent B; Weiner, Rebecca L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Bubser, Michael; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Engers, Darren W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Conn, P Jeffrey; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-15

    This letter describes the chemical optimization of a novel series of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on a 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine core, developed via iterative parallel synthesis, and culminating in the highly utilized rodent in vivo tool compound, VU0467154 (5). This is the first report of the optimization campaign (SAR and DMPK profiling) that led to the discovery of VU0467154, and details all of the challenges faced in allosteric modulator programs (steep SAR, species differences in PAM pharmacology and subtle structural changes affecting CNS penetration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of the M3/M4 metastable defect detected in hydrogen and ICP Ar plasma treated n-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamhere, C.; Venter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Defects created by a dc hydrogen plasma have been compared to those observed in n-GaAs exposed to an inductively coupled (ICP) Ar plasma. The reference sample (in the case of H-plasma treated material) contained two prominent native deep level electron traps, possibly M4 and E C −0.56 eV, which were both passivated by hydrogen. Plasma treatment also resulted in the formation of a defect observed at 0.58 eV (M3) below the conduction band. This defect transforms back into what is believed to be M4 when annealed at 350 K for 3 h under reverse bias. These two defects compare well with two similar defects observed in the Ar ICP treated samples also showing metastable behavior. Additionally, the electrical characterization of Schottky barrier diodes on n-GaAs, prior to and after hydrogen passivation shows that, depending on the plasma conditions, the plasma ions significantly damage the surface resulting in poor rectifying contacts. The damage is considerably reversed/repaired upon annealing between the room temperature and 573 K (300 °C).

  14. A comparison of the M3/M4 metastable defect detected in hydrogen and ICP Ar plasma treated n-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: cloud.nyamhere@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Venter, A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Defects created by a dc hydrogen plasma have been compared to those observed in n-GaAs exposed to an inductively coupled (ICP) Ar plasma. The reference sample (in the case of H-plasma treated material) contained two prominent native deep level electron traps, possibly M4 and E{sub C}-0.56 eV, which were both passivated by hydrogen. Plasma treatment also resulted in the formation of a defect observed at 0.58 eV (M3) below the conduction band. This defect transforms back into what is believed to be M4 when annealed at 350 K for 3 h under reverse bias. These two defects compare well with two similar defects observed in the Ar ICP treated samples also showing metastable behavior. Additionally, the electrical characterization of Schottky barrier diodes on n-GaAs, prior to and after hydrogen passivation shows that, depending on the plasma conditions, the plasma ions significantly damage the surface resulting in poor rectifying contacts. The damage is considerably reversed/repaired upon annealing between the room temperature and 573 K (300 Degree-Sign C).

  15. HoloMonitor M4: holographic imaging cytometer for real-time kinetic label-free live-cell analysis of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, Mikael; Egelberg, Peter J.; Langberg, Anders; Lindskov, Jens-Henrik; Alm, Kersti; Janicke, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    Live-cell imaging enables studying dynamic cellular processes that cannot be visualized in fixed-cell assays. An increasing number of scientists in academia and the pharmaceutical industry are choosing live-cell analysis over or in addition to traditional fixed-cell assays. We have developed a time-lapse label-free imaging cytometer HoloMonitorM4. HoloMonitor M4 assists researchers to overcome inherent disadvantages of fluorescent analysis, specifically effects of chemical labels or genetic modifications which can alter cellular behavior. Additionally, label-free analysis is simple and eliminates the costs associated with staining procedures. The underlying technology principle is based on digital off-axis holography. While multiple alternatives exist for this type of analysis, we prioritized our developments to achieve the following: a) All-inclusive system - hardware and sophisticated cytometric analysis software; b) Ease of use enabling utilization of instrumentation by expert- and entrylevel researchers alike; c) Validated quantitative assay end-points tracked over time such as optical path length shift, optical volume and multiple derived imaging parameters; d) Reliable digital autofocus; e) Robust long-term operation in the incubator environment; f) High throughput and walk-away capability; and finally g) Data management suitable for single- and multi-user networks. We provide examples of HoloMonitor applications of label-free cell viability measurements and monitoring of cell cycle phase distribution.

  16. Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan Chen Yap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.

  17. Growth phase-dependent proteomes of the Malaysian isolated Lactococcus lactis dairy strain M4 using label-free qualitative shotgun proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.

  18. Growth Phase-Dependent Proteomes of the Malaysian Isolated Lactococcus lactis Dairy Strain M4 Using Label-Free Qualitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan Chen; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md.

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MSE) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications. PMID:24982972

  19. Weak mixing angle and the SU(3)CxSU(3) model on M4xS1/(Z2xZ'2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianjun; Wei Liao

    2002-05-01

    We show that the desirable weak mixing angle sin 2 θ W =0.2312 at m Z scale can be generated naturally in the SU(3) C xSU(3) model on M 4 xS 1 /(Z 2 x Z 2 ') where the gauge symmetry SU(3) is broken down to SU(2) L xU(1) Y by orbifold projection. For a supersymmetric model with a TeV scale extra dimension, the SU(3) unification scale is about hundreds of TeVs at which the gauge couplings for SU(3) C and SU(3) can also be equal in the mean time. For the non-supersymmetric model, SU(2) L xU(1) Y are unified at order of 10 TeV. These models may serve as good candidates for physics beyond the SM or MSSM. (author)

  20. Challenges in the development of an M4 PAM preclinical candidate: The discovery, SAR, and biological characterization of a series of azetidine-derived tertiary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C; Wood, Michael R; Noetzel, Meredith J; Melancon, Bruce J; Lamsal, Atin; Luscombe, Vincent B; Rodriguez, Alice L; Byers, Frank W; Chang, Sichen; Cho, Hyekyung P; Engers, Darren W; Jones, Carrie K; Niswender, Colleen M; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Jeffrey Conn, P; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-12-01

    Herein we describe the continued optimization of M 4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) within the 5-amino-thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine series of compounds. In this letter, we disclose our studies on tertiary amides derived from substituted azetidines. This series provided excellent CNS penetration, which had been challenging to consistently achieve in other amide series. Efforts to mitigate high clearance, aided by metabolic softspot analysis, were unsuccessful and precluded this series from further consideration as a preclinical candidate. In the course of this study, we found that potassium tetrafluoroborate salts could be engaged in a tosyl hydrazone reductive cross coupling reaction, a previously unreported transformation, which expands the synthetic utility of the methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In-vivo tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA in a human subject with metastatic bone pain and in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailem, Fayez M.; Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Aguirre, Maria L.; Ellerson, Dawn L.; Walsh, T. Kent; Simpson, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Organ and tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA were studied in a human subject treated for metastatic bone pain, and the results were compared with the biodistribution studies in five normal mice. The explanted organs from a patient who received a therapy dose of 18.6 mCi (688.2 MBq) Sn-117m(4+)DTPA and who died 47 days later were imaged with a γ-camera, and tissue samples were counted and also autoradiographed. Bone, muscle, liver, fat, lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart and pancreas tissue samples were assayed in a well counter for radioactivity. Regions of interest were drawn over bone and major organs to calculate and quantify clearance times using three in vivo Sn-117m(4+)DTPA whole-body scintigrams acquired at 1, 24 and 168 h after injection. Five normal mice injected with the same batch of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA as used for the human subject were sacrificed at 24 h, and tissue samples were collected and assayed for radioactivity for comparison with the human data. For the human subject, whole-body retention at 47 days postinjection was 81% of the injected dose, and the rest (19%) was excreted in urine. Of the whole-body retained activity at 47 days, 82.4% was in bone, 7.8% in the muscle and 1.5% in the liver, and the rest was distributed among other tissues. γ-Ray scintigrams and electron autoradiographs of coronal slices of the thoracolumbar vertebral body showed heterogenous metastatic involvement with normal bone between metastatic lesions. There was nonuniform distribution of radioactivity even within a single vertebral body, indicating normal bone between metastatic lesions. Lesion-to-nonlesion ratios ranged from 3 to 5. However, the osteoid-to-marrow cavity deposition ratio, from the microautoradiographs, was 11:1. The peak uptake in the human bone was seen at 137 h with no biological clearance. Soft tissues showed peak uptake at 1 h and exhibited three compartmental clearance components. Whole-body retention in normal mice was 38.7% of the injected

  2. Wide aperture multipole magnets of the kinematic separator COMBAS. Correcting pair of multipole magnets M3M4 (M5M6) with compensation for higher order aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukh, A.G.; Gridnev, G.F.; Teterev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The high-resolving large aperture separator COMBAS has been created and commissioned. The magneto-optical structure of the separator is based on the strong focusing principle. The separator consists of eight wide aperture multipole magnets M1-M8. The magnets M1, M2, M7, M8 forming the 1 st order optics together with some higher order optical corrections and M3-M6 being dedicated to higher order corrections of the chromatic and spherical aberrations at the intermediate and exit foci of the separator. The multipole correctors M3-M6 contain the dipolar, sextupole and octupole components in their magnetic field distributions. It was the use of the rectangular dipoles M3-M6 as carriers of sextupole and octupole field components that let achieve high values of the separator angular and momentum acceptances. Measurements of the magnetic field distributions in the median planes of the pairs of magnets M3M6 (M4M5) have been performed. These measurements allowed one to analyze the magnets manufacturing quality. Based on the analysis, shimming of pole pieces of the pair of magnets M3M6 have been done. Pole surface correcting coils for the magnets M4M5 have been foreseen to compensate for small deviations (within a few percents) of the 2 nd and 3 rd order field components from the design values, which are probable due to manufacturing errors in all the magnets M1-M8. The measured magnetic field distributions are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator

  3. Structure and expression of MHC class Ib genes of the central M region in rat and mouse: M4, M5, and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Moore, Yuki F; Wonigeit, Kurt; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer

    2008-04-01

    The M region at the telomeric end of the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains class I genes that are highly conserved in rat and mouse. We have sequenced a cosmid clone of the LEW rat strain (RT1 haplotype) containing three class I genes, RT1.M6-1, RT1.M4, and RT1.M5. The sequences of allelic genes of the BN strain (RT1n haplotype) were obtained either from cDNAs or genomic clones. For the coding parts of the genes few differences were found between the two RT1 haplotypes. In LEW, however, only RT1.M5 and RT1.M6 have open reading frames; whereas in BN all three genes were intact. In line with the findings in BN, transcription was found for all three rat genes in several tissues from strain Sprague Dawley. Protein expression in transfectants could be demonstrated for RT1.M6-1 using the monoclonal antibody OX18. By sequencing of transcripts obtained by RT-PCR, a second, transcribed M6 gene, RT1.M6-2, was discovered, which maps next to RT1.M6-1 outside of the region covered by the cosmid. In addition, alternatively spliced forms for RT1.M5 and RT1.M6 were detected. Of the orthologous mouse genes, H2-M4, H2-M5, and H2-M6, only H2-M5 has an open reading frame. Other important differences between the corresponding parts of the M region of the two species are insertion of long LINE repeats, duplication of RT1.M6, and the inversion of RT1.M5 in the rat. This demonstrates substantial evolutionary dynamics in this region despite conservation of the class I gene sequences themselves.

  4. The GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model description, sensitivity studies, and tuning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Held, I. M.; Guo, H.; Balaji, V.; Benson, R.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, X.; Donner, L. J.; Dunne, J. P.; Dunne, Krista A.; Durachta, J.; Fan, S.-M.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Garner, S. T.; Ginoux, P.; Harris, L. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krasting, J. P.; Langenhorst, A. R.; Liang, Z.; Lin, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Malyshev, S. L.; Mason, E.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Ming, Y.; Naik, V.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Phillipps, P.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Robinson, T.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Seman, C. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Shen, Z.; Shin, H.; Silvers, L.; Wilson, J. R.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Wyman, B.; Xiang, B.

    2018-01-01

    In Part 2 of this two‐part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode has been provided in Part 1. Part 2 provides documentation of key components and some sensitivities to choices of model formulation and values of parameters, highlighting the convection parameterization and orographic gravity wave drag. The approach taken to tune the model's clouds to observations is a particular focal point. Care is taken to describe the extent to which aerosol effective forcing and Cess sensitivity have been tuned through the model development process, both of which are relevant to the ability of the model to simulate the evolution of temperatures over the last century when coupled to an ocean model.

  5. The GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM4.0/LM4.0: 1. Simulation characteristics with prescribed SSTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Held, I. M.; Guo, H.; Balaji, V.; Benson, R.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, X.; Donner, L. J.; Dunne, J. P.; Dunne, Krista A.; Durachta, J.; Fan, S.-M.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Garner, S. T.; Ginoux, P.; Harris, L. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krasting, J. P.; Langenhorst, A. R.; Liang, Z.; Lin, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Malyshev, S. L.; Mason, E.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Ming, Y.; Naik, V.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Phillipps, P.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Robinson, T.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Seman, C. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Shen, Z.; Shin, H.; Silvers, L.; Wilson, J. R.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Wyman, B.; Xiang, B.

    2018-01-01

    In this two‐part paper, a description is provided of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This version, with roughly 100 km horizontal resolution and 33 levels in the vertical, contains an aerosol model that generates aerosol fields from emissions and a “light” chemistry mechanism designed to support the aerosol model but with prescribed ozone. In Part 1, the quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode—with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea‐ice distribution—is described and compared with previous GFDL models and with the CMIP5 archive of AMIP simulations. The model's Cess sensitivity (response in the top‐of‐atmosphere radiative flux to uniform warming of SSTs) and effective radiative forcing are also presented. In Part 2, the model formulation is described more fully and key sensitivities to aspects of the model formulation are discussed, along with the approach to model tuning.

  6. The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model Description, Sensitivity Studies, and Tuning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Held, I. M.; Guo, H.; Balaji, V.; Benson, R.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, X.; Donner, L. J.; Dunne, J. P.; Dunne, K.; Durachta, J.; Fan, S.-M.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Garner, S. T.; Ginoux, P.; Harris, L. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krasting, J. P.; Langenhorst, A. R.; Liang, Z.; Lin, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Malyshev, S. L.; Mason, E.; Milly, P. C. D.; Ming, Y.; Naik, V.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Phillipps, P.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Robinson, T.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Seman, C. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Shen, Z.; Shin, H.; Silvers, L. G.; Wilson, J. R.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Wyman, B.; Xiang, B.

    2018-03-01

    In Part 2 of this two-part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode has been provided in Part 1. Part 2 provides documentation of key components and some sensitivities to choices of model formulation and values of parameters, highlighting the convection parameterization and orographic gravity wave drag. The approach taken to tune the model's clouds to observations is a particular focal point. Care is taken to describe the extent to which aerosol effective forcing and Cess sensitivity have been tuned through the model development process, both of which are relevant to the ability of the model to simulate the evolution of temperatures over the last century when coupled to an ocean model.

  7. Operation of a New Half-Bridge Gate Driver for Enhancement - Mode GaN FETs, Type LM5113, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) gate driver designed to drive both the high-side and the low-side enhancement-mode GaN FETs, National Semiconductor's type LM5113, was evaluated for operation at temperatures beyond its recommended specified limits of -40 C to +125 C. The effects of limited thermal cycling under the extended test temperature, which ranged from -194 C to +150 C, on the operation of this chip as well as restart capability at the extreme cryogenic and hot temperatures were also investigated. The driver circuit was able to maintain good operation throughout the entire test regime between -194 C and +150 C without undergoing any major changes in its outputs signals and characteristics. The limited thermal cycling performed on the device also had no effect on its performance, and the driver chip was able to successfully restart at each of the extreme temperatures of -194 C and +150 C. The plastic packaging of this device was also not affected by either the short extreme temperature exposure or the limited thermal cycling. These preliminary results indicate that this new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) halfbridge eGaN FET driver integrated circuit has the potential for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature environments. Further testing is planned under long-term cycling to assess the reliability of these parts and to determine their suitability for extended use in the harsh environments of space.

  8. Assessment of the influence of Al–2Nb–2B master alloy on the grain refinement and properties of LM6 (A413) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, L., E-mail: leandro.bolzoni@brunel.ac.uk; Nowak, M.; Hari Babu, N.

    2015-03-25

    Cast aluminium alloys are important structural materials but their performances are not optimised due to the lack of appropriate grain refiners. In this study, the effect of the addition of a novel Nb-based grain refiner on the microstructural features and mechanical behaviour of the LM6 alloy (A413) is studied. Specifically, the effect of Nb–B inoculation is assessed over a great range of cooling rates (2–100 °C/s). It is found that Nb-based compounds (i.e., NbB{sub 2} and Al{sub 3}Nb) are potent heterogeneous nucleation sites for aluminium and this leads to a significant refinement of the microstructural features. The refinement is not hindered by the formation of silicides, as it happens when using Al–Ti–B master alloys, because niobium silicides form at much higher temperature. It is concluded that the Al–2Nb–2B master alloy is a very effective refiner especially at slow cooling rate and the refinement of the grain size leads to improved performances (homogeneous fine grain structure, mechanical properties and porosity)

  9. Yağı Azaltılmış Et Ürünleri Üretim Tekniği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Serdaroğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Son yıllarda tüketiciler diyetlerinde yağ ve kalori alımını sınırlamak amacıyla yağsız veya yağı azaltılmış gıdalara yönelmektedirler. Az yağlı et ürünlerinin üretiminde yağın azaltılması çeşitli teknolojik problemlere yol açarak ürünün kabul edilebilirliğini azaltmaktadır. Yağı azaltılan et ürünlerinde formülasyonda çeşitli katkıların kullanımı duyusal özelliklerin tüketici tercihi doğrultusunda iyileştirilmesini sağlamaktadır. Yapılan çalışmada et ürünlerinde yağın azaltılması ile ortaya çıkan problemler ve çeşitli katkıların kullanımı literatüre dayanılarak incelenmiştir.

  10. “Efecto de la Inducción de un Campo Magnético Axial en el Refinamiento de la Microestructura de la Soldadura del Acero para Tubería API-5L-X60 Soldado por Arco Sumergido (AS)”

    OpenAIRE

    López Melgarejo, Alejandro Ulises

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de tesis, se describe el efecto que tiene la agitación electromagnética producida por un campo magnético externo, debido a la aplicación de una bobina de alambre de cobre de 35.56 cm de diámetro, durante la soldadura de un acero API 5LX60 soldado por arco sumergido. Esta agitación, conlleva al refinamiento de grano de la microestructura columnar del cordón de soldadura, la cual es producida por el alto aporte térmico del mismo proceso. Durante la exper...

  11. The variation of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in M4-generation seeds of an irradiated local sorghum variety originating from northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, W.; Buah, S.S.J.; Abdulai, M.S.; Nyamekye, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Natural genetic variability in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is very large, however, a number of attempts have been made to broaden its genetic base by induced mutations. Most authors refer to visible characters in plant and grain. Occasionally, effects on grain quality, e.g. high lysine/high protein, are reported. Sorghum in northern Ghana, commonly called 'guinea corn', is a widely cultivated cereal crop and can be found in three local races among which the caudatum race is represented by 'Naga White', an improved local variety originating from the Upper East Region of Ghana. It is characterized by short straw, earliness, good grain yield, a semi-loose head, and white grains, but with a relatively poor grain quality. The objective in several breeding programmes was the improvement of its grain quality, and an induced mutations programme was started at Nyankpala Agricultural Experiment Station (NAES) in 1988. About 10,000 seeds of Naga White were treated with 200Gy from a 60 Co gamma-rays source. The M 1 -generation was planted at NAES and multiplied up to M 4 in 1991, subject to selection for agronomic value. Protein contents (Nx5.7) varied from 9 to 10% for grains of parental genotype and from 8 to 12% in M 2 grains harvested in 1990. In 1992, the agronomically best 112 seed samples of M 4 lines were analyzed for N and P contents, 1000-grain weight (GW) and protein contents. Protein contents ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, phosphorus from 0.15 to 0.45%, and thousand grain weight varied from 11.8 to 19.0 g. The coefficient of the phenotypic correlation between N and P was + 0.337, and several lines with both high N and P contents could be identified. The coefficients of correlation between grain size and both N and P contents were slightly negative but not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation for the P content was twice as high as that for the N content. This might indicate a considerable microvariability in soil phosphorus due to

  12. Gömülmüs Atom Potansiyeli Kullanarak CuNi Alasımının Moleküler Dinamik Simulasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eşe Ergün AKPINAR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, CuNi alasımının moleküler dinamik simulasyonu, Sutton-Chen (SC potansiyeli kullanılarak incelendi. Bu potansiyel Cu, Ni ve CuNi in deneysel bilgilerinin fonksiyon parametrelerine fit edilmesiyle elde edildi. CuNi alasımının kristalizasyon sürecini atomik olarak tanımlamak için, gömülmüs atom yöntemini esas alan sabit basınç, sabit sıcaklık (NPT moleküler dinamik simulasyonu uygulandı. Sıvı fazda iken 4x1011 K/s sogutma hızında sogutulan CuNi alasımının yapısı ve kristallesme olusum yetenegi radyal dagılım fonksiyonuyla incelendi. Simulasyon, üç temel dogrultu boyunca periyodik sınır sartlarını saglayan kübik bir hücrede 1024 atom içeren sistemle gerçeklestirildi. Hareket denklemleri Verlet algoritması kullanılarak sayısal olarak çözüldü. Sogutma deneyi için sıvı hal baslangıcı, katının sıvı sıcaklıgına ısıtılmasıyla elde edildi. Sistem 1300-1550K sıvılasma bölgesi üzerindeki sıcaklıkta eritildi ve homojenize edildi ve hızla oda sıcaklıgına sogutuldu.

  13. Multicultural Societies: Kálmán Mikszáth, Pál Závada and Péter Huncik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Molnár Basa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Hungarian works, one from the 19th century and two contemporary novels, reflect changing attitudes to ethnicity and nationality questions within Hungary, including the area that became part of Czechoslovakia after World War I. Kálmán Mikszáth’s Tót Atyafiak shows a society in which the various nationalities of Upper Hungary live in harmony. Ethnic problems seem not to be present. Pál Závada’s Jadviga Párnája presents a more complex picture: while the protagonists seem free of nationalistic sentiments, they are conscious of their Slovak roots, their customs and language. A majority in the city and community which forms the backdrop to the story, they are a minority in the larger region of the Hungarian Plain. However, different customs and language are not perceived as setting themselves off from other Hungarians. Outside forces and prejudices do intrude since key sections of the story occur during World War I and its aftermath. The third novel, Péter Hunčik’s Határeset examines the fate of the population of Ipolyság, a town in what is now southern Slovakia. This is an area which still has a large Hungarian population; many families nevertheless have a background that includes Slovak and other nationalities. With the border changes of 1920, 1938 and 1945 lives are disrupted. Communism further complicates the tensions and absurdities fueled by outside forces. The works are testimonies to tolerance because the protagonists most affected are open to other ethnicities, other nationalities.

  14. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ionov, Victor; Iliyin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite). After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  15. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  16. THE LICK-CARNEGIE EXOPLANET SURVEY: A SATURN-MASS PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE NEARBY M4V STAR HIP 57050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Laughlin, Greg; Meschiari, Stefano; Paul Butler, R.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    Precision radial velocities (RV) from Keck/HIRES reveal a Saturn-mass planet orbiting the nearby M4V star HIP 57050. The planet has a minimum mass of Msin i ∼ 0.3 M J , an orbital period of 41.4 days, and an orbital eccentricity of 0.31. V-band photometry reveals a clear stellar rotation signature of the host star with a period of 98 days, well separated from the period of the RV variations and reinforcing a Keplerian origin for the observed velocity variations. The orbital period of this planet corresponds to an orbit in the habitable zone of HIP 57050, with an expected planetary temperature of ∼230 K. The star has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.32 ± 0.06 dex, of order twice solar and among the highest metallicity stars in the immediate solar neighborhood. This newly discovered planet provides further support that the well-known planet-metallicity correlation for F, G, and K stars also extends down into the M-dwarf regime. The a priori geometric probability for transits of this planet is only about 1%. However, the expected eclipse depth is ∼7%, considerably larger than that yet observed for any transiting planet. Though long on the odds, such a transit is worth pursuing as it would allow for high quality studies of the atmosphere via transmission spectroscopy with Hubble Space Telescope. At the expected planetary effective temperature, the atmosphere may contain water clouds.

  17. The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Saturn-Mass Planet in the Habitable Zone of the Nearby M4V Star HIP 57050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Vogt, Steven S.; Butler, R. Paul; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Laughlin, Greg; Meschiari, Stefano; Henry, Gregory W.

    2010-05-01

    Precision radial velocities (RV) from Keck/HIRES reveal a Saturn-mass planet orbiting the nearby M4V star HIP 57050. The planet has a minimum mass of Msin i ~ 0.3 M J, an orbital period of 41.4 days, and an orbital eccentricity of 0.31. V-band photometry reveals a clear stellar rotation signature of the host star with a period of 98 days, well separated from the period of the RV variations and reinforcing a Keplerian origin for the observed velocity variations. The orbital period of this planet corresponds to an orbit in the habitable zone of HIP 57050, with an expected planetary temperature of ~230 K. The star has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.32 ± 0.06 dex, of order twice solar and among the highest metallicity stars in the immediate solar neighborhood. This newly discovered planet provides further support that the well-known planet-metallicity correlation for F, G, and K stars also extends down into the M-dwarf regime. The a priori geometric probability for transits of this planet is only about 1%. However, the expected eclipse depth is ~7%, considerably larger than that yet observed for any transiting planet. Though long on the odds, such a transit is worth pursuing as it would allow for high quality studies of the atmosphere via transmission spectroscopy with Hubble Space Telescope. At the expected planetary effective temperature, the atmosphere may contain water clouds.

  18. M4FT-16LL080303052-State of Knowledge for Colloid Facilitated Radionuclide Transport and Update on Actinide Diffusion in Bentonite Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080303052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number FT-16LL080303051 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number FT-16LL080303061. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion. The colloid-facilitated transport effort focused on preparation of a draft manuscript summarizing the state of knowledge and parameterization of colloid-facilitated transport mechanisms in support of reactive transport and performance assessment models for generic crystalline repositories. This draft manuscript is being submitted as a level 3 milestone with LANL as the primary author. LLNL’s contribution to that effort is summarized only briefly in the present report. A manuscript summarizing long-term U(VI) diffusion experiments through bentonite backfill material was recently accepted for publication; the contents of that manuscript are summarized in the present report. The Np(IV) diffusion experiments were started mid-year and are ongoing. The completion of these experiments is planned for early FY17. Our progress in quantifying Np(IV) diffusion in bentonite backfill is summarized in the present report. Our involvement with the NEA TDB project was summarized in a recent Argillite Disposal activity report. It is not included in this report.

  19. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tresanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6 processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  20. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM cortex-M4 processor and 3D look-up tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-10-22

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  1. Öğütülmüş Ayçiçek Tohumlarında Enzim Muamelesiyle Yağ Üretiminin Arttırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana Perifanova-Nemska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Öğütülmüş ayçiçek tohumları daha fazla yağ elde etmek amacı ile sellülaz, asit ve baz karakterli proteinaz ve pektinaz enzimleri ile muamele edilmiştir. İncelenen preparatlar arasında sellülaz (selobranin enzimi uygulanan tohumlar en yüksek yağ verimini göstermişlerdir.

  2. Yapılandırılmış Okuma Yönteminin Okuma Hızı, Doğru Okuma ve Sesli Okuma Prozodisi Üzerindeki Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Keskin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma ile yapılandırılmış okuma yönteminin, ilköğretim dördüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin, okuma hızı, doğru okuma ve prozodik okuma becerileri üzerindeki etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma için 2010-2011 öğretim yılı bahar döneminde Afyonkarahisar merkeze bağlı dört ilköğretim okulundan veri toplanmıştır. Bu okullar arasından basit tesadüfi yöntemle belirlenen bir okuldaki akıcı okuma becerisini yeterince kazanamamış dokuz öğrenci ile oluşturulan grupta 24 ders saati “yapılandırılmış okuma yöntemi” uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre yapılandırılmış okuma yöntemi öğrencilerin okuma hızı, doğru okuma ve sesli okuma prozodisi becerileri üzerinde etkili olmuştur. Sonuç olarak, yapılandırılmış okuma yönteminin, akıcı okuma becerileri yönünden endişe düzeyinde olan öğrencilerin, bu becerilerini geliştirmede etkili olduğunu söylemek mümkündür.

  3. Microearthquake detection at 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake source area , the north of the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Yang, H.; Zhou, S.; Yan, C.

    2016-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis in Yunnan area based on continuous seismic data of 38 stations of Qiaojia Network in Xiaojiang Fault from 2012.3 to 2015.2. We use an effective method: Match and Locate (M&L, Zhang&Wen, 2015) to detect and locate microearthquakes to conduct our research. We first study dynamic triggering around the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan. The triggered earthquakes are identified as two impulsive seismic arrivals in 2Hz-highpass-filtered velocity seismograms during the passage of surface waves of large teleseismic earthquakes. We only find two earthquakes that may have triggered regional earthquakes through inspecting their spectrograms: Mexico Mw7.4 earthquake in 03/20/2012 and El Salvador Mw7.3 earthquake in 10/14/2014. To confirm the two earthquakes are triggered instead of coincidence, we use M&L to search if there are any repeating earthquakes. The result of the coefficients shows that it is a coincidence during the surface waves of El Salvador earthquake and whether 2012 Mexico have triggered earthquake is under discussion. We then visually inspect the 2-8Hz-bandpass-filterd velocity envelopes of these years to search for non-volcanic tremor. We haven't detected any signals similar to non-volcanic tremors yet. In the following months, we are going to study the 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake. It occurred only 30km west of the epicenter of the 2014 M6.5 Ludian earthquake. We use Match and Locate (M&L) technique to detect and relocate microearthquakes that occurred 2 days before and 3 days after the mainshock. Through this, we could obtain several times more events than listed in the catalogs provided by NEIC and reduce the magnitude of completeness Mc. We will also detect microearthquakes along Xiaojiang Fault using template earthquakes listed in the catalogs to learn more about fault shape and other properties of Xiaojiang Fault. Analyzing seismicity near Xiaojiang Fault systematically may cast insight on our understanding of the features of

  4. Tests of stellar model atmospheres by optical interferometry. VLTI/VINCI limb-darkening measurements of the M4 giant ψ Phe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, M.; Aufdenberg, J. P.; Kervella, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present K-band interferometric measurements of the limb-darkened (LD) intensity profile of the M 4 giant star ψ Phoenicis obtained with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and its commissioning instrument VINCI. High-precision squared visibility amplitudes in the second lobe of the visibility function were obtained employing two 8.2 m Unit Telescopes (UTs). This took place one month after light from UTs was first combined for interferometric fringes. In addition, we sampled the visibility function at small spatial frequencies using the 40 cm test siderostats. Our measurement constrains the diameter of the star as well as its center-to-limb intensity variation (CLV). We construct a spherical hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmosphere based on spectrophotometric data from the literature and compare its CLV prediction with our interferometric measurement. We compare as well CLV predictions by plane-parallel hydrostatic PHOENIX, ATLAS 9, and ATLAS 12 models. We find that the Rosseland angular diameter as predicted by comparison of the spherical PHOENIX model with spectrophotometry is in good agreement with our interferometric diameter measurement. The shape of our measured visibility function in the second lobe is consistent with all considered PHOENIX and ATLAS model predictions, and is significantly different to uniform disk (UD) and fully darkened disk (FDD) models. We derive high-precision fundamental parameters for ψ Phe, namely a Rosseland angular diameter of 8.13 ± 0.2 mas, with the Hipparcos parallax corresponding to a Rosseland linear radius R of 86 ± 3 R⊙, and an effective temperature of 3550 ± 50 K, with R corresponding to a luminosity of \\log L/L⊙=3.02 ± 0.06. Together with evolutionary models, these values are consistent with a mass of 1.3 ± 0.2 M⊙, and a surface gravity of \\log g = 0.68 ± 0.11. Based on public data released from the European Southern Observatory VLTI obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. The VLTI

  5. High-resolution imaging and crowded-field photometry of the stellar populations in the cores of the Globular Clusters M15 and M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R. F.

    1999-02-01

    This thesis presents work performed at the Department of Physics, University College Galway from 1992 to 1997. It is concerned with ground- and space-based high-resolution optical imaging of globular cluster cores, and the subsequent application of image-restoration and crowded-field photometry techniques; thus we may gain an improved understanding of the nature of their stellar populations, by either monitoring their temporal behaviour over moderate periods for the first time, or by obtaining a more precise "static" picture than was hitherto possible. These goals can be achieved by the development of innovative instrumentation and data analysis techniques. The particularly unique aspect of this work is that it deals with the first application of two-dimensional photon-counting detectors (2D-PCDs) and post-exposure image sharpening (PEIS) for crowded-field photometry. The thesis starts by introducing some basic concepts and characteristics of globular clusters and the diverse stellar species which they contain, in particular those predicted to have formed as a result of dynamical processes in the cluster cores, and those which exhibit variability in emission over time. It then reviews the fields of high-resolution imaging through the turbulent atmosphere & image deconvolution, optical stellar photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope observing and data reduction, each concluded with a description of the systems used in the work reported here (for the HST chapter this involves photometry of WFPC2 (Wide Field & Planetary Camera 2) observations of M15 (NGC 7078) released into the archives in 1995). The core of the thesis begins with a review of the observations to date of the objects with which this thesis is chiefly concerned, M15 and M4 (NGC 6121). In the following sections we describe the observations of these clusters which were made using the TRIFFID camera between 1992 and 1995, the image sharpening and calibration steps performed, and the photometric techniques

  6. Evaluation of growth characters and yield components for six durum wheat lines (triticum durum deaf) selected from M4 and M5 - irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesiem, M. R. A.; Kassem, M. K. M.; Basyouny, M. A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Grain of two durum wheat cultivars, Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with gamma ray doses 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines, characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grains were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions 2005 - 2010 seasons. 20 grain (M 1 ) from each treatment was planed as in the first season. In the second season (M 2 ), grains of 61 plants were selected as thy had the following higher criteria, i.e yield, grain yield / plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50% or more than control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under normal and drought condition. At the end of this season, six selected putative line had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines had an excellent grain yield per plant under normal condition but S3 and S4 lines had superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to parents Sohag3. B1 and B2 lines had the superiority for grain per plant under normal condition comparing with the parent Beni Suef3. In the fourth season (M4),growth, chemical compositions and yield as well as its components of the six putative lines as well as the parents Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number / plant for S1, S2, B1, B2 as compared with their corresponding parent under normal condition. Also, S3 and S4 line shad the same results comparing with the parent Sohag3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed an accumulation of organic protective asmolytes such as sugar, proline and free amino acid. As well as N, P, K, and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to the parent Sohag 3 . The putative line S1, A2 and B1 showed significant increase

  7. Biochemical characterization of a heterotrimeric G(i)-protein activator peptide designed from the junction between the intracellular third loop and sixth transmembrane helix in the m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Matsubayashi, Rina; Hara, Kanako; Onozuka, Tatsuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. The mAChR family comprises 5 subtypes, m1-m5, each of which has a different coupling selectivity for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). m4 mAChR specifically activates the Gi/o family by enhancing the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) reaction with the Gα subunit through an interaction that occurs via intracellular segments. Here, we report that the m4 mAChR mimetic peptide m4i3c(14)Gly, comprising 14 residues in the junction between the intracellular third loop (i3c) and transmembrane helix VI (TM-VI) extended with a C-terminal glycine residue, presents GEF activity toward the Gi1 α subunit (Gαi1). The m4i3c(14)Gly forms a stable complex with guanine nucleotide-free Gαi1 via three residues in the VTI(L/F) motif, which is conserved within the m2/4 mAChRs. These results suggest that this m4 mAChR mimetic peptide, which comprises the amino acid of the mAChR intracellular segments, is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between GPCRs and G-proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards the PET radiotracer for p75 neurotrophin receptor: [(11)C]LM11A-24 shows biological activity in vitro, but unfavorable ex vivo and in vivo profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Julien; Kang, Min Su; Aliaga, Arturo; Sharif, Behrang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A; Kostikov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Mature neurotrophins as well as their pro forms are critically involved in the regulation of neuronal functions. They are signaling through three distinct types of receptors: tropomyosin receptor kinase family (TrkA/B/C), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and sortilin. Aberrant expression of p75(NTR) in the CNS is implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this work was to evaluate one of the very few reported p75(NTR) small molecule ligands as a lead compound for development of novel PET radiotracers for in vivo p75(NTR) imaging. Here we report that previously described ligand LM11A-24 shows significant inhibition of carbachol-induced persistent firing (PF) of entorhinal cortex (EC) pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice via selective interaction with p75(NTR). Based on this electrophysiological assay, the compound has very high potency with an EC50<10nM. We optimized the radiosynthesis of [(11)C]LM11A-24 as the first attempt to develop PET radioligand for in vivo imaging of p75(NTR). Despite some weak interaction with CNS tissues, the radiolabeled compound showed unfavorable in vivo profile presumably due to high hydrophilicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of the safety and efficacy of the Ahmed glaucoma valve model M4 (high density porous polyethylene) and the model S2 (polypropylene) in patients with neovascular glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carrasco, F; Jiménez-Román, J; Turati-Acosta, M; Bello-López Portillo, H; Isida-Llerandi, C G

    2016-09-01

    To prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Ahmed glaucoma valve model M4 (High density porous polyethylene plate; Medpor) compared with the model S2 (polypropylene plate). Mexican patients with neovascular glaucoma were randomly included for each group (M4 and S2). They were operated on using conventional techniques and creating a sub-episcleral tunnel to place the valve tube in the anterior chamber. After one year of follow-up, the results were evaluated with respect to a post-operative reduction in pressure, changes in visual acuity, the need for drugs, and complications, as well as the demographic characteristics of each group. Each operation using the M4 valve was performed by a single surgeon (FGC). Those operated on using the S2 model had their surgery performed by the staff surgeons at the Glaucoma Department of the Mexican Association to Prevent Blindness (APEC). Each group (M4 and S2) contained 21 eyes of 21 Mexican patients with a diagnosis of neovascular glaucoma, leading to a total of 42 patients undergoing surgery. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 43.5 (±11.8), and 42.24 (±12.84) mmHg for the M4 and S2 groups, respectively. After one year of follow-up, the IOP reported was 18.9 (±9.7) mmHg for the final 18 patients in the M4 group, and 16.38 (±9.76) mmHg for the 21 patients in the S2 group. The design of a drainage valve device such as that of Ahmed has characteristics such as moderate control of IOP, thanks to the valve component in the immediate post-operative period, which makes them safer than other non-valve devices. This avoids an excess of flat chambers and the presence of low IOPs, which can lead to bleeding in the early post-operative period due to the weak desmosomal junctions of the newly formed vessels, with the advantage of maintaining suitable control of IOP from the first day after surgery. Further studies with longer follow-up with a larger number of patients are needed to evaluate the effectiveness

  10. Estimates of source parameters of M 4.9 M 4.9 M 4.9 Kharsali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observed ones. It has been inferred that the Kharsali earthquake occurred due to a northerly ... with structural heterogeneities associated with causative fault to understand how seismogenesis is influenced by .... 240) and Taurus digital data acquisition system. ..... structural heterogeneity which can initiate the brittle failures.

  11. Fundamentals, current state of the development of, and prospects for further improvement of the new-generation thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code for simulation of fast reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and

  12. Unitary tridiagonalization in M(4, C)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Abstract. A question of interest in linear algebra is whether all n × n complex matrices can be unitarily ... passing, we also provide another elementary proof for the n = 3 case. 2. Some Lemmas. We need ... also use the letter A to denote the unique linear transformation determined by the matrix. A = [aij ] (satisfying Aej = ∑n.

  13. Synthesis, structure and properties of tellurium cubane clusters of niobium and tantalum [M4(μ4-O)(μ3-Te)4(CN)12]6- (M=Nb, Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedin, V.P.; Kalinina, I.V.; Virovets, A.V.; Fenske, D.

    2001-01-01

    A new cubane cluster complex K 6 [Ta 4 (μ 4 -O)(μ 3 -Te) 4 (CN) 12 ] · KOH · 4H 2 O was prepared by high-temperature synthesis from a mixture of TaTe 4 and KCN with subsequent crystallization from aqueous solutions. The compound was characterized by the methods of cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, Raman and absorption spectroscopies. Comparative study of clusters [M 4 OTe 4 (CN) 12 ] 6- (M=Nb, Ta) containing μ 4 -O-ligands and being the first examples of molecular chalcogenide cubane complexes for group 5 metals of the Periodic System, was made [ru

  14. Quantitative LC-MS Provides No Evidence for m6 dA or m4 dC in the Genome of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Sarah; Ebert, Charlotte; Rahimoff, René; Kosmatchev, Olesea; Steinbacher, Jessica; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Spada, Fabio; Michalakis, Stylianos; Nickelsen, Jörg; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Until recently, it was believed that the genomes of higher organisms contain, in addition to the four canonical DNA bases, only 5-methyl-dC (m 5 dC) as a modified base to control epigenetic processes. In recent years, this view has changed dramatically with the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-dC (hmdC), 5-formyl-dC (fdC), and 5-carboxy-dC (cadC) in DNA from stem cells and brain tissue. N 6 -methyldeoxyadenosine (m 6 dA) is the most recent base reported to be present in the genome of various eukaryotic organisms. This base, together with N 4 -methyldeoxycytidine (m 4 dC), was first reported to be a component of bacterial genomes. In this work, we investigated the levels and distribution of these potentially epigenetically relevant DNA bases by using a novel ultrasensitive UHPLC-MS method. We further report quantitative data for m 5 dC, hmdC, fdC, and cadC, but we were unable to detect either m 4 dC or m 6 dA in DNA isolated from mouse embryonic stem cells or brain and liver tissue, which calls into question their epigenetic relevance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Farklı Durum Çeşitlerinden Mahalli ve Laboratuvar Koşullarında Yapılmış Bulguların Bazı Vitamin ve Mineral İçerikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Özkaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Araştırmada 5 farklı durum buğdayının, bunlardan mahalli ve laboratuvar koşullarında yapılan bulguların bazı kimyasal özellikleri ile tiamin, riboflavin ve mineral içerikleri karşılaştırılmıştır. Buğdayların yapımı sırasında buğdayların tiamin, özellikle de riboflavin miktarları azalmıştır. Mahalli koşullarda yapılan bulgurların tiamin ve riboflavin miktarları laboratuvarda yapılanlara kıyasla biraz düşük çıkmıştır. Bulgurların mineral içerikleri (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ca ve Mg miktarları yapıldıktan buğdaylara kıyasla daha düşük çıkmış, mahalli ve laboratuvar koşullarında yapılan bulgurların mineral madde miktarlarında önemli bir fark görülmemiştir.

  16. Kerklike tradisie en kultuur as bydraende faktore in die diens aan die Koninkryk – die lewe en werk van dominee Kálmán Papp II (geb. 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán D. Papp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Church tradition and culture as contributory factors in service to the Kingdom. This study describes how reverend Kálmán Papp (1924– was able to leave his land of origin behind under difficult, unasked-for and compelling circumstances and embrace a new future in a far-off and unknown country. This follows from his spontaneous responding and acting positively to the effects of cultural interaction and the common denominational factor of the Reformed Church ever present. The study argues in its methodology that it is an oversimplification and a mistake to seek truth by avoiding, underestimating or eliminating the necessary outcome of cultural interaction and church tradition in the choices we make (even theologically and experiences we have of life. This is the true life story of a church minister who finds his destiny and becomes himself a minister in the service of God’s Kingdom, through faith’s challenges and encounters with the theologies and cultures of his embracing worlds.

  17. ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAOXONASE AND ARYLESTERASE ACTIVITY OF PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1 IN DEPENDENCE ON 55(L/M AND 192(Q/R DNA POLYMORPHISM IN ADULT PEOPLE WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SÝKORA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase 1 is a calcium-dependent esterase located on high density lipoproteins (HDL. It inhibits LDL peroxidation and hydrolysis of oxide forms of phospholipides and therefore significantly affects the development of ateroscletosis. The aim of this study was to establish the paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 in adult people with Down syndrome (DS. Adults with DS (10 men and 10 women ages 16 to 37 years participated and were compared to a control group (10 men and 10 women age ranging from 17 to 45 years. The 55(L/M and 192(Q/R DNA polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity was investigated in every patient. The results showed the reduction of PON1 activity in people with DS, in contrast to the decreased development of atherosclerosis in DS. Therefore it can be concluded, that PON1 does not have a direct effect on the lower prevalence of atherosclerosis in people with DS.

  18. Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Uriah Heep "Sonic Origami", Amanda Lear "Follow Me Back In My Arms", No Mercy "More", Dr.Bombay "Rice & Curry", Vanilla Ice"Hard To Swallow", Orgy "Cancỳass", Bee Gees "One Night Only", PJ Harvey "Is This Desire", Mudhoney "Tomorrow Hit Today", Frank Sinatra "Sinatra And Swingin Brass", Kurupt "Kuruption!", Mike Scott & The Waterboys "The Whole Of The Moon", Dodgy "Ace As & Killer Bs"

  19. lm rahu / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2006-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Bugajski, Janusz. Cold Peace: Russia's New Imperialism. Westport (Conn.) : Praeger ; Washington (D.C.) : Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2004. Tegemist pole kaugeleulatuva analüüsiga, vaid pigem loeteluga Venemaa välispoliitika meetoditest "lähivälismaal" ning sellealastest suundumustest peale külma sõja lõppu. Arvustus ilmunud ka: Sirp : Diplomaatia 6. mai 2005 nr. 20, lk. 22-23

  20. lm rahu / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2005-01-01

    Janusz Bugajski raamat "Cold peace: Russia's New Imperialism" ei ole kaugeleulatuv analüüs, vaid Venemaa "lähivälismaa" välispoliitika meetodite ning külma sõja järgse aja sellealaste suundumuste loetelu. Venemaa mõju saavutamise meetmed. Autori sõnul peaks Eesti osana Läänest ka vastavalt käituma

  1. A new O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor associated with a nitrosourea (cystemustine) validates a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy in murine B16 and human-resistant M4Beu melanoma xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Maryse; Maurizis, Jean C; Papon, Janine; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Di; Croisy, Alain; Guerquin-Kern, Jean L; Madelmont, Jean C; Mounetou, Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Chemoresistance to O(6)-alkylating agents is a major barrier to successful treatment of melanoma. It is mainly due to a DNA repair suicide protein, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Although AGT inactivation is a powerful clinical strategy for restoring tumor chemosensitivity, it was limited by increased toxicity to nontumoral cells resulting from a lack of tumor selectivity. Achieving enhanced chemosensitization via AGT inhibition preferably in the tumor should protect normal tissue. To this end, we have developed a strategy to target AGT inhibitors. In this study, we tested a new potential melanoma-directed AGT inhibitor [2-amino-6-(4-iodobenzyloxy)-9-[4-(diethylamino) ethylcarbamoylbenzyl] purine; IBgBZ] designed as a conjugate of O(6)-(4-iododbenzyl)guanine (IBg) as the AGT inactivator and a N,N-diethylaminoethylenebenzamido (BZ) moiety as the carrier to the malignant melanocytes. IBgBZ demonstrated AGT inactivation ability and potentiation of O(6)-alkylating agents (cystemustine, a chloroethylnitrosourea) in M4Beu highly chemoresistant human melanoma cells both in vitro and in tumor models. The biodisposition study on mice bearing B16 melanoma, the standard model for the evaluation of melanoma-directed agents, and the secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the concentration of IBgBZ in the tumor and in particular in the intracytoplasmic melanosomes. These results validate the potential of IBgBZ as a new, more tumor-selective, AGT inhibitor in a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy.

  2. Evaluation of dynamic response characteristics of the MiL-Lx leg compared to the Thor-Lx leg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-vehicular (AV) landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are utilized to disable and destroy vehicles and to injure and kill the occupants. They present not only a threat to vehicle occupants during times of conflict...

  3. X-ray M4,5 Resonant Raman Scattering from La metal with final 4p hole: Calculations with 4p-4d-4f configuration interaction in the final state and comparison with the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Braicovich, L.; Tagliaferri, A.; Dallera, C.; Giarda, K.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Brookes, N.B.; Borgatti, F.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the X-Ray Resonant Raman Scattering (RRS) in La in the whole M 4,5 region ending with a state with a 4p hole, along the sequence 3d 10 4f 0 →3d 9 4f 1 →3d 10 4p 5 4f 1 . The final state configuration mixes with that with two 4d holes i.e. 3d 10 4d 8 4f n+2 having almost the same energy. Thus RRS must be described by introducing final state Configuration Interaction (CI) between states with one 4p hole and with two 4d holes. This approach allows detailed experimental data on La-metal to be interpreted on the basis of a purely ionic approach. It is shown that the inclusion of CI is crucial and has very clear effects. The calculations with the Kramers-Heisenberg formula describe all measured spectral features appearing in the strict Raman regime i.e. dispersing with the incident photon energy. In the experiment also a nondispersive component is present when the excitation energy is greater than about 2 eV above the M 5 peak. The shape and position of this component is well accounted for by a model based on all possible partitions of the excitation energy between localised and extended states. However, the intensity of the nondispersive component is greater in the measurements, suggesting a rearrangement in the intermediate excited state. The comparison of ionic calculations with the metal measurements is legitimate, as shown by the comparison between the measurements on La-metal and on LaF 3 with M 5 excitation, giving the same spectrum within the experimental accuracy. Moreover, the experiment shows that the final lifetime broadening is much greater in the final states corresponding to lower outgoing photon energies than in the states corresponding to higher outgoing photon energies. (author)

  4. Sliding charge density wave in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO2)4(WO3)2m with alternate stacking of m=4 and m=6 WO3 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foury-Leylekian, P.; Sandre, E.; Ravy, S.; Pouget, J.-P.; Elkaim, E.; Roussel, P.; Groult, D.; Labbe, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m form family of two-dimensional metals which exhibit charge density wave (CDW) instabilities. These materials are generally built by the regular stacking of (a,b) layers in which chains made of segments of m WO 6 octahedra directed along the a and a±b directions are delimited. Their electronic structure thus originates from quasi-one-dimensional (1D) bands located on these chains. As a consequence their Fermi surface (FS) exhibits large flat portions whose nesting gives rise to successive CDW instabilities. Here we present a structural study of the CDW instability of the (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 10 member formed by the alternate stacking of layers built with segments of m=4 and m=6 WO 6 octahedra. Its ab initio electronic structure calculation shows that the FS of this member exhibits large flat portions which can be extremely well nested. Its best nesting wave vector accounts for the modulation wave vector stabilized by the CDW transition which occurs at 156 K. Because of the regular stacking of layers of different m values the FS is slightly split. The unusual thermal dependence of the x-ray satellite intensity provides evidence that the two types of layers become modulated at different temperature. This also leads to a slight thermal sliding of the CDW-nesting modulation wave vector, which can be accounted for within the framework of a Landau-Ginzburg theory. In addition, the observation of a global hysteresis in the thermal cycling of the satellite intensity, as well as the degradation of the interlayer order upon cooling, suggest the formation of a disordered lattice of dilute solitons. Such solitons allow to accommodate the charge transferred between the two types of layer. Finally the relevance of local charge transfers, at intergrowth defects, for example, to create pinned discommensurations that break the CDW coherence is emphasized in this whole family of bronzes

  5. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  6. Development of fi lm forming formulation and technology of polymeric fi lm coating on Indotril tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In previous researches we grounded expedience of «Indotril» tablets development; formulation and technology of "Indotril" tablet cores were developed. Received tablet cores should be covered by protective polymeric film with the purpose of unpleasant taste elimination, increase of tablets expiration date. Objective. The aim of our investigation was to develop the film forming composition and technology of polymeric film coating on «Indotril» tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer. Materials and Methods. As “Indotril” tablets cores should be covered by protective polymeric film we performed research designed to select efficient film forming solution. Thus modern filming agents were studied, besides such factors were investigated: concentration of film forming suspension, increase of tablet coat in mass, air temperature under gas distribution grid. Obtained tablets were checked according to pharmacopeia methods. Results and discussion. First we studied tablet compression force influence on main parameters of «Indotril» cores tablets: on crushing strength, abrasion in pseudo-fluidized layer unit and disintegration. Then for further investigation we chose «Indotril» cores tablets with crushing strength near 70 H, abrasion - up to 0,5% and disintegration time - not more than 10 minutes. We performed research to select film forming solution for covering “Indotril” tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer unit. As filming agents we used different samples of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC by Japan company Shin-Etsu Chemical Co and English company Colorcon. Water HPMC solutions were prepared which contained plasticizer (propylene glycol, pigment (titanium IV dioxide and dye (tartrazine. Coating process of “Indotril” tablets was performed in laboratory pseudo-fluidized layer unit with the air temperature 75ºC under gas distribution grid. Variance analysis of experimental data on quality of coat surface showed insignificance as for nature of studied filming agents. Homogeneity in bulk of coated “Indotril” tablets also did not differ significantly as for filming agents’ nature. Divergence in mass of coated tablets did not differ significantly from uncoated ones; it testifies identity of filming process over all tablets surface. Strength of coated “Indotril” tablets as compared with uncoated ones increases in average on 15-20 H. Variance analysis of experimental data concerning tablets disintegration resistance showed that there was no significant difference between studied filming agents. While defining disintegration time statistical significance of filming agents’ nature was determined. Ranking is the following: 6% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 603 > 5% solution of Opadray II WHITE > 5% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 606 > 4% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 615. But the difference between filming agents’ nature is not more than 2 minutes. Opadray II WHITE has been chosen for further study; it comes to the enterprise (“Arterium” Corporation where the results of investigation are planned to be introduced for the manufacture of other tablet dosage forms. On the next stage of our investigation we defined optimal values of quantitative factors, notably the influence of air temperature under gas distribution grid, concentration of film forming suspension and film thickness on the properties of coated “Indotril” tablets. Conclusion. Influence of filming agent nature on properties of coated tablets «Indotril» was studied, namely on appearance, homogeneity in bulk, mechanical strength, disintegration time. Opadray II WHITE was proposed for coating “Indotril” tablets by protective polymeric coat in pseudo-fluidized layer. Worked out formulation of filming agent solution and technology of its application were included into technological regulation of «Indotril» tablets production.

  7. Farklı Hayvan Türlerine Ait Karkas Etlerinin ve Mekanik Sıyrılmış Etlerin, Kimyasal Yapılarına ve SDS-PAGE Yardımıyla Saptanan Protein Profillerine Göre Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Yaralı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada farklı hayvan karkas etleri ve farklı mekanik sıyrılmış etlerinin kimyasal bileşimi, atomik absorbsiyon spektrofotometresi ile mineral madde bileşimi ve SDS­PAGE ile protein bant dizilimi incelenmiştir. Bu yöntemler ile tür ayrımı ve MDM ayrımı yapılmıştır. Özellikle MDM örneklerinin protein, yağ ve kalsiyum içerikleri diğer karkas etlerinden önemli ölçüde farklı olarak bulunmuştur. Karkas örneklerinin sodyum miktarının MDM örnekleriyle karşılaştırıldığında yüksek olduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca, deneye tabi tutulan makro elementler içinde magnezyum içeriğinin düşük değerlerde olduğu gözlenmiştir. SDS­PAGE bant diziliminde myofibriler proteinler ve sarkoplazmik proteinler incelenmiştir. Elektoroforez jellerinin görüntü analizi ve nicel analizi için densitometre cihazı (The Imager BL, Biolab UviTec software kullanılmıştır.

  8. Yağ İçeriği Azaltılmış Beyaz Peynir Üretiminde Isıl İşlem Uygulanan Lactobacillus helveticus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus Kültürlerinin Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    Gürsoy, Ayşe; Şenel, Ebru; Gürsel, Asuman; Deveci, Organ; Karademir, Ebru; Yaman, Şenay

    2001-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, yağ içeriği azaltılmış Beyaz peynir örneklerinde, proteolizi teşvik ederek olgunlaşmayı hızlandırmak ve böylece yapı ve tadı iyileştirmek amacıyla, isti işlem uygulanan L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kültürlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bunun için kurumaddede %20 yağ içerecek şekilde peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, ayrıca karşılaştırma amacıyla yağlı peynir örneği (kurumaddede %40 yağ) de üretilmiştir. Peynirler 7±1 °C'de olgunlaşmaya bırakılarak 0, 7, 15, 30, 60 ve 90. gü...

  9. Yağ İçeriği Azaltılmış Beyaz Peynir Üretiminde Isıl İşlem Uygulanan Lactobacillus helveticus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus Kültürlerinin Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gürsoy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, yağ içeriği azaltılmış Beyaz peynir örneklerinde, proteolizi teşvik ederek olgunlaşmayı hızlandırmak ve böylece yapı ve tadı iyileştirmek amacıyla, isti işlem uygulanan L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kültürlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bunun için kurumaddede %20 yağ içerecek şekilde peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, ayrıca karşılaştırma amacıyla yağlı peynir örneği (kurumaddede %40 yağ de üretilmiştir. Peynirler 7±1 °C'de olgunlaşmaya bırakılarak 0, 7, 15, 30, 60 ve 90. günlerde fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal nitelikleri yönünden analiz edilmiştir. Isıl işlem uygulamasıyla yardımcı kültür haline getirilen L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kullanımı az yağlı beyaz peynir örneklerinin genel bileşimini etkilememiş olgunlaşmanın hızlandırılmasında da fazla etkili olmamıştır.

  10. Ultrasonic assisted extraction - an alternative for sample preparation (M4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, P.; Barbosa Junior, F.; Krug, F.J.; Trevizan, L.C.; Nobrega, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last years the ultrasound assisted metal extraction has been frequency proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative for sample preparation of biological and inorganic samples. The extraction effect is considered as being caused by acoustic cavitation, that is, bubble formation and subsequent disruptive action. The collapse of bubbles created by sonication of solutions results in the generation of extremely high local temperature and pressure gradients, which may be regarded as localized 'hot spots'. On a timescale of about 10 -10 s, effective local pressures and temperature of about 10 5 atm and about 5000 K, respectively, are generated under sonochemical conditions. Usually, this method uses a diluted acid medium decreasing blank values and reducing both reagents and time consumption compared to traditional wet digestion systems using conductive or microwave-assisted heating. Furthermore, sonication can also allow the preparation of samples directly within the sample container, thereby preventing sample losses and minimizing sample contamination. Although some controversial results concerning metals extraction behavior have been reported, they could be explained by analyte-matrix interaction and the ability of the ultrasonic processor to generate ultrasound (i.e. the use of an ultrasonic bath or an ultrasonic probe at different power, frequency, and amplitude). This contribution presents a review of ultrasound assisted metal extraction and recent performance data obtained in our laboratory for determination of elements in biological materials, soils and sediments by ICP-OES and ETAAS. The effect of extraction parameters, such as type and concentration of the leaching solution, sonication time and performance of ultrasonic processor (bath or probe) will be presented. (author)

  11. Kırgız Türkçesiyle Yazılmış Olan Seyyid Battal Gazi Destanı Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Review Of Seyyid Battal Gazi Epic Written In Turkic Kyrgyz Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurullah CİCİOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Avrupa’ya yönelmeleri ile devam eden Türk-Bizans mücadelesi sürecinde bu kahramanla ilgili menkıbeler Türkler arasında oldukça yayılmıştır. Battal Gazi ile ilgili bu menkıbeleri ihtiva eden ve Battalnâme adı verilen eserler XIII-XIV. yüzyıllardan itibaren Anadolu’da yazılmaya başlanmış, bunların manzum ve mensur birçok nüshası günümüze ulaşmıştır. Türk epik destan geleneği zemininde teşekkül eden bu eserlerin sadece Anadolu sahasında değil Anadolu dışındaki Türk toplulukları arasında da yayılmış olduğu anlaşılmaktadır.Bu çalışmada Kırgızistan Milli İlimler Akademisi Elyazmaları Arşivinde bulunan ve “Seyitbatal Comogu” (Seyyid Battal Destanı olarak adlandırılan elyazması nüsha üzerine bir inceleme sunulmuştur. Bu nüsha Seyyid Battal Gazi destanının Kırgız Türkçesiyle yazılmış olan manzum metnini içermektedir. Eser, Anadolu’da yazılan Battalnâme nüshalarının Orta Asya coğrafyasına ulaştığını ve farklı Türk lehçelerinde yeni metinlerinin oluştuğunu örneklemesi bakımından önemlidir.Mamatkul Murataliyev’in yazıya aktardığı bu metinde geçen yer ve kişi adları, epizot ve motif yapısı Anadolu sahasında mevcut olan nüshalardakilerle büyük ölçüde örtüşmektedir. Bu metin Anadolu’da yazılmış Battalnâme nüshalarının etkisiyle ortaya konulan, Kazak Türkçesiyle yazılmış bir Battalnâme metninden uyarlanarak; fakat Kırgız destancılık geleneği özelliklerine uygun biçimde yeniden oluşturulmuştur. Bu şekilde konu ve olaylar ile mekân ve kişi adlarının ortak olduğu; fakat dil, şekil, üslup ve folklor unsurları bakımından oluşturulduğu sahanın özelliklerine göre şekillenen yeni bir metin ortaya çıkmıştır.

  12. M(4-PridinkarboksialdehidNi(CN4.nG Hofmann Tipi Konak-Konuk Bileşiklerinin Kırmızıaltı Spektroskopik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi (M = Ni, Cd ve G = 1,4-Dioksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki KARTAL

    2014-12-01

    M(4-PyridinecarboxaldehydeNi(CN4.nG Hofmann Type Clathrates (M = Ni, Cd and G = 1,4-Dioxane Abstract: In this study, clathrate of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde tetracyanonickel-dioxane, given by the formula M(4-PyridinecarboxaldehydeNi(CN4 nG (m = Ni, Cd and G = 1,4-dioxane, is obtained for the first time through chemical methods. The FT-IR spectroscopic data in the region of (3000–400 cm-1 was recorded and the IR vibrational modes frequencies were given and explained in detail. The spectral analyzes results of the newly synthesized clathrate of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde tetracyanonickel- dioxane suggests that these clathrates are new examples of the Hofmann-type dioxane clathrates. In our study, the Hofmann-type dioxane clathrates formed by bounding electrons of nitrogen-donor atom of pyridine ring and electrons of oxygen-donor atom of aldehyde group (-CH=O of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde ligand molecule to transition metal atoms consist of the corrugated |M–Ni(CN4|ï‚¥ polymeric layers which are held in parallel through the chain of (–M–4PCA–M–. Key words: Infrared Spectroscopy, Hofmann Types Clathrates, Tetracyanonickelate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, 1,4-dioxane

  13. Neeme Külm in abstract autarchic ambience / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Neeme Külma ruumiinstallatsioonidest. Neeme Külma isikunäitus "Pinnavirvendus" ("Shimmer on the Surface") Hobusepea galeriis 11.-24.04.2012. Näituse eest pälvis kunstnik Eesti Kultuurkapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapitali 2012. aasta aastapreemia. Neeme Külma ja Krista Möldri näitus "Kohalolu" ("Being Present") Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 30.11.-28.12.2012

  14. Sound : Albumid, singlid / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest albumitest Helloween "Better than raw", Primus "Rhinoplasty", Unbelievable Truth "Almost here", Dallas "Sleepers entertainer" (eesti), Massive Attack "Mezzanine" ja singlist Busta Rhymes "Turn it up /Fire it up"

  15. H -Supermagic Labeling on Shrubs Graph and Lm ⨀ Pn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfatimah, Risala; Roswitha, Mania; Kusmayadi, Tri Atmojo

    2017-01-01

    A nite simple graph G admits an H -covering if every edge of E ( G ) belongs to a subgraph of G isomorphic to H . We said the graph G = ( V , E ) that admits H -covering to be H -magic if there exists a bijection function f : V ( G ) ∪ E ( G ) → {1, 2, …, | V ( G )| + | E ( G )|} such that for each subgraph H ′ of G isomorphic to H , f ( H ′) = ∑ υ ∈ V ′ f ( υ ) + ∑ e ∈ E ′ f ( e ) = m ( f ) is constant. Furthermore, if f ( V ) = 1, 2, …, | V ( G )| then G is called H -supermagic. In this research we de ned S 2,2 -supermagic labeling on shrub graph Š ( m 1 , m 2 , …, m n ) and fish-supermagic labeling on L m ⨀ P n for m , n ≥ 2. (paper)

  16. Albumid : Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest albumitest Smokie "Live.The Concert", Cypress Hill "IV", Pras "Ghetto Supastar", Faith No More "Who Cares A Lot", räpikogumik"Bad Boys Greatest Hits", Meat Loaf "Very Best Of",The Levellers "One Way Of Life.Best Of" Cardigans "Gran Turismo" ja Oasis "Masterplane" ja singlist Metallica "Turn The Page"

  17. New polyamide 12 grades for large diameter oil and pipes: VESTAMID{sup TM} LX9020 and VESTAMID{sup TM} LX9030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowe, Andreas; Baron, Christian; Coelho, Germano [Evonik Degussa GmbH, Arlington Heights, IL(United States)

    2008-07-01

    Polyamide 12 (PA 12) is a high performance polymer with outstanding mechanical properties and excellent chemical stability. It is the preferred material in many demanding applications, e. g. in the automotive industry for fuel lines of passenger cars or for air brake tubing's in trucks. In recent years PA 12 pipes underwent an approval process for the use in high-pressure gas distribution and offshore oil explorations. Also the applications lining and rehabilitation of pipes are under investigation. Especially the swelling behavior and the outstanding resistance to oil and other petrochemicals make VESTAMID{sup TM} the material of choice for rehabilitation and lining applications. The authors will give an introduction to the excellent technical performance of PA 12. The very high melt viscosity and stiffness of the newly developed VESTAMID{sup TM} grades enables new applications of PA 12 in oil and gas applications which will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. ISA 247: trans-ISA 247, trans-R 1524, ISA(TX)247, ISAtx 247, ISATx247, LX 211, LX211, R 1524, R-1524.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Isotechnika is developing the immunosuppressive drug ISA 247, a calcineurin inhibitor that is undergoing clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis (phase III) and prevention of organ rejection after transplantation (phase II). Preclinical development for uveitis is also underway. Other autoimmune disease indications that could be explored include arthritis, type I diabetes and Crohn's disease. ISA 247 was being co-developed as R 1524 by Isotechnika and Roche. However, Roche is no longer involved in the development of this compound. Based on analysis of previously collected data, the trans-ISA 247 isomer was found to be more bioavailable and it is expected that this isomer can be administered at a lower dose compared with the previous formulation that consisted of an equivalent mixture of the two geometric isomers (cis and trans). Preclinical observations indicate that ISA 247 has the potential to be more potent and less toxic than other marketed immunosuppressants in its class used for the prevention of transplant rejection. Experiments to date suggest that ISA 247 is about three times as potent as ciclosporin, while genotoxicity studies in animals have shown that the compound has a significantly reduced tendency to cause renal toxicity. The combination of reduced toxicity and improved potency would give ISA 247 a therapeutic benefit over existing calcineurin-based treatments. Isotechnika and Roche entered into a co-development and commercialisation agreement in April 2002, with Roche gaining the exclusive worldwide marketing rights for ISA 247; Isotechnika received milestone payments of $US4 million and $CAN21.9 million in September 2002 and May 2003, respectively. The agreement was restructured in April 2004, under which Isotechnika will now solely manage and fund the clinical development of trans-ISA 247. Upon successful completion of these trials, Isotechnika will conduct at its own expense a phase IIb study in renal transplantation and phase III studies in psoriasis. Roche will have the right to opt-in to the development and commercialisation of trans-ISA 247 for transplant indications up to the end of the phase IIb renal transplantation trial. Isotechnika retains all rights to develop and commercialise the product outside of transplant indications. Under an agreement signed with Cellgate Inc. on 25 April 2006, Isotechnika has the option to obtain an exclusive licence to develop and commercialise conjugates consisting of Cellgate's patented transporter technology, for the topical delivery of ISA 247 in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Cellgate will perform studies to evaluate the feasibility of using their technology to topically deliver ISA 247. In return, Isotechnika will pay Cellgate Inc. a total of $US500 000, with $US100 000 paid upfront, and the remainder at predetermined time points. Upon successful completion of the studies, Isotechnika has the option to further develop and commercialise conjugates for topical delivery of ISA 247. Isotechnika and Atrium Medical Corporation announced an exclusive worldwide licensing agreement for ISA 247 alone and in combination with TAFA 93 with respect to drug-eluting devices, in September 2005. Atrium's implantable products include those for the local, non-systemic treatment of vascular and cardiovascular disorders, soft tissue repair and other disorders. In May 2006, Isotechnika licensed ISA 247 to Lux Biosciences for ophthalmic indications. Under terms of the agreement, Lux Biosciences obtains the exclusive worldwide marketing rights to ISA 247 for treatment and prophylaxis of all ophthalmic indications. The company will be responsible for development, registration and marketing of the drug for ophthalmic indications and will make upfront and milestone payments to Isotechnika in addition to royalties on any sales. Isotechnika formalised a manufacturing agreement with Swiss-based Lonza Ltd in June 2004. Under the terms of the agreement, Lonza will manufacture sufficient quantities of trans-ISA 247 in a GMP environment for use in the company's upcoming clinical trials. Isotechnika completed the phase III SPIRIT trial of ISA 247 for psoriasis in Canada. The randomised, double-blind trial compared the efficacy of three doses of ISA 247 (0.2 mg/kg [low dose], 0.3 mg/kg [mid dose] and 0.4 mg/kg [high dose] twice daily) with placebo, with equal numbers of patients assigned to each of the four groups. Subsequent to the first 12 weeks, those patients who received placebo moved into the mid-dose group for the remaining 12 weeks of the study. Patients already receiving ISA 247 remained in their respective dosing groups for the final 12 weeks of the trial. Patients completing the 24-week SPIRIT trial were given the opportunity to continue therapy for an addditonal 36 weeks or to discontinue therapy. Those patients who chose to enrol in the extension trial were moved from the 0.2 mg/kg bid (low-dose) or 0.4 mg/kg bid (high-dose) groups into the the 0.3 bid mg/kg bid (mid dose) group. Patients who commenced the SPIRIT trial in the mid-dose group remained on the same dosage regimen for the duration of the extension trial. The goal of the extension trial is to demonstrate continued therapeutic benefit to psoriasis patients while gathering long-term safety data. So far, data has been received on 193 patients receiving treatment for a total of 48 weeks. A phase IIa trial investigating the safety and efficacy of ISA 247 in renal transplantation was completed in the US and Canada in January 2003. The trial compared ISA 247 with ciclosporin (Neoral in approximately 130 stable renal transplant patients who underwent transplantation at least 6 months prior to enrolment; patient recruitment was completed in October 2002. Half of the patients were treated with ciclosporin and the other half received ISA 247 over a 90-day period. An extension trial was then initiated in which another 200 patients were treated with ISA 247 for up to 6 months from the time of transplantation. Results from the trial were reported. All endpoints were achieved in a multiple ascending dose study of trans-ISA 247 in November 2004. The study, initiated in June 2004, was conducted by SFBC Anapharm in Montreal, Canada and involved 43 healthy volunteers. Final dosing recommendations are to be determined in phase III trials in patients with psoriasis. Interim results reported in September 2004, of a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo and moxifloxacin controlled, randomised single-dose QTc trial in healthy volunteers, showed no evidence of QTc prolongation when trans-ISA 247 was administered at therapeutic doses. A single ascending dose (SAD) trial for trans-ISA 247 was completed in July 2004. The SAD trial was conducted among healthy volunteers to assess the appropriate dosage of trans-ISA 247 for further clinical evaluations. The trial commenced in March 2004 with approximately 46 subjects enrolled under the supervision of MDS Pharma Services in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Isotechnika received US FDA approval for the SAD trial in February 2004. A European patent (No. EP 0 991 660) entitled 'Deuterated and Undeuterated Cyclosporine Analgoues and Their Use as Immunomodulating Agents' was issued to Isotechnika for ISA 247, in October 2006. A US patent entitled 'Novel Cyclosporin Analogue Formulations' was issued to Isotechnika (No. 7 060 672) for ISA 247 in June 2006. The patent claims have been filed in 36 countries, and in the US it is the first patent to be issued in this patent family. Isotechnika was issued a US patent (No. 6 998 385, entitled 'Cyclosporine Analogue Mixtures and their use as Immunomodulating Agents') in February 2006 covering mixtures of cis- and trans- isomers of ISA 257. This patent is the first US patent to be issued in this family of patents. These patent claims have been filed in 36 countries. Three patents relating to this claim were previously issued in the following countries; Morocco (No. 26337 issued 1 October 2004); Pakistan (No. 138338 issued 30 September 2004) and South Africa (No. 2004/2270 issued 25 May 2005). A US patent (No 6 686 454) was issued in February 2004 entitled 'Antibodies to Specific Regions of Cyclosporine Related Compounds'. This patent covers a novel, simple and cost-effective assay used in the use and management of ISA 247. It also received another US patent entitled 'Deuterated Cyclosporine Analogs and their Use as Immunomodulating Agents'. Isotechnika has received patents for chemical composition of ISA 247 in New Zealand (November 2001; New Zealand Patent No. 502362), Canada (December 2001; Canadian Patent No. 2 298 572), South Korea (June 2006; South Korean Patent No. 585348) and Australia (November 2002; Australian Patent No. 750245). In addition, Isotechnika announced in August 2003 that it had been granted US patent No. 6 605 593, entitled 'Deuterated Ciclosporine Analogs and their use as Immunomodulating Agents'. An additional US patent covering ISA 247 was granted in September 2003.

  19. Bi∼3.785Cd∼3.575Cu∼1.5(PO4)3.5O5.5, a new arrangement of double (n=2) and triple (n=3) [M4Bi2n-2O2n]x+ polycationic ribbons in the bismuth-transition metal oxy-phosphate series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmont, Marie; Huve, Marielle; Abraham, Francis; Mentre, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    This work is dedicated to investigation of new disordered bismuth-containing oxy-phosphates compounds with an original structure type. As previously observed in this series, they are formed of [M 4 Bi 2n-2 O 2n ] x+ polycationic ribbons of width n O(Bi,M) 4 tetrahedra, surrounded by PO 4 groups. In the new crystal structure type, double (=D), triple (=T) and tunnels (=t) alternate along a common axis obeying the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence in respect to a nomenclature previously described and recalled in this work. The existence this new polymorph has first been detected by electron diffraction in a multi-phased sample. Then, the crystal structure type, i.e., the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence, has been deduced from HREM images help to a contrast-interpreting code available for these series of polycations-formed compounds. The subsequent compounds formulation leads to a number of new materials that verify the general formula: [Bi 2 (Bi,M) 4 O 4 ] 2 [Bi 4 (Bi,M) 4 O 6 ] 6 (PO 4 ) 28 M x , with x= 2+ , Cd 2+ cations. Single crystals of the nominal [O6Bi 4.57 Cd 3.43 ] 4 +8.57 [O 6 Bi 4 Cd 4 ] 2 +8 [O 4 Bi 2 Cd 3.56 Cu 0.44 ] 2 +6 (PO 4 ) 28 Cu 10.86 have been prepared in a further stage and confirms the predicted crystal structure, Bi ∼3.785 Cd ∼3.575 Cu ∼1.5 (PO 4 ) 3.5 O 5.5 , a=11.506(8)A, b=5.416(4)A, c=53.94 (4)A, β=90.10(1) o , RF=0.0835, RwF=0.0993, SG=A2/m, Z=8. As already observed for other elements of this family such as Bi ∼1.2 M ∼1.2 O 1.5 (PO 4 ), Bi ∼6.2 Cu ∼6.2 O 8 (PO 4 ) 5 or Bi ∼3 Cd ∼3.72 M ∼1.28 O 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (M=Cu, Co, Zn), this compound shows an additional example of PO 4 disorder due to the presence of mixed Bi 3+ /M 2+ sites at the edges of ribbons. The origin and consequence of this so-called disorder mostly occurring on PO 4 configurations is intensively discussed and has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy and by neutron diffraction on similar compounds. It is noticeable that the great number of antagonist PO 4

  20. S-24: Hamstring Tendon Otogrefti ile Ön Çapraz Bağ Rekonstrüksiyonu Sonrasında Modifiye ve Hızlandırılmış Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Programının Propriosepsiyon Denge ve Koordinasyon Üzerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Babayiğit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı; izole ön çapraz bağ (ÖÇB veya ön çapraz bağ ile birlikte menisküs yaralanması geçiren kişilerin, hamstring tendon otogrefti ile ön çapraz bağ rekonstrüksiyonu sonrasında modifiye ve hızlandırılmış fizyoterapi ve rehabilitasyon programının propriosepsiyon, dinamik denge üzerine etkilerini araştırmaktır. Çalışma artroskopik Hamstring Tendon Otogrefti ile Ön Çapraz Bağ Rekonstrüksiyonu Cerrahisi Geçiren 20 kişi (n=20 K/E: 2/18 ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Tüm olguların operasyon öncesinde (preop diz propriosepsiyon değerleri gözler açık ve kapalı olarak 15, 30, 45 ve 60 derecede Dijital Gonyometre ile ölçüldü. Operasyon sonrası (postop tüm olgular modifiye, hızlandırılmış fizyoterapi ve rehabilitasyon programına alındı. Operasyon sonrası 3., 6., 12. hafta ve 6. Ay’da propriosepsiyon ölçümleri tekrar edildi.Dinamik denge ölçümleri 3., 6., 12. hafta ve 6. Ay’da horizontal, sağ oblik, sol oblik ve tek ayak denge ölçümleri olarak yapıldı. Fonksiyonel seviyelerini değerlendirmek için Lysholm skoru ve ağrıyı değerlendirmek için VAS (Visual Ağrı Skoru, olguların fonksiyonel performansları durumlarını değerlendirmek için tek ayak atlama, çift ayak atlama ve çapraz atlama testleri uygulandı. Çalışmamızda olguların gözler açık ve kapalı durumda propriosepsiyon (15°, 30°, 45° ve 60° ölçüm sonuçları postoperatif dönemde preoperatif döneme göre 12. Hafta ve 6. Ayda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde düzelme göstermiştir (p<0.05. Olgularda 3. haftadan sonra dinamik denge testlerinde önemli gelişme saptanmışır, bu artış istatistiksel olarak da anlamlıdır (p<0.05. 6 Ayda yapılan fonksiyonel performans testlerini etkileyen bağımsız değişkenler çoklu regresyon analizinde araştırılmış, 60° ölçülen propriosepsiyon sonuçları ve sol tarafın tek adım atlama test skoru, sağ tarafta tek ad

  1. The response of the MiL-Lx leg fitted with combat boots under impact loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ) or even a side-attack IED. This impact causes significant soft tissue and/or bony injuries, leading to a long recovery, medical complications and may require limb amputation if not mitigated [1]. The military boots which the occupants wear...

  2. Impact loading response of the MiL-Lx leg fitted with combat boots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Vehicular Landmine or under-belly Improvised Explosive Device (IED) or even a side-attack IED are found to be one of the major threats for military vehicles and their occupants. The lower extremities of the occupants are very prone...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LX-T relation in galaxy clusters (Hilton+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, M.; Romer, A. K.; Kay, S. T.; Mehrtens, N.; Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Thomas, P. A.; Short, C. J.; Mayers, J. A.; Rooney, P. J.; Stott, J. P.; Collins, C. A.; Harrison, C. D.; Hoyle, B.; Liddle, A. R.; Mann, R. G.; Miller, C. J.; Sahlen, M.; Viana, P. T. P.; Davidson, M.; Hosmer, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Sabirli, K.; Stanford, S. A.; West, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    XCS-DR1 (http://www.xcs-home.org/datareleases) is constructed from 5776 XMM observations, publicly available before 2010 July. In this work, we use only the subsample of 211 XCS-DR1 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts. (1 data file).

  4. Corrosion behavior of API 5L-X80 Pipeline steel for natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Asyadi Azam Mohd Abid; Imai, Hachiro

    2007-01-01

    Natural energy problem, including the environmental aspects had changes into certain circumstances in recent years and natural gas has been a focus of constant attention from the viewpoint of energy efficiency and pollution free. From that kind of background, pipeline construction for petroleum and natural gas were considerate as energy infrastructure maintenance plan. Based on the clarification of Asian Pipeline Project (1997-2007) centered in Japan, international pipeline is needed as the natural gas is mainly transported from gas field in Russia and Middle East to consumer country such as Japan etc. It used in severe condition such as cold district and sea. In the meantime, pipeline steel is not just received damages by earth crust fluctuation and corrosion, but also suffered from the corrosion caused by anions that were dissolved in sea and groundwater. The diversification of dispersion and consumption structure of natural gas supply acceptance base are seen regarding, that made the needs of the storing are rising and dealt with the quantitative spatial expansion of the demand. By that, corrosion resistance, not only the hardness, tough, weldability, corrosiveness gas environment is extremely required. (author)

  5. Closing the SU(3)LxU(1)X symmetry at the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Alex G.; Montero, J. C.; Pleitez, V.

    2006-01-01

    We show that some models with SU(3) C xSU(3) L xU(1) X gauge symmetry can be realized at the electroweak scale and that this is a consequence of an approximate global SU(2) L+R symmetry. This symmetry implies a condition among the vacuum expectation value of one of the neutral Higgs scalars, the U(1) X 's coupling constant, g X , the sine of the weak mixing angle sinθ W , and the mass of the W boson, M W . In the limit in which this symmetry is valid it avoids the tree level mixing of the Z boson of the standard model with the extra Z ' boson. We have verified that the oblique T parameter is within the allowed range indicating that the radiative corrections that induce such a mixing at the 1-loop level are small. We also show that a SU(3) L+R custodial symmetry implies that in some of the models we have to include sterile (singlets of the 3-3-1 symmetry) right-handed neutrinos with Majorana masses, since the seesaw mechanism is mandatory to obtain light active neutrinos. Moreover, the approximate SU(2) L+R subset of SU(3) L+R symmetry implies that the extra nonstandard particles of these 3-3-1 models can be considerably lighter than it had been thought before so that new physics can be really just around the corner

  6. Explosive Model Tarantula V1/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17: #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2009-05-01

    Tarantula V1 is a kinetic package for reactive flow codes that seeks to describe initiation, failure, dead zones and detonation simultaneously. The most important parameter is P1, the pressure between the initiation and failure regions. Both dead zone formation and failure can be largely controlled with this knob. However, V1 does failure with low settings and dead zones with higher settings, so that it cannot fulfill its purpose in the current format. To this end, V2 is under test. The derivation of the initiation threshold P0 is discussed. The derivation of the initiation pressure-tau curve as an output of Tarantula shows that the initiation package is sound. A desensitization package is also considered.

  7. NisC Binds the FxLx Motif of the Nisin Leader Peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abts, Andre; Montalban-Lopez, Manuel; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Smits, Sander H.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is a model system for lantibiotics, a class of peptides displaying antimicrobial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. After ribosomal synthesis, the precursor peptide is modified in two steps, of which the last one involves consecutive cyclization reactions mediated by the cyclase

  8. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LX. The Oleaceae of Malesia. II. The genus Olea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Olea comprises six species in Malesia: two from Malaya. O. brachiata (Lour.) Merrill (formerly O. maritima Wall. ex G. Don) and O. dentata Wall. ex G. Don (formerly O. penangiana Ridley); two from Borneo, O. borneensis Boerl. and O. decussata (Heine) Kiew and two from Java, O. javanica (Bl.) Knobl.

  9. Tezkire-i Buğra Han’ın Çağatayca Yazılmış Bir Nüshası Metin- Dil İncelemesi- Tıpkıbasım A Manuscript Of Tazkira-i Bughra Khan Written In Chagatay Turkısh Texte- Grammar Notes- Facsimile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Erdem DAĞISTANLIOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    ındaki bilgiler oldukça sınırlıdır. Bu dönem hakkındaki bilinmezliklerin benzeri, İslamiyet’in Türkler arasında yayılmasında büyük bir yeri bulunan ve efsanevi özellikler taşıyan Satuk Buğra Han için de geçerlidir.Bu makale, Türklerin İslamiyeti kitle hâlinde kabul edişlerini ve ilk Müslüman Türk hükümdarının efsanevi hayatını anlatan Tezkire-i Buğra Han kitabının 19. yüzyılda Çağatayca olarak kaleme alınmış bir nüshasının çeviri yazı ve dil incelemesini içermektedir.Çalışmamıza konu olan eser, Klasik Çağataycanın dil özelliklerini taşımakla beraber, Özbekçe ve Çağdaş Uygurcanın ses ve şekil bilgisi özelliklerini de barındırmaktadır. Tezkire-i Buğra Han kitabı gerek ses gerekse şekil bilgisi bakımından Çağatayca öncesi arkaik örnekleri de içermektedir. Eser bu özellikleriyle, hem Çağataycadan çağdaş Türk lehçelerine geçişi yansıtmakta hem de içerdiği arkaik yapılarla dikkat çekmektedir.Yazmanın Çağatayca dışında en çok Çağdaş Uygurcanın dil özelliklerini barındırdığı görülmektedir. Kitabın ilk sayfasındaki karışık bir hâlde yazılmış ifadelerin içinden tespit edebildiğimiz tārįħķa bir min g iki yüz yėtmiş1 ….. inal aķsuluķ taĥrįri āħir boldı cümlesi eserin Çağdaş Uygurcayla olan bağını da açıklar niteliktedir.Bu makalede söz konusu yazma eserin bütünü hakkında, yazarı, yazıldığı yüzyıl, diğer nüshaları vb. özellikleri bakımından bilgi verilmiş olup yalnızca Satuk Buğra Han menkabesinin geçtiği kısmın çeviri yazılı metni sunulmuştur. Ayrıca incelenen kısmın tıpkıbasımı da makalenin sonuna eklenmiştir.Bu yazıda, British Library’deki Or. 8161 numaralı metnin 83a-102b varakları arasındaki Satuk Buğra Han menkabesini esas almakla birlikte, dil incelemesinde gerek duyuldukça yazmanın bütünü göz önünde bulundurularak açıklamalar yapılmıştır.

  10. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinic...

  11. Comparison of LC Columns Packed with 2.6 lm Core-Shell and Sub-2 lm Porous Particles for Gradient Separation of Antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tylová, Tereza; Kameník, Zdeněk; Flieger, Miroslav; Olšovská, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, 1-2 (2011), s. 19-27 ISSN 0009-5893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Column liquid chromatography * Sub-2 mu m particles * Acquity BEH C18 column Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2011

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Simulation for M4 Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................. 34 APPENDIX C: ANALYSIS OF MARKSMANSHIP PERFORMANCE DATA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL...machine guns and anti- armour weapons. In these simulators, firers aim a modified weapon at a target image on a screen. When the firer pulls the trigger...investigate predictors of live-fire LF6 qualification. Specifically, we examined the utility of LF6 simulator scores and trainee demographic data as

  13. M4C9 (M = Ti, V): New gas phase clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    serves as the main building unit in the formation of metcars2. According to Brock and ... We fabricated a combined thermal arc-discharge set-up, which consists of two water- cooled copper rods housed in a ... melted by resistive heating at a current of ~100 A. The depression was filled with Ti and it formed a coating over the ...

  14. Self-luminous event photography with the Marco M-4 image converter camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.O.

    1980-02-01

    The camera system is shown to be applicable to selfluminous events, such as the flasher-gap-enhanced shock waves which are depicted. Successive photographs of the detonation wavefront progressing across disc of high explosive (PBX 9404) are used for the determination of detonation velocity. Time intervals between film exposures for the four individual camera heads are easily measured and may extend from a few nanoseconds to ten milliseconds

  15. Embedded image processing engine using ARM cortex-M4 based STM32F407 microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaiya, Devesh

    2014-01-01

    Due to advancement in low cost, easily available, yet powerful hardware and revolution in open source software, urge to make newer, more interactive machines and electronic systems have increased manifold among engineers. To make system more interactive, designers need easy to use sensor systems. Giving the boon of vision to machines was never easy, though it is not impossible these days; it is still not easy and expensive. This work presents a low cost, moderate performance and programmable Image processing engine. This Image processing engine is able to capture real time images, can store the images in the permanent storage and can perform preprogrammed image processing operations on the captured images

  16. Determining and uniformly estimating the gauge potential corresponding to a given gauge field on M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostow, M.; Shnider, S.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1986-01-01

    In an earlier paper on the field copy problem, we proved that there exists a generic set of connections (gauge potentials) on a principle bundle with a semi-simple structure group over a four-dimensional base manifold for which the connection is uniquely determined by its curvature (gauge field). We conjectured that there exists a smaller, but still generic, set of connections for which the curvature map sending a connection to its curvature admits a continuous inverse with respect to the appropriate function space topologies. The conjecture says, in other words, that restricting to certain generic curvature 2-forms, one can determine and uniformly estimate the connection and its derivatives from the curvature and uniform estimates of its derivatives. In this Letter we give an affirmative answer to the conjecture and show, moreover, that the set of such connections contains an open dense set in the Whitney C ∞ topology. (orig.)

  17. M4FT-15OR03100421: Status Report on Alkaline Conditioning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the role of alkaline conditioning of polyethylene-fiber adsorbent, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is demonstrated in this report, which is essentially a manuscript prepared for publication in the journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research of the American Chemical Society. The manuscript describes the influence of various parameters involved in adsorbent alkaline conditioning, including base concentration and duration and temperature of conditioning, on the uranium uptake history by the adsorbent. Various solutions have been used to determine the influence of conditioning parameters including (i) a screening solution containing uranyl nitrate at approximately 8 ppm and sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride at concentrations similar to those found in seawater, (ii) seawater spiked with approximately 75 ppb uranium, and (iii) natural seawater. In addition to concentration measurements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy to determine the uranium uptake capacity and kinetics, spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the effect of base treatment on the various chemical bonds of the adsorbent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been employed to determine structural effects of the alkali on the adsorbent. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Alkali conditioning is necessary to prepare the adsorbent for uranium uptake. ICP analysis showed that without alkali conditioning, no appreciable uranium adsorption occurs. 2. FTIR showed that the base converts amidoxime to carboxylate groups. 3. FTIR showed that formation of carboxylate groups is irreversible and reduces the selectivity of the adsorbent toward uranium. 4. NMR showed that alkali conditioning leads also to the formation of cyclic imidedioxime, which is suspected to bind uranium, vanadium, iron, copper, and other metals. 5. Uptake of V, Fe, and Cu follows the same trend as that of uranium. Uptake of Ca, Mg, and Zn ions increases with increasing KOH conditioning time due to formation of carboxylate groups. 6. SEM showed that long conditioning times may also lead to adsorbent degradation. 7. The optimal conditioning parameters are: 0.44 M KOH, 70 C, for 1 hour. The results of this study are useful in the selection of optimal values of the parameters involved in preparing amidoxime-based adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. Additional work is still ongoing to provide a complete understanding of the chemistry of base conditioning and its role on the functioning of the adsorbent.

  18. Scalar Casimir energies in M4≥/sup N/ for even N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    We construct a Green's-function formalism for computing vacuum-fluctuation energies of scalar fields in 4+N dimensions, where the extra N dimensions are compactified into a hypersphere S/sup N/ of radius a. In all cases a leading cosmological energy term u/sub cosmo/proportionala/sup N//b/sup 4+N/ results. Here b is an ultraviolet cutoff at the Planck scale. In all cases an unambiguous Casimir energy is computed. For odd N these energies agree with those calculated by Candelas and Weinberg. For even N, the Casimir energy is logarithmically divergent: u/sub Casimir/--(α/sub N//a 4 )ln(a/b). The coefficients α/sub N/ are computed in terms of Bernoulli numbers

  19. Programski jezik MicroPython na mikrokrmilnikih ARM Cortex-M4

    OpenAIRE

    Brajnik, Mark

    2017-01-01

    V sklopu diplomske naloge je narejen pregled programskega jezika MicroPython in primerjava z najpogosteje uporabljenima programskima jezikoma za mikrokrmilnike. MicroPython smo uporabili za programiranje razvojne plošče Nucleo L476RG. Opravili smo namestitev MicroPython strojno-programske opreme na razvojno ploščo Nucleo L476RG, primerjali hitrost izvajanja programske kode z Arduinom Uno ter prikazali uporabo MicroPythona in Arduina na primerih sledilnega robota in PID krmiljenja elektromotor...

  20. Progress Report on FY15 Crystalline Experiments M4FT-15LL0807052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Begg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Colloid-facilitated plutonium transport is expected to be the dominant mechanism in its migration through the environment. The forms of Pu colloids (intrinsic versus pseudo-colloid) and their stabilities control temporal and spatial scales of Pu transport in the environment. In the present study, we examine the stability of Pu intrinsic colloids freshly prepared in alkaline solution relative to Pu-montmorillonite pseudo-colloids using a dialysis device and modeling approaches. Intrinsic colloids prepared under alkaline conditions were found to be unstable over a timescale of months. The kinetics of multiple processes, including hydrolysis/precipitation of Pu(IV), dissolution of intrinsic colloids in the absence and presence of the clay colloids, transport of dissolved Pu species across the dialysis membrane, and formation of pseudo-colloids were examined. The dissolution of intrinsic colloids was the rate-limiting process in most cases. The apparent intrinsic colloid dissolution rate constants range from 6×10-7 to 1×10- 6 mol·m-2·day-1 and 4×10-6 to 8×10-6 mol·m-2·day-1 at 25 and 80°C, respectively, while the apparent diffusion rate constants for Pu ions crossing the dialysis membrane are >200 times higher. Elevated temperatures enhance dissolution of Pu colloids and the activation energy for the process is estimated to be 28 kJ mol-1. The sorption of Pu to montmorillonite appears to be endothermic as the affinity of Pu for the clay increases with increasing temperature. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of how intrinsic and pseudo-colloids interact with each other kinetically. Although the fact that intrinsic colloids tend to dissolve in the presence of montmorillonite and transform into pseudo-colloids may limit the migration of intrinsic colloids, the thermodynamically more stable pseudo-colloids may play an important role in Pu transport in the environment over significant temporal and spatial scales.

  1. M4FT-15OR03100415 - Update on COF-based Adsorbent Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This letter report provides an update on activities focused on generating nanoporous adsorbents involving covalent organic frameworks (COF) and zeolitic imidazolium frameworks (ZIF). The adsorbents have been generated and screened in a uranyl-spiked brine (6 ppm U) to understand uranyl-binding behavior. Porous organic polymers (POP) also qualify under this title and are similar to the COF PPN-6 that is discussed herein. Seven COF/POP and one 1 ZIF were synthesized and screened for uranyl adsorption. Seawater screening is on-going via batch testing while flow screening systems are being developed at PNNL.

  2. Materials to be used for radionuclide transport experiments (milestones SPL3A1M4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.

    1998-02-01

    Experiments to determine the effect of canister corrosion products on the transport of radionuclides will be undertaken using the FE(III) oxides goethite and hematite as proxies for the expected corrosion envelope that will form as a result of alteration of the corrosion allowance overpack prior to the breaching of the waste container. Samples of ESF invert concrete that have been crushed, or left intact but fractured, and that have been subjected to hydrothermal alteration will be used to determine the effect of cementitious materials on transport of radionuclides. A mixture of CaCO 3 , Si0 2 , and aggregate will be used as a proxy for completely carbonated concrete

  3. Conductivity ageing studies on 1M10ScSZ (M4+=Ce, Hf)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The long-term conductivity stability is tested on zirconia based electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The ageing studies have been performed on the samples of ZrO2 co-doped with 10mol% of Sc2O3 and 1mol% MO2, where M = Ce or Hf (denoted respectively 1Ce10ScSZ and 1Hf10Sc......SZ) in oxidising and reducing atmospheres, at 600°C for 3000h. At 600°C, these compositions show initial conductivity of around 9–12mS∙cm−1 in air. After 3000h of ageing, no phase transitions are observed in any of the samples. For the first 1000h, the degradation rate is higher than in the subsequent 2000h......; thereafter, conductivity degrades linearly with time for all samples. In air, the loss in the conductivity is lower than in reducing conditions. The 1Ce10ScSZ shows the highest degradation rate of 3.8%/1000h in wet H2/N2 after the first 1000h of ageing. A colour change of the 1Ce10ScSZ sample from white...

  4. FY 2014 Status Report: of Vibration Testing of Clad Fuel (M4FT-14OR0805033)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL

    2014-03-28

    The DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate the behavior of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel cladding material performance related to extended storage and transportation of UNF. ORNL has been tasked to perform a systematic study on UNF integrity under simulated normal conditions of transportation (NCT) by using the recently developed hot-cell testing equipment, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT). To support the testing on actual high-burnup UNF, fast-neutron irradiation of pre-hydrided zirconium-alloy cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at elevated temperatures will be used to simulate the effects of high-burnup on fuel cladding for help in understanding the cladding materials properties relevant to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The irradiated pre-hydrided metallic materials testing will generate baseline data to benchmark hot-cell testing of the actual high-burnup UNF cladding. More importantly, the HFIR-irradiated samples will be free of alpha contamination and can be provided to researchers who do not have hot cell facilities to handle highly contaminated high-burnup UNF cladding to support their research projects for the UFDC.

  5. The definitive guide to ARM Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M4 processors

    CERN Document Server

    Yiu, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the background of the ARM architecture and outlines the features of the processors such as the instruction set, interrupt-handling and also demonstrates how to program and utilize the advanced features available such as the Memory Protection Unit (MPU). Chapters on getting started with IAR, Keil, gcc and CooCox CoIDE tools help beginners develop program codes.  Coverage also includes the important areas of software development such as using the low power features, handling information input/output, mixed language projects with assembly and C, and other advanced topics. Tw

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF FAILURES IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS EXPOSED IN AGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENT M4 OF FALCON STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alice Olavarrieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focused on establishing a characterization of public used reinforced concrete constructions such as school units in the coastal zone of Chichiriviche and Tucacas in Venezuela’s Falcon State, exposed to highly corrosive environments and built with inadequate construction techniques. The ultimate aim was to make recommendations to regional bodies so that they could make structural interventions more precisely and assertively. The study was carried out in seven educational units, in which planimetric surveys were carried out, the collection of fault symptoms, tests in some structural members and finally a general evaluation of damages that allowed identifying their durability and particular recommendations for each school building. As a result, these units of different construction ages were in a better state of conservation, when compared directly to the sample evaluated in 2006 in private multifamily buildings, which were even younger than this sample. It was recommended for all cases that they apply a programmed and technical continuous maintenance system, which goes beyond the systems of paints whose substrate is not properly prepared, resulting in a process of superficial repair and aesthetic ineffective.

  7. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anti-correlations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich

  8. Transmisión Li-Fi sobre microprocesador Cortex M4

    OpenAIRE

    Tristán del Barrio, Mª Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Debido al incremento exponencial de los dispositivos portátiles que utilizan redes inalámbricas, la explotación del espectro de luz visible para transmitir información se ha convertido en un importante campo de investigación en los últimos años. Como ejemplo más sobresaliente que postula a ser futuro referente en las comunicaciones por luz visible se encuentra la técnica genéricamente conocida como VLC (Visual Light Communication) o, de forma más comercial, Li-Fi (Light Fidelity). En este ...

  9. Measurement setup at light source operational: Milestone M4.3

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The design of the experimental setup for the measurements of the FCC-hh beam screen prototype to be installed at the ANKA lightsource has been completed and the alignment strategy and procedure has been validated by the CERN and KIT teams. In this report, a complete description of the setup and the program of measurements under different operation conditions is presented.

  10. Embedded image processing engine using ARM cortex-M4 based STM32F407 microcontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaiya, Devesh, E-mail: samaiya.devesh@gmail.com [Assistant Professor, School of Technology, The Glocal University, Mirzapur Pole, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-10-06

    Due to advancement in low cost, easily available, yet powerful hardware and revolution in open source software, urge to make newer, more interactive machines and electronic systems have increased manifold among engineers. To make system more interactive, designers need easy to use sensor systems. Giving the boon of vision to machines was never easy, though it is not impossible these days; it is still not easy and expensive. This work presents a low cost, moderate performance and programmable Image processing engine. This Image processing engine is able to capture real time images, can store the images in the permanent storage and can perform preprogrammed image processing operations on the captured images.

  11. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel; Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeacion de hidrogeno del acero API 5L-X52 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requiz, R; Vera, N; Camero, S

    2004-07-01

    The influence of surface reoughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO{sub 4} at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were emplyed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. The influence of surface roughness on the hydrogen permeation of type API 5L-X52 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requiz, R.; Vera, N.; Camero, S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-52 steel in dearated 0.1M NaSO 4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen perkeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced. (Author) 16 refs

  13. CORROSION LOCALISEE DES ACIERS API 5L-X52 DE LA LIGNE ASR/MP SOLLICITE EN SOL ALGERIEN

    OpenAIRE

    BENDJEBBOUR, Amina

    2011-01-01

    L'étude porte sur les défaillances par corrosion localisée dans les aciers API de grade X52 de la ligne de pipelines ASR/MP acheminant les produits pétroliers sollicités en sol corrosif après échec des systèmes de protection anticorrosion (AC) à base de liants hydrocarbonés ou encore à base d'un système en multicouche complétée par une protection cathodique.

  14. Rare B-meson decays in SU(2)LxSU(2)RxU(1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, H.M.; Ioannissian, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Rare B-meson decays are investigated in the left-right synmmetric models. The scalar particle contribution to the amplitude of the b → s γ decay is calculated. It is shown that this contribution can be essential even for the scalar particles masses of about several TeV. The effects due to the left-right symmetry and scalar particles can be detected by measuring the photon polarization in the decay B → K * γ. 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. Practical evaluation of the MiL-Lx lower leg when subjected to simulated vehicle under belly blast load conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available for the LLI Both the LLI and the TROSSTM use laser displacement transducers to determine the peak plate / impactor velocity. The displacement data was filtered using a low pass Butterworth filter at 1000 Hz. The LLI also makes use of accelerometers mounted... on the impactor plate to verify the velocity determined from the displacement transducers. The acceleration signal is integrated and compared to the calculated laser velocity measurements. The acceleration data was filtered using a CFC 1000 filter [12]. Tibia...

  16. The effect of cathodic protection on the behaviour of API-5LX 65 line-pipe weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz de Santamaria, M.; Procter, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The results of studies of the loss of ductility shown by X65 linepipe steel weldments during slow strain rate testing in 3.5% NaCl solution, under conditions of cathodic protection/overprotection are reported. Two types of specimens have been used; the first type was extracted longitudinally from along the weld seam while the second type was taken perpendicular to the weld and contained in its gauge length, weld metal, heat affected zone and parent metal. The weld metal shows hardness values higher than those of the parent plate and the heat affected zone. Therefore, it could be expected to be more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under cathodic protection and overprotection conditions. However, in the second type of specimens, fracture actually takes place through the parent plate, or at lack of fusion flaws. This behaviour is related to the fact that the net sections stresses in the specimen are plastic in the parent plate but elastic in the weld metal and heat affected zone. (author)

  17. Uptake of Retinoic Acid-Modified PMMA Nanoparticles in LX-2 and Liver Tissue by Raman Imaging and Intravital Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Turgay; Matthäus, Christian; Press, Adrian T; Schubert, Stephanie; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-10-01

    A primary amino-functionalized methyl methacrylate-based statistical copolymer is covalently coupled with retinoic acid (RA) and a fluorescent dye (DY590) in order to investigate the feasibility of the RA containing polymeric nanoparticles for Raman imaging studies and to study the possible selectivity of RA for hepatic stellate cells via intravital microscopy. Cationic nanoparticles are prepared by utilizing the nanoprecipitation method using modified polymers. Raman studies show that RA functional nanoparticles can be detectable in all tested cells without any need of additional label. Moreover, intravital microscopy indicates that DY590 is eliminated through the hepatobiliary route but not if used as covalently attached tracing molecule for nanoparticles. However, it is a suitable probe for sensitive detection of polymeric nanoparticles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Phenomenology of the SU(3)cxSU(3)LxU(1)X model with exotic charged leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Juan C.; Ponce, William A.; Gutierrez, Diego A.

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the three-family model based on the local gauge group SU(3) c xSU(3) L xU(1) X with exotic charged leptons, is carried out. Instead of using the minimal scalar sector able to break the symmetry in a proper way, we introduce an alternative set of four Higgs scalar triplets, which combined with an anomaly-free discrete symmetry, produce quark and charged lepton mass spectrum without hierarchies in the Yukawa coupling constants. We also embed the structure into a simple gauge group and show some conditions to achieve a low energy gauge coupling unification, avoiding possible conflict with proton decay bounds. By using experimental results from the CERN-LEP, SLAC linear collider, and atomic parity violation data, we update constraints on several parameters of the model

  19. Assimilation of radar reflectivity into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2006), s. 317-330 ISSN 1350-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * assimilation * radar reflectivity * NWP model * local storm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2006

  20. The effect of lean manufacturing (LM) on environmental performance: A review study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaa, A. S.; Shaiful, A. I. M.; Zuraidah, M. Z.; Khalaf, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, lean manufacturing strategy is very much used to eliminate waste on the manufacturing shop floor. Lean manufacturing has been formulated in response to the fluctuating and competitive business environment. Although it first started in the automotive industry, many organizations in different sectors are enthusiastic to adopt it in order to improve their performance in this competitive globalized market. The aim of this paper is to review the current level of implementation of lean manufacturing practices and the affects of these practices on organizational performances in a multitude of sectors in Malaysian industries. The study is carried out through a thorough review of the literature. It is observed that lean manufacturing is increasingly getting the appropriate attention in Malaysian industries. There are also many challenges in the way, of which numerous attempts are undertaken to overcome them.

  1. Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)

  2. Use of the LM-OSL technique for the detection of partial bleaching in quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, N.A.; Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    governing the ease-of-bleaching is the photoionization cross-section of the trap involved. The concept is also demonstrated in a model study from which very good agreement with the experimental observations has been found. Potential applications of the technique to dating are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier...

  3. Lõhmus pluss Mäetamm pluss Külm / Anneli Porri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porri, Anneli, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Eda Lõhmuse maalinäitus "Reaalne. Ebareaalne" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 7.-16. I. Neeme Külma näitus "Kui" Hobusepea galeriis 22. XII 2004-3. I 2005. Marko Mäetamme "Mälestusnäitus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 20. XII 2004-10. I 2005

  4. A simple transformation for converting CW-OSL curves to LM-OSL curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical transformation is introduced to convert from OSL decay curves obtained in the conventional way to those obtained using a linear modulation technique based on a linear increase of the stimulation light intensity during OSL measurement. The validity of the transformation...... was tested by the IR-stimulated luminescence curves from feldspars, recorded using both the conventional and the linear modulation techniques. The transformation was further applied to green-light-stimulated OSL from K and Na feldspars. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Complex coacervation for the development of composite edible films based on LM pectin and sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbal, Noushin; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Mousavi, Mohammad; Degraeve, Pascal; Oulahal, Nadia; Gharsallaoui, Adem

    2016-10-20

    Coacervation between sodium caseinate (CAS) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) at pH 3 was investigated as a function of protein/polysaccharide ratio. The highest amount of complex coacervates was formed at a CAS/LMP ratio of 2 at which the ζ-potential value was zero and the turbidity reached its highest value. Then, the properties of films based on these complex coacervates were studied. Coacervation resulted in decreasing water content and water sorption of films as the protein concentration increased. The mechanical properties of films were highly influenced by the formation of electrostatic complexes. The highest values of Young's modulus (182.97± 6.48MPa) and tensile strength (15.64±1.74MPa) with a slight increase of elongation at break (9.35±0.10%) were obtained for films prepared at a CAS/LMP ratio equal to 0.05. These findings show that interactions between LMP and CAS can be used to develop innovative packaging containing active molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunological response in mice bearing LM3 breast tumor undergoing Pulchellin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Matos Djamile

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP have been studied in the search for toxins that could be used as immunotoxins for cancer treatment. Pulchellin, a type 2 RIP, is suggested to induce immune responses that have a role in controlling cancer. Methods The percentage of dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen (flow cytometry, cytokines’ release by PECs and splenocytes (ELISA and nitric oxide production by PECs (Griess assay were determined from tumor-bearing mice injected intratumorally with 0.1 ml of pulchellin at 0.75 μg/kg of body weight. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test. Results Pulchellin-treated mice showed significant immune system activation, characterized by increased release of IFN-γ and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10, while IL-6 and TGF-β levels were decreased. There was also an increase in macrophage’s activation, as denoted by the higher percentage of macrophages expressing adhesion and costimulatory molecules (CD54 and CD80, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that pulchellin is promising as an adjuvant in breast cancer treatment.

  7. MARKETING PARA O VAREJO: O MÉTODO ZAPROS-LM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flavio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra, através de um caso real, como o uso de um método formal de apoio à tomada de decisão pode tornar mais eficiente a administração de marketing para o varejo. A organização, objeto do estudo, é numa entidade tradicional da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, fundada em 1955, que atua como um grande banco de dados utilizado por empresas comerciais da região. É utilizado o método ZAPROSLM da Análise Verbal de Decisões e os resultados globais deste estudo mostram que a adoção de tal método enriquece significativamente o processo de administração na área de marketing de uma organização do setor varejista.

  8. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    downstream of the nozzle contraction. We used two different hot wire probes: a dual sensor miniature wire probe (Dantec 55P61) and a triple sensor fiber film probe (Dantec 55R91). The turbulence intensity measured with the dual sensor probe in the empty tunnel section was significantly lower than the one...

  9. Kuningal on külm / Kadi Herkül

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Herkül, Kadi

    1996-01-01

    Dario Fo 'Elizabeth - naine juhuse tahtel', lavastaja Elmo Nüganen, esietendus Linnateatris 21. sept. 1996. Jaan Kruusvalli 'Hullumeelne professor, tema elukäik', lavastaja Mikk Mikiver, esietendus Draamateatris 21. sept. 1996

  10. The theory of endogenous money and the LM schedule: prelude to a reconstruction of ISLM

    OpenAIRE

    PALLEY,THOMAS I.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Money is at the center of macroeconomics, which makes understanding the money supply central for macroeconomic theory. This paper presents the Post Keynesian theory of endogenous money supply and shows how it is fundamentally different from the conventional money supply theory. The conventional approach relies on the money multiplier and bank lending is invisible. Post Keynesian theory discards the money multiplier and focuses on bank lending which drives money creation. The paper em...

  11. Hopf bifurcation in a dynamic IS-LM model with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neamtu, Mihaela; Opris, Dumitru; Chilarescu, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of delayed tax revenues on the fiscal policy out-comes. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter we study the direction and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions. We show when the system is stable with respect to the delay. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the theoretical results

  12. Preliminary neutronics design studies for a 400 MWt STAR-LM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliberti, G.; Yang, W. S.; Stillman, J. A.; Hill, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design studies for a 400 MWt high temperature fast reactor are being performed, utilizing lead coolant, transuranic (TRU) nitride fuel, and HT-9 structural material. Under the main design constraints of long fuel lifetime, natural convection heat transport, semi-autonomous control, and small unit size, parametric studies were performed to maximize the discharge burnup and minimize the burnup reactivity swing. Based on the results of these parametric studies, two point designs were developed for a single-batch once-through fuel cycle; one is a 15 full power year cycle design with core volume of 9.5 cubic meters, and the other is a 12 full power year cycle design with core volume of 7.4 cubic meters. For these two point designs, fuel cycle analyses and reactivity feedback coefficients calculations were performed. The 9.5 cubic meter design achieved an average discharge burnup of 83 MWd/kg with a maximum reactivity change over the lifetime of 0.6%. The peak fast fluence was well within the fast fluence limit of HT9, and both average and peak power densities were well below the estimated limit for natural circulation. The performances of the 7.4 cubic meter design were slightly inferior to this design. To enhance the passive safety characteristics, however, further design improvements need to be made to reduce the coolant density coefficient and to increase the radial expansion coefficient. (authors)

  13. "Külm sõda" Ida-Aasias / Märt Läänemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läänemets, Märt, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide "jätkusõda" Aasia-Vaikse ookeani poliitilises ruumis, kus peavastaseks ambitsioonikas Euraasia kommunistlik suurvõim Hiina. Kommunistlik diktatuuririik Hiina Taiwani-poliitika, relvamüügi embargo tühistamise nõudmisest. Vt. samas: Hiina relvastushanked Venemaalt

  14. Eesti firmade külm suplus välismaal / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Elo Reiljani doktoritööst, milles on uuritud ettevõtete taandumist välisturgudelt. Viiest suuremast analüüsitud suurettevõttest. Lisad: Kuidas ettevõtted piiri tagant taandusid? Ettevõtete tollased esindajad liikumiste põhjustest. Diagrammid: Klementi; Sangar; Tarkon; Tarmeko; Ösel Foods

  15. Milestone Report - M4FT-14OR0312022 - Co-absorption studies - Design system complete/test plan complete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this test plan is to describe research that will determine the effectiveness of silver mordenite and molecular sieve beds to remove iodine and water (tritium) from off-gas streams arising from used nuclear fuel recycling processes, and to demonstrate that the iodine and water can be recovered separately from one another.

  16. Overexpression of GmCaM4 in soybean enhances resistance to pathogens and tolerance to salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the major oilseed crop in the world and is a main source of oil and high-quality protein for both humans and animals worldwide. Plant diseases inflict heavy losses on soybean yield that negatively impact the US economy. Implicit in the high economic value of this ...

  17. Casimir energies in M4≥/sup N/ for even N. Green's-function and zeta-function techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Green's-function technique developed in the first paper in this series is generalized to apply to massive scalar, vector, second-order tensor, and Dirac spinor fields, as a preliminary to a full graviton calculation. The Casimir energies are of the form u/sub Casimir/ = (1/a 4 )[α/sub N/lna/b)+β/sub N/], where N (even) is the dimension of the internal sphere, a is its radius, and b/sup -1/ is an ultraviolet cutoff (presumably at the Planck scale). The coefficient of the divergent logarithm, α/sub N/, is unambiguously obtained for each field considered. The Green's-function technique gives rise to no difficulties in the evaluation of imaginary-mass-mode contributions to the Casimir energy. In addition, a new, simplified zeta-function technique is presented which is very easily implemented by symbolic programs, and which, of course, gives the same results. An error in a previous zeta-function calculation of the Casimir energy for even N is pointed out

  18. Evaluation of some irradiated populations of sunflower (Helianthus Annus) in M4 and M5 generation. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, Z.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds of the M 3 generation of irradiated and irradiated populations were divided into three parts, the first part was sown on 28/8/1993, the second on 1/1/1994, and the third part on 1/5/1995 to evaluate seed yield and other characters for the three dates of planting. Results showed significant increase in head and seed weight, head and stem diameter and seed index in the first and third time of planting. On the contrast shelling percentage, and plant height decreased significantly in the two times of planting. In the second time of planting 1/1/1995, head and seed weight, shelling percentage, sterility zone, plant and stem diameter decreased significantly in the irradiated populations as compared with control especially using doses of gamma rays (120 and 160 Gy). Number of rows/head was not significantly affected for the three dates of planting. 2 tabs

  19. Transfrontier Macroseismic Data Exchange in Europe: Intensity Assessment of M>4 Earthquakes by a Grid Cell Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Sira, C.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the US, the USGS is the only institute that gathers macroseismic data through its online "Did You Feel It?" (DYFI) system allowing a homogeneous and consistent intensity assessment. In Europe, however, we face a much more complicated situation. As almost every nation has its own inquiry in their national language(s) and both the EMSC and the USGS run an international DYFI inquiry, responses to European transfrontier-felt seismic events are strongly fragmented across different institutes. To make a realistic ground motion intensity assessment, macroseismic databases need to be merged in a consistent way hereby dealing with duplicated responses, different intensity calculations and legal issues (observer's privacy). In this presentation, we merge macroseismic datasets by a grid cell approach. Instead of using the irregularly-shaped, arbitrary municipal boundaries, we structure the model area into (100 km2) grid cells and assign an intensity value to each grid cell based on all institutional (geocoded) responses in that cell. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classic community distribution despite less datapoints are used after geocoding the participant's location. The method is demonstrated on the 2011 ML 4.3 (MW 3.7) Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.2 (MW 3.7) Ramsgate (UK) earthquakes both felt in NW Europe. Integration of data results in a non-circular distribution in which the felt area extends significantly more in E-W than in N-S direction, illustrating a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the regional London-Brabant Massif. Ground motions were amplified and attenuated at places with a shallow and deep basement, respectively. To large extend, the shape of the attenuation model derived through the grid cell intensity points is rather similar as the Atkinson and Wald (2007) CEUS prediction. The attenuation only suffers from underreported low intensities and non-reported intensity I at large epicentral distance. Figure: European institutes that provide an online "Did You Feel It?" inquiry. The question mark indicates countries in which an inquiry is absent or has not been found.

  20. ÿþk h u r r a m 4 p r o u d . c d r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ÿþU s e r

    infection - pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness or heat - and the incision is deliberately opened by a surgeon, unless the culture is negative. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 14. The exposure and outcome variable being categorical,. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for testing.

  1. KÜRESELLEŞMENİN DÜNYA FİLM ENDÜSTRİSİNE ETKİSİ VE HOLLYWOOD FİLM ENDÜSTRİSİNDEKİ YENİ EĞİLİMLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan GÖKDEMİR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Küreselleşme çağımızın en çok tartışılan olgulardan bir tanesidir. Ulusal kültürlerin, ekonomilerin ve sınırların bütünleştiği, hemen hemen her alanda yeni eğilimlerin güç kazandığı günümüz dünyasında, bilgi, iletişim, biyolojik alanda endüstriyel yeni hammaddeler, yeni enerji sistemleri, üretim sistemindeki dönüşüm ve her şeyden önemlisi, teknoloji ve yenilik alanında yapılan yatırımların yönlendirdiği yeni bir yapılanma ortaya çıkmıştır. Küreselleşme olarak ifade edilen bu yeni yapılanmanın etkileri, küresel bütünün, teknolojik, kültürel, sosyolojik, ekonomik ve politik alanlarında yaygın bir şekilde yaşanmaktadır. Küreselleşme süreciyle birlikte film endüstrisi de gelişmiştir. Günümüzde de film sektörü küreselleşmenin bir aracı olarak bilinmekte ve kullanılmaktadır.

  2. Measurements of radionuclide activity by the (e-α, β, γ, Lx) coincidence method using electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of measuring radionuclide activities by the method of coincidence of electrons with energies of a few eV emitted from the valence shells of radioactive atoms with nuclear radiations. The low energy electrons were detected with a detector equipped with microchannel plates with trochoidal focusing of an original design. Photons were detected with NaI(TI) detectors. A 100 μm thick plastic scintillator was used to detect beta- and alpha-particles. The investigation shows that it is possible to use this method for accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic phase diagram of Co(Cr1-xA lx) 2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padam, R.; Sarkar, T.; Mathieu, R.; Thota, S.; Pal, D.

    2017-08-01

    We report the role of Al substitution in the magnetic properties of spinel CoCr2O4 by means of temperature dependent dc and ac magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Various compositions (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) of polycrystalline Co(Cr1-xAlx)2O4 samples have been prepared by sol-gel processing and their crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction which was found to crystallize in the normal cubic spinel structure. For x ≤ 0.1, the system exhibits multiple magnetic orderings (long range ferrimagnetic ordering TC, spin-spiral ordering TS, and lock-in transition TL), similar to that of the parent compound, CoCr2O4. However, all the compositions between x = 0.1 and 0.5 exhibit long range ferrimagnetic ordering below TC and also a short range order at low temperature. Spin-glass like ordering was noticed between x = 0.6 and 0.8 due to the diluted B-site occupancy, whereas the end compound CoAl2O4 (x = 1.0) shows antiferromagnetic behavior. On the basis of these results, we propose a magnetic phase diagram for the Co(Cr1-xAlx)2O4 series as a function of the Al content (x) and measuring temperature (T).

  4. Antimicrobial activity, DNA cleavage, thermal analysis data and crystal structure of some new CdLX.sub.2./sub. complexes: a supramolecular network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montazerozohori, M.; Nazaripour, A.; Masoudiasl, A.; Naghiha, R.; Dušek, Michal; Kučeráková, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, Oct (2015), s. 462-470 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cadmium(II) * Schiff base * supramolecular * antimicrobial * tetrahedral * x-ray Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2015

  5. A direct test of the Weinberg-Salam model based on the investigation of p-odd asymmetries in the processes l-++N → l-++X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilen'ky, S.M.; Motz, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the Weinberg-Salam model the p-odd asymmetries Asub(+-) of the processes l -+ +N → l -+ +X with polarized leptons are shown to be related to the inclusive cross sections νsub(μ)(anti vsub(μ))+N → μ - (μ + )+X on an isoscalar target. It is shown that measurements of both Asub(-) and Asub(+) would permit one to test the Weinberg-Salam theory without dynamical assumptions

  6. ‘Dvořák’s Pupil Johannes Wilde (1891–1970’ originally published in umění LX (2012, 101-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ciulisová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is concerned with Max Dvořak’s pupil Johannes Wilde (1891-1970, who remains well-known as an illustrious scholar of Italian Renaissance Art. Wilde studied art history in Budapest, Freiburg im Breisgau, and Vienna. He completed his studies with Max Dvořák in 1918. In 1923 Wilde joined the staff of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. Daily contact with original works of art offered him the opportunity to study fundamental problems related to artistic materials and techniques. It should be noted that he was among the first to recognise the potential of X-radiography for connoisseurship. After the Nazi Annexation of Austria in 1938, Wilde and his wife, art historian Julia Gyarfás, left the country. In London he was able to study the collection of Michelangelo drawings at the British Museum and the catalogue he published in 1953 is one of his greatest scholarly achievements. Like Dvořák, Wilde was also an influential teacher and mentor. He taught generations of Courtauld students, including John Shearman, Michael Hirst, John White, Andrew Martindale, and Michael Kitson, all of whom became influential teachers and scholars. Through Wilde the legacy of Max Dvořák and Julius von Schlosser was transmuted into its own distinctive mode which came to be widely and internationally recognized.

  7. Susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H2S corrosion environment of API 5L-X80 weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Fals, H. C.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H 2 S environment of welded API X80 steel was studied. The flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process was employed with E71-T1 and E71-T8K6 wires. The welding parameters were kept constant, but the samples were welded using different preheat temperatures (room temperature and 100 degree centigrade). The gapped bead-on-plate (G-BOP) test was used. The specimens of modified G-BOP tests were exposed to an environment saturated in H 2 S, as recommended by the NACE TM0284 standard. The weld beads were characterized by optical microscopy and the level of residual hydrogen in the samples was measured. The fracture surface areas of hydrogen-induced cracking were calculated and the fracture mode was discussed. It was found that the preheating temperature of 100 degree centigrade was enough to avoid cracking, even in the presence of H 2 S. It was also found that the E71- T8K6 wire was more susceptible to cracking, and the typical mixed-mode fracture was predominant in all samples. (Author) 15 refs

  8. New approach to SU2LxU1 radiative corrections in e+e- annihilation processes near the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1988-08-01

    We show explicitly how to proceed in the Monte Carlo simulation of SU 2L xU 1 radiative corrections in order to include multiple soft photon emission on an event by event basis. The method is based on the rigorous theory of summing infrared contributions to the respective cross section by Yennie, Frautschi and Suura. Our method is illustrated on the example of initial state bremsstrahlung. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  9. Assimilation of the radar-derived water vapour mixing ratio into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2009), s. 331-342 ISSN 0169-8095. [International workshop on precipitation in urban areas /7./. St. Moritz, 07.12.2006-10.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation * Local convective storm assimilation * Radar reflectivity * NWP model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009

  10. ,t'.: O.)IISPIIONG EN ONTWIKKELIN •• VAN ItIE ONDERRI ••F'LM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4. Die onderrigfilms wat vir skole bestaan het, het aspekte soos verhale, tegniese vakke, geografie, geskiedenis, taal en higiene gedek. Bogenoemde films was egter baie beperk in terme van opvoedkundige waarde aangesien dit bestaan het uit materiaal wat vanaf kommersiele films afkomstig was en later aangepas is Die.

  11. [Neurology of cognition and language in the publications of Kálmán Sántha and today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmai, Imre

    2008-05-04

    Based on histopathological investigation of the brain of exceptionally talented persons Sántha found increased volume of parietal association areas with abundance of cells. He supposed that the angular gyrus may be a "memory field". In his publication Genius and inheritance he expressed that: "Talent is a child of the present, but the genius is born for eternity." He discussed the localization of sensory and motor amnestic aphasia analysing the signs of patient with brain tumor and called attention to concomitant psychological symptoms. He found crossed aphasia in twice as many lefthanded than righthanded persons. This may explain the recent observations that the restitution of aphasia is predetermined; speech ability of ambidexterous or latent lefthanded persons improve better. He analysed the topography of emotional and voluntary facial palsy. The currently accepted hierarchical concept of mental and speech ability can be derived from the ouevre of Sántha and his predecessors. Sántha can be honoured as a forerunner of the modern theories of aphasia localization.

  12. Barn och stress : Pedagogers tankar om barngruppsstorlekens betydelse för välmående

    OpenAIRE

    Gambrick, Gita

    2009-01-01

    This is an essay about children and stress. As the author of this essay I have focused on how educators perceive today's large groups of children and if they feel that children are stressed. To make this work possible, I have performed three interviews whit two teachers and a special educator. I have also visited a kindergarten in order to make two observations. The purpose of this essay is that you as a reader should get a picture of how today's educators see the large groups of children, an...

  13. [Commentary on "group and organization: a dimension of collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology" by Song LM and Wang N].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Su; Zhang, Qing-Ning; Hou, Lei

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiology, as the study of occurrence and distribution of diseases or health events in specified populations and the application of the study to control health problems, is not just a method to study determinants of diseases at individual level through analysis of mass data based on individuals. To achieve the aims on the control of health problems in specified populations, Epidemiology should be public health-oriented to reduce incidence, prevalence and mortality, and should include study on determinants at the population level. Interdisplinarity and systems science will facilitate the breakthrough in improving health of the populations.

  14. Comparative Investigation on Modal analysis of LM25 Aluminium alloy with other Aluminim alloys using Finite element analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, S.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.; Muthuraman, V.

    2017-03-01

    The rudimentary steps of the modal analysis and simulation are carried out. The modal analysis is carried out on the different Aluminum Alloys cantilever beam. The cantilever beam is designed in the graphical environment of the ANSYS. The cantilever beam was fine-tuned on one end with all degree of liberation on this end were taken, beam cannot move and rotate. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are premeditated in platforms ANSYS with arithmetical formulation of the direct solver including the block Lanczos method. Aluminum alloys are widely utilized in much application due to their estimable weight to vigor property. Many examination works have been distributed out to make developments the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. The composition of alloying elements plays a consequential role in deciding the properties of an alloy. In this study a numerical analysis implement i.e., finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized. The work obtainable in this paper is aimed at the study of effect of modal analysis of different aluminum alloys. The modeling and analysis is carried out utilizing ANSYS FEA software. A modal analysis is carried out to understand the modes of frequency demeanor of the material considered. The modal analysis play a vital role in the design of components subjected to high vibration.

  15. Characterization of the LM5 pectic galactan epitope with synthetic analogues of β-1,4-d-galactotetraose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Marcus, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell wall glycans are important polymers that are crucial to plant development and serve as an important source of sustainable biomass. The study of polysaccharides in the plant cell wall relies heavily on monoclonal antibodies for localization and visualization of glycans, using e.g. Immun...

  16. Detection of apoptotic DNA ladder in pig leukocytes and its precision using LM - PCR (ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Španová, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2002), s. 163-168 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0850; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : apoptosis * phagocytosis * DNA ladder Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  17. A method of optimized neural network by L-M algorithm to transformer winding hot spot temperature forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B. G.; Wu, X. Y.; Yao, Z. F.; Huang, H.

    2017-11-01

    Transformers are essential devices of the power system. The accurate computation of the highest temperature (HST) of a transformer’s windings is very significant, as for the HST is a fundamental parameter in controlling the load operation mode and influencing the life time of the insulation. Based on the analysis of the heat transfer processes and the thermal characteristics inside transformers, there is taken into consideration the influence of factors like the sunshine, external wind speed etc. on the oil-immersed transformers. Experimental data and the neural network are used for modeling and protesting of the HST, and furthermore, investigations are conducted on the optimization of the structure and algorithms of neutral network are conducted. Comparison is made between the measured values and calculated values by using the recommended algorithm of IEC60076 and by using the neural network algorithm proposed by the authors; comparison that shows that the value computed with the neural network algorithm approximates better the measured value than the value computed with the algorithm proposed by IEC60076.

  18. Describing one generic and two new species record to the flora of Pakistan using LM and SEM methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shayan; Ullah, Asad; Khan, Raees; Hussain, Altaf

    2018-05-01

    Common mulberry weed (Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai) and creeping amaranth (Amaranthus crassipes Schlecht) are reported for the first time in Pakistan's flora as these were not listed in any other literature nor identified before in Pakistan. Plants were found as a result of taxonomic studies performed in 2013 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Detail study was performed for the exact identification. Morphological results were compared with Flora of China and Flora of North America. Plant distribution along with its habitat and adjacent species was also recorded. Scanning electron and light microscopy was performed for the confirmation of epidermal appendages on leaf epidermis and palyno-morphological characters. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Phonon thermal conductivity of scandium nitride for thermoelectrics from first-principles calculations and thin-film growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Hellman, Olle; Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of lattice thermal conductivity of materials under realistic conditions is vitally important since many modern technologies require either high or low thermal conductivity. Here, we propose a theoretical model for determining lattice thermal conductivity, which takes into account......-domain thermoreflectance. Our experimental results show a trend of reduction in lattice thermal conductivity with decreasing domain size predicted by the theoretical model. These results suggest a possibility to control thermal conductivity by microstructural tailoring and provide a predictive tool for the effect...... of the microstructure on the lattice thermal conductivity of materials based on ab initio calculations....

  20. Age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body : LM and TEM evaluation of the role of proteoglycans and collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Leonoor I.; van der Worp, Roelofje J; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.

    PURPOSE. To evaluate morphologic aspects of age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body by fight and electron microscopy to provide a basis from which future studies directed at the pathogenesis of this phenomenon can be undertaken. The study focuses on changes in fibrillar Collagen and

  1. Alexander Rahr: algamas on uus külm sõda / Alexander Rahr ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rahr, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Saksamaa Vene-eksperdi hinnangul saab praegu Venemaal valitsevat ärritunud õhkkonda seletada alandustundega. Venelastel on jäänud mulje, et nad on Euroopast kõrvale tõrjutud. Venemaa-küsimuses on Euroopa lõhestunud. V. Putini presidendiaja suurimatest vigadest ja tema õigetest otsustest

  2. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Campos Nunes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health.

  3. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy W; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics are beneficial microbes often added to food products to enhance the health and wellness of consumers. A major limitation to producing efficacious functional foods containing probiotic cells is their tendency to lose viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. In this study, the impact of encapsulating probiotics within food-grade hydrogel particles to mitigate sensitivity to environmental stresses was examined. Confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Lactococcus lactis were trapped within calcium alginate beads formed by dripping a probiotic-alginate mixture into a calcium solution. Encapsulation improved the viability of the probiotics during aerobic storage: after seven days, less than a two-log reduction was observed in encapsulated cells stored at room temperature, demonstrating that a high concentration of cells survived relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods.

  4. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  5. Resistance to ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through involvement of melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE2 pathways in human M4Beu melanoma cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Lama; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Seeman, Josiane; Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloe; Martin, Frederique; Badran, Bassam; Simon, Alain; Liagre, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with a continuously growing incidence worldwide and is usually resistant to chemotherapy agents, which is due in part to a strong resistance to apoptosis. Previously, we had showed that B16-F0 murine melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis are able to delay their own death induced by ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound. We had demonstrated that tyrosinase and TRP-1 up-regulation in apoptotic cells and the subsequent production of melanin were implicated in an apoptosis resistance mechanism. Several resistance mechanisms to apoptosis have been characterized in melanoma such as hyperactivation of DNA repair mechanisms, drug efflux systems, and reinforcement of survival signals (PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Raf/MAPK pathways). Otherwise, other mechanisms of apoptosis resistance involving different proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), have been described in many cancer types. By using a strategy of specific inhibition of each ways, we suggested that there was an interaction between melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE 2 pathway. This was characterized by analyzing the COX-2 expression and activity, the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production. Furthermore, we showed that anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of UA were mediated through modulation of multiple signaling pathways including Akt and ERK-1/2 proteins. Our study not only uncovers underlying molecular mechanisms of UA action in human melanoma cancer cells but also suggest its great potential as an adjuvant in treatment and cancer prevention.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange of New Na/Nb/M4+/O/ H2O(M=Ti,Zr) Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May

    1999-01-01

    Due to the vast diversity of chemical media in which metal separations are executed, a wide range of ion separation materials are employed. This results in an ongoing effort to discover new phases with novel ion exchange properties. We present here the synthesis of a novel class of thermally and chemically stable microporous, niobate-based materials. Ion exchange studies show these new phases are highly selective for Sr 2+ and other bivalent metals

  7. DFT and 3D-QSAR Studies of Anti-Cancer Agents m-(4-Morpholinoquinazolin-2-yl) Benzamide Derivatives for Novel Compounds Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siqi; Zhang, Guanglong; Xia, Shuwei; Yu, Liangmin

    2018-06-01

    As a group of diversified frameworks, quinazolin derivatives displayed a broad field of biological functions, especially as anticancer. To investigate the quantitative structure-activity relationship, 3D-QSAR models were generated with 24 quinazolin scaffold molecules. The experimental and predicted pIC50 values for both training and test set compounds showed good correlation, which proved the robustness and reliability of the generated QSAR models. The most effective CoMFA and CoMSIA were obtained with correlation coefficient r 2 ncv of 1.00 (both) and leave-one-out coefficient q 2 of 0.61 and 0.59, respectively. The predictive abilities of CoMFA and CoMSIA were quite good with the predictive correlation coefficients ( r 2 pred ) of 0.97 and 0.91. In addition, the statistic results of CoMFA and CoMSIA were used to design new quinazolin molecules.

  8. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  9. Resistance to ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through involvement of melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathways in human M4Beu melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Lama; Pinon, Aline [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Limami, Youness [Laboratoire National de Référence (LNR), Université Mohammed VI des Sciences de la Santé, Casablanca (Morocco); Seeman, Josiane; Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloe; Martin, Frederique [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Badran, Bassam [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Simon, Alain [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Liagre, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.liagre@unilim.fr [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France)

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with a continuously growing incidence worldwide and is usually resistant to chemotherapy agents, which is due in part to a strong resistance to apoptosis. Previously, we had showed that B16-F0 murine melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis are able to delay their own death induced by ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound. We had demonstrated that tyrosinase and TRP-1 up-regulation in apoptotic cells and the subsequent production of melanin were implicated in an apoptosis resistance mechanism. Several resistance mechanisms to apoptosis have been characterized in melanoma such as hyperactivation of DNA repair mechanisms, drug efflux systems, and reinforcement of survival signals (PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Raf/MAPK pathways). Otherwise, other mechanisms of apoptosis resistance involving different proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), have been described in many cancer types. By using a strategy of specific inhibition of each ways, we suggested that there was an interaction between melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathway. This was characterized by analyzing the COX-2 expression and activity, the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production. Furthermore, we showed that anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of UA were mediated through modulation of multiple signaling pathways including Akt and ERK-1/2 proteins. Our study not only uncovers underlying molecular mechanisms of UA action in human melanoma cancer cells but also suggest its great potential as an adjuvant in treatment and cancer prevention.

  10. Structural changes IN THE Kh20N45M4B nickel alloys and THE Kh16N15M3B steel due to helium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernikov, U.N.; Chernov, I.I.; Kozhevnikov, O.A.; Shishkin, G.N.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray structural analysis, and the thermal desorption techniques, the authors carried out a detailed study of the structural and phase changes, defect formation, and helium accumulation in the He + -bombarded 16-15 austenitic steels and 20-45 nickel alloys. Microstructure of the bombarded specimens was studied using the methods of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils in the EVM-100, and EM-301G electron microscopes. Results of x-ray studies on the bombarded specimens are presented. The conducted studies show that bombardment of structural materials with light ions can lead to significant structural damages and changes in the chemical and phase composition of the surface layer. The possible mechanisms of the changes in the chemical and phase composition include selective sputtering and radiation-induced accelerated diffusion of elements in the field of internal lateral stresses developing during the He + implantation process

  11. Characterization of the RAPD for 6 Durum wheat lines (Triticum durum desf.) selected from M4-irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kassem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Grains of two durum wheat cultivars Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with different doses of gamma ray 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grins were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions during 2005-2009 Results of field experiments showed that there were new six putative lines S1, S2, S3, S4, B1 and B2. Each putative line had superiority than its parent in grain yield / plant. The putative lines S1 and S2 had superiority over their parent Sohag 3 under normal conditions in grain yield per plant this increase equal 52 and 60% respectively. The putative lines S3 and S4 had superiority in grain yield per plan as compared to Sohag 3 under drought conditions this increase equal 75 to 58% respectively. The putative lines B1 and B2 had superiority in grain yield per plant than their parent Beni Suef 3 under normal condition this increase equal 46 and 12% respectively. Results for RAPD markers showed that each putative line was characterized by positive and negative unique marker. The putative line S1: characterized by four negative marker amplified by OPM-05, OPN-04, OPA-18 and OPB-12 primers. The putative line S2: characterized by one negative unique marker amplified by OPQ-14 marker. The putative line S3: characterized by two positive markers amplified by OPB-07 and OPG-12 markers and one negative unique marker amplified by OPA-10 marker. The putative line S4: characterized by four negative markers amplified by OPM-05, OPN-13, OPQ-12 and OPQ-14 markers and one positive unique marker amplified by OPC-05 marker. The putative line B1: characterized by four positive markers amplified by OPA-10, OPG-12, OPB-07 and OPA-18 markers and three negative markers amplified with OPM-05, OPC-05 and OPB-12 markers. The putative line B2: characterized by three positive unique marker amplified by OPB-07, OPN-04, OPN-10 markers and four negative markers amplified with OPA-10, OPN-10, OPA-18 and OPC-05 markers.

  12. Increasing Completion Rate of an M4 Emergency Medicine Student End-of-Shift Evaluation Using a Mobile Electronic Platform and Real-Time Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Tews

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students on an emergency medicine rotation are traditionally evaluated at the end of each shift with paper-based forms, and data are often missing due to forms not being turned in or completed. Because students’ grades depend on these evaluations, change was needed to increase form rate of return. We analyzed a new electronic evaluation form and modified completion process to determine if it would increase the completion rate without altering how faculty scored student performance. Methods: During fall 2013, 29 faculty completed paper N=339 evaluations consisting of seven competencies for 33 students. In fall 2014, an electronic evaluation form with the same competencies was designed using an electronic platform and completed N=319 times by 27 faculty using 25 students’ electronic devices. Feedback checkboxes were added to facilitate collection of common comments. Data was analyzed with IBM® SPSS® 21.0 using multi-factor analysis of variance with the students’ global rating (GR as an outcome. Inter-item reliability was determined with Cronbach alpha. Results: There was a significantly higher completion rate (p=0.001 of 98% electronic vs. 69% paper forms, lower (p=0.001 missed GR rate (1% electronic. vs 12% paper, and higher mean scores (p=0.001 for the GR with the electronic (7.0±1.1 vs. paper (6.8±1.2 form. Feedback checkboxes were completed on every form. The inter-item reliability for electronic and paper forms was each alpha=0.95. Conclusion: The use of a new electronic form and modified completion process for evaluating students at the end of shift demonstrated a higher faculty completion rate, a lower missed data rate, a higher global rating and consistent collection of common feedback. The use of the electronic form and the process for obtaining the information made our end-of-shift evaluation process for students more reliable and provided more accurate, up-to-date information for student feedback and when determining student grades. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4478-483.

  13. Completion of Level 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-14

    This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 level 4 milestone for the project entitled “Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements” and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.

  14. Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms: experiment and theory Level 4 Milestone M4FT-14LA0804024 Fuel Cycle Research & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Christopher D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center; Kim, Eunja [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goff, George Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kolman, David Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document meets Level 4 Milestone: Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms - experiment and theory. A multiphysics model is introduces that will provide the framework for the quantitative prediction of corrosion rates of metallic waste forms incorporating the fission product Tc. The model requires a knowledge of the properties of not only the metallic waste form, but also the passive oxide films that will be generated on the waste form, and the chemistry of the metal/oxide and oxide/environment interfaces. in collaboration with experimental work, the focus of this work is on obtaining these properties from fundamental atomistic models. herein we describe the overall multiphysics model, which is based on MacDonald's point-defect model for passivity. We then present the results of detailed electronic-structure calculations for the determination of the compatibility and properties of Tc when incorporated into intermetallic oxide phases. This work is relevant to the formation of multi-component oxides on metal surfaces that will incorporate Tc, and provide a kinetic barrier to corrosion (i.e. the release of Tc to the environment). Atomistic models that build upon the electronic structure calculations are then described using the modified embedded atom method to simulate metallic dissolution, and Buckingham potentials to perform classical molecular dynamics and statics simulations of the technetium (and, later, iron-technetium) oxide phases. Electrochemical methods were then applied to provide some benchmark information of the corrosion and electrochemical properties of Technetium metal. The results indicate that published information on Tc passivity is not complete and that further investigation is warranted.

  15. Wash-Resistantly Bound Xanomeline Inhibits Acetylcholine Release by Persistent Activation of Presynaptic M2 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Rat Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 1 (2007), s. 316-323 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:-(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine * xanomeline * muscarinic receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.003, year: 2007

  16. Study the chemical composition and agronomic traits for some durum wheat lines (Triticum durum) selected from M4-irradiated populations under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kasem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out during four successive seasons 2005-2009 to access the effectiveness of gamma rays on inducing new drought tolerance lines from two durum wheat cultivars, i.e. Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3. Irradiated grains (0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy) of both cultivars were sown and at harvest, 20 grains (M1) from each treatment were planted as in the first season. In the second season, grains of 61 plants were selected as they had the following higher criteria, i.e. yield, grain yield/plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50 % or more the control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under drought or non-stress conditions, at the end of this season, six selected putative lines had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines have an excellent grain yield per plant under non stress condition as compared to Sohag3. The S3 and S4 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to Sohag 3. The B1 and B2 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under non stress condition comparing with Beni Suef 3. In the fourth season, growth, chemical composition and yield of the six putative lines as well as Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under non stress and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number/plant for S1, S2, B1 and B2 as compared each with their corresponding parent under non stress condition. Also, S3 and S4 lines had the same results comparing with Sohag 3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed and accumulation of organic protective osmolytes such as sugar proline and free amino acids. As well as N, P, K and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to Sohag 3 .The putative lines S1, S2 and B1 showed a significant increase for grain yield per plant comparing with their controls under non stress condition. Also, S3 and S4 lines showed a significant increase in grain yield per plant than their parent under drought condition . However, B2 line showed a significant decrease in plant height equal to 26 % from controls but have significant increase in grain yield per plant equal 12 % compared to Beni Suef 3.

  17. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  18. Autoradiography of H-3-pirenzepine and H-3-AFDX-384 in Mouse Brain Regions: Possible Insights into M-1, M-2, and M-4 Muscarinic Receptors Distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valuskova, P.; Farar, V.; Forczek, Sándor; Křížová, I.; Mysliveček, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 20 (2018), č. článku 124. ISSN 1663-9812 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 3 h-afdx-384 * 3 H-pirenzepine * 3 h-qnb * Autoradiography * M muscarinic receptor 1 * M muscarinic receptor 2 * M muscarinic receptor 4 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  19. Milestone Report - M4FT-17OR030107025 - Design of a tritium and iodine removal system for use with advanced TPOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    US regulations will require the removal of iodine and tritium, along with other volatile and semi-volatile radionuclides, from the off-gas streams of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Advanced tritium pretreatment (TPT) is an additional head-end operation that could be incorporated within nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. It utilizes nitrogen dioxide (NOR2R) as an oxidant to convert UOR2R to UR3ROR8R prior to traditional aqueous dissolution. Advanced TPT can result in the quantitative volatilization of both tritium and iodine. Up-front removal of iodine is of significant advantage because otherwise it distributes to several unit operations and the associated off-gas streams. The off-gas streams will then require treatment to comply with US regulations. Advanced TPT is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and a kilogram-scale hot cell demonstration with used nuclear fuel (UNF) is planned for fiscal year (FY) 2018.

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING THE METHOD OF REALIZING THE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE FOR REPAIRING THE TRANSLATION MECHANISM OF A M4A COAL-MINING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liviu CÎRȚÎNĂ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technical state of the mechanism of translation of the coalmining machine after the technical expertise. The rehabilitation to which the translation mechanism will be subjected will be carried out by performing the intervention works that will bring back into the normal operating parameters both the structural part and the functional part. The paper presents: the proposed solutions for repair after verification of the translation mechanism and the way of repairing the mechanism.

  1. Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test: Fiscal Year 1998 Status Report Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program Deliverable SPU85M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussod, G.Y.; Turin, H.J.; Lowry, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the status of the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) and documents the progress of construction activities and site and laboratory characterization activities undertaken in fiscal year 1998. Also presented are predictive flow-and-transport simulations for Test Phases 1 and 2 of testing and the preliminary results and status of these test phases. Future anticipated results obtained from unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport testing in the Calico Hills Formation at Busted Butte are also discussed in view of their importance to performance assessment (PA) needs to build confidence in and reduce the uncertainty of site-scale flow-and-transport models and their abstractions for performance for license application. The principal objectives of the test are to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain, as identified by the PA working group in February 1997. These include but are not restricted to: (1) The effect of heterogeneities on flow and transport in unsaturated and partially saturated conditions in the Calico Hills Formation. In particular, the test aims to address issues relevant to fracture-matrix interactions and permeability contrast boundaries; (2) The migration behavior of colloids in fractured and unfractured Calico Hills rocks; (3) The validation through field testing of laboratory sorption experiments in unsaturated Calico Hills rocks; (4) The evaluation of the 3-D site-scale flow-and-transport process model (i.e., equivalent-continuum/dual-permeability/discrete-fracture-fault representations of flow and transport) used in the PA abstractions for license application; and (5) The effect of scaling from lab scale to field scale and site scale

  2. Determination of the absolute K through O conversion coefficients of the 80-keV M4 transition in /sup 193/Ir/sup m/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, M.; Gunnink, R.; Nagle, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    We produced carrier-free, nearly isotopically pure /sup 193/Ir/sup m/ from thermal-neutron irradiation of /sup 192/Os. From studies of the conversion-electron spectrum, the photon spectrum, and the absolute counting rates, we determined the absolute K, L1, L2, L3, M1, M3, M5, N, and O+P conversion coefficients for the first time. With possibly one exception, these values agree closely with theoretical calculations. The value for the energy of the unconverted gamma ray was found to be 80.22 +- 0.02 keV. The half-life for /sup 193/Ir/sup m/ determined by absolute electron counting in a proportional counter of 100% counting efficiency (4πβ) was found to be 10.53 +- 0.04 d. We have determined the L 1 subshell fluorescence yield, ω 1 , to be 0.120 +- 0.003 for iridium. Based upon our measurements of initial and final L subshell vacancies together with a best-fit literature value for ω 2 , we have found a plausible value for the Coster-Kronig coefficient f/sub 12/ to be 0.091 +- 0.011

  3. Wesley Clark : uus külm sõda väga ebatõenäoline / Wesley Clark ; interv. Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Clark, Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Lennart Meri mälestuskonverentsil osalenud endine NATO vägede ülemjuhataja Eesti ja maailma julgeolekupoliitilisest olukorrast ning Venemaa, USA ja NATO positsioonist rahvusvahelistes suhetes. Lühielulugu

  4. Operational and passive safety aspects of the STAR-LM natural convection HLMC reactor. Study on operational aspects of a natural circulation HLMC reactor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Petkov, P.V.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of a heavy liquid metal cooled fast reactor that achieves 100+% natural circulation heat removal from the core has the potential to attain improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification, proliferation resistance, and heightened passive safety. The concept offers the potential for simplifications in plant control strategies wherein inherent reactor feedbacks may restore balance between energy release and heat removal from the reactor during operation as well as providing passive reactivity shutdown in the event of transients involving failure to scram. This study was initiated to evaluate the operational characteristics of the 100+% natural circulation reactor under normal and transient states using a plant dynamics analysis computer code and to seek design and operational optimization of the concept. In the earlier Phase 1 of the project, the stage for the overall study was prepared. A coupled thermal hydraulics-kinetics plant dynamics analysis code was developed that has the capabilities to calculate operational and accident transients. Code input was prepared for the heavy liquid metal cooled natural circulation reactor concept. A preliminary analysis using the plant dynamics code and its input to calculate three illustrative cases relevant to initial startup, shutdown following long-term operation, and change-in-turbine load demonstrated the capability to analyze typical transient cases. The present second phase of the study involves documentation of the plant dynamics analysis computer code including major assumptions and thermal hydraulic equations as well as application of the code to calculate operational transients and postulated accidents. The following normal and accident scenarios are calculated: initial startup; normal shutdown; startup from hot standby; decrease-in-turbine load; increase-in-turbine load; loss-of-heat sink without scram; overcooling event without scram; and unprotected transient overpower. For the decrease-in-turbine load and loss-of-heat sink without scram, the effects of uncertainties inherent in the calculation of the reactivity feedback coefficients are investigated. The calculations demonstrate that the reactor system exhibits the behavior required for stable startup and shutdown, autonomous load following, and passive safety. (author)

  5. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  6. LM and TEM study of the orthokeratinized and parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Jackowiak, Hanna; Ratajczak, Marlena

    2014-12-01

    The previous histological studies of the lingual mucosa in birds characterized two types of keratinized epithelium, i.e. orthokeratinized and parakeratinized. These epithelia are composed of three layers: basal, intermediate and keratinized. The present study showed detailed ultrastructural features of cells in particular layers of two types of keratinized epithelia on the tongue in the domestic duck and defined structural differences. TEM observations showed a gradual reduction in cell organelles in the following layers, at increasing amounts of keratin fibers. The characteristic feature of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is the presence of sub-layers in the intermediate layer, i.e. the upper and lower part, which results from the different shape of cell nuclei and dye affinity of the cytoplasm. The keratinized layer of ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium is built of two types of cells such as electron dark and light cells, which undergo exfoliation. The basic difference between the keratinized epithelia is the presence of flattened cell nuclei in the keratinized layer of the parakeratinized epithelium. The differentiating feature is also an arrangement of keratin fibers in the cell cytoplasm of the keratinized layer. The analysis of the thickness of the epithelium and the keratinized layer, indicated differences between keratinized epithelia, which result from two variants of performing protective functions, either through a thick keratinized layer or by a higher epithelium. Differences in the ultrastructure of the ortho- and parakeratinized epithelium are associated with mechanical functions of the epithelium resulting from different forces acting on the tongue during feeding activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wright LM, Leahey M. Nurses and families: a guide to assessment and intervention in family. 5th ed. São Paulo (SP: Roca; 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Sousa Moreira Baia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Nurses and families: a guide to assessment and intervention in the family, translated to Portuguese, French, Japanese, Korean and Swedish languages , is known as the Calgary Model. The material covers the Family Nursing action aiming to improve clinical knowledge and service skills, with a focus on the family unit, in addition to providing updates on the topic.

  8. Interpretation of the mitigation of runoff on the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios as described in the FOCUS l&M report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, ter M.M.S.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2009-01-01

    Our interpretation is that the reduced runoff fluxes (water and mass) of the 20 ha upstream are combined with the unchanged runoff water fluxes of the remaining 80 ha upstream catchment. This implies that the reduction factor on exposure concentrations in FOCUS streams of Step 4 FOCUS scenarios

  9. 用于LCD背投的有机发光二极管(OLED)达到了18.4lm/W的效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡梅

    2004-01-01

    美国Universal Display以及日本Toyota公司的研究人员们报道,他们研制了一种红-绿-蓝色(RGB)的有机发光二极管(OLED),它发射出效率为18.4lm/W、36cd/A的白光以及在亮度为1000cd/m2时,具有16%的内在量子效率.相比传统的小分子OLED的荧光发光,这种新器件依赖于更有效率的磷发光,实现了RGB三种全色发光。

  10. Design Definition Study Report. Full Crew Interaction Simulator-Laboratory Model (FCIS-LM) (Device X17B7). Volume I. Problem Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    NATIONAL BIJRIAU Of SIANDAR)S ] tbi A PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET J4 LEVEL 1"ve 00. ) N9v~~v- .M INY TORY R.I . V . ! iK- DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION ~ c~A~I.Ay...the effects of the terrain and potential obstacles on the ability of the tank to move to the objective and to maintain its position with re- spect to

  11. CARTOON USE FOR TEACHING TURKISH TO FOREIGNERS - YABANCILARA TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE ÇİZGİ FİLM KULLANIMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmi AYTAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine how the use of cartoons in a functional direction impacts on students’ achievement in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. One group post-test model is designed to be used in qualitative research. The sample group of the research consists of 15 participants who study Turkish at A1-elementary level as a foreign language at TOMER in Antalya International University. In the study for the purpose of collecting data question paper which contains the questions about the cartoon named ‘Oscar in the Desserts’ was used. Participants have watched short animated film called ‘Oscar in the Desserts’ twice. From watched visual to the screen photos which are belong to place questions asked were transferred to Power Point. Participants saw photos related to each sentence with a reminder function in the Power Point screen. In the result of this study ıt has been shown that the Turkish language teaching to the foreigners right visual materials such as cartoons are found useful when used functional in accordance with the age and level. In teaching Turkish as a foreign language courses; cartoons and other visuals have been found to provide a better understanding of the class they help to have an enjoyable lesson.

  12. Kurumsal Yönetim Standartları Ağırlıklandırılmış Kalite Analizi (Corporate Governance Standards Weighted Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim H. KAYRAL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing health and health services always plays important role in maintenance of human life in a quality way and protection of its continuity. The most important factors to achieve health services quality are the structure of hospital management, institutionalization and the success of the strategic management process. It is closely associated with the hospital's level of institutionalization to achieve effectively managing hospital services in its complex structure. This study aims to achieve the standards of quality analysis of Corporate Services and Support Services Health Services dimensions of the Standards of Quality in Health Hospital Kit with the weighted Multidimensional Quality Model. For this purpose; by determining the distribution in terms of structure, process and outcomes technical and functional quality were evaluated by the analysis of standards and standards' points with the model. As a result, SKS-Hospital was found to have the strengths in terms of institutionalization and weaknesses on behalf ÇBKM and additionally SKS-Hospital has been proposed to strengthen the outcome-oriented standards for institutionalization and to improve the efficiency of hospital management.

  13. Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20005 affects in vitro the expression of hly and luxS genes, related to the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes Lm23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Covian, David; Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Hernández-Barranco, A M; Cuesta, Isabel; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes Gavilán, Clara G

    2018-03-01

    Mechanistic features that characterize the interaction and inhibition of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by members of the genus Bifidobacterium still remain unclear. In the present work, we tried to shed light on the influence that co-cultivation of L. monocytogenes with Bifidobacterium breve may exert on both microorganisms and on virulence of the pathogen. Production of acetate and lactate was measured by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively; bacterial counts were obtained by plate count; gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR; and haemolytic activity was analyzed against goat erythrocytes. We found slightly but significantly lower final counts of Listeria and Bifidobacterium (p monocytogenes cells from cocultures than in those from monocultures. In contrast, the hly and luxS genes, which code for the cytolysin listeriolysin O and participate in biofilm formation, respectively, were overexpressed when L. monocytogenes was grown in coculture. This indicates that the presence of Bifidobacterium is able to modify the gene expression and haemolytic activity of L. monocytogenes when both microorganisms grow together.

  14. Reply to L.M. Brown et al. “Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny” in Ultramicroscopy 157, 88 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, K.W., E-mail: k.urban@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), and Ernst Ruska Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Rose, H. [Materialwissenschaftliche Elektronenmikroskopie, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We comment on a Short Communication recently published in Ultramicroscopy in which Brown et al. criticize our description of the time sequence of events in the development of aberration correction systems in electron optics during the 1990s put forward in the introduction to the Ultramicroscopy April 2015 Special Issue. We present an analysis of the published literature furnishing evidence that our description is correct. - Highlights: • We scrutinize assertions made on the evolution of Cambridge Cs corrector project. • References [22-24] do not demonstrate improvement of resolution by Cs correction. • According to literature such improvement is only shown in reference [10] in 2001. • Corresponding evidence was published by Heidelberg project already in 1998. • The Heidelberg Cs corrector project antedates the Cambridge project by 3 years.

  15. Reply to L.M. Brown et al. “Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny” in Ultramicroscopy 157, 88 (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, K.W.; Rose, H.

    2016-01-01

    We comment on a Short Communication recently published in Ultramicroscopy in which Brown et al. criticize our description of the time sequence of events in the development of aberration correction systems in electron optics during the 1990s put forward in the introduction to the Ultramicroscopy April 2015 Special Issue. We present an analysis of the published literature furnishing evidence that our description is correct. - Highlights: • We scrutinize assertions made on the evolution of Cambridge Cs corrector project. • References [22-24] do not demonstrate improvement of resolution by Cs correction. • According to literature such improvement is only shown in reference [10] in 2001. • Corresponding evidence was published by Heidelberg project already in 1998. • The Heidelberg Cs corrector project antedates the Cambridge project by 3 years.

  16. Cleft palate and ADULT phenotype in a patient with a novel TP63 mutation suggests lumping of EEC/LM/ADULT syndromes into a unique entity: ELA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prontera, Paolo; Garelli, Emanuela; Isidori, Ilenia; Mencarelli, Amedea; Carando, Adriana; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Donti, Emilio

    2011-11-01

    Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare condition belonging to the group of ectodermal dysplasias caused by TP63 mutations. Its clinical phenotype is similar to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) and limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), and differs from these disorders mainly by the absence of cleft lip and/or palate. We report on a 39-year-old patient who was found to be heterozygous for a c.401G > T (p.Gly134Val) de novo mutation of TP63. This patient had the ADULT phenotype associated with cleft palate. Our findings, rather than extend the clinical spectrum of ADULT syndrome, suggest that cleft palate can no longer be considered an element for differential diagnosis for ADULT, EEC, and LMS. Our data, added to other reports on overlapping phenotypes, support the combining of these three phenotypes into a unique entity that we propose to call "ELA syndrome," which is an acronym of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate, limb-mammary, and ADULT syndromes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plans for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 7: Erasable memory programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Erasable-memory programs (EMPs) designed for the guidance computers used in the command (CMC) and lunar modules (LGC) are described. CMC programs are designated COLOSSUS 3, and the associated EMPs are identified by a three-digit number beginning with 5. LGC programs are designated LUMINARY 1E, and the associated EMPs are identified, with one exception, by a three-digit number beginning with 1. The exception is EMP 99. The EMPs vary in complexity from a simple flagbit setting to a long and intricate logical structure. They all, however, cause the computer to behave in a way not intended in the original design of the programs; they accomplish this off-nominal behavior by some alteration of erasable memory to interface with existing fixed-memory programs to effect a desired result.

  18. Guidance system operations plan for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using program luminary 1E. Section 2: Data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    Data links for the guidance system of manned lunar module orbital and lunar missions are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to lunar module, (2) lunar module liftoff time increment, (3) lunar module contiguous block update, (4) lunar module scatter update, (5) lunar module digital downlink, and (6) absolute addresses for update program.

  19. Synthesis and Structural Characterisation of [Ir4(CO8(CH3(m4-h3-Ph2PCCPh(m-PPh2] and of the Carbonylation Product [Ir4(CO8{C(OCH3}(m4-h3-Ph2PCCPh(m-PPh2]; First Evidence for the Formation of a CO Cluster Adduct before CO Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Dario

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Deprotonation of [(mu-HIr4(CO10(mu-PPh2], 1, gives [Ir4(CO10(mu-PPh2]- that reacts with Ph2PCCPh and CH3I to afford [Ir4(CO8(CH3(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2], 2 (34%, besides [Ir4(CO9(mu3-eta³-Ph2PC(HCPh(mu-PPh2] and [(mu-HIr4(CO9(Ph2PCºCPh(mu-PPh2]. Compound 2 was characterised by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and exhibits a flat butterfly of metal atoms, with the Ph2PCCPh ligand interacting with all four Ir atoms and the methyl group bonded terminally to a wingtip Ir atom. Carbonylation of 2 yields initially (25 °C, 20 min a CO addition product that, according to VT 31P{¹H} and 13C{¹H} studies, exists in solution in the form of two isomers 4A and 4B (8:1, and then (40 °C, 7 h, the CO insertion product [Ir4(CO8{C(OCH3}(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2], 5. The molecular structure of 5, established by an X-ray analysis, is similar to that of 2, except for the acyl group that remains bound to the same Ir atom. The process is reversible at both stages. Treatment of 2 with PPh3 and P(OMe3 affords the CO substitution products [Ir4(CO7L(CH3(mu4-eta³-Ph2PCCPh(mu-PPh2] (L = PPh3, 6 and P(OMe3, 7, instead of the expected CO inserted products. According to the ¹H and 31P{¹H} NMR studies, the PPh3 derivative 6 exists in the form of two isomers (1:1 that differ with respect to the position of this ligand.

  20. Quantitative evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Rui; Cao, Ye; Gao, Mingqiu

    2018-01-01

    This study concerns the quantized evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps. In the actual regulations, only one point in the test screen is set for judging whether driver can bear the light caused by headlamps of opposing vehicle. To evaluating practical effect of glare, we accept a glare zone with the probability distribution information of the oncoming driver's eye position. In this focus area, glare level of headlamp is represented by weighted luminous flux. To confirm the most comfortable illuminance value to human eyes at 50 m, we used test point B50L as observation position, and collected 1,000 subjective evaluation data from 20 test personnel in different ages during two months. Basing on the assessment results, we calculated 0.60 lx as recommended value for standardized testing procedure at 25 m. Then we figured out 0.38 lm as optimum value, and 0.25 / 1.20 lm as limiting values depending on regulations. We tested 40 sample vehicles with different levels to verify the sectional nonlinear quantitative evaluation method we designed, and analyzed the typical test results.

  1. Estimation of the proportion of some elements and their distribution on a surface of thallus of lichenized fungus Xanthoria parietina (L. Th. Fr. using sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer M4 Tornado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biazrov Lev Georgievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of 19 elements - Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Pb - were compared in the peripheral (younger and central (older parts of the upper surface of the epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina thallus from the bark of Sorbus aucuparia in Moscow city using sample-nondestructive μ-XRF spectrometer. This species is often used in biomonitoring of air quality. The results showed that the elements content was highly variable. Mean values of atomic percent of Fe, Co, Zn, and Pb were statistically higher in the central part of the upper surface, while P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Mn were higher in the peripheral part. Differences between other elements were not statistically valid, but there is a trend to greater maintenance of the majority of the elements on the surface of the central part of the thallus. Mapping the distribution of some elements on the part of the thallus surface is presented.

  2. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  3. Electronic properties and structural phase transition in A4 [M4O4] (A=Li, Na, K and Rb; M=Ag and Cu): A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, R.; Yogeswari, M.; Kalpana, G.

    2013-02-01

    Self-consistent scalar relativistic band structure calculations for AMO (A=Li, Na, K and Rb; M=Ag and Cu) compounds have been performed using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). At ambient conditions, these compounds are found to crystallize in tetragonal KAgO-type structure with two different space group I-4m2 and I4/mmm. Nowadays, hypothetical structures are being considered to look for new functional materials. AMO compounds have stoichiometry similar to eight-electron half-Heusler materials of type I-I-VI which crystallizes in cubic (C1b) MgAgAs-type structure with space group F-43m. For all these compounds, by interchanging the positions of atoms in the hypothetical cubic structure, three phases (α, β and γ) are formed. The energy-volume relation for these compounds in tetragonal KAgO-type structure and cubic α, β and γ phases of related structure have been obtained. Under ambient conditions these compounds are more stable in tetragonal KAgO-type (I4/mmm) structure. The total energies calculated within the atomic sphere approximation (ASA) were used to determine the ground state properties such as equilibrium lattice parameters, c/a ratio, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and are compared with the available experimental results. The results of the electronic band structure calculations at ambient condition show that LiCuO and NaMO are indirect band gap semiconductors whereas KMO and RbMO are direct band gap semiconductors. At high pressure the band gap decreases and the phenomenon of band overlap metallization occur. Also these compounds undergo structural phase transition from tetragonal I-4m2 phase to cubic α-phase and transition pressures were calculated.

  4. Complete genomic sequences for hepatitis C virus subtypes 4b, 4c, 4d, 4g, 4k, 4l, 4m, 4n, 4o, 4p, 4q, 4r and 4t.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Wu, Xianghong; Wang, Chuanxi; Bennett, Phil; Lu, Teng; Murphy, Donald

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we characterized the full-length genomic sequences of 13 distinct hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 isolates/subtypes: QC264/4b, QC381/4c, QC382/4d, QC193/4g, QC383/4k, QC274/4l, QC249/4m, QC97/4n, QC93/4o, QC139/4p, QC262/4q, QC384/4r and QC155/4t. These were amplified, using RT-PCR, from the sera of patients now residing in Canada, 11 of which were African immigrants. The resulting genomes varied between 9421 and 9475 nt in length and each contains a single ORF of 9018-9069 nt. The sequences showed nucleotide similarities of 77.3-84.3 % in comparison with subtypes 4a (GenBank accession no. Y11604) and 4f (EF589160) and 70.6-72.8 % in comparison with genotype 1 (M62321/1a, M58335/1b, D14853/1c, and 1?/AJ851228) reference sequences. These similarities were often higher than those currently defined by HCV classification criteria for subtype (75.0-80.0 %) and genotype (67.0-70.0 %) division, respectively. Further analyses of the complete and partial E1 and partial NS5B sequences confirmed these 13 'provisionally assigned subtypes'.

  5. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of [Ir4(m-CO(CO7{m4-h3-Ph2PC(HC(PhPCBut}(m-PPh2]: Alkyne-Phosphaalkyne Coupling and Formation of a Novel 2-phosphabutadienylphosphine Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Maria Helena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of [Ir4(mu-H(CO9(Ph2PCºCPh(mu-PPh2] 1 with PºCBu t in CH2Cl2, at 35 °C, for 4 h yields the novel compound [Ir4(mu-CO(CO7{mu4-eta³-Ph2PC(HC(PhPCBu t}(mu-PPh2] 2, which contains the 2-phosphabutadienylphosphine chain. Compound 2 is also formed upon thermolysis of [Ir4(CO10(Ph2PCºCPh(PPh2H] 3 in the presence of PºCBu t in thf, at 40 °C, for 48 h. Small amounts of [Ir4(mu-CO(CO7(mu3-eta²-HCCPh(mu-PPh22] 4 are always obtained from both reactions, because of the competing rates of the transformations of 1 and 3 into 4 and of their reactions with PºCBu t. Compound 2 was characterized by analytical and spectroscopic studies such as FAB ms, ¹H, 31P,13C, 2D31P-¹H HETCOR, nOe difference and DEPT NMR experiments, which led to its formulation and established the coupling between the coordinated Ph2PCºCPh and PºCBu t and the migration of the hydride to the Calpha of the Ph2PCºCPh ligand. However, it was impossible to establish unambiguously if cleavage of the P-Csp bond of the Ph2PCºCPh ligand had occurred and the mode of interaction of the organophosphorus chain. An X-ray diffraction study of compound 2 established a butterfly arrangement of iridium atoms with the new ligand interacting with the metal framework via four sigma bonds and the PPh2 phosphorus lone pair.

  6. Filme kaladest : "Maelströmi" külm langemine, "Bo Ba Bu" kiviaegne röhkimine ja vanameister Imamura "Soe vesi punase silla all" / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Temaatiliselt koos vaadeldakse kolme erineva kultuuritaustaga režissööri filme : kanadalase Denis Villeneuve "Maelström", usbeki Ali Hamrajevi "Bo Ba Bu" ja jaapanlase Shohei Imamura "Soe vesi punase silla all"

  7. DİJİTAL KÜLTÜR, DİJİTAL YERLİLER ve GÜNÜMÜZDEKİ YENİ FİLM SEYİR DENEYİMLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    MEDİN, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Geçmişten günümüze film seyretme deneyimleri ve seyirkültürü, değişim ve dönüşüm içindedir. İzleyicilerin iletişimsel ve kültürelbelleği, algısı, düşünüş biçimi ve edimleri, içinde bulunduğu toplumunkültürel, toplumsal, ekonomik ve politik koşulları ekseninde şekillenmektedir.İletişim mekânlarının kendine özgü dili de seyir pratiği üzerinde son dereceetkili olan diğer bir eyleyendir. Belleği, algıyı ve film seyretme ediminibiçimlendiren unsurların başında ise izleyicinin özelliklerini taşıdığ...

  8. La visión de Laṅkā en el Rāmāyaṇa de Vālmīki: una poética de la vida secular

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Óscar

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo estudia la descripción de Laṅkā, la capital del reino demoníaco, en el libro quinto del Rāmāyaṇa. Aun subrayando la importancia del ethos y los valores brahmánicos, esta descripción introduce una especie de consagración poética de la vida secular que sugiere una dinámica social más heterogénea. Por último, se ofrecen, además, ejemplos de versiones posteriores del Rāmāyaṇa donde esa heterogeneidad se contrae a favor de una visión puramente religiosa. Abstract: This pa...

  9. Fungal Alfa Amilaz ve Deaktif Kuru Maya Preparatları Kullanılarak Hızlandırılmış Ekmek Yapımı

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgiçli, Nermin; Türker, Selman; Elgün, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is the determination of optimum fermentation time giving the best bread quality with fungal alfa amylase and a reducing agent-deactive dry yeast preparetes at different flour types in bread making. In the experiment two different enzyme praperates (Fungal Alfa Amylase and Reducing Agent-Deactive dry yeast) were added at three different types of flour (Type 550, 650 and 850) and prepared bread dough. The dough was rested during three different bulk fermentation time (1...

  10. AN ORIGINAL COPY: THE FILM ADAPTATION OF KAZUO ISHIGURO’S NEVER LET ME GO / ORJİNAL BİR KOPYA: KAZUO ISHIGURO’NUN NEVER LET ME GO ROMANININ FİLM UYARLAMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YURTTAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go and Mark Romanek’s film adaptation of the text with the same title. Discussing the novel’s deconstructive strategies through which the categories of the human, authenticity and copy are unsettled, it is suggested that Ishiguro’s text distinguishes itself from science fiction genre where these categories are affirmed by relocating them in a hierarchical relationship. Ishiguro reveals the power of fiction and stories in constructing identity based on dualities and this applies to both the clone and the human. The film, on the other hand, is a reassuring science fiction where the human is offered as a determined category by setting the identity of the human against its other- nonhuman or clone.

  11. Smartphones på arbetsplatsen : En studie av smartphones påverkan på effektivitet och välmående bland yrkesverksamma människor

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberg, Magnus; Järnberg, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    In todays society IT in general and the Internet in particular are given elements in people´s everyday lives, and smartphones has come to be a big part of those elements. This study focuses on how the use of Smartphones in particular influences the individuals in their working environment, and how this use influence the efficiency and the well-being of said individuals.  To answer our research question regarding how said use comes to effect the efficiency and the well-being for proffesionals ...

  12. KAJIAN MANAJEMEN OPTIMALISASI PENERANGAN JALAN UMUM KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Widodo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research mainly aims to give input to Semarang Local Government in the efficiency of electricity utilization to the street illumination and the management of income tax from the societies, so they can be utilized optimally, directly, and in integrated way in order to the management of city infrastructures service. This research using the influence of traffic passenger car unit (pcu for optimizing in a low density of traffic condition. The data of the Average Daily Traffic (ADT volume on Pahlawan street was gathered from 6.00 p.m-6.00 a.m in every 15 minutes. The data was analyzed using quartile technique with K1 (25% and K2 (50 %, then the researcher designed a line chart table of a link between the ADT and the time of the electricity switching on. In working days, the results are (1 the efficient time of street illumination in K1 (25% was between 10.30 p.m-3.45 a.m, (2 in K2 (50% was between 9.45 p.m-4.30 a.m. Due to the security and the beauty of the town and also considering the density of the traffic, the optimization and the dimming of the electricity are not needed in holidays. The optimization using ballast dimming (40% from 250 watt to 150 watt for all lamps, obtained a significant account 32,4 Lx for average illumination. It is still fulfill the minimal requirement of 7 Lx for the average illumination on the collector street type. The optimization with dimming system obtained an efficiency in K1 (25% was 23.16% and in K2 (50% was 25,05%.

  13. Dieter Messner, los manuals de Espanol impresos en Viena en el siglo XVII. Edición facsimil y comentario, vol. 1-11, Institut für Romanistik der Universität Salzburg, Biblioteca hispano-lusa, Salzburg 2000, pág. LX + 856.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El estimado cultivador de los problemas lingüísticos y filológicos iberorromances prof. Dieter Messner de la Universitad de Salzburgo, hispanista y lusitanista, ha enriquecido nuestro conocimiento de los contactos en el campo de la enseñanza de las lenguas alemana y española y, más ampliamente, de la esfera cultural en Austria en lo que atañe el español: la reimpresión de los manuales de español impresos en Viena en el siglo diecisiete es preciosa por varios aspectos. Primero, sin duda, el comprobar el interés en aquel entonces, quizás necesidad, de aprender las respectivas lenguas. En el primer manual Grammatica y Pronunciacion Alemana y Española. Espanola y Alemana de luan Angel de Zumaran se lee como subtítulo "Compuesta en beneficio de estas dos Naciones, que quieren aprender una destas lenguas". El libro apareció en Viena en el año 1634. El autor no era nuevo in rebus lexicograficis: en el 1626 apareció su Thesaurus linguarum. In quo facilis via Hispanicam Gal­ licam ltalicam attingendo etiam per Latinam & Germanicam sternitur. A Ioanne Angelo a Sumaran, nobili cantabro.

  14. Effects of lighting illuminance levels on stair negotiation performance in individuals with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Aliah F; Sourlas, Alexandros; Horton, Khim; McLean, Christopher; Ewins, David; Gould, David; Ghoussayni, Salim

    2018-04-01

    Stair-related falls of older people cause a substantial financial and social burden. Deterioration of the visual system amongst other factors put older people at a high risk of falling. Improved lighting is often recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lighting illuminance on stair negotiation performance in older individuals with visual impairment. Eleven participants aged 60 or over with a vision of 6/18 or worse ascended and descended a staircase under: 50 lx, 100 lx, 200 lx, 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting. A motion capture system was used to measure movements of the lower limb. Clearance, clearance variability, temporal and spatial parameters and joint/segment kinematics were computed. There was no effect on clearance or clearance variability. Participants had lower speed, cadence, increased cycle time and stance time in the 50 lx compared to 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting in descent. The minimum hip angle in ascent was increased in the 200 lx lighting. Clearance was found to be moderately correlated with balance scores. Individuals with visual impairment adopt precautionary gait in dim lighting conditions. This does not always result in improvements in the parameters associated with risk of falling (e.g. clearance). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Two Different Light Intensities from 16:00 to 20:30 Hours on Evening Dressing Behavior in the Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee-Eun; Tokura, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment tested our hypothesis that the subjects will wear more clothing in the evening cold under the influence of bright light exposure in the late afternoon and evening. Nine young female adults participated in this study. Light intensity was controlled from 9:00 h to 16:00 h at 100 lx, and from 16:00 h to 20:30 h either at 3000 lx in the bright light (»Bright«) or at 10 lx in the dim light (»Dim«) conditions. Light intensity was maintained at 10 lx from 20:30 h to ...

  16. Equations of state for detonation products of high energy PBX explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. L.; Helm, F. H.; Finger, M.; Walton, J. R.

    1977-08-01

    It has become apparent that the accumulated changes in the analysis of cylinder test data, in the material specifications, and in the hydrodynamic code simulation of the cylinder test necessitated an update of the detonation product EOS description for explosives in common use at LLL. The explosives reviewed are PBX-9404-3, LX-04-1, LX-10-1, LX-14-0 and LX-09-1. In order to maintain the proper relation of predicted performance of these standard explosives, they have been revised as a single set.

  17. Effect of luminance contrast on BOLD-fMRI response in deaf and normal occipital visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yanping; Zhai Renyou; Jiang Tao; Cui Yong; Zhou Tiangang; Rao Hengyi; Zhuo Yan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of luminance contrast stimulus by using blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) within deaf occipital visual cortex, and to compare the distribution, extent, and intensity of activated areas between deaf subjects and normal hearing subjects. Methods: Twelve deaf subjects (average age 16.5) and 15 normal hearing subjects (average age 23.7) were stimulated by 4 kinds of luminance contrast (0.7, 2.2, 50.0, 180.0 lm). The fMRI data were collected on GE 1.5 T Signa Horizon LX MRI system and analyzed by AFNI to generate the activation map. Results: Responding to all 4 kinds of stimulus luminance contrast, all deaf and normal subjects showed significant activations in occipital visual cortex. For both deaf and normal subjects, the number of activated pixels increased significantly with increasing luminance contrast (F normal = 4.27, P deaf = 6.41, P 0.05). The local mean activation level for all activated pixels remained constant with increasing luminance contrast. However, there was an increase in the mean activation level for those activated pixels common to all trials as the stimulus luminance contrast was increased, but no significant difference was found within them (F normal = 0.79, P > 0.05; F deaf = 1.6, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effect of luminance contrast on occipital visual cortex of deaf is similar to but somewhat higher than that of normal hearing subjects. In addition, it also proved that fMRI is a feasible method in the study of the deaf visual cortex

  18. The lipoxygenase gene family: a genomic fossil of shared polyploidy between Glycine max and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Beom-Soon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean lipoxygenases (Lxs play important roles in plant resistance and in conferring the distinct bean flavor. Lxs comprise a multi-gene family that includes GmLx1, GmLx2 and GmLx3, and many of these genes have been characterized. We were interested in investigating the relationship between the soybean lipoxygenase isozymes from an evolutionary perspective, since soybean has undergone two rounds of polyploidy. Here we report the tetrad genome structure of soybean Lx regions produced by ancient and recent polyploidy. Also, comparative genomics with Medicago truncatula was performed to estimate Lxs in the common ancestor of soybean and Medicago. Results Two Lx regions in Medicago truncatula showing synteny with soybean were analyzed. Differential evolutionary rates between soybean and Medicago were observed and the median Ks values of Mt-Mt, Gm-Mt, and Gm-Gm paralogs were determined to be 0.75, 0.62, and 0.46, respectively. Thus the comparison of Gm-Mt paralogs (Ks = 0.62 and Gm-Mt orthologs (Ks = 0.45 supports the ancient duplication of Lx regions in the common ancestor prior to the Medicago-Glycine split. After speciation, no Lx regions generated by another polyploidy were identified in Medicago. Instead tandem duplication of Lx genes was observed. On the other hand, a lineage-specific duplication occurred in soybean resulting in two pairs of Lx regions. Each pair of soybean regions was co-orthologous to one Lx region in Medicago. A total of 34 Lx genes (15 MtLxs and 19 GmLxs were divided into two groups by phylogenetic analysis. Our study shows that the Lx gene family evolved from two distinct Lx genes in the most recent common ancestor. Conclusion This study analyzed two pairs of Lx regions generated by two rounds of polyploidy in soybean. Each pair of soybean homeologous regions is co-orthologous to one region of Medicago, demonstrating the quartet structure of the soybean genome. Differential evolutionary rates between

  19. Degargūnī-ye ejtem‘ī va fīlm-hā-ye sīnemā’ī dar Īrān : jāme‘e-šenāsī-ye fīlm-hā-ye ‘āmme-pasand-e īrānī (1309-1357) [Social Change and Iranian Motion Picture: Sociology of Popular Films (1920-1978)]. Tehrān, Entešārāt-e Far

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii Nejad, Poupak

    2008-01-01

    Le cinéma iranien (de ses débuts jusqu’avant la révolution) est l’objet d’étude de cet ouvrage, d’un point de vue sociologique. L’A. ne s’intéresse pas aux aspects esthétique, moral, éducatif ou artistique des films, mais à leur aspect représentatif. Il énonce ses sources théoriques (l’école de Francfort, L. Goldman, A. Asaberger, etc.) concernant d’une part l’analyse statique (structurelle) des thèmes traités par les films et leur interprétation et d’autre part une analyse dynamique des indi...

  20. Higher light intensity induces modulations in brain activity even during regular daytime working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, K.C.H.J.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exposure to bright white light as compared to a commonly experienced illuminance (1000 lx vs. 200 lx at eye level, 4000 K) on electroencephalography spectral power density during daytime. Spectral power density was measured during one hour of exposure in the morning and