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Sample records for m-3 total particle

  1. Trimble M3 1” and South Nts-362R Total Station Angle Measurement Accuracy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleniacz Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to obtain information about the actual precision of angle measurements with two instruments (Trimble M3 1 "and South NTS-362R, realizable in given measurement conditions. This object is achieved by using a simplified method of testing instruments contained in the PN-ISO 17123-3 standard [1]. This is a continuation of research described in [2], carried out on the same test base, but this time in a different, less favorable field conditions. The use of the same instrument has created an opportunity to compare and analyze the measurement results. The scope of work includes the measurement and results preparation along with statistical processing of the obtained results for both instruments.

  2. M3FT-15OR0202237: Submit Report on Results From Initial Coating Layer Development For UN TRISO Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Lindemer, Terrence [Harbach Engineering and Solutions; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-02-01

    In support of fully ceramic matrix (FCM) fuel development, coating development work has begun at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to produce tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles with UN kernels. The nitride kernels are used to increase heavy metal density in these SiC-matrix fuel pellets with details described elsewhere. The advanced gas reactor (AGR) program at ORNL used fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) techniques for TRISO coating of UCO (two phase mixture of UO2 and UCx) kernels. Similar techniques were employed for coating of the UN kernels, however significant changes in processing conditions were required to maintain acceptable coating properties due to physical property and dimensional differences between the UCO and UN kernels.

  3. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  4. Evaluation of nanoparticle tracking analysis for total virus particle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramberger Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NanoSight LM10 with Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA software was evaluated for the quantification of latex particles, adenovirus 5, and influenza virus. The inter-day variability was determined by measuring the same sample over several consecutive days and the method’s accuracy was demonstrated by using known concentrations of the subject particles. NTA analysis was also used to quantify chromatographic fractions of adenovirus and influenza virus after purification on a CIM monolithic column. NTA results were compared and evaluated against hemagglutination (HA and end point dilution assay, determining total and infection virus particle number, respectively. The results demonstrated that nanoparticle tracking analysis is a method for fast estimation of virus concentration in different samples. In addition, it can provide a better insight into the sample status, regarding the level of virus aggregation.

  5. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-02-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d geq 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  6. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2003-02-28

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d {>=} 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  7. Wear particles and osteolysis in patients with total wrist arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Toxværd, Anders; Bansal, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    tissue, the level of chrome and cobalt ions in the blood, and the possible role of infectious or rheumatoid activity in the development of PPO. METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the implant-bone interphase in 13 consecutive patients with total wrist arthroplasty and with at least 3 years' follow...... of the radiolucent zone. The blood levels of chrome and cobalt ions were normal. There was no evidence of infectious or rheumatoid activity. CONCLUSIONS: Polyethylene wear has been accepted as a major cause of osteolysis in total hip arthroplasty, and metallic debris has also been cited to be an underlying cause....... However, our hypothesis that polyethylene debris correlated with the degree of PPO could not be confirmed. Also, metallic debris and infectious or rheumatoid activity did not correlate with PPO. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic I....

  8. Effects of Particle Size on the Attenuated Total Reflection Spectrum of Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Kovács, István J; Fancsik, Tamás; Kónya, Péter; Bátori, Miklósné; Stercel, Ferenc; Falus, György; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on particle size effect on monomineralic powders recorded using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Six particle size fractions of quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite were prepared (size. As particle size increases, the intensity and area of IR bands usually decrease while the width of bands increases. The band positions usually shifted to higher wavenumbers with decreasing particle size. Infrared spectra of minerals are the most intensive in the particle size fraction of 2-4 µm. However, if the particle size is very small (size are compared, as in regression analysis for modal predictions using ATR FT-IR, it is also important to report the grain size distribution or surface area of samples. The band area of water (3000-3620 cm(-1)) is similar in each mineral fraction, except for the particles below 2 µm. It indicates that the finest particles could have disproportionately more water adsorbed on their larger surface area. Thus, these higher wavenumbers of the ATR FT-IR spectra may be more sensitive to this spectral interference if the number of particles below 2 µm is considerable. It is also concluded that at least a proportion of the moisture could be very adhesive to the particles due to the band shift towards lower wavenumbers in the IR range of 3000-3620 cm(-1).

  9. Emission of submicron aerosol particles in cement kilns: Total concentration and size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Mauro; Mosca, Silvia; Guerriero, Ettore; Febo, Antonio; Giusto, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Bianchini, Massimo; Ferrero, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Cement plants are responsible for particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. With respect to particle emission, the greater part of is in the range from 0.05 to 5.0 µm in diameter. In the last years attention was paid to submicron particles, but there is a lack of available data on the emission from stationary sources. In this paper, concentration and size distribution of particles emitted from four cement kilns, in relationship to operational conditions (especially the use of alternative fuel to coal) of the clinker process are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out by measuring particles concentration and size distribution at the stack of four cement plants through condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS). Average total particle number concentrations were between 2000 and 4000 particles/cm³, about 8-10 times lower that those found in the corresponding surrounding areas. As for size distribution, for all the investigated plants it is stable with a unimodal distribution (120-150 nm), independent from the fuel used.

  10. Estimate Total Number of the Earth Atmospheric Particle with Standard Atmosphere Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-Yi

    2001-01-01

    The total number of atmospheric particle (AP) is an important datum for planetary science and geoscience.Estimating entire AP number is also a familiar question in general physics.With standard atmosphere model,considering the number difference of AP caused by rough and uneven in the earth surface below,the sum of dry clean atmosphere particle is 1.06962 × 1044.So the whole number of AP including water vapor is 1.0740 × 1044.The rough estimation for the total number of AP on other planets (or satellites) in condensed state is also discussed on the base of it.

  11. Atmospheric trace element concentrations in total suspended particles near Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Senhou, Abderrahmane; Moskura, Mélanie; Gaudry, André

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate today's trace element atmospheric concentrations in large urban areas, an atmospheric survey was carried out for 18 months, from March 2002 to September 2003, in Saclay, nearby Paris. The total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected continuously on quartz fibre filters. The TSP contents were determined for 36 elements (including Ag, Bi, Mo and Sb) using two analytical methods: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured concentrations were in agreement within the uncertainties with the certified values for the polycarbonate reference material filter SRM-2783 (National Institute for Standard Technology NIST, USA). The measured concentrations were significantly lower than the recommended atmospheric concentrations. In 2003, the Pb atmospheric level at Saclay was 15 ng/m 3, compared to the 500 ng/m 3 guideline level and to the 200 ng/m 3 observed value in 1994. The typical urban background TSP values of 1-2, 0.2-1, 4-6, 10-30 and 3-5 ng/m 3 for As, Co, Cr, Cu and Sb, respectively, were inferred from this study and were compared with the literature data. The typical urban background TSP concentrations could not be realised for Cd, Pb and Zn, since these air concentrations are highly influenced by local features. The Zn concentrations and Zn/Pb ratio observed in Saclay represented a characteristic fingerprint of the exceptionally large extent of zinc-made roofs in Paris and its suburbs. The traffic-related origin of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sb was demonstrated, while the atmospheric source(s) of Ag was not identified.

  12. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  13. Fractionation and characterization of particles simulating wear of total joint replacement (TJR) following ASTM standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Musib, Mrinal

    2011-01-01

    Reactions of bone cells to orthopedic wear debris produced by the articulating motion of total joint replacements (TJRs) are largely responsible for the long-term failure of such replacements. Metal and polyethylene (PE) wear particles isolated from fluids from total joint simulators, as well as particles that are fabricated by other methods, are widely used to study such in vitro cellular response. Prior investigations have revealed that cellular response to wear debris depends on the size, shape, and dose of the particles. Hence, to have a better understanding of the wear-mediated osteolytic process it is important that these particles are well characterized and clinically relevant, both qualitatively, and quantitatively. In this study we have fractionated both ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ti particles, into micron (1.0-10.0 μm), submicron (0.2-1.0 μm), and nanoparticle (0.01-0.2 μm) fractions, and characterized them based on the following size-shape descriptors as put forth in ASTM F1877: i) equivalent circle diameter (ECD), ii) aspect ratio (AR), iii) elongation (E), iv) roundness (R), and v) form factor (FF). The mean (± SD) ECDs (in μm) for micron, submicron, and nanoparticles of UHMWPE were 1.652 ± 0.553, 0.270 ± 0.180, and 0.061 ± 0.035, respectively, and for Ti were 1.894 ± 0.667, 0.278 ± 0.180, and 0.055 ± 0.029, respectively. The values for other descriptors were similar (no statistically significant difference). The nanofraction particles were found to be more sphere-like (higher R and FF values, and lower E and AR values) as compared to larger particles. Future experiments will involve use of these well characterized particles for in vitro studies.

  14. Recovery of infective virus particles in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction monolith chromatography is influenced by particle charge and total-to-infective particle ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Dora; Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija

    2017-06-01

    Viral particles are used in medical applications as vaccines or gene therapy vectors. In order to obtain product of high purity, potency and safety for medical use purification of virus particles is a prerequisite, and chromatography is gaining increased attention to meet this aim. Here, we report on the use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on monolithic columns for purification of mumps virus (MuV) and measles virus (MeV). Efficiency of the process was monitored by quantification of infective virus particles (by 50% cell culture infective dose assay) and total virus particles, and monitoring of their size (by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis). Ion-exchange chromatography was shown to be inefficient for MuV and best results for MeV were obtained on QA column with recovery around 17%. Purification of MuV and MeV by hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in recoveries around 60%. Results showed that columns with small channels (d=1.4μm) are not suitable for MuV and MeV, although their size is below 400nm, whereas columns with large channels (6μm) showed to be efficient and recoveries independent on the flow rate up to 10mL/min. Heterogeneity of the virus suspension and its interday variability mostly regarding total-to-infective particle ratio was observed. Interestingly, a trend in recovery depending on the day of the harvest was also observed for both viruses, and it correlated with the total-to-infective particle ratio, indicating influence of the virus sample composition on the chromatography results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvinec, Romain [PRC INRA UMR85, CNRS UMR7247, Université François Rabelais de Tours, IFCE, F-37380 Nouzilly (France); Bernard, Samuel; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent [Université de Lyon, CNRS, Université Lyon 1, Institut Camille Jordan UMR5208, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); INRIA Team Dracula, Inria Center Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, Grenoble (France); Hingant, Erwan [Departamento de Matemática, Universidad Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-21

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory.

  16. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  17. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-03-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEP's featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modeling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules, and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low density, high density, an maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d=1) TASEP. A simple mean field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d>= 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean field results.

  18. Estimating particle sizes, concentrations, and total mass of ash in volcanic clouds using weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. M.; Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    Radar observations of the March 19, 1982 ash eruption of Mount St. Helens were used to estimate the volume of the ash cloud (2000 + or - 500 cu km), the concentration of ash (0.2-0.6 g/cu m), and the total mass of ash erupted (3-10 x 10 to the 11th g). Previously published ashfall data for the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption were studied using an inversion technique to estimate 6-hr mean particle concentration (3 g/cu m), the size distribution, the total ashfall mass (5 x 10 to the 14th g), and radar reflectivity factors for the ash cloud. Because volcanic ash clouds with particle concentrations of at least 0.2 g/cu m are produced in very small (in terms of total ashfall mass) eruptions of duration less than 1 min, volcanic ash clouds must be considered an extremely serious hazard to in-flight aircraft, regardless of the eruption magnitude.

  19. Station Based Polynomial Modeling of the local ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) using Particle Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Eren; Onur Karslioglu, Mahmut; Durmaz, Murat; Aghakarimi, Armin

    2014-05-01

    In this study, particle filter (PF) which is mainly based on the Monte Carlo simulation technique has been carried out for polynomial modeling of the local ionospheric conditions above the selected ground based stations. Less sensitivity to the errors caused by linearization of models and the effect of unknown or unmodeled components in the system model is one of the advantages of the particle filter as compared to the Kalman filter which is commonly used as a recursive filtering method in VTEC modeling. Besides, probability distribution of the system models is not necessarily required to be Gaussian. In this work third order polynomial function has been incorporated into the particle filter implementation to represent the local VTEC distribution. Coefficients of the polynomial model presenting the ionospheric parameters and the receiver inter frequency biases are the unknowns forming the state vector which has been estimated epoch-wise for each ground station. To consider the time varying characteristics of the regional VTEC distribution, dynamics of the state vector parameters changing permanently have been modeled using the first order Gauss-Markov process. In the processing of the particle filtering, multi-variety probability distribution of the state vector through the time has been approximated by means of randomly selected samples and their associated weights. A known drawback of the particle filtering is that the increasing number of the state vector parameters results in an inefficient filter performance and requires more samples to represent the probability distribution of the state vector. Considering the total number of unknown parameters for all ground stations, estimation of these parameters which were inserted into a single state vector has caused the particle filter to produce inefficient results. To solve this problem, the PF implementation has been carried out separately for each ground station at current time epochs. After estimation of unknown

  20. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  1. High transport efficiency of nanoparticles through a total-consumption sample introduction system and its beneficial application for particle size evaluation in single-particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shin-Ichi; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Takatsu, Akiko; Inagaki, Kazumi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki

    2017-02-01

    In order to facilitate reliable and efficient determination of both the particle number concentration (PNC) and the size of nanoparticles (NPs) by single-particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) without the need to correct for the particle transport efficiency (TE, a possible source of bias in the results), a total-consumption sample introduction system consisting of a large-bore, high-performance concentric nebulizer and a small-volume on-axis cylinder chamber was utilized. Such a system potentially permits a particle TE of 100 %, meaning that there is no need to include a particle TE correction when calculating the PNC and the NP size. When the particle TE through the sample introduction system was evaluated by comparing the frequency of sharp transient signals from the NPs in a measured NP standard of precisely known PNC to the particle frequency for a measured NP suspension, the TE for platinum NPs with a nominal diameter of 70 nm was found to be very high (i.e., 93 %), and showed satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviation of 1.0 % for four consecutive measurements). These results indicated that employing this total consumption system allows the particle TE correction to be ignored when calculating the PNC. When the particle size was determined using a solution-standard-based calibration approach without an NP standard, the particle diameters of platinum and silver NPs with nominal diameters of 30-100 nm were found to agree well with the particle diameters determined by transmission electron microscopy, regardless of whether a correction was performed for the particle TE. Thus, applying the proposed system enables NP size to be accurately evaluated using a solution-standard-based calibration approach without the need to correct for the particle TE.

  2. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  3. Porous titanium particles for acetabular reconstruction in total hip replacement show extensive bony armoring after 15 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.; Aquarius, R.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - The bone impaction grafting technique restores bone defects in total hip replacement. Porous titanium particles (TiPs) are deformable, like bone particles, and offer better primary stability. We addressed the following questions in this animal study: are impacted TiPs osteoc

  4. Attenuated total reflectance FT-IR imaging and quantitative energy dispersive-electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques for single particle analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiYeon; Ro, Chul-Un

    2009-08-15

    This work demonstrates the practical applicability of the combined use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) techniques for the characterization of individual aerosol particles. These two single particle analytical techniques provide complementary information on the physicochemical characteristics of the same individual particles, that is, the low-Z particle EPMA for the information on the morphology and elemental concentration and the ATR-FT-IR imaging on the functional group, molecular species, and crystal structure. It was confirmed that the ATR-FT-IR imaging technique can provide sufficient FT-IR absorption signals to perform molecular speciation of individual particles of micrometer size when applied to artificially generated aerosol particles such as ascorbic acid and NaNO(3) aerosols. An exemplar indoor atmospheric aerosol sample was investigated to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the combined application of ATR-FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle EPMA techniques for the characterization of individual airborne particles.

  5. Dry deposition velocity of total suspended particles and meteorological influence in four locations in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leifu Chen; Shaolin Peng; Jingang Liu; Qianqian Hou

    2012-01-01

    Dry deposition velocity of total suspended particles (TSP) is an effective parameter that describes the speed of atmospheric particulate matter deposit to the natural surface.It is also an important indicator to the capacity of atmosphere self-depuration.However,the spatial and temporal variations in dry deposition velocity of TSP at different urban landscapes and the relationship between dry deposition velocity and the meteorological parameters are subject to large uncertainties.We concurrently investigated this relationship at four different landscapes of Guangzhou,from October to December of 2009.The result of the average dry deposition velocity is (1.49 ±0.77),(1.44 ± 0.77),(1.13 ± 0.53) and (1.82 ± 0.82) cm/sec for urban commercial landscape,urban forest landscape,urban residential landscape and country landscape,respectively.This spatial variation can be explained by the difference of both particle size composition of TSP and meteorological parameters of sampling sites.Dry deposition velocity of TSP has a positive correlation with wind speed,and a negative correlation with temperature and relative humidity.Wind speed is the strongest factor that affects the magnitude of TSP dry deposition velocity,and the temperature is another considerable strong meteorological factor.We also find out that the relative humidity brings less impact,especially during the dry season.It is thus implied that the current global warming and urban heat island effect may lead to correlative changes in TSP dry deposition velocity,especially in the urban areas.

  6. Assessment of the associated particle prompt gamma neutron activation technique for total body nitrogen measurement in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Body Nitrogen (TBN) can be used to estimate Total Body Protein (TBP), an important body composition component at the molecular level. A system using the associated particle technique in conjunction with prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been developed for the measurement of TBN in ...

  7. Concentration of lead, cadmium, and iron in sediment dust and total suspended particles before and after initialisation of integral production in iron and steel work plant Zenica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prcanović, Halim; Duraković, Mirnes; Beganović, Sanela

    2012-06-01

    Poor air quality is a common fact for all areas with base industry. The city of Zenica was once the metallurgical centre of Ex-Yugoslavia and is therefore highly polluted at present. Air pollution peaked in 1987 when average concentration of pollutants was extremely high (daily average concentration of SO(2) was 1800 μg m(-3)). With the beginning of the war in 1992, integral production in the steel work plant was shut down, to be re-launched in 2008. Limit values for iron do not exist, but iron has been monitored in Zenica for the past 28 years because of the presence of steel works. Concentrations of cadmium and lead have also been measured because they are very much present in polluted areas with steel works. The concentration of mentioned elements in air deposit and total suspended particles before and after integral production in the steel work plant was re-launched is the subject of this paper. Total suspended particles were measured in two locations using German standard VDI 2463 Blatt 4. Sediment dust was measured in nine locations using Bergerhoff method. The concentration of iron, lead, and cadmium was performed in the chemical laboratory of the Metallurgical Institute "Kemal Kapetanović" Zenica using standard methods. Higher concentrations of these parameters during the period of integral production clearly point to the impact of steel works on Zenica valley.

  8. How long can culturable bacteria and total DNA persist in environmental waters? The role of sunlight and solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cacciabue, Dolores; Cid, Alicia G; Rajal, Verónica B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sunlight inactivation of two indicator bacteria in freshwater, with and without solid particles, was studied and the persistence of culturable cells and total DNA was compared. Environmental water was used to prepare two matrices, with and without solid particles, which were spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. These matrices were used to prepare microcosm bags that were placed in two containers: one exposed to sunlight and the other in the dark. During one month, samples were removed from each container and detection was done by membrane filter technique and real-time PCR. Kinetic parameters were calculated to assess sunlight effect. Indicator bacteria without solid particles exposed to sunlight suffered an immediate decay (solid particles varied depending on the situation analyzed (T99 from 3 up to 60days), being always culturable E. coli more persistent than E. faecalis. On the other side, E. faecalis DNA persisted much longer than culturable cells (T99>40h in the dark with particles). In this case active cells were more prone to sunlight than total DNA and the protective effect of solid particles was also observed. Results highlight that the effects caused by the parameters which describe the behavior of culturable microorganisms and total DNA in water are different and must be included in simulation models but without forgetting that these parameters will also depend on bacterial properties, sensitizers, composition, type, and uses of the aquatic environment under assessment.

  9. Sub-decadal increase of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric total suspended particles in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.; Lee, M.; Tachibana, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Jang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are good tracers to evaluate the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and are important precursors for the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in aqueous phase. Here we report seasonal and interannual variations of aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal over sub-decadal scale (2001-2008) in ambient aerosols collected at Gosan, Jeju Island in the East China Sea. Glyoxal concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 106 ng m-3, with a peak in January. Concentrations of methylglyoxal ranged from 0.05 to 110 ng m-3 with a peak in April. The glyoxal peak is related with carbon monoxide and levoglucosan whereas methylglyoxal peak aligns with ozone. These results suggest an elevated combustion sources of glyoxal in January and secondary sources of methylglyoxal in April. A pronounced seasonal variation was observed for methylglyoxal to glyoxal ratios with maximum in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter, suggesting methyglyoxal to glyoxal ratio is an effective proxy to evaluate the strength of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of organic aerosol in East Asia. Overall, concentrations of glyoxal from 2001 to 2008 increased by at least 29% per year in winter and 83% per year in spring, being consistent with the increase of ozone, carbon monoxide, and biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs in East Asia. We propose that the increased glyoxal and methylglyoxal could be related to an enhanced SOA production by their reactive uptake in aqueous phase over East Asia.

  10. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  11. [Superficial femoral vein thrombosis due to large psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax-Pérez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Pérez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2012-01-01

    Male, 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip arthroplasty who presents with a mass in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and hip pain upon flexion and extension. Complementary ultrasound and computed tomography scan studies show a giant lobulated cystic mass in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, near the prosthesis. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent. We present a case of large psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles which caused superficial femoral vein compression and thrombosis.

  12. The Luminosity Function of M3

    CERN Document Server

    Rood, R T; Paltrinieri, B; Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Buonanno, R

    1999-01-01

    We present a high precision, large sample luminosity function (LF) for the Galactic globular cluster M3. With a combination of ground based and Hubble Space Telescope data we cover the entire radial extent of the cluster. The observed LF is well fit by canonical standard stellar models from the red giant branch (RGB) tip to below the main sequence turnoff point. Specifically, neither the RGB LF-bump nor subgiant branch LF indicate any breakdown in the standard models. On the main sequence we find evidence for a flat initial mass function and for mass segregation due to the dynamical evolution of the cluster.

  13. Calculation of Total Reaction Cross Sections Induced by Intermediate Energy α-Particles with the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晨; 蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 张虎勇; 魏义彬; 陈金根; 马余刚; 郭威; 方德清

    2003-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model, which includes the Fermi motion, the mean field, individual nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interactions and the Pauli blocking effect, etc., is used to calculate the total reaction cross section σR induced by α-particles on different targets in the incident energy range from 17.4 to 48.1 MeV/u. The calculation result can well reproduce the experimental data. The nucleus-nucleus interaction radius parameterγ0 was extracted from experimental σR. It is found that γ0 becomes constant with the increasing mass number of target.

  14. Transport Coefficients of Black M3-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    The local uplift via local SYZ mirror symmetry of (M)N (fractional)D3-branes, and wrapped N_f flavor D7-branes in the presence of a black-hole resulting in a non-Kaehler resolved warped deformed conifold (NKRWDC) in [1], was carried out in [2] and resulted in black M3-branes; the deviation from the ISD condition of G_3 proportional to the square of the resolution parameter, in the limits of [1] and MQGP limit of [2], imposed on (g_s,M,N), can be ignored [3]. The uplift, if valid globally, asymptotes to M5-branes wrapping a two-cycle (homologously an (large) integer sum of two-spheres) in AdS_5xM_6. Interestingly, in the limits of [1]/ [2], assuming the deformation > resolution, by estimating the five SU(3) structure torsion (\\tau) classes W_{1,2,3,4,5} we show that \\tau\\in W_5 in the large-r limit, implying the NKRWDC reduces to a warped Kaehler deformed conifold. Further, the local T^3 of [2] in the large-r limit and the limits of [1] and the `MQGP' limit of [2], satisfies the same conditions as the maximal ...

  15. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  16. Solving Single Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Unequal Release Date Using Neurohybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Tarik; Koker, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    A particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) has been used to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem (SMTWT) with unequal release date. To find the best solutions three different solution approaches have been used. To prepare subhybrid solution system, genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) have been used. In the subhybrid system (GA and SA), GA obtains a solution in any stage, that solution is taken by SA and used as an initial solution. When SA finds better solution than this solution, it stops working and gives this solution to GA again. After GA finishes working the obtained solution is given to PSO. PSO searches for better solution than this solution. Later it again sends the obtained solution to GA. Three different solution systems worked together. Neurohybrid system uses PSO as the main optimizer and SA and GA have been used as local search tools. For each stage, local optimizers are used to perform exploitation to the best particle. In addition to local search tools, neurodominance rule (NDR) has been used to improve performance of last solution of hybrid-PSO system. NDR checked sequential jobs according to total weighted tardiness factor. All system is named as neurohybrid-PSO solution system.

  17. Solving Single Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Unequal Release Date Using Neurohybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Cakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO has been used to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem (SMTWT with unequal release date. To find the best solutions three different solution approaches have been used. To prepare subhybrid solution system, genetic algorithms (GA and simulated annealing (SA have been used. In the subhybrid system (GA and SA, GA obtains a solution in any stage, that solution is taken by SA and used as an initial solution. When SA finds better solution than this solution, it stops working and gives this solution to GA again. After GA finishes working the obtained solution is given to PSO. PSO searches for better solution than this solution. Later it again sends the obtained solution to GA. Three different solution systems worked together. Neurohybrid system uses PSO as the main optimizer and SA and GA have been used as local search tools. For each stage, local optimizers are used to perform exploitation to the best particle. In addition to local search tools, neurodominance rule (NDR has been used to improve performance of last solution of hybrid-PSO system. NDR checked sequential jobs according to total weighted tardiness factor. All system is named as neurohybrid-PSO solution system.

  18. New BMW M3 sports coupe; Neues Sportcoupe M3 von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A.; Friedmann, S.; Gehrig, H.; Huebner, W.; Weidhase, U. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany); Koplenig, W. [BMW, Muenchen (Germany). Fachbereich Karosserie

    2000-10-01

    Since 1972 Motorsport (which has been known as BMW M since 1994) has been manufacturing automobiles of exceptionally sporting character on the basis of suitable series-production cars. With its new M3, BMW M continues this tradition. It is a sports coupe based on the latest BMW 3 Series model line. Its sports design embodies the essentials of BMW M's performance philosophy. Both visible and invisible 'highlights' such as the new high-speed driveline rating elevate its longitudinal and lateral driving dynamics to the level of a racing car. We have also succeeded in maintaining the basic car's unlimited suitability for everyday use. The new M3 is therefore a fully-fledged sports car without the typical disadvantages of this type of vehicle. (orig.) [German] Bereits seit 1972 entstehen bei BMW Motorsport (seit 1994 BMW M) auf der Basis von Serienfahrzeugen Automobile mit aussergewoehnlichen sportlichen Eigenschaften. Mit dem neuen M3, abgeleitet von der aktuellen BMW Dreier-Reihe, setzt BMW M diese Tradition fort. Das Sportcoupe erschliesst ueber die weiterentwickelte Hochdrehzahlauslegung eine Fahrdynamik in Laengs- und Querrichtung auf dem Niveau eines Rennsportwagens. Gleichzeitig ist es gelungen, die uneingeschraenkte Alltagstauglichkeit des Basis-Fahrzeugs zu erhalten. Der neue M3 ist somit ein vollwertiger Sportwagen, vermeidet aber dessen typische Nachteile. (orig.)

  19. Observations of Particle Organic Nitrate from Airborne and Ground Platforms in North America: Insights into Vertical and Geographical Distributions, Gas/Particle Partitioning, Losses, and Contributions to Total Particle Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D. A.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Nault, B.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Docherty, K. S.; Wagner, N. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic nitrate formation in the atmosphere represents a sink of NOx and a termination of the HOx/NOx­ O3-formation cycles, can act as a NOx reservoir transporting reactive nitrogen, and contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, particle organic nitrates (pRONO2) are rarely measured and thus poorly understood. We use measurements of pRONO2 and total (gas+particle) organic nitrate (totRONO2), OA, and ammonium nitrate from the DC3 and SEAC4RS aircraft and several ground campaigns to investigate vertical and geographical distributions, gas/particle partitioning, losses, and contributions to total particle nitrate (pTotNO3). Quantification with aerosol mass spectrometry is evaluated. The fraction of pTotNO3 that is pRONO2 shows a steep inverse relationship with pTotNO3, approaching 100% at low pTotNO3, primarily at rural and remote locations. pRONO2 was typically 10-30% of totRONO2 with little vertical gradient in gas/particle partitioning from the boundary layer (BL) to the upper troposphere (UT). However, pRONO2 and totRONO2 concentrations show strong vertical gradients, with a steep decrease from the top of the BL up through the residual layer. pRONO2 contribution to OA shows a moderate increase with lower OA loadings in the BL and free troposphere (~2-3% by mass of nitrate group) with higher contributions at the lowest OA (5-8%), mostly observed in the UT. In the BL, RONO2 gas/particle partitioning shows a trend with temperature, with higher particle fraction at lower temperatures, as expected from partitioning theory. However, the temperature trend is much weaker than for single compound partitioning, which may be due to a broad mixture of species. Little to no dependence of pRONO­2/OA on RH or estimated particle water was observed in the BL, suggesting that losses of pRONO2 species due to hydrolysis are too rapid to observe in this dataset and there may be a substantial fraction of pRONO2 species that are not prone to rapid hydrolysis.

  20. A Total Measure of Multi-Particle Quantum Correlations in Atomic Schrödinger Cat States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Ram Narayan

    2017-04-01

    We propose a total measure of multi-particle quantum correlation in a system of N two-level atoms (N qubits). We construct a parameter that encompasses all possible quantum correlations among N two-level atoms in arbitrary symmetric pure states and define its numerical value to be the total measure of the net atom-atom correlations. We use that parameter to quantify the total quantum correlations in atomic Schrödinger cat states, which are generated by the dispersive interaction in a cavity. We study the variation of the net amount of quantum correlation as we vary the number of atoms from N=2 to N=100 and obtain some interesting results. We also study the variation of the net correlation, for fixed interaction time, as we increase the number of atoms in the excited state of the initial system, and notice some interesting features. We also observe the behaviour of the net quantum correlation as we continuously increase the interaction time, for the general state of N two-level atoms in a dispersive cavity.

  1. Land use regression models for total particle number concentrations using 2D, 3D and semantic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Löwner, Marc-Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Total particle number concentration (TNC) was studied in a 1 × 2 km area in Berlin, the capital of Germany by three Land Use Regression models (LUR). The estimation of TNC was established and compared using one 2D-LUR and two 3D-LUR models. All models predict total number concentrations TNC by using urban morphological (2D resp. 3D) and additional semantical parameters. 2D and semantical parameters were derived from Open Street Map data (OSM) whereas 3D parameters were derived from a CityGML-based 3D city model. While the models are capable to depict the spatial variation of TNC across the study area, the two 3D-LUR showed better results than the 2D-LUR. The 2D-LUR model explained 74% of the variance of TNC for the full data set with root mean square error (RMSE) of 4014 cm-3 while the 3D-LUR explained 79% of the variance with an RMSE of 3477 cm-3. The further introduction of a new spatial parameter, the Frontal Area Index (FAI) that represents the dynamic factor wind direction enhanced the 3D-LUR to explain 82% of the variance with RMSE of 3389 cm-3. Furthermore, the semantical parameters (e.g. streets type) played a significant role in all models.

  2. Submicron sized ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particle analysis from revised SB Charité III total disc replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ilona; Baxter, Ryan; van Ooij, André; Willems, Paul; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Kurtz, Steven; Steinbeck, Marla

    2011-09-01

    Submicron sized particles are frequently observed in retrieved total hip and knee periprosthetic tissues and appear to be critical in the activation of the phagocytic inflammatory response. In this paper the concentration, size and shape of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles between 0.05 and 2.00μm were determined after isolation from periprosthetic tissues from retrieved lumbar SB Charité III total disc replacements (TDR) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For comparison, UHMWPE wear particles were isolated from γ-radiation-air sterilized total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision tissues. The mean concentration of UHMWPE particles in TDR tissues was 1.6×10(9)g(-1)tissue (range 1.3-2.0), which was significantly lower than the concentration of 2.3×10(9)g(-1) THA revision tissue (range 1.8-3.2) (P=0.03). The mean particle size (equivalent circular diameter: TDR, 0.46μm; THA 0.53μm, P=0.60) and mean shape were comparable between TDR and THA (aspect ratio: TDR, 1.89; THA, 1.99, P=0.35; roundness: TDR, 0.58; THA, 0.56, P=0.35). However, the TDR particles tended to be smaller and more round. Although no correlations were found between visible damage to the UHMWPE core and the concentration or shape of the UHMWPE particles, a positive correlation was found between increasing particle size and increasing rim penetration of the TDR core (P=0.04). The presence of UHMWPE particles of similar size and shape in TDR tissue, albeit lower in concentration, might explain why, unlike THA, pain rather than osteolysis is the major reason for revision surgery. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  4. Genomic standards consortium workshop: metagenomics, metadata and metaanalysis (M3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Peter; Hirschman, Lynette; Field, Dawn; Wooley, John

    2010-01-01

    The M3 workshop has, as its primary focus, the rapidly growing area of metagenomics, including the metadata standards and the meta-analysis approaches needed to organize, process and interpret metagenomics data. The PSB Workshop builds on the first M3 meeting, a Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting at ISMB 2009, organized by the Genomics Standards Consortium.

  5. Feasibility of the implementation of total enclosure systems to reduce fugitive particle emissions; Viabilidad de la implantacion de sistemas de cerramiento total para reducir las emisiones difusas de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfelix, V.; Lopez-Lilao, A.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Pallares, S.; Monfort, E.

    2012-07-01

    Following the entry into force of the IPPC directive, the activities that it affects, which include the ceramic sector, have needed to control fugitive particle emissions by implementing corrective measures that often entail significant economic costs. In the most demanding cases, the Integrated Environmental Authorisations (IEA) awarded to companies in the ceramic industry require total enclosure of the raw materials handling operations. This paper evaluates the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of the implementation of a total enclosure or containment system as a way of reducing fugitive particle emissions, as this is considered one of the Best Available Techniques (BAT). The study was carried out on the raw materials reception, handling, and storage operations at a ceramic company that manufactures spray-dried powder granules. (Author) 27 refs.

  6. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  7. The Structure of Nuclei Joint Analysis of Elastic, Inelastic Scattering and Total Reactions Cross-Sections for ^{90,94}Zr-Particles Data

    CERN Document Server

    Duysebaev, A D; Kuchtina, I N; Sadykov, B M; Slusarenko, L I; Tokarevsky, V V; Fayans, S A

    2001-01-01

    A complex analysis of experimental data of elastic, inelastic scattering and total reactions cross-sections of alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei is performed. Values of the deformation lengths and neutron-proton multipole matrix elements relations for 2_{1}^{+}- and 3_{1}^{+}-states of ^{90,92,94,96}Zr nuclei for different types of particles are obtained. A comparative analysis is made. Experimental data for inelastic scattering of 35.4, 40.0, 50.1 and 65.0 MeV alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei are analysed for understanding the phase shifts in frames of the unified approach.

  8. M3: Matrix Multiplication on MapReduce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Francesco; Ceccarello, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem.......M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem....

  9. Contribution of new particle formation to the total aerosol concentration at the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Herrmann, Erik; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Molteni, Ugo; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Steinbacher, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Dommen, Josef; Gysel, Martin; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-10-01

    Previous modeling studies hypothesized that a large fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is attributed to new particle formation (NPF) in the free troposphere. Despite the potential importance of this process, only few long-term observations have been performed to date. Here we present the results of a 12 month campaign of NPF observations at the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m above sea level (asl)). Our results show that NPF significantly adds to the total aerosol concentration at the JFJ and only occurs via previous precursor entrainment from the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Freshly nucleated particles do not directly grow to CCN size (90 nm) within observable time scales (maximum 48 h). The contribution of NPF to the CCN concentration is low within this time frame compared to other sources, such as PBL entrainment of larger particles. A multistep growth mechanism is proposed which allows previously formed Aitken mode particles to add to the CCN concentration. A parametrization is derived to explain formation rates at the JFJ, showing that precursor concentration, PBL influence, and global radiation are the key factors controlling new particle formation at the site.

  10. Seasonal to hour variation scales in abundance and production of total and particle-attached bacteria in the open NW Mediterranean Sea (0–1000 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mével

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the vertical and temporal dynamics of total vs. particle-attached bacterial abundance and activity over a 5 week period under summer to autumn transition in NW Mediterranean Sea. At a weekly time scale, total bacterial biomass and production in the euphotic layers was significantly correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass. At an hourly time scale, total bacterial biomass responded very rapidly to chlorophyll a fluctuations, suggesting a tight coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria for resource partitioning during the summer-autumn transition. In contrast, no influence of diel changes on bacterial parameters was detected. Episodic events such as coastal water intrusions had a significant positive effect on total bacterial abundance and production, whereas we could not detect any influence of short wind events whatever the magnitude. Finally, we show that particle-attached bacteria can represent a large proportion (up to 49% of the total bacterial activity in the euphotic layer but display rapid and sporadic changes at hourly time scales. In the mesopelagic layers, bacterial abundance and production linearly decreased with depth, except some production peaks at 400–750 m. This study underlines the value of large datasets covering different temporal scales to clarify the biogeochemical role of bacteria in the cycling of organic matter in open seawater.

  11. Assembly language programming ARM Cortex-M3

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    ARM designs the cores of microcontrollers which equip most "embedded systems" based on 32-bit processors. Cortex M3 is one of these designs, recently developed by ARM with microcontroller applications in mind. To conceive a particularly optimized piece of software (as is often the case in the world of embedded systems) it is often necessary to know how to program in an assembly language.This book explains the basics of programming in an assembly language, while being based on the architecture of Cortex M3 in detail and developing many examples.It is written for people who have never pr

  12. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  13. Pigment particles analysis with a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer: study of influence of instrumental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccato, Alessia; Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Ghent (Belgium); Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Moens, Luc [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an excellent tool to determine major, minor and trace elements in minuscule amounts of samples, making this technique very suitable for pigment analysis. Collecting minuscule amounts of pigment material from precious works of art by means of a cotton swab is a well-accepted sampling method, but poses specific challenges when TXRF is to be used for the characterization of the unknown material. (orig.)

  14. Three-dimensional particle tracking around microstructures in water via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and refractive-index-matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Noriyuki; Nakata, Shuichiro; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry (MnPIV) with a refractive-index-matching method is powerful technique for x- y- z (3D) flow measurement, because it can detect the 3D position of fluorescent particles with submicron resolution. In MnPIV, the intensity of fluorescence of a particle is used to estimate its z-position. However, it has been difficult to measure 3D flows around microstructures in water by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy because of light scattering caused by the different refractive indices of the structures and the working fluid. By using a thermal nanoimprinting technique, we succeeded in fabricating microstructures from a polymer resin whose refractive index is equal to that of water, and we used these microstructures to perform MnPIV in water. As a result of the match between the refractive index of water and that of the microstructures, we were able to perform 3D tracking of nanoparticles around the microstructures in water.

  15. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  16. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  17. M3: An Open Model for Measuring Code Artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izmaylova, A.; Klint, P.; Shahi, A.; Vinju, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the EU FP7 project ``OSSMETER'' we are developing an infra-structure for measuring source code. The goal of OSSMETER is to obtain insight in the quality of open-source projects from all possible perspectives, including product, process and community. This is a "white paper" on M3,

  18. Low-lying electronic states of M(3)O(9)(-) and M(3)O(9)(2-) (M = Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

    2007-11-01

    Multiple low-lying electronic states of M(3)O(9)(-) and M(3)O(9)(2-) (M = Mo, W) arise from the occupation of the near-degenerate low-lying virtual orbitals in the neutral clusters. We used density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)) with correlation consistent basis sets to study the structures and energetics of the electronic states of these anions. The adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies (ADEs and VDEs) of the anionic clusters were calculated with 27 exchange-correlation functionals including one local spin density approximation functional, 13 generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals, and 13 hybrid GGA functionals, as well as the CCSD(T) method. For M(3)O(9)(-), CCSD(T) and nearly all of the DFT exchange-correlation functionals studied predict the (2)A(1) state arising from the Jahn-Teller distortion due to singly occupying the degenerate e' orbital to be lower in energy than the (2)A(1)' state arising from singly occupying the nondegenerate a(1)' orbital. For W(3)O(9)(-), the (2)A(1) state was predicted to have essentially the same energy as the (2)A(1)' state at the CCSD(T) level with core-valence correlation corrections included and to be higher in energy or essentially isoenergetic with most DFT methods. The calculated VDEs from the CCSD(T) method are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values for both electronic states if estimates for the corrections due to basis set incompleteness are included. For M(3)O(9)(2-), the singlet state arising from doubly occupying the nondegenerate a(1)' orbital was predicted to be the most stable state for both M = Mo and W. However, whereas M(3)O(9)(2-) was predicted to be less stable than M(3)O(9)(-), W(3)O(9)(2-) was predicted to be more stable than W(3)O(9)(-).

  19. Effects of forage particle size and long hay for cows fed total mixed rations based on alfalfa and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J M; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Campbell, C; Grieve, D G; Allen, O B

    1994-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, in which particle length of alfalfa silage in the TMR and supplementary long alfalfa-grass hay were the factors, was used to determine whether hay benefits lactating cows and whether its effects depend on fibrosity of the main forage source. Without supplementary hay, TMR contained 45% forage, including corn silage, and 26 to 27.5% NDF. When hay was fed, the amount of alfalfa silage in the corresponding TMR was reduced. In the production trial, 40 cows (20 multiparous) were fed the diets for 8 wk in early lactation. No interactions of silage length and hay occurred on any production variables except lactose concentration in the milk of multiparous cows. Addition of hay to the diet enhanced DMI, without effect on production, so efficiency of milk production was reduced. Shorter alfalfa silage enhanced DMI by multiparous cows, reduced SCM and FCM in primiparous cows, and depressed fat test in both groups. Milk composition and component production generally were unaffected. Five rumen-fistulated cows in early to midlactation each were given the four treatments during four 3-wk periods. Hay enhanced rumination when short alfalfa silage was fed but tended to reduce it on long alfalfa silage. Hay also depressed rumen pH and enhanced VFA concentrations. Alfalfa silage length had minimal effects on rumination and no effect on fermentation, and neither hay nor silage length affected digestion of silage DM or NDF in the rumen. Addition of hay to the diet may not be beneficial for cows fed TMR, but longer term feeding studies are needed.

  20. M3与M5的MICM鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索翠平; 李寅; 赵霞

    2003-01-01

    @@ 急性早幼粒细胞自血病(M3型,acute promyelocytic leukemia,APL)和急性单核细胞白血病(M5型,acute monocytic leukemia,AMOL)同属于急性非淋巴细胞白血病.二者在临床与形态上均有相似之处,特别是细颗粒型急性早幼粒细胞白血病(M3b)在形态上更易被误诊为急性单核细胞白血病.但二者的治疗与预后却有很大的区别.在此,结合MICM分型原则对二者加以鉴别,以免造成误诊,导致不应有的后果.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  2. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology.

  3. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford); (NIH); (D.E. Shaw); (Hanyang); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  4. A novel antiarrhythmic target-M3-R/IKM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-fengYANG

    2004-01-01

    The total efficient rate of antiarrhythmic agents is only 30%to 60%, and the compounding problem is the lack of an effective therapy for some serious arrhythmias. Muscarinic receptors have been cloned and subdivided into the five subtypes M1, M2, M3,M4 and M5. And M2 receptors have long been believed to be the only functional subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in the heart, although recent studies have provided

  5. The boundary RSOS \\mathcal{M}(3,5) model

    CERN Document Server

    Deeb, Omar El

    2015-01-01

    We consider the critical non-unitary minimal model {\\cal M}(3,5) with integrable boundaries. We analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory through the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) equations. We derive these equations for all excitations by solving, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A_{4} RSOS lattice model of Forrester and Baxter in Regime III, then determine their corresponding energies. The excitations are classified in terms of (m,n) systems.

  6. 3000m3/h cutter-suction dredge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In October 2004, the Fumin 9 3000 m3/h cutter-suction dredge co-designed by the Dutch IHC and Guangzhou Wenchong Shipyard went through a dock usability test and a 25 meter clean water test. The dredge is the largest of its kind in China, and the most advanced and most efficient cutter-suction dredge in the world. The IHC was responsible for the design of the ship till its working design was taken over by Guangzhou Wenchong Shipyard, the builder of the dredge, who had started its construction on October 23, 2003.

  7. Hydraulic supports for polishing TMT M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haifei; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Haixiang; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    For polishing the ultra-thin TMT M3MP, a polishing support system with 18 hydraulic supports (HS) is introduced. This work focuses on the designing and testing of these HSs. Firstly the design concept of HS system is discussed; then mechanical implementation of the HS structure is carried out, with special consideration of fluid cycling, work pressurization and the weight component. Afterward the piping installation and the de-gas process for the working fluid are implemented. Pressurization and stiffness are well checked before system integration for the single HS unit. Finally the support system is integrated for the polishing process.

  8. 针对MCU应用的Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费浙平

    2005-01-01

    传统上MCU领域一直由4/8位架构占据了主导地位,部分采用16位架构,而32位才刚起步,在多数人印象中它还是一种奢侈的高端应用。但近几年这种情况已有了很大变化,越来越多的设计采用32位MCU架构,而ARMCotex—M3的面世也为32位MCU应用带来更多可能。

  9. M3A system (2000–2005 – operation and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petihakis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP (1998–2001 a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and aerial communication and with the design of the surface buoy. In the second phase of the MFS project named Mediterranean Forecasting System Towards Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP (2001–2005, the aim was to solve those problems and to consolidate the M3A. During the approximately five years of operation there were 13 scheduled and 15 emergency visits with a total duration of 65 days. The acquired experience through the maintenance program proved that the continuous observation of a so important system with a relative low cost is feasible.

  10. Magnetic circular dichroism of porphyrin lanthanide M3+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Padula, Daniele; Zhivotova, Elena; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Bouř, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanide complexes exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties yielding many applications as imaging probes, natural chirality amplifiers, and therapeutic agents. However, many properties are not fully understood yet. Therefore, we applied magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which provides enhanced information about the underlying electronic structure to a series of lanthanide compounds. The metals in the M(3+) state included Y, La, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu; the spectra were collected for selected tetraphenylporphin (TPP) and octaethylporphin (OEP) complexes in chloroform. While the MCD and UV-VIS absorption spectra were dominated by the porphyrin signal, metal binding significantly modulated them. MCD spectroscopy was found to be better suited to discriminate between various species than absorption spectroscopy alone. The main features and trends in the lanthanide series observed in MCD and absorption spectra of the complexes could be interpreted at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level, with effective core potentials on metal nuclei. The sum over state (SOS) method was used for simulation of the MCD intensities. The combination of the spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computations is important for understanding the interactions of the metals with the organic compounds.

  11. Comparison of human and porcine gastric clasp and sling fiber contraction by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegesna, Anil K; Braverman, Alan S; Miller, Larry S; Tallarida, Ronald J; Tiwana, Mansoor I; Khayyam, Umar; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    To compare the gastroesophageal junction of the human with the pig, M(2) and M(3) receptor densities and the potencies of M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in gastric clasp and sling smooth muscle fibers. Total muscarinic and M(2) receptors are higher in pig than human clasp and sling fibers. M(3) receptors are higher in human compared with pig sling fibers but lower in human compared with pig clasp fibers. Clasp fibers have fewer M(3) receptors than sling fibers in both humans and pigs. Similar to human clasp fibers, pig clasp fibers contract significantly less than pig sling fibers. Analysis of the methoctramine Schild plot suggests that M(2) receptors are involved in mediating contraction in pig clasp and sling fibers. Darifenacin potency suggests that M(3) receptors mediate contraction in pig sling fibers and that M(2) and M(3) receptors mediate contraction in pig clasp fibers. Taken together, the data suggest that both M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptors mediate the contraction in both pig clasp and sling fibers similar to human clasp and sling fibers.

  12. Exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing titanium dioxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huadong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhou, Jingwen; Tang, Shichuan; Kong, Fanling; Li, Xinwei; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Ji; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) human exposure is inevitable, but the exposure data on TiO2 are still limited. This study adopted off-line filter-based sampling combined with real-time activity-based monitoring to measure the concentrations in a workplace manufacturing TiO2 (primary diameter: 194 ± 108 nm). Mass concentrations (MCs) of aerosol particles in the packaging workshop (total dust: 3.17 mg/m3, nano dust: 1.22 mg/m3) were much higher than those in the milling workshop (total dust: 0.79 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.31 mg/m3) and executive office (total dust: 0.44 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.19 mg/m3). However, the MCs of TiO2 were at a relatively low level in the packaging workshop (total TiO2: 46.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 16.7 μg/m3) and milling workshop (total TiO2: 39.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 19.4 μg/m3) by ICP-MS. The number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC) of aerosol particles potentially deposited in alveolar (SACA), and tracheobronchial (SACTB) regions of lungs in the packaging workshop were (1.04 ± 0.89) × 105 particles/cm3, 414.49 ± 395.07, and 86.01 ± 83.18 μm2/cm3, respectively, which were all significantly higher than those of the milling workshop [(0.12 ± 0.40) × 105 particles/cm3, 75.38 ± 45.23, and 17.60 ± 9.22 μm2/cm3, respectively] as well as executive office and outdoor background ( p workplace.

  13. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M; Avila-Casado, C; Fortoul, T I; Vedal, S; Stevens, B; Churg, A

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiologic evidence associates particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations and the relationship between ambient levels and retained particles in the lung remain uncertain. We examined the parenchymal particle content of 11 autopsy lungs from never-smoking female residents of Mexico City, a region with high ambient particle levels [3-year mean PM(10) (particulate matter aerodynamic diameter)= 66 microg/m(3)], and 11 control residents of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a region with relatively low levels (3-year mean PM(10) = 14 microg/m(3). Autopsy lungs were dissolved in bleach and particles were identified and counted by analytical electron microscopy. Total particle concentrations in the Mexico City lungs were significantly higher [geometric mean = 2,055 (geometric SD = 3.9) x 10(6) particles/g dry lung vs. 279 (1.8) x 10(6) particles/g dry lung] than in lungs from Vancouver residents. Lungs from Mexico City contained numerous chain-aggregated masses of ultrafine carbonaceous spheres, some of which contained sulfur, and aggregates of ultrafine aluminum silicate. These aggregates made up an average of 25% of the total particles by count in the lungs from Mexico City, but were only rarely seen in lungs from Vancouver. These observations indicate for the first time that residence in a region with high levels of ambient particles results in pulmonary retention of large quantities of fine and ultrafine particle aggregates, some of which appear to be combustion products.

  14. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  15. Sources and dynamics of fluorescent particles in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M L; Knibbs, L D; He, C; Grzybowski, P; Johnson, G R; Huffman, J A; Bell, S C; Wainwright, C E; Matte, D L; Dominski, F H; Andrade, A; Morawska, L

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent particles can be markers of bioaerosols and are therefore relevant to nosocomial infections. To date, little research has focused on fluorescent particles in occupied indoor environments, particularly hospitals. In this study, we aimed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of fluorescent particles in two large hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (one for adults and one for children). We used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) to identify fluorescent particle sources, as well as their contribution to total particle concentrations. We found that the average concentrations of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent particles were higher in the adults' hospital (0.06×10(6) and 1.20×10(6)  particles/m(3) , respectively) than in the children's hospital (0.03×10(6) and 0.33×10(6)  particles/m(3) , respectively) (Pparticles was higher in the children's hospital. Based on the concentration results and using activity diaries, we were able to identify sources of particle production within the two hospitals. We demonstrated that particles can be easily generated by a variety of everyday activities, which are potential sources of exposure to pathogens. Future studies to further investigate their role in nosocomial infection are warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modeling of lithium granule injection in NSTX using M3D-C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fil, A.; Kolemen, E.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S.; Parks, P. B.; Lunsford, R.; Maingi, R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present simulations of pedestal control by lithium granule injection (LGI) in NSTX. A model for small granule ablation has been implemented in the M3D-C1 code (Jardin et al 2012 Comput. Sci. Discovery 5 014002), allowing the simulation of realistic lithium granule injections. 2D and 3D simulations of Li injections in NSTX H-mode plasmas are performed and the effect of granule size, injection angle and velocity on the pedestal gradient increase is studied. The amplitude of the local pressure perturbation caused by the granules is found to be highly dependent on the solid granule size. Adjusting the granule injection velocity allows one to inject more particles at the pedestal top. 3D simulations show the destabilization of high order MHD modes whose amplitude is directly linked to the localized pressure perturbation, which is found to depend on the toroidal localization of the granule density source.

  17. Transport coefficients of black MQGP M3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhuria, Mansi [Physical Research Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Division, Ahmedabad (India); Misra, Aalok [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India)

    2015-01-01

    The Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) mirror, in the 'delocalised limit' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004), of N D3-branes, M fractional D3-branes and N{sub f} flavour D7-branes wrapping a non-compact four-cycle in the presence of a black hole (BH) resulting in a non-Kahler resolved warped deformed conifold (NKRWDC) in Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187, 2010), was carried out in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) and resulted in black M3- branes. There are two parts in our paper. In the first we show that in the 'MQGP' limit discussed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) a finite g{sub s} (and hence expected to be more relevant to QGP), finite g{sub s}M, N{sub f}, g{sub s}{sup 2}MN{sub f} and very large g{sub s}N, and very small (g,M{sup 2})/(N), we have the following. (i) The uplift, if valid globally (like Dasgupta et al., Nucl Phys B 755:21, 2006) for fractional D3 branes in conifolds, asymptotically goes to M5-branes wrapping a two-cycle (homologously a (large) integer sum of two-spheres) in AdS{sub 5} x M{sub 6}. (ii) Assuming the deformation parameter to be larger than the resolution parameter, by estimating the five SU(3) structure torsion (τ) classes W{sub 1,2,3,4,5} we verify that τ element of W{sub 5} in the large-r limit, implying the NKRWDC reduces to a warped Kahler deformed conifold. (iii) The local T{sup 3} of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) in the large-r limit satisfies the same conditions as the maximal T{sup 2}-invariant special Lagrangian three-cycle of T*S{sup 3} of Ionel and Min-OO (J Math 52(3), 2008), partly justifying use of SYZ-mirror symmetry in the ''delocalised limit'' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004) in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013). In the second part of the paper, by either integrating out the angular coordinates of the non-compact four-cycle which a D7-brane wraps around, using the Ouyang embedding, in the DBI action of a D7-brane evaluated at infinite

  18. Single molecule investigations of DNA looping using the tethered particle method and translocation by acto-myosin using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, John F.

    Single molecule biophysics aims to understand biological processes by studying them at the single molecule level in real time. The proteins and nucleic acids under investigation typically exist in an aqueous environment within ˜ ten degrees of room temperature. These seemingly benign conditions are actually quite chaotic at the nanoscale, where single bio-molecules perform their function. As a result, sensitive experiments and statistical analyses are required to separate the weak single molecule signal from its background. Protein-DNA interactions were investigated by monitoring DNA looping events in tethered particle experiments. A new analysis technique, called the Diffusive hidden Markov method, was developed to extract kinetic rate constants from experimental data without any filtering of the raw data; a common step that improves the signal to noise ratio, but at the expense of lower time resolution. In the second system, translocation of the molecular motor myosin along its actin filament track was studied using polarized total internal reflection (polTIRF) microscopy, a technique that determines the orientation and wobble of a single fluorophore attached to the bio-molecule of interest. The range of resolvable angles was increased 4-fold to include a hemisphere of possible orientations. As a result, the handedness of actin filament twirling as it translocated along a myosin-coated surface was determined to be left-handed. The maximum time resolution of a polTIRF setup was increased 50-fold, in part by recording the arrival times and polarization state of single photons using a modified time-correlated single photon counting device. A new analysis, the Multiple Intensity Change Point algorithm, was developed to detect changes in molecular orientation and wobble using the raw time-stamped data with no user-defined bins or thresholds. The analysis objectively identified changes in the orientation of a bifunctional-rhodamine labeled calmodulin that was attached

  19. STOCK AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND CORN-DERIVED SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN AGGREGATE AND PRIMARY PARTICLE FRACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd

    2005-04-01

    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  20. Effects of Modulating M3 Muscarinic Receptor Activity on Azoxymethane-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that azoxymethane (AOM)-induced liver injury is robustly exacerbated in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient mice. We used the same mouse model to test the hypothesis that selective pharmacological modulation of M3R activity regulates the liver injury response. Initial experiments confirmed that giving a selective M3R antagonist, darifenacin, to AOM-treated mice mimicked M3R gene ablation. Compared to vehicle controls, mice treated with the M3R antagonist had reduced...

  1. M3A system (2000–2005 – operation and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petihakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the pilot phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP (2000 2003, a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and aerial communication and with the design of the surface buoy. In the second phase of the MFS project named Mediterranean Forecasting System Towards Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP (2003–2005, the aim was to solve those problems and to consolidate the M3A. For the minimisation of biofouling a pilot field study was performed and the techniques of bromine solution and copper shielding were evaluated. Additionally, the oligotrophy of the Aegean Sea dictated the need to ignore factory calibrations and to perform site-specific laboratory calibrations of the sensors. This procedure was proved necessary and produced calibration coefficients that gave results comparable to the measurements obtained with the laboratory analysis method. During the approximately five years of operation, there were 13 scheduled and 15 emergency visits, with a total duration of 65 days. The acquired experience through the maintenance program proved that the continuous observation of such a very important system with a relative low cost is feasible.

  2. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  3. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhong Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01, and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI were significantly increased (p <0.01 compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Lixia; Gao, Xiuzhi; Jia, Hui; Lian, Zhengxing; Tong, Nengsheng; Han, Tao

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

  5. Exception Processing of Cortex-M3%Cortex-M3的异常处理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方安平; 蔡俊宇

    2009-01-01

    详细阐述Cortex-M3异常的分类、优先级、进入和退出,以及在Cortex-M3异常处理机制中使用的新技术--迟到(late-arriving)和尾链(tail-chaining);最后,比较Cortex-M3和ARM7异常控制机制的区别,并量化分析迟到和尾链技术在异常处理中的优越性.

  6. Simulation of VANAM M3 test using MELCOR 1.8.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    A standard problem is defined as a comparison between experimental and analytical results in the field of reactor safety research. The detailed comparison of the data permits conclusions for the reliability and precision of computer simulations of postulated accidents and contributions to the development and improvement of reactor safety computer codes. Following a suggestion of the Federal Republic of Germany, the OECD-CSNI agreed to offer the experiment VANAM M3 at the Battelle Model Containment (BMC), an experiment on thermohydraulics and aerosol behavior in a containment, as International Standard Problem No. 37 (ISP 37). The general objectives of the ISP 37 are to analyse the thermohydraulics of a containment atmosphere and the distribution and settlement of aerosol after a high pressure path with depressurization by pressurizer relief valve discharge. Steam condensation at the aerosol particles(condensation in volume) is enhanced by the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol materials, even in case of limited steam supply. The originally small, low-density NaOH particles are converted to solution droplets by steam condensation, the increasing droplet mass significantly enhancing aerosol depletion by gravity settlement. As a result, higher depletion rate have been obtained for the NaOH aerosol than for the SnO{sub 2} aerosol in M2. The MELCOR code, version 1.8.3, has been used for the simulation of this experiment, and the results are compared with the results of other calculations at GRS. The objectives of this report are to contribute to the efficient use of MELCOR code and understanding of the aerosol behavior. 12 tabs., 19 figs., 11 refs. (Author).

  7. Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elihn, Karine; Ulvestad, Bente; Hetland, Siri; Wallen, Anna; Randem, Britt Grethe

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiologic study has demonstrated that asphalt workers show increased loss of lung function and an increase of biomarkers of inflammation over the asphalt paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agent(s) causes the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO(2) was determined by personal sampling. Exposure to ultrafine particles was measured by means of particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer mounted on a van following the paving machine. The fractions of organic and elemental carbon were determined. Asphalt paving workers were exposed to ultrafine particles with medium concentration of about 3.4 x 10(4)/cm(3). Ultrafine particles at the paving site originated mainly from asphalt paving activities and traffic exhaust; most seemed to originate from asphalt fumes. Oil mist exceeded occupational limits on some occasions. Diesel particulate matter was measured as elemental carbon, which was low, around 3 microg/m(3). NO(2) and total dust did not exceed limits. Asphalt pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.

  8. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    . We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, Fv/Fm (Fig.2). Some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance were also determined. The dose and particle flux during Foton-M3 flight were monitored in real time by the active spectrum-dosimeter Liulin- Photo, mounted on the top of Photo-II fluorimeter (Fig.2). Liulin-Photo measurements provided information on the amount of the energy released on the samples and the quality of the incident ionizing radiation [3]. The space flight results in relationship with the ground control simulation are discussed.

  9. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula......H or milk fat percentage. Cows maintained average ventral ruminal pH of 6.65 ± 0.02, medial ruminal pH of 5.95 ± 0.04, and milk fat of 4.42 ± 0.12% with chewing time of 28.0 ± 2.1 min/kg of DM when fed short particles. The medial ruminal pool of wet particulate matter was decreased by 10.53 ± 2.29 kg...... particles. The estimated ruminal fluid flow and therefore intraruminal VFA transport between medial and ventral phase was not affected by the FPS. In conclusion, the ruminal mat pool of VFA was proportional to the size of the mat and the only detected effects of decreasing FPS were decreasing the mat size...

  10. Different Characteristics of the Bright Branches of the Globular Clusters M3 and M13

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, D H; Jeon, Y B; Sim, K J; Cho, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Gak; Jeon, Young-Beom; Sim, Kyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out wide-field BVI CCD photometric observations of the GCs M3 and M13 using the BOAO 1.8 m telescope equipped with a 2K CCD. We present CMDs of M3 and M13. We have found AGB bumps at V = 14.85 for M3 at V = 14.25 for M13. It is found that AGB stars in M3 are more concentrated near the bump, while those in M13 are scattered along the AGB sequence. We identified the RGB bump of M3 at V = 15.50 and that of M13 at V = 14.80. We have estimated the ratios R and R2 for M3 and M13 and found that of R for M3 is larger than that for M13 while R2's for M3 and M13 are similar when only normal HB stars are used in R and R2 for M13. However, we found that R's for M3 and M13 are similar while R2 for M3 is larger than that for M13 when all the HB stars are included in R and R2 for M13. We have compared the observed RGB LFs of M3 and M13 with the theoretical RGB LF of Bergbusch & VandenBerg at the same radial distances from the cluster centers as used in R and R2 for M3 and M13. We found "extra stars" belonging...

  11. Second Parameter Effects in and between M3 and Palomar 3

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M; Ferraro, F R

    2001-01-01

    We study the globular clusters M3 and Palomar 3 as a "second parameter (2ndP) pair," showing that: i) M3 has a surprisingly strong *internal* 2ndP; ii) The dispersion in mass on the Pal 3 horizontal branch (HB) is intrinsically very small, leading to the most apparent differences in HB morphology between M3 and Pal 3; iii) Ignoring the difference in HB mass dispersion between M3 and Pal 3, their relative HB types can be accounted for by a fairly small difference in age, of order 0.5-1 Gyr.

  12. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation......-up water; corresponding to 0.32 m3 make-up water kg−1 feed). This was likely due to the accumulation of dissolved nutrients sustaining free-living bacterial populations, and/or accumulation of suspended colloids and fine particles less than 5 μm in diameter, which were not characterized in the study...

  13. Design Essentials of 80 m3 Diluted Acetaldehyde Storage Tank%浅谈80 m3稀乙醛储槽设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春山; 刘文元

    2009-01-01

    Combination 80 m3 thin acetaldehyde tank design, the paper focused on low-pressure tank-top cans bearing ring, tank walls, tank top and anchor set design and the method of calculating and comparing the general design of storage tanks were introduced.%结合80 m3稀乙醛储槽的设计,着重介绍低压储罐罐顶承压环、罐壁、罐顶以及锚栓设置的设计及其计算方法,并与一般储罐设计进行比较.

  14. Effects of Modulating M3 Muscarinic Receptor Activity on Azoxymethane-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Sandeep; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Twadell, William; Cheng, Kunrong; Rachakonda, Vikrant; Saxena, Neeraj; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that azoxymethane (AOM)-induced liver injury is robustly exacerbated in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient mice. We used the same mouse model to test the hypothesis that selective pharmacological modulation of M3R activity regulates the liver injury response. Initial experiments confirmed that giving a selective M3R antagonist, darifenacin, to AOM-treated mice mimicked M3R gene ablation. Compared to vehicle controls, mice treated with the M3R antagonist had reduced survival and increased liver nodularity and fibrosis. We next assessed AOM-induced liver injury in mice treated with a selective M3R agonist, pilocarpine. After pilocarpine treatment, stimulation of post-M3R signaling in the liver was evidenced by ERK and AKT activation. In contrast to the damaging effects of the M3R antagonist, administering pilocarpine to AOM-treated mice significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation, collagen deposition, bile ductule proliferation, and liver fibrosis and nodularity. As anticipated from these findings, livers from pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited reduced expression of key players in fibrosis (α1 collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1, PGDF, TGF-β1R, PGDFR) and decreased mRNA levels for molecules that regulate extracellular matrix formation (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-13). Cleaved caspase-3, nitrotyrosine and BrdU immunostaining provided evidence that pilocarpine treatment reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress, while increasing hepatocyte proliferation. Collectively, these findings identify several downstream mechanisms whereby M3R activation ameliorates toxic liver injury. These novel observations provide a proof-of-principle that selectively stimulating M3R activation to prevent or diminish liver injury is a therapeutic strategy worthy of further investigation. PMID:23707755

  15. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot pla...

  16. Residual stress in a M3:2 PM high speed steel; effect of mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Odén, Magnus; Carstensen, Jesper V.;

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lattice strains were investigated in an AISI M3:2 PM high-speed steel in the as heat treated condition and after exposure to alternating mechanical load. The volume changes during heat treatment were monitored with dilatometry. Hardened and tempered AISI M3:2 steel consists of tempered lath...

  17. Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Strandberg, Bo; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Arve; Svendsen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of cooks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), higher mutagenic aldehydes, total particles, and ultrafine particles during cooking. Experiments were performed by pan frying fresh and smoked bacon on both electric and gas stoves, and with the gas alone. Detailed analyses of PAHs were performed, with analyses of the levels of 32 different PAHs. A TSI-3939 scanning mobility particle sizer system was used to measure the ultrafine particles. The results showed that total PAHs were in the range of 270-300 ng/m(3) air. However, the smoked bacon experiment showed a somewhat different PAH pattern, whereby retene constituted about 10% of the total PAHs, which is a level similar to that of the abundant gas phase constituent phenanthrene. The reason for the elevated retene emissions is unknown. The total cancer risk, expressed as toxic equivalency factors, showed a somewhat higher risk on the electric stove (p decadienal were between 34 and 54 μg/m(3) air. The level of total particles was between 2.2 and 4.2 mg/m(3). Frying on a gas stove caused a statistically significant higher amount of ultrafine particles compared with frying on an electric stove. Large variations in the mobility diameter at peak particle concentration were found (74.4 nm-153.5 nm). The highest mobility diameter was found for frying on an electric stove. The gas flame itself showed a maximum production of 19.5-nm-sized particles and could not be the explanation for the difference between frying on the gas stove and frying on the electric stove. No single indicator for the exposure to cooking fume could be selected. Each compound should be measured independently to provide a comprehensive characterization of the cooking exposure.

  18. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection.

  19. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  20. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  1. On M3-transition rates in selected odd-mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, R.J. E-mail: lombard@ipno.in2p3.fr; Vdovin, A.I.; Shirikova, N.Yu.; Sushkov, A.V

    2003-06-02

    The reduced probabilities of M3 transitions are studied in five deformed and three spherical or near-spherical odd-mass nuclei. In deformed nuclei, the states linked by M3 transitions are predominantly of single-quasiparticle nature and the calculations are performed taking into account the single-quasiparticle as well as core-polarization terms in the M3-operator. Whereas in {sup 159}Ho, {sup 175}Yb, and {sup 179}Hf the ratio between theoretical and experimental B(M3) values range from 0.5 to 1.4, the situation is much worse in neutron deficient nuclides {sup 179}W and {sup 183}Pt where the theory used can not explain a very sharp drop of the B(M3) values. In the soft nuclei {sup 121}Cs and {sup 207}Po the states connected by M3 transitions are treated as 'quasiparticle x phonon' states. In {sup 113}Sn, the small 'quasiparticle x phonon' components are not sufficient to compensate vanishing contribution of the dominant quasiparticle component, which shares {delta}l forbidden transitions. Thus, on the whole theoretical description of B(M3) with the present simple models seems to be unsatisfactory. It constitutes a challenging problem both at the level of the nuclear structure and the transition operator.

  2. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  3. COOLING METHOD OF SILUMINA CASTINGS AK15M3 AT VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stecenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of cooling of castings from silumin AK15M3 is developed at the vertical centrifugal casting, enabling to receive bimetallic blanks with high-disperse eutectic and hypereutectic microstructures and minimal allowance for machining.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael C.; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-02-05

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3(T) was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  6. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Posttranslational modifications of human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: zooming in its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Fernández, Wilber

    2011-01-01

    The human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) regulates many important physiological roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, representing attractive potential pharmacological target for intervention. However, the lack of structural information on this receptor hampered the development of new potent antagonist with increased selectivity and lower side effects. Such structural inf...

  8. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  9. Signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUO, LIQIANG; LIU, YUQIANG; DING, ZHIBO; SUN, WENDONG; YUAN, MINGZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms used during signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM3) in prostate cancer. The microarray datasets of GSE3325, including 5 clinically localized primary prostate cancers and 4 benign prostate tissues, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in primary prostate cancer tissues compared with benign controls were screened using the Limma package. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Next, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with DEGs were predicted and miRNA-target DEG analysis was performed using a Web-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit. Finally, the PPI network and the miRNA-target DEG network were integrated using Cytoscape. In total, 224 DEGs were screened in the prostate cancer tissues, including 113 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes. CHRM3 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were enriched in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. EGF and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. EGF with the highest degree of connectivity was the hub node in the PPI network, and miR-34b could interact with Myc directly in the miRNA-target DEG network. EGF and Myc may exhibit significant roles in the progression of prostate cancer via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the MAPK signaling pathway. CHRM3 may activate these two pathways in prostate cancer progression. Thus, these two key factors and pathways may be crucial mechanisms during signal transduction by CHRM3 in prostate cancer. PMID:26870222

  10. M3B: A coarse grain model for the simulation of oligosaccharides and their water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, William A.; Cagin, Tahir; Molinero, Valeria

    2003-03-01

    Water and sugar dynamics in concentrated carbohydrate solutions is of utmost importance in food and pharmaceutical technology. Water diffusion in concentrated sugar mixtures can be slowed down many orders of magnitude with respect to bulk water [1], making extremely expensive the simulation of these systems with atomistic detail for the required time-scales. We present a coarse grain model (M3B) for malto-oligosaccharides and their water mixtures. M3B speeds up molecular dynamics simulations about 500-1000 times with respect to the atomistic model while retaining enough detail to be mapped back to the atomistic structures with low uncertainty in the positions. The former characteristic allows the study of water and carbohydrate dynamics in supercooled and polydisperse mixtures with characteristic time scales above the nanosecond. The latter makes M3B well suited for combined atomistic-mesoscale simulations. We present the parameterization of M3B force field for water and a family of technologically relevant glucose oligosaccharides, the alpha-(1->4) glucans. The coarse grain force field is completely parameterized from atomistic simulations to reproduce the density, cohesive energy and structural parameters of amorphous sugars. We will show that M3B is capable to describe the helical character of the higher oligosaccharides, and that the water structure in low moisture mixtures shows the same features obtained with the atomistic and M3B models. [1] R Parker, SG Ring: Carbohydr. Res. 273 (1995) 147-55.

  11. New M+, M3+-arsenates – the framework structures of AgM3+(HAsO42 (M3+ = Al, Ga and M+GaAs2O7 (M+ = Na, Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Schwendtner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of hydrothermally synthesized silver(I aluminium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], AgAl(HAsO42, silver(I gallium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], AgGa(HAsO42, silver gallium diarsenate(V, AgGaAs2O7, and sodium gallium diarsenate(V, NaGaAs2O7, were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature. The first two compounds are representatives of the MCV-3 structure type known for KSc(HAsO42, which is characterized by a three-dimensional anionic framework of corner-sharing alternating M3+O6 octahedra (M = Al, Ga and singly protonated AsO4 tetrahedra. Intersecting channels parallel to [101] and [110] host the Ag+ cations, which are positionally disordered in the Ga compound, but not in the Al compound. The hydrogen bonds are relatively strong, with O...O donor–acceptor distances of 2.6262 (17 and 2.6240 (19 Å for the Al and Ga compounds, respectively. The two diarsenate compounds are representatives of the NaAlAs2O7 structure type, characterized by an anionic framework topology built of M3+O6 octahedra (M = Al, Ga sharing corners with diarsenate groups, and M+ cations (M = Ag hosted in the voids of the framework. Both structures are characterized by a staggered conformation of the As2O7 groups.

  12. 3 800 m3耙吸挖泥船的HVAC设计%HVAC design for a 3 800 m3 trailing suction dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴菁; 赵骊; 陈维茂

    2007-01-01

    挖泥船的需求量与日俱增,逐渐形成系列船型.通过介绍3 800 m3耙吸挖泥船的HVAC设计系统,与以往挖泥船型比较,以及用户的评价,指出该船的空调系统设计思想和方法上的优点,为后续船提供了有益的参考.

  13. Muscarinic M3 receptors on structural cells regulate cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, Loes E.M.; van Os, Ronald P.; Dethmers-Ausema, Albertina; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; van den Berge, Maarten; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Wess, Jürgen; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Anticholinergics, blocking the muscarinic M-3 receptor, are effective bronchodilators for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recent evidence from M-3 receptor-deficient mice (M3R-/-) indicates that M-3 receptors also regulate neutrophilic inflammation in response to cigarette smoke

  14. Analisis Total Zat Padat Terlarut (Total Dissolved Solid) Dan Total Zat Padat Trsuspensi (Total Suspended Solid) Pada Air Badan Air Khususnya Air Sungai

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswaty, Asri

    2015-01-01

    Total dissolved solids ( Total Dissolved Solid ) is a measure of the solute( both organic and inorganic , for example : salt , etc.) contained in the river water. The total suspended solids (Total Suspended Solid) are solids that are in suspension , can be distinguished according to their size as suspended colloidal particles (colloidal particles) and particles suspended regular (suspended particles). The purpose of to determine whether the water meets the river that were analyzed in accordan...

  15. Design of USB smart card reader based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的智能卡USB读卡器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬霞; 张雪庆

    2010-01-01

    为了提高智能卡系统的通信速度和中断响应速度,设计了基于Cortex-M3和USB接口的智能卡读卡器系统.设计中采用具有ARM Cortex-M3内核的STM32F103R6T6等芯片进行相关的硬件设计,分别使用Keil和Visual C++6.0进行读卡器固件子系统程序和PC端子系统驱动程序开发,在此基础上,专门设计了测试程序用于测试系统的正确性和有效性.实验结果表明,该智能卡读卡器系统可实现计算机与智能卡的准确,高效通信.

  16. Renovation of stirring system in 300m3 L-lysine fermentor%300m3赖氨酸发酵罐搅拌系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远海

    2012-01-01

    以加强传质混合为目的提出300m3赖氨酸发酵罐搅拌系统改造方案,采用计算流体力学(CFD)数值模拟方法分析了搅拌系统轴功率、流型、传质混合能力,成功指导了搅拌系统改造,在电流增大的情况下,平均单罐产量提高2.44t,平均糖酸转化率提高约1个百分点.%To strengthen mass transfer and mixing for purpose, the reform scheme of stirring system in 300m3 L-lysine fermentor was proposed, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical simulation was used in analysing shaft power, flow pattern, mass transfer mixing ability of the stirring system, when current increased, the fermentation yield and L-lysine acid conversion rate of sugar was 2.44t and about 1% higher than the fermentor which not renovated.

  17. M3-receptor activation counteracts opioid-mediated apneusis, but the apneusis per se is not necessarily related to an impaired M3 mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yuka; Haji, Akira

    2011-11-07

    Morphine slows the respiratory cycle due to a predominant prolongation of inspiration (apneusis) by postponing the spontaneous termination of inspiration (inspiratory off-switching). The present study investigates whether the morphine-induced apneusis results from impairment of cholinergic mechanisms in the central respiratory network. The efferent discharge was recorded from the phrenic nerve in artificially ventilated and anesthetized rats with vagotomy. All drugs were injected intravenously. The phrenic nerve displayed an augmenting discharge during inspiration and arrest of discharge during expiration in normal condition. Administration of morphine (0.3-10.0mg/kg) dose-dependently provoked apneusis characterized by a long-lasting, plateau inspiratory discharge of the phrenic nerve. It shortened the expiratory duration. Subsequent administration of physostigmine (0.1mg/kg) restored the morphine-induced apneusis to eupnea with a partial recovery of the augmenting inspiratory discharge. This modification of physostigmine was blocked by a non-specific muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (3.0mg/kg), leading to re-prolongation of inspiration. A similar antagonism was affected by an antagonist of M3 cholinergic receptors, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 1.0 and 10.0mg/kg) but not by an antagonist of M1 cholinergic receptors, pirenzepine (1.0 and 10.0mg/kg). These results demonstrate that the activation of endogenous M3 cholinergic mechanisms counteracts the morphine-induced apneusis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The application of pentaprism scanning technology on the manufacturing of M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Erhui; Hu, Haixiang; Hu, Haifei; Cole, Glen; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    The PSS (pentaprism scanning system) has advantages of simple structure, needless of reference flat, be able of on-site testing, etc, it plays an important role in large flat reflective mirror's manufacturing, especially the high accuracy testing of low order aberrations. The PSS system measures directly the slope information of the tested flat surface. Aimed at the unique requirement of M3MP, which is the prototype mirror of the tertiary mirror in TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) project, this paper analyzed the slope distribution of low order aberrations, power and astigmatism, which is very important in the manufacturing process of M3MP. Then the sample route lines of PSS are reorganized and new data process algorism is implemented. All this work is done to improve PSS's measure sensitivity of power and astigmatism, for guiding the manufacturing process of M3MP.

  19. Muscarinic M3 receptor subtype gene expression in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, I; Mustafa, A; Riazi, M; Suliman, I; Sylvén, C; Adem, A

    2000-01-20

    The heart is an important target organ for cholinergic function. In this study, muscarinic receptor subtype(s) in the human heart were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated muscarinic receptor M2 and M3 subtype RNA in left/right atria/ventricles of donor hearts. Receptor autoradiography analysis using selective muscarinic ligands indicated an absence of M1 receptor subtype in the human heart. The level of muscarinic receptor binding in atria was two to three times greater than in ventricles. Our results suggest that muscarinic receptors in the human heart are of the M2 and M3 subtypes. This is the first report of M3 receptors in the human myocardium.

  20. M3 User's Manual. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo Utveckling, Bromma (Sweden)); Gomez, Javier B. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Geochemical modelling Group); Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations (M3). This new method and computer code is developed to trace the mixing and reaction processes in the groundwater. The aim of the M3 concept is to decode the often hidden and complex information gathered in the groundwater analytical data. The manual presents shortly the theory and practice behind the M3 method. The M3 computer code is also presented and emphasis is put on the reference manual. This includes detailed reference to the M3 program's abilities and limitations, installation procedures and all functions and operations that the program can perform. It also describes sample cases of how the program is used to analyse a test data set. This guide is part of the Help Files distributed together with M3. Two accompanying reports cover other aspects: - Concepts, Methods, and Mathematical Formulation, gives a complete description of the mathematical framework of M3 and introduces concepts and methods useful for the end user. - M3 version 3.0: Verification and Validation, gathers a collection of validation and verification exercises, designed to test each part of M3 code and to build confidence in its methodology. The M3 method has been tested and modified over several years. The development work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The main test site for the model was the underground Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The examples used in this manual are from a Aespoe international groundwater modelling co-operation project where one of the tools used was M3. The M3 concept has been applied on the data from SKB's site investigation programme and in data from Canada, Japan, Jordan, Gabon and Finland. The groundwater composition is a result of mixing processes and water-rock interaction. Standard groundwater models based on thermodynamic laws may not be applicable in a normal temperature groundwater system where equilibrium with many

  1. A Discussion of the High Energy Density Primary Battery Employed in the FOTON M3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetti, A.; Reece, D.; Spurrett, R.; Schautz, M.; Green, K.

    2008-09-01

    In 2005, ABSL Space Products (ABSL) was contracted by QinetiQ to deliver the lithium sulfuryl chloride primary battery system for the FOTON M3 ESA (European Space Agency) mission. FOTON M3 was led by the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight & Exploration and carried a number of materials science, fluid physics and biology experiments as well as technology demonstration payloads. A number of the experiments required a very high energy density primary battery power source. This battery was manufactured by ABSL, and the mission was successfully completed in September 2007 following a twelve days orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  2. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  3. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  4. 1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓有限元计算%Finite Element Calculation of 1 500 m3 Vertical Cylindrical Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志福; 陶保林; 孙文红

    2015-01-01

    Large cylindrical bunker is widely used in oil fired steam injection station project.An analysis of stress strength for the design of a 1 500 m3 vertical cylindrical bunker is given.A large general finite element software ANSYS is used to establish a actual size of the finite element nu-merical model,which connected with a coal bunker tank top,tank walls,bearing,cone bottom, consistent with steel support columns,using powerful border simulation and all kinds of applied load function,in a state filled with water + wind + snow + load cases,to calculate and check the various structural parts of coal bunker.The calculated results show that it has sufficient safe-ty margin and reliability.%大型圆筒式煤仓在油田燃煤注汽站工程中应用广泛,对某1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓进行了应力强度分析。运用有限元软件 ANSYS 建立了与煤仓罐顶、罐壁、支座连接、锥底、支撑钢架以及立柱实际尺寸相一致的有限元数值计算模型,利用软件的边界模拟和各种荷载施加功能,针对煤仓各结构部分,在充水状态+风载荷+雪载荷+地震载荷工况下进行了应力计算和校核,结果表明,此煤仓具有足够的安全裕度及可靠性。

  5. The biological response to nanometre-sized polymer particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiqin; Richards, Laura; Bladen, Catherine L.; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Tipper, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, nanometre-sized UHMWPE particles generated from hip and knee replacements have been identified in vitro and in vivo. UHMWPE particles in the 0.1–1.0 μm size range have been shown to be more biologically active than larger particles, provoking an inflammatory response implicated in late aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. The biological activity of nanometre-sized particles has not previously been studied. The biological response to clinically-relevant UHMWPE wear particles including nanometre-sized and micrometre-sized, along with polystyrene particles (FluoSpheres 20 nm, 60 nm, 200 nm and 1.0 μm), and nanometre-sized model polyethylene particles (Ceridust 3615®), was determined in terms of osteolytic cytokine release from primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Nanometre-sized UHMWPE wear particles, nanometre-sized Ceridust 3615® and 20 nm FluoSpheres had no significant effect on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 release from PBMNCs at a concentration of 100 μm3 particles per cell after 12 and 24 h. The micrometre-size UHMWPE wear particles (0.1–1.0 μm) and 60 nm, 200 nm and 1.0 μm FluoSpheres caused significantly elevated osteolytic cytokine release from PBMNCs. These results indicated that particles below circa 50 nm fail to activate PBMNCs and that particle size, composition and morphology played a crucial role in cytokine release by particle stimulated macrophages. PMID:26004221

  6. Size distribution of chemical elements and their source apportionment in ambient coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles in Shanghai urban summer atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Senlin; Zhang, Rui; Yao, Zhenkun; Yi, Fei; Ren, Jingjing; Wu, Minghong; Feng, Man; Wang, Qingyue

    2012-01-01

    Ambient coarse particles (diameter 1.8-10 microm), fine particles (diameter 0.1-1.8 microm), and ultrafine particles (diameter chemical elements was analyzed by means of an enrichment factor method. Our results showed that the average mass concentrations of coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles in the summer air were 9.38 +/- 2.18, 8.82 +/- 3.52, and 2.02 +/- 0.41 microg/m3, respectively. The mass percentage of the fine particles accounted for 51.47% in the total mass of PM10, indicating that fine particles are the major component in the Shanghai ambient particles. SEM/EDX results showed that the coarse particles were dominated by minerals, fine particles by soot aggregates and fly ashes, and ultrafine particles by soot particles and unidentified particles. SRXRF results demonstrated that crustal elements were mainly distributed in the coarse particles, while heavy metals were in higher proportions in the fine particles. Source apportionment revealed that Si, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Rb, and Sr were from crustal sources, and S, Cl, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, and Pb from anthropogenic sources. Levels of P, V, Cr, and Ni in particles might be contributed from multi-sources, and need further investigation.

  7. HST UV Observations of the Cores of M3 and M13

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Cacciari, C; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Cacciari, Carla; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    We present preliminary results from HST/WFPC2 observations of the central regions of the of the Galactic globular clusters M13 and M3. The clusters are almost identical in most respects including chemical composition, but there are dramatic differences in both the horizontal branch (HB) and blue straggler (BSS) populations. The M13 HB has a long blue tail extending 4.5 mag in V, reaching well below the level of the main sequence turn-off. M3 has no such feature. M3 and M13 are thus an extreme case of the ``second parameter problem'' in HB morphology. Also present in the M13 HB are two gaps similar to those seen in the clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 2808. M3 has a specific frequency of BSS three times larger than that of M13. Our results imply that neither age nor cluster density, two popular second parameter candidates, are likely to be responsible for the observed differences.

  8. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M3_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M3 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43486 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data ...

  9. On the Family of Thue Equation |x3 + mx2y- (m + 3) xy2 + y3 |= k

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jingbo; CHEN Jianhua; ZHANG Silan

    2006-01-01

    The family of cubic Thue equation which depend on two parameters | x3 + mx2 y- (m+3) xy2 + y3|=k is studied. Using rational approximation, we give a smaller upper bound of the solution of the equation, that is quite better than the present result. Moreover, we study two inequalities |x3 +mx2y- (m+3)xy2 +y3|=k≤2m+3 and |m3 +mm2y- (m+3)my2 + y3 | = k≤(2m+ 3)2 separately. Our result of upper bound make it easy to solve those inequalities by simple method of continuous fraction expansion.

  10. Divergent evolution of the M3A family of metallopeptidases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F; Murcha, Monika W; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2016-07-01

    Plants, as stationary organisms, have developed mechanisms allowing them efficient resource reallocation and a response to changing environmental conditions. One of these mechanisms is proteome remodeling via a broad peptidase network present in various cellular compartments including mitochondria and chloroplasts. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes as many as 616 putative peptidase-coding genes organized in 55 peptidase families. In this study, we describe the M3A family of peptidases, which comprises four members: mitochondrial and chloroplastic oligopeptidase (OOP), cytosolic oligopeptidase (CyOP), mitochondrial octapeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (Oct1) and plant-specific protein of M3 family (PSPM3) of unknown function. We have analyzed the evolutionary conservation of M3A peptidases across plant species and the functional specialization of the three distinct subfamilies. We found that the subfamily-containing OOP and CyOP-like peptidases, responsible for oligopeptide degradation in the endosymbiotic organelles (OOP) or in the cytosol (CyOP), are highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The Oct1-like peptidase subfamily involved in pre-protein maturation in mitochondria is conserved in all eukaryotes, whereas the PSPM3-like protein subfamily is strictly conserved in higher plants only and is of unknown function. Specific characteristics within PSPM3 sequences, i.e. occurrence of a N-terminal transmembrane domain and amino acid changes in distal substrate-binding motif, distinguish PSPM3 proteins from other members of M3A family. We performed peptidase activity measurements to analyze the role of substrate-binding residues in the different Arabidopsis M3A paralogs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Reactor performance of a 750 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant: varied substrate input conditions impacting methanogenic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Gstraunthaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 750 m(3) anaerobic digester was studied over a half year period including a shift from good reactor performance to a reduced one. Various abiotic parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA) (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, (iso-)butyric-, (iso-)valeric-, lactic acid), total C, total N, NH4 -N, and total proteins, as well as the organic matter content and dry mass were determined. In addition several process parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and input of substrate and the concentrations of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S within the reactor were monitored continuously. The present study aimed at the investigation of the abundance of acetogens and total cell numbers and the microbial methanogenic community as derived from PCR-dHPLC analysis in order to put it into context with the determined abiotic parameters. An influence of substrate quantity on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process was found as well as a shift from a hydrogenotrophic in times of good reactor performance towards an acetoclastic dominated methanogenic community in times of reduced reactor performance. After the change in substrate conditions it took the methano-archaeal community about 5-6 weeks to be affected but then changes occurred quickly.

  12. Seasonal cycle and modal structure of particle number size distribution at Dome C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Järvinen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied new particle formation and modal behavior of ultrafine aerosol particles on the high Antarctic East-Plateau at the Concordia station, Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E. Aerosol particle number size distributions were measured in the size range 10–600 nm from 14 December 2007 to 7 November 2009. We used an automatic algorithm for fitting up to three modes to the size distribution data. The total particle number concentration was low with the median of 109 cm−3. There was a clear seasonal cycle in the total particle number and the volume concentrations. The concentrations were at their highest during the austral summer with the median values of 260 cm−3 and 0.086 μm3 cm−3, and at their lowest during the austral winter with corresponding values of 15 cm−3 and 0.009 μm3 cm−3. New particle formation events were determined from the size distribution data. During the measurement period, new particle formation was seen on 80 days and for 15 of these days the particle growth rates from 10 to 25 nm size could be determined. The median particle growth rate during all these events was 2.5 nm h−1 and the median formation rate of 10 nm particles was 0.023 cm−3 s−1. Most of the events were similar to those observed in other continental locations, yet also some variability in event types was observed. Exceptional features in Dome C were the winter events that occurred during dark periods, as well as the events for which the growth could be followed during several consecutive days. We called these latter events as slowly-growing events. This paper is the first one to analyze long-term size distribution data from Dome C, and also the first paper to show that new particle formation events occur in the central Antarctica.

  13. Seasonal cycle and modal structure of particle number size distribution at Dome C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Järvinen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied new particle formation and modal behavior of ultrafine aerosol particles on the high East Antarctic plateau at the Concordia station, Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E. Aerosol particle number size distributions were measured in the size range 10–600 nm from 14 December 2007 to 7 November 2009. We used an automatic algorithm for fitting up to three modes to the size distribution data. The total particle number concentration was low with the median of 109 cm−3. There was a clear seasonal cycle in the total particle number and the volume concentrations. The concentrations were at their highest during the austral summer with the median values of 260 cm−3 and 0.086 μm3 cm−3, and at their lowest during the austral winter with corresponding values of 15 cm−3 and 0.009 μm3 cm−3. New particle formation events were determined from the size distribution data. During the measurement period, natural new particle formation was observed on 60 days and for 15 of these days the particle growth rates from 10 to 25 nm in size could be determined. The median particle growth rate during all these events was 2.5 nm h−1 and the median formation rate of 10 nm particles was 0.023 cm−3 s−1. Most of the events were similar to those observed at other continental locations, yet also some variability in event types was observed. Exceptional features in Dome C were the winter events that occurred during dark periods, as well as the events for which the growth could be followed during several consecutive days. We called these latter events slowly growing events. This paper is the first one to analyze long-term size distribution data from Dome C, and also the first paper to show that new particle formation events occur in central Antarctica.

  14. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  15. Quantitation of the Contractile Response Mediated by Two Receptors: M2 and M3 Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Contractions of Human Gastroesophageal Smooth MuscleS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan S.; Miller, Larry S.; Vegesna, Anil K.; Tiwana, Mansoor I.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Although muscarinic receptors are known to mediate tonic contraction of human gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle, the receptor subtypes that mediate the tonic contractions are not entirely clear. Whole human stomachs with attached esophagus were procured from organ transplant donors. Cholinergic contractile responses of clasp, sling, lower esophageal circular (LEC), midesophageal circular (MEC), and midesophageal longitudinal (MEL) muscle strips were determined. Sling fibers contracted greater than the other fibers. Total, M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor density was determined for each of these dissections by immunoprecipitation. M2 receptor density is greatest in the sling fibers, followed by clasp, LEC, MEC, and then MEL, whereas M3 density is greatest in LEC, followed by MEL, MEC, sling, and then clasp. The potency of subtype-selective antagonists to inhibit bethanechol-induced contraction was calculated by Schild analysis to determine which muscarinic receptor subtypes contribute to contraction. The results suggest both M2 and M3 receptors mediate contraction in clasp and sling fibers. Thus, this type of analysis in which multiple receptors mediate the contractile response is inappropriate, and an analysis method relating dual occupation of M2 and M3 receptors to contraction is presented. Using this new method of analysis, it was found that the M2 muscarinic receptor plays a greater role in mediating contraction of clasp and sling fibers than in LEC, MEC, and MEL muscles in which the M3 receptor predominantly mediates contraction. PMID:19126780

  16. Quantitation of the contractile response mediated by two receptors: M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor-mediated contractions of human gastroesophageal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan S; Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Tiwana, Mansoor I; Tallarida, Ronald J; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2009-04-01

    Although muscarinic receptors are known to mediate tonic contraction of human gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle, the receptor subtypes that mediate the tonic contractions are not entirely clear. Whole human stomachs with attached esophagus were procured from organ transplant donors. Cholinergic contractile responses of clasp, sling, lower esophageal circular (LEC), midesophageal circular (MEC), and midesophageal longitudinal (MEL) muscle strips were determined. Sling fibers contracted greater than the other fibers. Total, M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptor density was determined for each of these dissections by immunoprecipitation. M(2) receptor density is greatest in the sling fibers, followed by clasp, LEC, MEC, and then MEL, whereas M(3) density is greatest in LEC, followed by MEL, MEC, sling, and then clasp. The potency of subtype-selective antagonists to inhibit bethanechol-induced contraction was calculated by Schild analysis to determine which muscarinic receptor subtypes contribute to contraction. The results suggest both M(2) and M(3) receptors mediate contraction in clasp and sling fibers. Thus, this type of analysis in which multiple receptors mediate the contractile response is inappropriate, and an analysis method relating dual occupation of M(2) and M(3) receptors to contraction is presented. Using this new method of analysis, it was found that the M(2) muscarinic receptor plays a greater role in mediating contraction of clasp and sling fibers than in LEC, MEC, and MEL muscles in which the M(3) receptor predominantly mediates contraction.

  17. Residual stress in a M3:2 PM high speed steel; effect of mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Odén, Magnus; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lattice strains were investigated in an AISI M3:2 PM high-speed steel in the as heat treated condition and after exposure to alternating mechanical load. The volume changes during heat treatment were monitored with dilatometry. Hardened and tempered AISI M3:2 steel consists of tempered lath...... martensite and the carbides M6C,V8C7 and M23C6. In the as heat treated condition the stress state is triaxial. The primary carbides M6C and V8C7 experience a compressive state of stress. Exposure to an alternating mechanical load, changes the states of stress of V8C7 and tempered martensite, but does...... not appear to change the state of stress in M6C....

  18. The Abundance of Lithium in an AGB Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, R A

    2016-01-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope indicated a prominent Li I 6707 $\\AA$ feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Follow-up spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5-m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)$_{NLTE}$ = 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster's color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  19. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  20. M3MS-16OR0401086 – Report on NEAMS Workbench Support for MOOSE Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-09-23

    This report summarizes the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Workbench from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the integration of the MOOSE framework. This report marks the completion of NEAMS milestone M3MS-16OR0401086. This report documents the developed infrastructure to support the MOOSE framework applications, the applications’ results, visualization status, the collaboration that facilitated this progress, and future considerations.

  1. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  2. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  3. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.

  4. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an M3 Community Health Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci Young, MS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an M3 community health curriculum that responds to recent changes within the health care finance and delivery system. Methods: The new curriculum was developed based on AAMC recommendations, LCME requirements, a national review of undergraduate community health curricula, and an internal review of the integration of community health concepts in M3 clerkships. Results: The M3 curriculum teaches: 1 the importance of being a community responsive physician; 2 SES factors that influence health; 3 cultural competency; and 4 the role of physicians as health educators. Student evaluations for the first twelve months of implementation indicate that students are most satisfied with presentations and less satisfied with required readings and a patient interview project. Discussion: Most students agree that at the completion of the course they understand what it means to be a community-responsive physician, and they have developed skills to help them become more community responsive. Evaluation tools need to be developed to assess if students’ behavior has changed due to course participation.

  5. Performance of 500 m3 TankCell® at Kevitsa Cu-Ni-PGM concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Toni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outotec TankCell e500 flotation cell, with 500 m3 of efficient flotation volume, has been in operation since October 2014 at Kevitsa Cu-Ni-PGM concentrator as the first Cu rougher flotation cell. The 500 m3 flotation cell has proven to provide metallurgical superiority at very low specific power. On average the cell has recovered 71% of copper contained in the flotation feed. The cell has produced the concentrate with the Cu grade equal to 17% Cu. The typical specific power for the cell is around 0.4 kW/m3 (blower power not included. After the start-up of the cell the operating parameters have varied. The mixing speed have varied from 4.9 to 7.0 m/s and the superficial gas velocity from 0.3 to 1.5 cm/s. At various operating parameters the mixing, gas dispersion and metallurgical performance of the cell have been evaluated. In this paper a review of the hydrodynamic and metallurgical performance of the cell is presented. The paper focuses on the interactions of mixing intensity, bubble size and metallurgical performance in industrial application.

  6. Mice Lacking M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Have Impaired Odor Discrimination and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wilson; Singh, Sanmeet; Keshav, Taj; Dewan, Ramita; Eberly, Christian; Maurer, Robert; Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Araneda, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1−/− and the M1/M3−/− knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers. However, the discrimination of dissimilar molecules, social odors (e.g., urine) and novel object recognition was not affected. In addition the KO mice showed impaired learning in an associative odor-learning task, learning to discriminate odors at a slower rate, indicating that both short and long-term memory is disrupted by mAChR dysfunction. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited decreased olfactory neurogenesis at younger ages, a deficit that was not maintained in older animals. In older animals, the olfactory deficit could be restored by increasing the number of new born neurons integrated into the OB after exposing them to an olfactory enriched environment, suggesting that muscarinic modulation and adult neurogenesis could be two different mechanism used by the olfactory system to improve olfactory processing. PMID:28210219

  7. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  9. The variation of characteristics of individual particles during the haze evolution in the urban Shanghai atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingqing; Fu, Hongbo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Kong, Lingdong; Chen, Mindong; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The severe long-lasting haze episode in December 2013 provided a unique opportunity to track the variation of aerosol particles in Shanghai, China. Concentrations and sources of the pollutants varied greatly in severe haze-fog episode (P1), moderate haze episode (P2), and clear episode (P3). Both low wind speed and high relative humidity (RH) during P1 resulted in the high level pollutants of PM2.5 (240.3 ± 167.9 μg m- 3), SO2 (37.9 ± 20.7 μg m- 3), NO2 (111.5 ± 50.2 μg m- 3) and total water-soluble ions (58.73 ± 28.87 μg m- 3), indicating a strong accumulation of local pollutants and secondary species formation. During P2, air masses from the north decreased the concentration level of particles (116.1 ± 65.5 μg m- 3) and increased the visibility, resulting in a moderate degree of pollution. Most of the pollutants dropped to the lowest concentration levels due to the rainfall in P3, and the haze episode ended at 13 December. Single particle analysis showed that C-rich particles exhibited the highest number percentages (30%) in the samples of P1, S/N-rich species (35%) dominated the particles in the samples of P2, and Al/Si-rich particles (23%) were most abundant in the samples of P3. The TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that particles contained more internally mixed components during P1 and P2 than those during P3, suggesting that the particles during P1 and P2 underwent more intense aging in the atmosphere. The single particle analysis indicated that trace metals may promote the heterogeneous transformation of SO2 and NO2 on the surface of the particles during P1, which was in agreement with the highest sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) observed in the haze-fog episode. Such information will deepen our understanding on the evolution of haze and fog pollutions in China, which will help the government to establish efficient control strategy for air pollution prevention.

  10. 南京市总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)及地面积尘来源解析%SOURCE APPORTIONMENT FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICLES AND ACCUMULATED DUST OF NANJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文菁; 黄世鸿; 刘小红; 徐震涛; 杭维奇

    2001-01-01

    本文使用受体模型中的化学元素平衡法(CMB)对南京市的大气总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)来源进行解析研究,同时对地面积尘进行解析。结果表明建筑尘对TSP的贡献为31%~45%,位列第一,其次是煤烟尘(20%~38%),土壤尘(15%~23%),冶炼尘(<3%)。对地面积尘的解析结果也与TSP相同。该文的结果为污染物的防治提供决策依据。%Chemical Element Balance has been applied to identify sources of total sus-pended particles and accumulated dusts, which were from city of Nanjing. The results show that 31~45% of the aerosols came from limestone,which is the main source,20~38% from coal ash, 15~23% from soil dust and 1~2.5% from refined dusts. The study of accumulated dusts has the same results. The results have significance of prevention and cure in atmospher-ic environment.

  11. Vasco da Gama 33000m3耙吸挖泥船

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘厚恕; 顾洁

    2001-01-01

    The 33000m3 Vasco da Gama was delivered to the owner in 2000, which is the largest trailing suction hopper dredger up to now. The vessel is designed for the following main functions: loading spoil with two side suction pipes at a depth of 45-60m; transporting the spoil at a speed of 16.Skn; dumping spoil through six pairs of bottom doors; self-discharging of spoil via floating pipeline; self-discharging of spoil through bow-jet nozzle; deep dredging at 131m with 5500kW submerged dredge pump. This paper fully described its arrangement, key dredging equipments and major design features,

  12. Deposition of CdTe films under microgravity: Foton M3 mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, K.W.; Croell, A. [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Zappettini, A.; Calestani, D. [CNR Parma, Instituto Materiali Speciali per Elettronica e Magnetismo IMEM, Fontani Parma (Italy); Dieguez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica de Materiales; Carotenuto, L.; Bassano, E. [Telespazio Napoli, Via Gianturco 31, 80146 Napoli (Italy); Fiederle, M.

    2009-10-15

    Experiments of deposition of CdTe films have been carried out under microgravity in the Russian Foton M3 mission. The influence of gravity has been studied with these experiments and compared to the results of simulations. The measured deposition rate could be confirmed by the theoretical results for lower temperatures. For higher temperatures the measured thickness of the deposited films was larger compared to the theoretical data. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Postpartum Diagnosis of AML-M3: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Biradar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 27 year old female gravid 2, para 1, presented at 39 weeks of gestation with pain in abdomen going in for labour, and delivered healthy baby. The patient later had post-partum haemorrhage with Prothrombin Time (PT 10min, platelet count 70,000 cells/cumm. Peripheral smear showed shift to left with myeloblasts, promyelocytes. The diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML was given and advised for bone marrow examination. The diagnosis AML-M3 was confirmed by marrow study. Unfortunately, patient went in for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC and died 2 days after the diagnosis.

  14. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  15. Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2008-08-15

    This work represents the stage 2.3 of the hydrochemical evaluation and modelling of the Forsmark data. This comprises M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the data along the boreholes. The following conclusions can be drawn: - M3 modelling helped to summarise and understand the data, by using as variables the major elements and the isotopes delta18O and deltaD. - Previous alternative models and the experience from Forsmark 1.2, 2.1 and 2.2, helped to clarify different previously unsolved issues such as: the use of variables, tests with different endmembers, the use of only groundwater data in order to build a bedrock hydrochemical model. - The visualisation of the mixing proportions along the boreholes helps to understand the distribution of the data in the domain and to check and compare the results of different models; and therefore to chose the model which best describes the measured data. - The different M3 modelling tests resulted in the following conclusions: a) When calculating mixing proportions only samples from the boreholes will be used, b) the altered meteoric end-member which best describes the more shallow groundwater compositions is defined by a representative upper bedrock sample; the Littorina end-member employed the existing modelled compositions; the Deep saline and glacial end-members compositions were tested by means of a feasibility study and employed in the modelling. - Three models were presented. All the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the

  16. Characterization of winter airborne particles at Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tafeng; Lee, Shuncheng; Cao, Junji; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Ho, Kinfai; Ho, Wingkei; Rong, Bo; An, Zhisheng

    2009-10-01

    Daytime and nighttime total suspended particulate matters (TSP) were collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, the most popular on-site museum in China, in winter 2008. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of visitors to indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilating conditions, including Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1. Morphological and elemental analyses of 7-day individual particle samples were performed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Particle mass concentrations in Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1 were in a range of 54.7-291.7 microg m(-3) and 95.3-285.4 microg m(-3) with maximum diameters of 17.5 microm and 26.0 microm, respectively. In most sampling days, daytime/nighttime particle mass ratios in Exhibition Hall (1.30-3.12) were higher than those in Pit No.1 (0.96-2.59), indicating more contribution of the tourist flow in Exhibition Hall than in Pit No. 1. The maximum of particle size distributions were in a range of 0.5-1.0 microm, with the highest abundance (43.4%) occurred in Exhibition Hall at night. The majority of airborne particles at the Museum was composed of soil dust, S-containing particles, and low-Z particles like soot aggregate and biogenic particles. Both size distributions and particle types were found to be associated with visitor numbers in Exhibition Hall and with natural ventilation in Pit No.1. No significant influence of visitors on indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) was found in either display halls. Those baseline data on the nature of the airborne particles inside the Museum can be incorporated into the maintenance criteria, display management, and ventilation strategy by conservators of the museum.

  17. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  18. Connexins and M3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Heterogeneous Ca2+ Signaling in Mouse Aortic Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Boittin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle tone is controlled by Ca2+ signaling in the endothelial layer. Mouse endothelial cells are interconnected by gap junctions made of Connexin40 (Cx40 and Cx37, which allow the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity. Here, we investigated the role of Cx40 in the endothelial Ca2+ signaling of the mouse aorta. Methods: Ca2+ imaging was performed on intact aortic endothelium from both wild type (Cx40+/+ and Connexin40-deficient (Cx40 -/- mice. Results: Acetylcholine (ACh induced early fast and high amplitude Ca2+ transients in a fraction of endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors. Inhibition of intercellular communication using carbenoxolone or octanol fully blocked the propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ transients toward adjacent cells in WT and Cx40-/- mice. As compared to WT, Cx40-/- mice displayed a reduced propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ waves, indicating that Cx40 contributes to the spreading of Ca2+ signals. The propagation of those Ca2+ responses was not blocked by suramin, a blocker of purinergic ATP receptors, indicating that there is no paracrine effect of ATP release on the Ca2+ waves. Conclusions: Altogether our data show that Cx40 and Cx37 contribute to the propagation and amplification of the Ca2+ signaling triggered by ACh in endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors.

  19. HST Observations of Blue Straggler Stars in the Core of the Globular Cluster M3

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Cacciari, C; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Buonanno, R; Corsi, C E; Burgarella, D; Laget, M

    1997-01-01

    The core of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272) has been observed with the WFPC2 through the filters F255W, F336W, F555W, and F814W. Using these observations along with a thorough reanalysis of earlier catalogs, we have produced a catalog of blue straggler stars (BSS) spanning the cluster. Earlier studies and the fainter part of our sample suffer severe selection biases. Our analysis is based on a more reliable bright global sample of 122 BSS. We confirm earlier suggestions that the radial BSS distribution in M3 is bimodal. It is strongly peaked in the center, has a clear dip 100--200" from the center, and rises again at larger radii. The observed distribution agrees with the dynamical model of Sigurdsson et al. (1994) which takes into account both star collisions and merging of primordial binaries for the origin of BSS. The observed luminosity functions of BSS in the inner and outer parts of the cluster are different. Interpreting these using the models of Bailyn & Pinsonneault (1995), we suggest...

  20. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant...... the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling...... price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...

  1. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B

    1996-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  2. Comparison of the space radiation environment at Foton M3 satellite altitudes and on aircraft altitudes for minimum of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Tomov, Borislav; Dimitrov, Plamen; Matviichuk, Yury; Bankov, Nikolay

    The space radiation environments at Foton M3 and aircraft altitudes were measured by using of practically equal silicon detector based on a deposited energy spectrometers in the fall of 2007. The aircraft measurements were performed on commercial flights of CSA airlines, while the Foton M3 measurements were inside of the ESA Biopan 6 experiment. Foton M3 orbit was close to circular between 260 and 289 km altitude and about 63° inclination. The relatively high inclination and small shielding of the detector (0.81 g/cm2 ) allow us to observe doses by electrons in the outer radiation belt as high as 2.3 mGy/hour. The comparison of the total GCR deposited doses for the Foton M3 time interval, which coincides with the absolute cycle 23 minimum of the solar activity is about 15% higher than the measured during the Foton M2 satellite doses in 2005. Comparisons of the latitudinal profiles for ISS in 2001, Foton 2 and 3 satellites and aircrafts show that the ratio of doses is as 1:2:3. Aircraft measurements are characterised through average values of exposure during frequent, statistically well based measurements on the routes Prague - New York. Dose absorbed in Si-detector per flight on these routes was about 8% higher in 2007 than in 2005. Different comparisons with the existing models for the radiation environment on aircraft and spacecraft altitudes are presented in the paper also and discussed.

  3. Ultra-fast high-efficiency enantioseparations by means of a teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase made on sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Omar H; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; De Martino, Michela; Pierini, Marco; Cavazzini, Alberto; Bell, David S; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-high performance teicoplanin-based stationary phase was prepared starting from sub-2 μm totally porous silica particles of narrow size distribution. Columns of different lengths were packed at high pressure and a deep and systematic evaluation of kinetic performance, in terms of van Deemter analysis, was performed under different elution conditions (HILIC, POM, RP and NP) by using both achiral and chiral probes. For the achiral probes, the efficiency of the columns at the minimum of the van Deemter curves were very high leading to some 278,000, 270,000, 262,000 and 232,000 plates/m in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), polar organic mode (POM), normal phase (NP) and reversed phase (RP) respectively. The lowest plate height, Hmin=3.59 μm (h(/)=1.89), was obtained under HILIC conditions at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min. Efficiency as high as 200,000-250,000 plates/m (at the optimum flow rate) was obtained in the separation of the enantiomers of chiral probes under HILIC/POM conditions. N-protected amino acids, α-aryloxy acids, herbicides, anti-inflammatory agents were baseline separated on short (2-cm) and ultra-short (1-cm) columns, with analysis time in the order of 1 min. The enantiomers of N-BOC-d,l-methionine were successfully baseline separated in only 11s in HILIC mode. Several examples of fast and efficient resolutions in sub/supercritical fluid chromatography were also obtained for a range of chiral carboxylic acids.

  4. VARIABILITY STUDIES IN M3 GENERATION IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L.HEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P MESHRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pure line seeds of black gram variety viz. T-9, TPU-4 and one promising genotype AKU-18 was treated with gamma irradiation (15kR, 25kR and 35kR with the objective to assess the variability in M3 generation.. Highest GCV and PCV and high estimates of heritability were recorded for the characters sprouting percentage, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield plant-1 (g. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was recorded for number of pods plant-1 governed by additive gene effects and therefore selection based on phenotypic performance will be useful to improve character in future.

  5. Half lives of spherical proton emitters using density dependent M3Y interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P R; Basu, D N

    2005-01-01

    The proton radioactivity lifetimes of spherical proton emitters from the ground and the isomeric states are calculated using the microscopic nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The daughter nuclei density distributions are folded with a realistic density dependent M3Y effective interaction supplemented by a zero-range pseudo-potential. The density dependence parameters of the interaction are extracted from the nuclear matter calculations. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The quantum mechanical tunneling probability is calculated within the WKB approximation. Spherical charge distributions are used for calculating the Coulomb interaction potentials. These calculations provide good estimates for the observed pro...

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Several...... fractions. The best remediation efficiency was obtained in an experiment with an electrode distance of 60 cm, and 100 kg wood chips. In this experiment 87% copper, 81% chromium and > 95% arsenic were removed. One other experiment was also analysed for arsenic. In this experiment the distance between...... the working electrodes was 1.5 m and here 95% As was removed. The results showed that arsenic may be the easiest removable of the copper, chromium and arsenic investigated here. This is very encouraging since arsenic is the CCA components of most environmental concern....

  7. Variable Star Status of Two Stars: V204 and I-I-39 in M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The star I-I-42 (=vZ1390), a cluster member in M3, located near the red edge of the instability strip of the horizontal branch, was discovered by Roberts and Sandage as a low amplitude variable, it was designated as V204 in the "second catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters", but its coordinates given in all versions of this catalogue are wrong since 1955. We argue that V204 is indeed a low amplitude HB variable star, located near to the red edge of the instability strip, with a period of 0.74785d and an amplitude of about 0.04 mag in V. We also find that the red cluster member star I-I-39 is a low amplitude variable with a period of 1.16d and amplitude of about 0.03 mag in V which might be pulsating at the second overtone.

  8. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Clarke W

    2013-11-18

    While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user's computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/.

  9. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-26

    BACKGROUND M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. CONCLUSIONS Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising.

  10. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Background M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. Results 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. Conclusions Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising. PMID:28123171

  11. Chemokine Binding Protein M3 of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Modulates the Host Response to Infection in a Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J.; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H.; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A.; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F.; Sample, Jeffery T.; Stewart, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology. PMID:21445235

  12. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hughes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus. Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology.

  13. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  14. Soluble M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 expressed in Escherichia coli: analysis of chemokine-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matúšková, R; Pančík, P; Štibrániová, I; Belvončíková, P; Režuchová, I; Kúdelová, M

    2015-12-01

    M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) was identified as a viral chemokine-binding protein 3 (vCKBP-3) capable to bind a broad spectrum of chemokines and their receptors. During both acute and latent infection MHV-68 M3 protein provides a selective advantage for the virus by inhibiting the antiviral and inflammatory response. A unique mutation Asp307Gly was identified in the M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 72 (MHV-72), localized near chemokine-binding domain. Study on chemokine-binding properties of MHV-72 M3 protein purified from medium of infected cells implied reduced binding to some chemokines when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. It was suggested that the mutation in the M3 protein might be involved in the attenuation of immune response to infection with MHV-72. Recently, Escherichia coli cells were used to prepare native recombinant M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 (Pančík et al., 2013). In this study, we assessed the chemokine-binding properties of three M3 proteins prepared in E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 (DE3) cells, the full length M3 protein of both MHV-68 and MHV-72 and MHV-68 M3 protein truncated in the signal sequence (the first 24 aa). They all displayed binding activity to human chemokines CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL8 (IL-8), and CCL3 (MIP-1α). The truncated MHV-68 M3 protein had more than twenty times reduced binding activity to CCL5, but only about five and three times reduced binding to CXCL8 and CCL3 when compared to its full length counterpart. Binding of the full length MHV-72 M3 protein to all chemokines was reduced when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. Its binding to CCL5 and CCL3 was reduced over ten and seven times. However, its binding to CXCL8 was only slightly reduced (64.8 vs 91.8%). These data implied the significance of the signal sequence and also of a single mutation (at aa 307) for efficient M3 protein binding to some chemokines.

  15. [Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus in Mongolian herbils after the flight on space apparatus Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus was analyzed in the liver of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus returned from 12-d space flight of Foton-M3 (SF) and their vivarium and ground synchronous controls. Volume, ploidy and number of hepatocyte nuclei, nucleolus dimensions and number as well as contacts with karyolemma were determined in the central, intermediate and peripheral areas of the liver classical lobe. Also, total number of mitoses and amitoses was determined in the liver parenchyma. The vivarium control animals displayed specifics of the nucleus apparatus structure that depended on intralobe topography. Based on the selected criteria, high functional activity was characteristic of cells in the intermediate area. According to the criteria, nuclear apparatus in the synchronous control tended to down the functional activity The adaptive adjustment of nuclei in SF seemed to have been initiated by changes in the hepatic blood flow: volumes of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleoli increased as did the number of nuclei in cell, whereas ploidy made a decrease, especially in the intermediate area. Under the SF conditions, particularly important compensatory mechanism for the liver function was intensification of amitosis and consequent increase of the population of dinuclear hepatocytes.

  16. Biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured in pristine tropical rainforest air during AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. A.; Sinha, B.; Garland, R. M.; Snee-Pollmann, A.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-09-01

    As a part of the AMAZE-08 campaign during the wet season in the rainforest of Central Amazonia, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) was operated for continuous measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP). In the coarse particle size range (> 1 μm) the campaign median and quartiles of FBAP number and mass concentration were 7.3 × 104 m-3 (4.0-13.2 × 104 m-3) and 0.72 μg m-3 (0.42-1.19 μg mm-3), respectively, accounting for 24% (11-41%) of total particle number and 47% (25-65%) of total particle mass. During the five-week campaign in February-March 2008 the concentration of coarse-mode Saharan dust particles was highly variable. In contrast, FBAP concentrations remained fairly constant over the course of weeks and had a consistent daily pattern, peaking several hours before sunrise, suggesting observed FBAP was dominated by nocturnal spore emission. This conclusion was supported by the consistent FBAP number size distribution peaking at 2.3 μm, also attributed to fungal spores and mixed biological particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and biochemical staining. A second primary biological aerosol particle (PBAP) mode between 0.5 and 1.0 μm was also observed by SEM, but exhibited little fluorescence and no fungal staining. This mode consisted of single bacterial cells, brochosomes and various fragments of biological material. Particles liquid-coated with mixed organic-inorganic material constituted a large fraction of observations, and these coatings contained salts likely from primary biological origin. We provide key support for the suggestion that real-time laser-induce fluorescence (LIF) techniques provide size-resolved concentrations of FBAP as a lower limit for the atmospheric abundance of biological particles. We also show that primary biological particles, fungal spores in particular, are key fractions of supermicron aerosol in the Amazon and that, especially when coated by mixed inorganic

  17. Mass Concentration and Mineralogical Characteristics Aerosol Particles Collected at Dunhuang During ACE-Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measurements were performed in spring 2001 and 2002 to determine the characteristics of soil dust in the Chinese desert region of Dunhuang, one of the ground sites of the Asia-Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The mean mass concentrations of total suspended particle matter during the spring of 2001 and 2002 were 317 μg m-3 and 307 μg m-3, respectively. Eleven dust storm events were observed with a mean aerosol concentration of 1095 μg m-3, while the non-dusty days with calm or weak wind speed had a background aerosol loading of 196 μg m-3 on average in the springtime.The main minerals detected in the aerosol samples by X-ray diffraction were illite, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz,feldspar, calcite and dolomite. Gypsum, halite and amphibole were also detected in a few samples. The mineralogical data also show that Asian dust is characterized by a kaolinite to chlorite (K/C) ratio lower than 1 whereas Saharan dust exhibits a K/C ratio larger than 2. Air mass back-trajectory analysis show that three families of pathways are associated with the aerosol particle transport to Dunhuang, but these have similar K/C ratios, which further demonstrates that the mineralogical characteristics of Asian dust are different from African dust.

  18. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their gas/particle partitioning from fugitive emissions in coke plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Bai, Huiling; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hu, Dongmei; He, Qiusheng; Li, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Coking is one of the most important emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in China. However, there is little information available on the emission characteristics of PAHs from fugitive emission during coking, especially on the specific processes dominating the gas-particle partitioning of PAHs. In this study, emission characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs from fugitive emission in four typical coke plants (CPs) with different scales and techniques were investigated. The average concentrations of total PAHs from fugitive emission at CP2, CP3 and CP4 (stamp charging) were 146.98, 31.82, and 35.20 μg m-3, which were 13.38-, 2.90- and 3.20-fold higher, respectively, than those at CP1 (top charging, 10.98 μg m-3). Low molecular weight PAHs with 2-3 rings made up 75.3% of the total PAHs on average, and the contributions of particulate PAH to the total BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) in each plant were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentrations. The calculated total BaPeq concentrations varied from 0.19 to 10.86 μg m-3 with an average of 3.14 μg m-3, and more efficient measures to control fugitive emission in coke plants should be employed to prevent or reduce the health risk to workers. Absorption into organic matter dominated the gas-particle partitioning for most of the PAHs including PhA, FluA, Chr, BbF, BkF and BaP, while adsorption on elemental carbon appeared to play a dominant role for AcPy, AcP and Flu.

  19. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  20. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Results Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user’s computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. Conclusions A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/. PMID:24246004

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bulk PM2.5 and size-segregated aerosol particle samples measured in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Kim, Young J; Kang, Chang Hee

    2007-05-01

    To analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at an urban site in Seoul, South Korea, 24-hr ambient air PM2.5 samples were collected during five intensive sampling periods between November 1998 and December 1999. To determine the PAH size distribution, 3-day size-segregated aerosol samples were also collected in December 1999. Concentrations of the 16 PAHs in the PM2.5 particles ranged from 3.9 to 119.9 ng m(-3) with a mean of 24.3 ng m(-3). An exceptionally high concentration of PAHs( approximately 120 ng m(-3)) observed during a haze event in December 1999 was likely influenced more by diesel vehicle exhaust than by gasoline exhaust, as well as air stagnation, as evidenced by the low carbon monoxide/elemental carbon (CO/EC) ratio of 205 found in this study and results reported by previous studies. The total PAHs associated with the size-segregated particles showed unimodal distributions. Compared to the unimodal size distributions of PAHs with modal peaks at particles during transport to the sampling site. Further, the fraction of PAHs associated with coarse particles(> 1.8 microm) increased as the molecular weight of the PAHs decreased due to volatilization of fine particles followed by condensation onto coarse particles.

  2. The Swift/UVOT Stars Survey. II. RR Lyrae Stars in M 3 and M 15

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Balzer, Benjamin G; Hagen, Lea M Z

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of an near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT's unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M 3 and M 15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprising 275 RR Lyrae, two anomalous Cepheids, one classical Cepheid, one SX Phoenicis star and one possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperat...

  3. THE SWIFT UVOT STARS SURVEY. II. RR LYRAE STARS IN M3 AND M15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z., E-mail: siegel@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: blp14@psu.edu, E-mail: bgb5080@psu.edu, E-mail: lea.zernow.hagen@gmail.com [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Astronomy, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period–metallicity–luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  4. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Archundia, Marlet; Cordomi, Arnau; Garriga, Pere; Perez, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS). Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand. PMID:22500107

  5. [Gerbil experiment in the flight of spacecraft "Foton-M3"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P E; Orlov, O I

    2009-01-01

    The 12-d mission of Russian spacecraft Foton-M3 in September of 2007 was used as an opportunity to fly an experiment with 12 male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at the age of 4-4.5 mos. and mean body weight of 51.6 grams. Considering the behavior pattern of these animals, selection and preparation of the experimental groups continued in the course of 2.5-3 months. The flight animals were contained in module Kontur-L outfitted with a self-sustained system of life support. In orbit, the animals received a palletized hydrogenous feed. The physiological and hygienic parameters of the gerbil environment during the flight complied with the official standards. Analysis of the video recorded behavior of animals in microgravity showed that virtually throughout the flight they moved chaotically along the cage never attempting to stabilize position catching at the wire netting of the cage. The animals were decapitated in 21-24 hours after landing. The investigations showed that structural and functional changes in gerbil organs and tissues were generally of the same type as in rats following fights of comparable duration. However, some differences between the animals were attributed to the specifics of water turnover in gerbils.

  6. [Handling and maintenance of gerbils during the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, P E; Smirnov, I A; Il'in, E A; Gur'eva, T S; Mednikova, E I; Smolenskaia, T S; Lysenko, L A; Kaminskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    Pressurized low-sized module Kontur with an independent life support system (LSS) was developed by the Institute of Biomedical Problems cooperatively with the Special Design Bureau of Experimental Equipment to house gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) aboard robotic technology-purpose spacecraft. Design of the module precludes pollution of the environment The fully equipped module weighs 69 kg; average daily power consumption is 62 watts. The environmental parameters for 12 animals flown on Foton-M3 in the period of September 14-26, 2007 were controlled within the following ranges: pO2 - 143-156 mm Hg, (mean 150 mm Hg), pCO2 - 0.76 mm Hg maximum (mean 0.64 mm Hg), temperature - 23-28 degrees C (mean 26.7 degrees C), relative humidity - 29% and 57% at the beginning and end of the flight, respectively (mean 39%). The animals consumed the palletized food prepared of natural products with a moisture content of approx. 20%. The day-night periods were 12 hrs. long. The daytime video recording of the animals went on continuously in the throughout the flight. The experiment showed that the module meets the requirements of experiments with mammals aboard returnable robotic spacecraft and piloted space stations. At the moment, the model is being redesigned for a 30-day BION-M1 mission.

  7. [Glycogen content in gerbil's liver following the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen cytochemistry and distribution in hepatocytes of the classic liver lobules were studied in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: vivarium, synchronous control and flown in the 12-d Foton-M3 mission. The control animals were shown to have the central glycogen distribution with a large pool of polysaccharides found in hepatocytes of the pericentral and intermediate lobules and a small pool in the periportal area. Glycogen in hepatocyte plasm was within the physiological norm in the alpha- and beta-granules, typically localized on the cell periphery. Exposure to the spaceflight conditions decreased significantly glycogen concentrations in each functional region of the hepatic lobules and reduced the gradient of polysaccharide distribution from the portal triads toward the central vein. In parallel, high glycogen heterogeneity formed in adjacent hepatocytes and loci. The presence of glycosomes evidenced disturbance of carbohydrates metabolism. In addition, intracellular topography of glycogen granules in cytoplasm was altered. Trends of glycogen in gerbils of the synchronous control were similar to the space flown animals but much less pronounced.

  8. [Jejunum intersticium in mongolian gerbils after the flight on spacecraft Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Methods of light optical microscopy were used to explore histoarchitectonics, topography and tinctorial properties of the extracellular phase of fibers of jejunum wall intersticium in Mongolian gerbils following 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3, ground-based simulation of the spaceflight factors in the KONTUR-L facility, and in the group of biological control Postflight destructive changes were found in reticulin fibers (type-III collagen) of villi stroma, intercrypt intersticium and submucosa. Local acidophilia and fiber homogenization formed in type I collagen present in the intestinal subserous layer, muscular layers endomysium and submucose against the background of progressing edema and arterial, venous plethora and lymphostasis. Elastic component of the intersticium was disarranged in the structures of internal elastic membrane of submucous vessels, fragmented and partly reduced. Simulation of the orbital factors, except for microgravity, in the KONTUR-L facility called forth similar, although less often and diffuse, changes in intersticium fibers. The results of examination of intestinal intersticium fibers in the vivarium control gerbils discovered expressed species characters that should be taken into account by investigators, especially when comparing with data obtained from other animal species.

  9. [Rna content of gerbil hepatocytes after the flight aboard space platform Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    The paper compares and contrasts the results of measuring the hepatocyte cytoplasm area and RNA content in 35 gerbils in three series of experiments, i.e. the vivarium control, modeled space flight (synchronous control) and exposure to the factors of 12-d Foton-M3 orbital flight. Central, intermediate and peripheral zones of hepatic lobes were subjected to histological and histochemical analyses to measure the hepatocyte cytoplasm area; the RNA content was determined from the level of cytoplasm basophilia after azure staining. Cytometric and cytophotometric investigations were performed using image analyzer Video-7-Test-Morpho. In the vivarium animals, hepatocytes with the largest cytoplasm localized predominantly in the intermediate and central zones of the lobes. Judging from the results of microdensitometry, the RNA content was particularly high in binucleate hepatocytes of the intermediate zone. In the synchronous control, hepatocytes tended to grow in size, in the peripheral zone specifically, whereas RNA content was largely equal no matter hepatocyte topography. After space flight, cytoplasm enlargement transcended this process in the vivarium animals. The cytoplasm RNA content along the entire liver parenchyma made a significant decrease equally as compared with the vivarium and synchronous control animals.

  10. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlet Martinez-Archundia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS. Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand.

  11. [2 fatal cases of acute myeloid leukemia (M3, M4) during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Asmundo, A

    1995-04-01

    Two cases of unexpected post-partum death of women with acute leukemia are described. In the first case (1st pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute promyelocytic leukemia: M3) was performed one week before delivery and death occurred 3 days later, because of hemorrhagic and renal DIC complication. Since one month before hospitalization, laboratory exams indicated a serious hematological pathology and no further exams were carried out by the physicians, elements of professional fault were recognized in them, considering that because of the diagnostic omission it was impossible to make an early diagnosis and thus perform to specific therapy, adopted only in the terminal phase. This specific therapy is able to determine remission from most cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the second case (2nd pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute myelomonocytic leukemia: M4) was performed only postmortem because, during the whole pregnancy, no signs of disease were evident. After a few hours from the spontaneous delivery, death occurred as a result of an intractable + hemorrhagic syndrome caused by primary hyperfibrinolysis and repeated episodes of cardiac arrest, without possibility of recognizing it. The medical procedures for this case, both throughout pregnancy and terminal phases, appeared free of censure.

  12. Experimental Study of Ultralight (<300 kg/m3 Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of ultralight (<300 kg/m3 foamed concrete (FC, which can be used as a new energy-conservation and environmental-protection building material and is particularly suitable for the thermal-insulation engineering of building external walls, was produced. The influences of different mixing amounts of fly ash, fly ash activator, WC (WC ratio, and foaming agent (FA on the compressive strength of FC were reported. The experimental study indicated that (1 the addition of fly ash reduced the strength of the FC and that the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash in this ultralight FC system should not exceed 45%; (2 with the increasing of fly ash activator, the strength of the FC sample is notably enhanced and the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash activator is 2.5%; (3 the optimized proportion of WC ratio is 0.45, and the FC that was produced according to this proportion has relatively high compressive strength; (4 by increasing the mixing amount of FA, the compressive strength of the FC notably decreases, and the optimal mixing amount of FA in this experiment is 3.5%.

  13. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  14. Magnetic and dynamical photospheric disturbances observed during an M3.2 solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Sainz, R Manso

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near infrared He I 10830 A spectral region covering the pre-, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He I 10830 A emission in the flare. The red component of the He I triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He I Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si I Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si I inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., in 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line-of-sight velocities show a regular...

  15. GRAVITAS : General Relativistic Astrophysics VIa Timing And Spectroscopy: An ESA M3 mission proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, Kirpal; Fabian, Andy; Strueder, Lothar; Willingale, Richard; Watson, Mike; Jonker, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Miniutti, Giovanni; Motch, Christian; Predehl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    GRAVITAS is an X-ray observatory, designed and optimised to address the ESA Cosmic Vision theme of "Matter under extreme conditions". It was submitted as a response to the call for M3 mission proposals. The concept centres around an X-ray telescope of unprecedented effective area, which will focus radiation emitted from close to the event horizon of black holes or the surface of neutron stars. To reveal the nature and behaviour of matter in the most extreme astrophysical environments, GRAVITAS targets a key feature in the X-ray spectra of compact objects: the iron Kalpha line at ~6.5 keV. The energy, profile, and variability of this emission line, and the properties of the surrounding continuum emission, shaped by General Relativity (GR) effects, provide a unique probe of gravity in its strong field limit. Among its prime targets are hundreds of supermassive black holes in bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which form the perfect laboratory to help understand the physical processes behind black hole growth....

  16. Overtone and multi-mode RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster M3

    CERN Document Server

    Jurcsik, J; Hajdu, G; Sódor, Á; Nuspl, J; Kolenberg, K; Fűrész, G; Moór, A; Kun, E; Pál, A; Bakos, J; Kelemen, J; Kovács, T; Kriskovics, L; Sárneczky, K; Szalai, T; Szing, A; Vida, K

    2015-01-01

    The overtone and multi-mode RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster M3 are studied using a 200-d long, $B,V$ and $I_{\\mathrm C}$ time-series photometry obtained in 2012. 70\\% of the 52 overtone variables observed show some kind of multi-periodicity (additional frequency at ${f_{0.61}}={f_{\\mathrm {1O}}}/0.61$ frequency ratio, Blazhko effect, double/multi-mode pulsation, period doubling). A signal at 0.587 frequency ratio to the fundamental-mode frequency is detected in the double-mode star, V13, which may be identified as the second radial overtone mode. If this mode-identification is correct, than V13 is the first RR Lyrae star showing triple-mode pulsation of the first three radial modes. Either the Blazhko effect or the ${f_{0.61}}$ frequency (or both of these phenomena) appear in 7 double-mode stars. The $P_{\\mathrm{1O}}/P_{\\mathrm{F}}$ period ratio of RRd stars showing the Blazhko effect are anomalous. A displacement of the main frequency component at the fundamental-mode with the value of modulation freq...

  17. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU Psc

    CERN Document Server

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Beichman, Charles A; Gelino, Christopher R; Boucher, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for ...

  18. IFR safety tests M2 and M3 in TREAT: data and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W R; Lo, R K; Bauer, T H; Froehle, P H; Helenberg, H W; Morman, J A; Stanford, G S; Wright, A E

    1985-06-01

    TREAT tests M2 and M3 were performed to obtain information on the characteristics of metal-alloy reactor fuel under slow transient overpower accident conditions, in particular, the margin to cladding breach and the axial self-extrusion of fuel within intact cladding. The tests used U-5Fs fuel pins irradiated to burnup levels of 0.3 at. %, 4.5 at. % and 7.9 at. %. Each pin was located in a separte flowtube and cooled by flowing sodium. In one test, a pin of each burnup was heated to incipient cladding breach. In the other, pins of the medium and high burnup levels wer heated to slightly beyond breach. Pre- and post-failure fuel motions were monitored by the fast-neutron hodoscope. The time and axial location of cladding breach were determined from the test-loop instrumentation. Computations of fuel extrusion and cladding failure are desribed. The models used in the computations include effects of retained fission gas expansion, vaporization of the sodium-bond annulus in low burnup fuel, and cladding-wall thinning by eutectic formation.

  19. Effects of amines on particle growth observed in new particle formation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Ye, Xingnan; Jiang, Shuqing; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Xie, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruyu

    2016-01-01

    Particle size distributions in the range of 0.01-10 µm were measured in urban Shanghai in the summer of 2013 using a Wide-range Particle Spectrometer (WPS). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected concurrently using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), which aided our in-depth understanding of the new particle formation (NPF) mechanism in the polluted Yangtze River Delta area. During the observations, 16 NPF events occurred at high temperatures (~34.7°C) on clear and sunny days. In the ammonium-poor PM1.0 (particulate matter less than 1.0 µm), sulfate and ammonium accounted for 92% of the total water-soluble inorganic species. Six aminiums were detected in these MOUDI samples, among which the group of diethylaminium and trimethylaminium (DEAH+ + TMAH+) was the most abundant. The very high level of aminiums (average concentration up to 86.4 ng m-3 in PM1.8), together with highly acidic aerosols, provided insight into the frequent NPF events. The high mass ratio of total aminiums to NH4+ (>0.2 for PM0.056) further highlighted the important role of amines in promoting NPF. The concentration of DEAH+ + TMAH+ in new particles below 180 nm was strongly correlated with aerosol phase acidity, indicating that acid-base reactions dominated the aminium formation in NPF events. The unexpected enhancement of DEAH+ + TMAH+ on a nonevent day was attributed to the transportation of an SO2 plume. Our results reveal that the heterogeneous uptake of amines is dominated by the acid-base reaction mechanism, which can effectively contribute to particle growth in NPF events.

  20. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    Wood burning devices contribute to outdoor air pollution. Wood smoke consists of, besides the major combustion products carbon dioxide and water, a complex mixture of compounds, including particulate matter (PM), inorganic gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxides), volatile...... distribution of wood smoke particles, essentially all will be contained in the PM2.5 fraction. In Denmark, recent results indicate that about 10,000 tonnes PM2.5 per year, about half of the total particle emission in Denmark, come from residential wood combustion. Based on a few measurement campaigns conducted...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  1. Speciation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present during fog time collected submicron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Swati; Habib, Gazala; Gupta, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    Airborne submicron particles (PM1) were collected using PM1 sampler during the fog-dominated days (December 2013-January 2014). PM1 values varied between 58.12 μg/m(3) and 198.75 μg/m(3), and average mass concentration was 162.33 ± 38.25 μg/m(3) while total average concentration of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) determined was 616.31 ± 30.31 ng/m(3). This is a signal for an alarming high pollution level at this site situated in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). PAHs were extracted from filters using toluene and acetonitrile. Quantitative measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The extracts were analyzed for 16 target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including carcinogenic compound benzo(a)pyrene (19.86 ± 38.98 ng/m(3)). Fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, and fluorene were the predominant compounds found in the samples collected during foggy days. Based on number of rings, four-ring PAH compounds had maximum contribution (43%) in this fog time collected submicron particles followed by three-ring (21%), five-ring (20%), six-ring (13%), and two-ring (3%), respectively. In winter and foggy days, wood and coal combustion and biomass burning also significantly contribute to the PAH levels. However, diagnostic ratio suggests diesel emissions as the prime source of PAHs at this sampling site.

  2. Size-selective assessment of airborne particles in swine confinement building with the UVAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Victoria; Ristovski, Zoran; Blackall, Patrick J.; Morawska, Lidia

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel aerosol counter for real-time monitoring of viable bioaerosols. The previous validation studies on the UVAPS were either laboratory based or were conducted outdoor with the artificially generated aerosols. In this study, the spectrometer was applied to investigate particulate pollution inside a swine confinement building (SCB). Real-time capabilities of the instrument were used to investigate the effect of on-farm-activities, such as an effluent flushing with recycled water, on aerosols load inside the SCB. In addition to the UVAPS, monitoring of viable bioaerosols (bacteria and fungi) was simultaneously conducted with the six-stage Andersen microbial impactor and the AGI-30 impingers. The UVAPS measurements showed that the concentrations of both viable (fluorescent) and total (fluorescent and non-fluorescent) particles inside the SCB were in order of 10 6-10 7 particles m -3. These concentrations were approximately seven times the outside concentrations for total particles and up to 12 times for viable particles. Approximately 95% of both total and viable particles were respirable (fungi ranged from 1.12×10 5 to 5.17×10 5 CFU m -3 and from 1.12×10 3 to 2.79×10 3 CFU m -3, respectively. Approximately 50-80% of airborne particles which carried culturable fungi were within the respirable size range. The concentration of viable particles measured with the UVAPS was at least one order of magnitude higher than the concentration of the culturable microorganisms measured with the AGI-30 impingers. Nevertheless, the trends in the concentration changes of viable bioaerosols measured with the UVAPS followed the trends in the concentration changes of the culturable airborne microorganisms quite adequately. Thus, it was concluded that the UVAPS is an appropriate method for investigating the dynamic of viable bioaerosols in the SCBs. The results obtained in this study assist in advancing an understanding of the

  3. Recent development in thermally activated desalination methods: achieving an energy efficiency less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-05-19

    Water-Energy-Environment nexus is a crucial consideration when designing seawater desalination processes, particularly for the water-stressed countries where the annual water availability is less than 250 m3 per capita. Despite the thermodynamics limit for seawater desalination at normal conditions is about 0.78 to 1.09 kWhelec/m3, the specific energy consumption of desalination of real plants is found to operate at several folds higher. Today’s technological advancement in membranes, namely the reverse osmosis processes, has set an energy consumption of around 3.5–5 kWhelec/m3, while the conventional perception of thermally activated processes such as MSF and MED tends to be higher. Although the higher energetic specific consumption of MED or MSF processes appeared to be higher at 60–100 kWhthermal/m3, their true electricity equivalent has been converted, hitherto, using the energetic analyses where the work potential of working steam of the processes cannot be captured adequately. Thermally activated processes, such as MED and MSF, form the bottoming cycle of a cogeneration plant where both electricity and desalination processes operate in tandem in a cascaded manner. Only the bled-steam at lower exergy is extracted for the desalination processes. In this presentation, we demonstrate that in a cogen plant with 30% bled-steam for MED processes, the exergy destruction ratio is found to be less than 7% of the total available exergy that emanated from the boilers. By the exergetic approach, the equivalent electricity consumption of an average 75 kWhthermal/m3 would result in an electrical equivalent of less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3. Also in this presentation, the authors will elaborate the latest developments in the use of hybridization concept where the MED and the AD cycles are thermodynamically integrated and enhancing the overall efficiency of desalination. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. MAGNETIC AND DYNAMICAL PHOTOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED DURING AN M3.2 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Collados, M.; Sainz, R. Manso, E-mail: ckuckein@aip.de [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    This Letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å spectral region covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He i 10830 Å emission in the flare. The red component of the He i triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He i Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si i Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si i inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare, the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line of sight velocities show a regular granular up- and downflow pattern before the flare erupts. During the flare, upflows (blueshifts) dominate the area where the flare is produced. Evaporation rates of ∼10{sup −3} and ∼10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been derived in the deep and high photosphere, respectively, capable of increasing the chromospheric density by a factor of two in about 400 s.

  5. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the selection criteria to obtain a superior mutant derived from the wheat plants of such varieties as Dewata, Selayar and Alibey, adaptive in medium land. The analysis of agronomic growth characters showed a significantly effect on a growth percentage of the initial growth (8 mutants, flowering time (1 mutant, panicle stem length (15 mutants, number of panicles (7 mutants, the number of grains per panicle (8 mutants, grain weight observed (8 mutants, grain weight per genotype (6 mutants, leaf area (2 mutants and leaf greenness (5 mutants. The effects on the characters of ripe time, harvest, panicle length and plant height were not significant. The mutants of Dewata, Selayar and Alibey could be selected based on the characters of panicle stem length, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per observation because these characters generated more mutants than the other characters. The correlation analysis between the characters of growth and yield components of wheat mutants showed that the number of grains per panicle was positively correlated with the grain weight observed, while the length of panicle stem was positively correlated with grain weight per genotype, number of panicles and leaf area. Hopefully some mutants produced could adapt to the tropical medium land, thus adding to the diversity of wheat germplasm in Indonesia, thereby reducing the import of wheat to Indonesia.How to CiteSari, L., Purwito, A., Sopandie, D., Purnamaningsih, R. & Sudarmonowati, E. (2016. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 353-361. 

  6. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Peculiarities of lens and tail regeneration detected in newts after spaceflight aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Almeida, Eduardo; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Domaratskaya, Elena; Aleinikova, Karina; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.

    In September 2007 the joint, 12 day long experiment was carried out aboard Russian satellite Foton M3. The goal of the experiment was to study eye lens, tail and forelimb toe regeneration in adult 16 newts (Pl. waltl.) operated 10 days before taking-off. In spaceflight and synchronous ground control we used video recording, temperature and irradiation control, as well as constant availability of thymidine analog BrdU for its absorption via animals' skin. New techniques allowed us to analyze animals' behavior in hyperand microgravity periods of time, to take proper account of spaceflight factors, and measure accumulated pools of DNA-synthesizing cells in regenerating tissues. All tissue specimens obtained from animals were isolated in the day of landing and then prepared for morphological, immunochemical and molecular investigations. Synchronous control was shifted for two days and reproduced flight conditions except changes of gravity influence. As a result in flown animals as compared with synchronous ground control we found lens regeneration of 0.5-1 stage speeded up and an increased BrdU+ (S-phase) cell number in eye cornea, growth zone, limbus and newly forming lens. These features of regeneration were accompanied by an increase of FGF2 expression in eye growth zone and heat shock protein (HSP90) induction purely in retinal macroglial cells of regenerating eyes. Toe regeneration rate was equal and achieved the stage of accomplished healing of amputation area in both groups - "flown" and control animals. We found no essential differences in tail regeneration rate and tail regenerate sizes in the newts exposed to space and on ground. In both groups tail regeneration reached the stage IV-V when tail length and square were around 4.4 mm and 15.5 mm2, correspondingly. However we did observe remarkable changes of tail regenerate form and some of pigmentation. Computer morphometrical analysis showed that only in ground control animals the evident dorso

  8. Size distributions and temporal variations of biological aerosol particles in the Amazon rainforest characterized by microscopy and real-time UV-APS fluorescence techniques during AMAZE-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. A.; Sinha, B.; Garland, R. M.; Snee-Pollmann, A.; Gunthe, S. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the AMAZE-08 campaign during the wet season in the rainforest of central Amazonia, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) was operated for continuous measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP). In the coarse particle size range (> 1 μm) the campaign median and quartiles of FBAP number and mass concentration were 7.3 × 104 m-3 (4.0-13.2 × 104 m-3) and 0.72 μg m-3 (0.42-1.19 μg m-3), respectively, accounting for 24% (11-41%) of total particle number and 47% (25-65%) of total particle mass. During the five-week campaign in February-March 2008 the concentration of coarse-mode Saharan dust particles was highly variable. In contrast, FBAP concentrations remained fairly constant over the course of weeks and had a consistent daily pattern, peaking several hours before sunrise, suggesting observed FBAP was dominated by nocturnal spore emission. This conclusion was supported by the consistent FBAP number size distribution peaking at 2.3 μm, also attributed to fungal spores and mixed biological particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and biochemical staining. A second primary biological aerosol particle (PBAP) mode between 0.5 and 1.0 μm was also observed by SEM, but exhibited little fluorescence and no true fungal staining. This mode may have consisted of single bacterial cells, brochosomes, various fragments of biological material, and small Chromalveolata (Chromista) spores. Particles liquid-coated with mixed organic-inorganic material constituted a large fraction of observations, and these coatings contained salts likely from primary biological origin. We provide key support for the suggestion that real-time laser-induce fluorescence (LIF) techniques using 355 nm excitation provide size-resolved concentrations of FBAP as a lower limit for the atmospheric abundance of biological particles in a pristine environment. We also show some limitations of using the instrument for ambient monitoring of

  9. Seasonal variations of particle-associated nitrosamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the atmospheric environment of Zonguldak, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Şevket

    2013-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been proposed for the determination of low-level mutagenic and carcinogenic nitrosamines in particulate matter. The method includes the collection of particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using a dichotomous Partisol 2025 sampler and extraction of the compounds from aqueous solution with dichloromethane/2-propanol after sonication with a slightly basic water solution prior to their GC-MS analysis in electron impact mode. The obtained recoveries of nitrosamines ranged from 92.4 to 99.2 %, and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations, was within the range of 0.95-2.46 %. The detection limits obtained from calculations using the GC-MS results based on S/N=3 were found within the range from 4 to 22 pg/m(3). The predominant nitrosamines determined in particulate matter were N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine. Furthermore, N-mono- and dinitrosopiperazine and N-nitrosoethylbutylamine were also determined. N-dinitrosopiperazine was detected in PM2.5 samples at the highest concentrations of up to 22.85 ng/m(3) and in PM2.5-10 samples at concentrations up to 7.60 ng/m(3) in winter, whereas it was found in PM2.5 samples up to 5.15 ng/m(3) and in PM2.5-10 samples up to 3.12 ng/m(3) in summer. The total concentrations of nitrosamines were up to 161.4 ng/m(3) in fine and 53.90 ng/m(3) in coarse fractions in winter, whereas in summer were up to 35.24 and 12.60 ng/m(3), respectively. The concentration levels of nitrosamines fluctuated significantly within a year, with higher means and peak concentrations in the winter compared to that in the summertime. The seasonal variations of particle-associated nitrosamine concentrations were investigated together with their relationships with meteorological parameters using Pearson's correlation analysis in the winter and summer periods. Analysis of variance was used to determine which

  10. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU; Yuwen; HE; Lingyan; HU; Min; ZHANG; Jing; ZHAO; Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  11. Preparation of notoginseng total saponins-tanshinone composite particles by solvent deposition method and their characterization%三七总皂苷-丹参酮复合粒子的溶剂沉积法制备及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付廷明; 杨丰云; 王天瑶; 王华美; 郭立玮

    2011-01-01

    目的 为了解决粒子作为吸入载药系统,药物复方能同步传递的效果,制备出核/壳三七总皂苷-丹参酮复合粒子.方法 在三七总皂苷粒子表面利用溶剂沉积法包覆一层丹参酮.分别利用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、差热分析(DTA)、激光光散射粒径扫描、高效液相色谱(HPLC)对复合粒子进行表征.结果 通过上述表征,证明采用溶剂沉积法可成功制备包覆式复合粒子,即丹参酮包裹三七总皂苷复合粒子.结论 复合粒子的有效制备为粒子载药系统复方药物的同步传递提供了有力保障,为复方粉雾剂的制备提供了技术支持.%Objective To synchronously inhale Chinese materia medica compound using particle as inhalation drug delivery system, notoginseng total saponins-tanshinone composite particle was prepared. Methods The composite particle of notoginseng total saponins-tanshinone was prepared by solvent deposition method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), particle size analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The notoginseng total saponins-tanshinone composite particle was successfully prepared by solvent deposition method, the results of characterization proved that tanshinone was coated on the notoginseng total saponins core particle. Conclusion The preparation of composite particle provides an effective way for synchronous inhalation of Chinese materia medica compound prescription and technical support for the preparation of compound dry powder inhalations.

  12. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  13. Insights into particle cycling from thorium and particle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J; Marchal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine particles are a main vector by which the biological carbon pump in the ocean transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Marine particles exist in a continuous spectrum of sizes, but they can be functionally grouped into a small, suspended class (which constitutes most of the total particle mass) and a large, sinking class (which contributes most of the particle flux). These two classes are connected by aggregation and disaggregation processes. The interplay of processes that create, aggregate, and destroy marine particles determines the strength and transfer efficiency of the biological pump. Measurements of radiocarbon, barium, and organic biomarkers on suspended and sinking particles have provided qualitative insights into particle dynamics, and measurements of thorium isotopes have provided quantitative estimates of rates. Here, we review what has been learned so far about particle dynamics in the ocean from chemical measurements on suspended and sinking particles. We then discuss future directions for this approach.

  14. 1750m3高炉煤气除尘改造及TRT发电技术的应用%De-dusting System Improvement and TRT Technology Application on the 1750m3 Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海刚; 许强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了济钢2座1750m3高炉煤气湿法改干法涂尘及TRT发电的主体设备、主要技术参数及取得的经济效益。%On the two 1750m3 blast furnaces of Jinan Iron and Steel Co., the wet BFG de-ducting system is replaced with the dry de-dusting system and the TRT generation unit is installed. These equipment and their technical data and economic benefits are presented.

  15. Horizontal-Branch Models and the Second-Parameter Effect. IV. The Case of M3 and Palomar 3

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M; Rood, R T

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the "second-parameter pair" of globular clusters M3 (NGC 5272) and Palomar 3. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of M3 is significantly bluer in its inner regions (observed with the Hubble Space Telescope) than in the cluster outskirts (observed from the ground), i.e., M3 has an internal second parameter. Most plausibly the mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) has been more efficient in the inner than in the outer regions of the cluster. ii) The dispersion in mass of the Pal 3 HB is found to be very small -- consistent with zero -- and we argue that this is unlikely to be due to a statistical fluctuation. It is this small mass dispersion that leads to the most apparent difference in the HB morphologies of M3 and Pal 3. iii) The relative HB types of M3 and Pal 3, as measured by mean colors or parameters involving the number of blue, variable, and red HB stars, can easily be accounted for by a fairly small difference in ag...

  16. Acetylcholine acts through M3 muscarinic receptor to activate the EGFR signaling and promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huangfei; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Xu, Huanji; Wei, Guoqing; Chen, Ying; Dai, Xinyu; Gong, Qiyong; Bi, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, ACh, via M3R, activated the EGFR signaling to induce the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, and blocking EGFR pathway by specific inhibitor AG1478 suppressed the ACh induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the M3R antagonist 4-DAMP and darifenacin could markedly inhibit gastric tumor formation in vivo. 4-DAMP could also significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of 5-Fu against the MKN45 and BGC823 cells, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax and Caspase-3. Together, these findings indicated that the autocrine ACh could act through M3R and the EGFR signaling to promote gastric cancer cells proliferation, targeting M3R or EGFR may provide us a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28102288

  17. EFFECT OF Nb ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF SPRAY FORMED M3 HIGH SPEED STEEL%Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于一鹏; 黄进峰; 崔华; 蔡元华; 张济山

    2012-01-01

    为了利用NbC的高硬度和高热稳定性,并避免其在凝固过程中的过分长大,采用喷射成形快速凝固技术制备了M3型高速钢和以Nb代V的M3型高速钢.利用SEM,EDX和XRD等方法研究了Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢沉积态组织的影响;利用SRV高温摩擦磨损试验机和三维白光干涉表面形貌仪研究了Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢摩擦磨损性能的影响.结果表明,用等原子分数的Nb替代V,可大幅增加沉积态中一次MC型碳化物,减少一次M2C型碳化物,同时由于喷射成形高冷速的作用,使得MC碳化物尺寸减小,分布更弥散;这些MC型碳化物的存在是M3型高速钢的抗磨粒磨损性能提高的主要原因,但其对抗氧化性能并无贡献,在高载荷时抗氧化剥落磨损能力增加不明显;Nb对提高M3高速钢回火稳定性也有明显的作用.%Spray forming with a short process chains has been proven to be a powerful tool for the production of high-alloyed materials. Niobium, as a strong former for the carbide, will mainly form primary MC carbides, such as NbC, which can be formed via the reaction between Nb and C atoms at the beginning of solidification, and it can act as the inoculants and refine the cast structure of steel which can mainly form primary MC carbides. M3 high speed steel with or without Nb addition were prepared via spray forming. The effect of Nb on the microstructure of spray formed M3 high speed steel was investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD methods; the friction performances of these two steels were studied by SRV high temperature tribometer and 3D white-light interfering profilometer. The results show that the amount of primary MC carbides can increase sharply while the reduction of the amount of primary M2C due to the substitution of 2% Nb for 1% V (mass fraction) in M3 high speed steel. For the high cooling rate during the spray forming, the primary MC carbides can be refined and dispersed. Large number of primary MC carbides

  18. High temperature EPR study of the M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guskos Niko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectra of M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn compounds in high temperature range (293 K to 493 K have been investigated. The role of magnetic (Cu, Mn and non-magnetic (Zn, Mg ions in M3Fe4V6O24 structure in formation of magnetic resonance spectra was studied. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters: resonance field, linewidth and integrated intensity were examined. Similarities and differences in temperature behavior of these parameters has been discussed in terms of different relaxation mechanisms and magnetic interactions in the spin systems. An important role of additional magnetic ions (M = Mn or Cu in the M3Fe4V6O24 structure has been identified and its consequences considered.

  19. Expression of the M3 Muscarinic Receptor on Orexin Neurons that Project to the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chen, Jennifer Y S; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Activation of central cholinergic receptors causes a pressor response in rats, and the hypothalamus is important for this response. Projections from hypothalamic orexin neurons to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are involved in sympatho-excitation of the cardiovascular system. A small population of orexin neurons is regulated by cholinergic inputs through M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 R). To elucidate whether the M3 R on orexin neurons is involved in cardiosympathetic regulation through the RVLM, we examined the presence of the M3 R on retrograde-labeled RVLM-projecting orexin neurons. The retrograde tracer was unilaterally injected into the RVLM. Within the hypothalamus, retrograde-labeled neurons were located predominantly ipsilateral to the injection side. In the anterior hypothalamus (-1.5 to -2.3 mm to the bregma), retrograde-labeled neurons were densely distributed in the paraventricular nuclei and scattered in the retrochiasmatic area. At -2.3 to -3.5 mm from the bregma, labeled neurons were located in the regions where orexin neurons were situated, that is, the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area, perifornical area, and dorsomedial nuclei. Very few retrograde-labeled neurons were observed in the hypothalamus at -3.5 to -4.5 mm from the bregma. About 19.5% ± 1.6% of RVLM-projecting neurons in the tuberal hypothalamus were orexinergic. The M3 R was present on 18.7% ± 3.0% of RVLM-projecting orexin neurons. Injection of a muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine, in the perifornical area resulted in a pressor response, which was attenuated by a pretreatment of atropine. We conclude that cholinergic inputs to orexin neurons may be involved in cardiosympathetic regulation through the M3 R on the orexin neurons that directly project to the RVLM.

  20. Study and Implementation of Floating-point Operations Based on Cortex-M3 Core%Cortex-M3内核浮点型运算的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅静静; 王申良

    2011-01-01

    通过分析Cortex-M3内核的结构与浮点型格式,充分利用Cortex-M3内核中的分支预测、单周期乘法、硬件除法等众多功能强大的特性,使用Thumb-2指令集实现了单精度浮点型的加、减、乘、除与比较运算,并给出了加减法运算的流程图和除法运算的源程序.%By analyzing the Cortex-M3 core structure and floating-point format, this paper uses the Thumb-2 instruction set to achieve addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and comparison operations of single-precision floating-point numbers, making full use of such powerful features of Cortex-M3 core as branch prediction, single-cycle multiplication and hardware division. The flow chart of addition and subtraction operations, as well as the source program of division operation, is provided.

  1. TREATMENT OF ABNORMAL TEMPERATURE RISE OF 1 800 m3 BF HEARTH%宣钢1800 m3高炉炉缸温度异常升高的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建新; 匡祎

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at the abnormal temperature rise of the 1800m3 BF hearth carbon bricks . Through correct diagnosis of furnace body corrosion condition , such measures are taken as increasing tita-nium load into the furnace , enhancing cooling intensity , enhancing tap -hole maintenance to guarantee tap-hole depth , changing field on time while tapping and so on , many hidden safety troubles are elimi-nated , and long-time and smooth operation of the 1 800 m3 BF is guaranteed .%针对2013年1月16日宣钢1800 m3高炉炉缸碳砖温度大幅度异常升高。通过正确诊断炉体侵蚀状况,采取提高入炉钛负荷、提高冷却强度、加强铁口维护保证铁口深度、出铁及时倒场等多项护炉措施,消除了安全隐患,保证了1800 m3高炉炉况长期稳定顺行。

  2. M3(Au,Ge)19 and M(3.25)(Au,Ge)18 (M = Ca, Yb): distinctive phase separations driven by configurational disorder in cubic YCd6-type derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisheng; Corbett, John D

    2010-05-17

    Exploratory syntheses in the M-Au-Ge (M = Ca, Yb) systems have led to the discovery of two cleanly separated non-stoichiometric phases M(3)Au(approximately 14.4)Ge(approximately 4.6) (I) and M(3.25)Au(approximately 12.7)Ge(approximately 5.3) (II). Single crystal X-ray studies reveal that both (space group Im3) feature body-centered-cubic packing of five-shell multiply endohedral clusters that resemble those in the parent YCd(6) (= Y(3)Cd(18)) and are akin to approximate phases in other quasicrystal systems. However, differences resulting from various disorders in these are distinctive. The innermost cluster in the M(3)Au(approximately 14.4)Ge(approximately 4.6) phase (I) remains a disordered tetrahedron, as in the YCd(6) parent. In contrast, its counterpart in the electron-richer M(3.25)Au(approximately 12.7)Ge(approximately 5.3) phase (II) is a "rattling" M atom. The structural differentiations between I and II exhibit strong correlations between lattice parameters, cluster sizes, particular site occupancies, and valence electron counts.

  3. Size distribution of particle-phase sugar and nitrophenol tracers during severe urban haze episodes in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Jiang, Li; Hoa, Le Phuoc; Lyu, Yan; Xu, Tingting; Yang, Xin; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Chen, Jianmin; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    In this study, measurements of size-resolved sugar and nitrophenol concentrations and their distributions during Shanghai haze episodes were performed. The primary goal was to track their possible source categories and investigate the contribution of biological and biomass burning aerosols to urban haze events through regional transport. The results showed that levoglucosan had the highest concentration (40-852 ng m-3) followed by 4-nitrophenol (151-768 ng m-3), sucrose (38-380 ng m-3), 4-nitrocatechol (22-154 ng m-3), and mannitol (5-160 ng m-3). Size distributions exhibited over 90% of levoglucosan and 4-nitrocatechol to the total accumulated in the fine-particle size fraction (2.1 μm), which can be correlated with emissions from local sources (biological emission). Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed four probable sources (biomass burning: 28%, airborne pollen: 25%, fungal spores: 24%, and combustion emission: 23%) responsible for urban haze events. Taken together, these findings provide useful insight into size-resolved source apportionment analysis via molecular markers for urban haze pollution events in Shanghai.

  4. Isotropic non-Heisenberg behavior in M3(dpa)4Cl2 extended metal atom chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabookht, Zahra; López, Xavier; Bénard, Marc; de Graaf, Coen

    2010-11-25

    Isotropic deviations to the standard Heisenberg Hamiltonian have been extracted for a series of trinuclear extended metal atom chain complexes, namely, [Ni(3)(dpa)(4)Cl(2)], and the hypothetical [NiPdNi(dpa)(4)Cl(2)] and [Pd(3)(dpa)(4)Cl(2)], following a scheme recently proposed by Labéguerie and co-workers (J. Chem. Phys 2008, 129, 154110) within the density functional theory framework. Energy calculations of broken symmetry monodeterminantal solutions of intermediate M(s,tot.) values can provide an estimate of the magnitude of the biquadratic exchange interaction (λ) that accounts for these deviations in systems with S = 1 magnetic sites. With the B3LYP functional, we obtain λ = 1.37, 13.8, and 498 cm(-1) for the three molecules, respectively, meaning that a simple Heisenberg Hamiltonian is enough for describing the magnetic behavior of the Ni(3) complex but definitely not for Pd(3). In the latter case, the origin of such extreme deviation arises from (i) an energetically affordable local non-Hund state (small intrasite exchange integral, K ∼ 1960 cm(-1)) and (ii) a very effective overlap between Pd-4d orbitals and a large J. Furthermore, this procedure enables us to determine the relative weights of the two types of magnetic interactions, σ- and δ-like, that contribute to the total magnetic exchange (J = J(σ) + J(δ)). In all of the systems, J is governed by the σ interaction by 95-98%.

  5. 1450 m^3 at 10^-9 Pa: One of the KATRIN Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Day; R. Gumbsheimer; W. Herz; J. Wolf; J. Bonn; R. Reid; G.R. Myneni

    2006-11-12

    The KATRIN project is a challenging experiment to measure the mass of the electron neutrino directly with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. It is a next generation tritium beta-decay experiment scaling up the size and precision of previous experiments by an order of magnitude as well as the intensity of the tritium beta source. Ultrafine spectrometric analysis of the energy distribution of the decay electrons at their very endpoint of 18.57 keV is the key to derive the neutrino mass. This is provided by a high-resolution spectrometer of unique size (10 m in diameter, 22 m in length). To avoid any negative influence from residual gas, the spectrometer vessel is designed to UHV/XHV conditions (an ultimate total pressure of below 10{sup -9} Pa and a wall outgassing rate below 10{sup -13} Pam{sup 3}/scm{sup 2}). The paper shortly describes the experimental idea behind KATRIN. The emphasis will then be given to the pumping concept for how to achieve the target parameters and to the manufacturing of the spectrometer tank. Critical issues will also be discussed (surface treatment, welding, transportation). Finally, a description of the current status and an outlook on the overall KATRIN schedule completes the paper.

  6. Comparative study of AISI M3:2 high speed steel produced through different techniques of manufacturing; Estudo comparativo de acos rapidos AISI M3:2 produzidos por diferentes processos de fabricacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Filho, Oscar Olimpio de

    2006-07-01

    In this work AISI M3:2 high speed steels obtained through different techniques of manufacturing, submitted to the same heat treatment procedure were evaluated by measuring their mechanical properties of transverse rupture strength and hardness. Sinter 23 obtained by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), VWM3C obtained by the conventional route and a M3:2 high speed steel obtained by cold compaction of water atomized powders and vacuum sintered with and without the addition of a small quantity of carbon were evaluated after the same heat treatment procedure. The vacuum sintered M3:2 high speed steel can be an alternative to the more expensive high speed steel produced by hot isostatic pressing and with similar properties presented by the conventional one. The characterization of the vacuum sintered M3:2 high speed steel was performed by measuring the densities of the green compacts and after the sintering cycle. The sintering produced an acceptable microstructure and densities near to the theoretical. The transverse rupture strength was evaluated by means of three point bending tests and the hardness by means of Rockwell C and Vickers tests. The technique of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the microstructure and to establish a relation with the property of transverse rupture strength. The structure was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the retained austenite was detected to all the conditions of heat treatment. The main contribution of this work is to establish a relation between the microstructure and the mechanical property of transverse rupture strength and to evaluate the AISI M3:2 vacuum sintered high speed steel as an alternative to the similar commercial high speed steels. (author)

  7. Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    Demolition of buildings produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that could be inhaled by on-site workers and people living in the neighbourhood, but studies assessing ambient exposure at the real-world demolition sites are limited. We measured concentrations of PM10 (≤10 μm), PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) and PM1 (≤1 μm) along with local meteorology for 54 working hours over the demolition period. The measurements were carried out at (i) a fixed-site in the downwind of demolished building, (ii) around the site during demolition operation through mobile monitoring, (iii) different distances away from the demolition site through sequential monitoring, and (iv) inside an excavator vehicle cabin and on-site temporary office for engineers. Position of the PM instrument was continuously recorded using a Global Positioning System on a second basis during mobile measurements. Fraction of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) contributed 89 (with mean particle mass concentration, PMC ≈ 133 ± 17 μg m-3), 83 (100 ± 29 μg m-3), and 70% (59 ± 12 μg m-3) of total PMC during the fixed-site, mobile monitoring and sequential measurements, respectively, compared with only 50% (mean 12 ± 6 μg m-3) during the background measurements. The corresponding values for fine particles (PM2.5) were 11, 17 and 30% compared with 50% during background, showing a much greater release of coarse particles during demolition. The openair package in R and map source software (ArcGIS) were used to assess spatial variation of PMCs in downwind and upwind of the demolition site. A modified box model was developed to determine the emission factors, which were 210, 73 and 24 μg m-2 s-1 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The average respiratory deposited doses to coarse (and fine) particles inside the excavator cabin and on-site temporary office increased by 57- (and 5-) and 13- (and 2-) times compared with the local background level, respectively. The monitoring stations in downwind direction

  8. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  9. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  10. Ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Wierzbicka, Aneta;

    2013-01-01

    Particle number (PN) concentrations (10-300 nm in size) were continuously measured over a period of ∼45 h in 56 residences of nonsmokers in Copenhagen, Denmark. The highest concentrations were measured when occupants were present and awake (geometric mean, GM: 22.3 × 103 cm-3), the lowest when...... the homes were vacant (GM: 6.1 × 103 cm-3) or the occupants were asleep (GM: 5.1 × 103 cm-3). Diary entries regarding occupancy and particle related activities were used to identify source events and apportion the daily integrated exposure among sources. Source events clearly resulted in increased PN...... concentrations and decreased average particle diameter. For a given event, elevated particle concentrations persisted for several hours after the emission of fresh particles ceased. The residential daily integrated PN exposure in the 56 homes ranged between 37 × 103 and 6.0 × 106 particles per cm3·h/day (GM: 3...

  11. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  12. Lead generation using pharmacophore mapping and three-dimensional database searching: application to muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, D P; Dougall, I G; Meghani, P; Liu, Y J; Flower, D R

    1999-08-26

    By using a pharmacophore model, a geometrical representation of the features necessary for molecules to show a particular biological activity, it is possible to search databases containing the 3D structures of molecules and identify novel compounds which may possess this activity. We describe our experiences of establishing a working 3D database system and its use in rational drug design. By using muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists as an example, we show that it is possible to identify potent novel lead compounds using this approach. Pharmacophore generation based on the structures of known M(3) receptor antagonists, 3D database searching, and medium-throughput screening were used to identify candidate compounds. Three compounds were chosen to define the pharmacophore: a lung-selective M(3) antagonist patented by Pfizer and two Astra compounds which show affinity at the M(3) receptor. From these, a pharmacophore model was generated, using the program DISCO, and this was used subsequently to search a UNITY 3D database of proprietary compounds; 172 compounds were found to fit the pharmacophore. These compounds were then screened, and 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone (pA(2) 6.67) was identified as the best hit, with N-[2-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)cycohexyl]-2-propoxybenz amide (pA(2) 4. 83) and phenylcarbamic acid 2-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)cyclohexyl ester (pA(2) 5.54) demonstrating lower activity. As well as its potency, 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone is a simple structure with limited similarity to existing M(3) receptor antagonists.

  13. Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2008-01-01

    An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod

  14. Determination of the Total Solar Modulation Factors in the Heliosphere For Cosmic Ray Protons and Electrons by Comparing Interstellar Spectra Deduced from Voyager Measurements and PAMELA Spectra of These Particles at the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, W R

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the interstellar spectra of cosmic ray protons and electrons from a few MeV to ~10 GeV. These interstellar spectra are based on Voyager data and a normalization of specific galactic propagation model calculations of both protons and electrons to PAMELA data at the Earth at 10 GeV, where the solar modulation is small. These resulting interstellar spectra are then compared with spectra of protons and electrons measured at lower energies at the Earth by PAMELA in 2009. The total amount of modulation at lower rigidities (energies) is found to be nearly the same at the same rigidity for both protons and electrons and ranges in magnitude from a factor ~400 at 0.1 GV for electrons, to a factor ~15 at 0.44 GV (100 MeV for protons), to a factor ~3.3 at 1 GV for both components. The magnitude of this total modulation of both components are the same to within + 10% from ~0.3 to ~3 GV in rigidity. The observed total modulation for protons can be matched quite closely using a simple spherically symmetri...

  15. Wear behaviour of powder metallurgy tool steel M3/2 reinforced with niobium carbide by pin-on-disk test; Estudio del desgaste de aceros rapidos pulvimetalurgicos M3/2 reforzados con carburo de niobio mediante el ensayo pin-on-disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, N.; Lopez, A.; Ruano, O. A.; Jimenez, J. a.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, composite materials M3/2 high-speed steel reinforced with 5, 10 and 15%, in volume, of niobium carbide have been obtained to improve the wear behaviour. The materials were prepared by powder metallurgy using steel and carbide powders that were mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill, and then hot isostatically pressed. The wear mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill, and then hot isostatically pressed. The wear behaviour was determined by pin-on-disk tests. The materials present a microstructure consisting of grains with a few microns in size and fine MC and M{sub 6}C particles homogeneously dispersed in its interior. In the case of reinforced materials, reinforcing carbides particles are placed mainly at the surface of the prior steel powder particle boundaries. the wear behaviour was evaluated from friction and wear coefficients, and also from weight loss. the addition of niobium carbide improves the wear properties of the tool steel in both martensitic and tempered conditions. A decrease of the weight loss and the wear coefficient is observed with increasing volume fraction of NbC. (Author) 7 refs.

  16. 高顶压技术在莱钢1000m3高炉的应用%Application of High Top Pressure Technology in Laigang 1000 m3 Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰巧

    2015-01-01

    高压操作是强化高炉冶炼的一项重要措施,利于高炉炉况稳定顺行、提高煤气利用率,莱钢1000 m3高炉通过加强原料管理、增加鼓风动能、加强炉前管理等措施提高炉顶压力,取得了显著的经济效益。%High pressure operation is an important measure to strengthen the blast furnace smelting of blast furnace, can be conducive to the stable operation and the exploitation rate of gas.By improving raw material management, increasing the en-ergy of blast furnace, strengthening management measures to strengthen blast furnace top pressure, remarkable economic benefits has been achieved for Laigang 1000 m3 furnace.

  17. Development of Protection System Preventing 60 000 m3 Air Compressor from Stall%60000m3空压机喘振保护系统的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学波

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the reason and harm of air compressor stall in detail ,and elaborates the principle of the anti-stall control system .A protection system for 60 000 m3 air compressor is set up .By using the function of DCS and PLC ,we can make the control of compressor fast and reliable .This work has important reference value to the other anti-stall control systems .%简述了喘振的原理及危害。详细阐述了防喘振系统的控制原理,并建立了60000 m3空压机的保护系统,利用DCS和PLC的强大功能实现快速可靠的控制,对其他系统的防喘振控制有着重要的参考价值。

  18. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  19. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  20. Restoration of Bottom Plate Leakage at 80,000 m3 Wiggins Gasholder%8万m3威金斯煤气柜柜底板泄漏修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永涛

    2015-01-01

    8万m3威金斯柜在生产运行中柜底板发生泄漏,采取临时措施封堵后效果不佳,为了避免事态扩大停柜检修,针对柜底板蜂窝状腐蚀,以托补钢板的形式予以加强,消除煤气泄漏的安全隐患.

  1. 基于ARM Cortex-M3的步进电机线性速度控制的实现%The Realization of Linear Speed Control of Stepper Motor Based on ARM Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鑫; 张峰

    2009-01-01

    Conex-M3是ARM公司最新推出的基于ARMy7体系架构的处理核.步进电机已被广泛的应用于速度、位置等控制领域.本文实现了基于Codex-M3内核处理器的步进电机的线性速度控制.针对步进电机控制过程中易出现的失步和过冲现象,提出了一种步进电机加减速控制算法.首先,在Codex-M3内核处理器上移植了μCOS-Ⅱ实时操作系统.在此基础上,利用系统的API接口函数用程序实现了加减速控制算法,并最终实现了对两路步进电机的控制.

  2. [Biological experiments in flights of unmanned space craft Foton-M2 and Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, E A

    2013-01-01

    Missions of unmanned spacecraft Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) of 16 and 12 days in duration, respectively, provided an opportunity to conduct the Russian/US experiments with snails (Helix lucorum and Helix aspera), newts (Pleurodeles waltli), geckos (Pachydactilus turneri) and microorganisms (Streptomyces lividans 66, E. coli and others). Besides, Foton-M3 carried a Russian experiment with Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Objectives of the space experiments were to study the micro-g effects on the living systems' behavior, structure and functioning, post-traumatic regeneration of bone and organs, stable inheritance of plasmid pIJ 702, and melanin pigment synthesis by streptomycets. The survey paper presents the major findings of a large team of investigators.

  3. Release of airborne particles and Ag and Zn compounds from nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays: Implications for inhalation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Leonardo; Han, Taewon T.; McGilvery, Catriona M.; Yang, Letao; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alexandra E.; Smith, Rachel; Chung, Kian Fan; Lioy, Paul J.; Zhang, Junfeng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-04-01

    The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product. The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products.

  4. Electrochemical properties of mixed conducting (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L. [and others

    1996-04-01

    Electrical properties and oxygen permeation properties of solid mixed-conducting electrolytes (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba) have been characterized. These materials are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as the cathode in a fuel cell. Dilatometric linear expansion measurements were performed as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure to evaluate the stability.

  5. The Armys M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    entered service with the Army in 1980; the M-2/M-3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle in 1981; and the Stryker Combat Vehicle in 2001. Under current Army... Under current Army modernization plans, the Army envisions all three vehicles in service with Active and National Guard forces beyond FY2028...Information from this section, unless otherwise noted, is taken from Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, pp.177- 185, and the author’s personal

  6. Inhalation by design: dual pharmacology β-2 agonists/M3 antagonists for the treatment of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H; Baldock, Helen; Bunnage, Mark E; Burrows, Jane; Clarke, Nick; Coghlan, Michele; Entwistle, David; Fairman, David; Feeder, Neil; Fulton, Craig; Hilton, Laura; James, Kim; Jones, Rhys M; Kenyon, Amy S; Marshall, Stuart; Newman, Sandra D; Osborne, Rachel; Patel, Sheena; Selby, Matthew D; Stuart, Emilio F; Trevethick, Michael A; Wright, Karen N; Price, David A

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the successful design and development of dual pharmacology β-2 agonists-M3 antagonists, for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder using the principles of 'inhalation by design'. A key feature of this work is the combination of balanced potency and pharmacodynamic duration with desirable pharmacokinetic and material properties, whilst keeping synthetic complexity to a minimum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implications for Damage Recognition during Dpo4-Mediated Mutagenic Bypass of m1G and m3C Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechkoblit, Olga; Delaney, James C.; Essigmann, John M.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MIT); (MSKCC)

    2012-05-08

    DNA is susceptible to alkylation damage by a number of environmental agents that modify the Watson-Crick edge of the bases. Such lesions, if not repaired, may be bypassed by Y-family DNA polymerases. The bypass polymerase Dpo4 is strongly inhibited by 1-methylguanine (m1G) and 3-methylcytosine (m3C), with nucleotide incorporation opposite these lesions being predominantly mutagenic. Further, extension after insertion of both correct and incorrect bases, introduces additional base substitution and deletion errors. Crystal structures of the Dpo4 ternary extension complexes with correct and mismatched 3'-terminal primer bases opposite the lesions reveal that both m1G and m3C remain positioned within the DNA template/primer helix. However, both correct and incorrect pairing partners exhibit pronounced primer terminal nucleotide distortion, being primarily evicted from the DNA helix when opposite m1G or misaligned when pairing with m3C. Our studies provide insights into mechanisms related to hindered and mutagenic bypass of methylated lesions and models associated with damage recognition by repair demethylases.

  8. Drop by drop backscattered signal of a 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume: A numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of individual drop positions on a backscattered radar signal. This is achieved through a numerical experiment: a 3D rain drop field generator is developed and implemented over a volume of 50 × 50 × 50 m3, and then the sum of the electromagnetic waves backscattered by its hydrometeors is computed. Finally the temporal evolution over 1 s is modelled with simplistic assumptions. For the rainfall generator, the liquid water content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help of a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. Within each 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops, located randomly uniformly according to a pre-defined drop size distribution (DSD). Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops being uniformly distributed over the entire 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume. Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the size of a rainfall "patch", it appears that, in agreement with the theory, we retrieve an exponential distribution for potential measures on horizontal reflectivity. Much thinner dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable the reproduction of radar observations, and turbulence should be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  9. The surface accessibility of the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop is increased in the channel open state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J W; Han, N L; Haddrill, J; Pierce, K D; Schofield, P R

    2001-04-15

    Mutations in the extracellular M2-M3 loop of the glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha1 subunit have been shown previously to affect channel gating. In this study, the substituted cysteine accessibility method was used to investigate whether a structural rearrangement of the M2-M3 loop accompanies GlyR activation. All residues from R271C to V277C were covalently modified by both positively charged methanethiosulfonate ethyltrimethylammonium (MTSET) and negatively charged methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate (MTSES), implying that these residues form an irregular surface loop. The MTSET modification rate of all residues from R271C to K276C was faster in the glycine-bound state than in the unliganded state. MTSES modification of A272C, L274C, and V277C was also faster in the glycine-bound state. These results demonstrate that the surface accessibility of the M2-M3 loop is increased as the channel transitions from the closed to the open state, implying that either the loop itself or an overlying domain moves during channel activation.

  10. Ice nucleation properties of atmospheric aerosol particles collected during a field campaign in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Lang-Yona, Naama; Tamm, Alexandra; Meusel, Hannah; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, including desert and soil dust as well as marine aerosols, are well known to act as ice nuclei (IN) and thus have been investigated in numerous ice nucleation studies. Based on their cloud condensation nuclei potential and their impacts on radiative properties of clouds (via scattering and absorption of solar radiation), aerosol particles may significantly affect the cloud and precipitation development. Atmospheric aerosols of the Eastern Mediterranean have been described to be dominated by desert dust, but only little is known on their composition and ice nucleating properties. In this study we investigated the ice nucleating ability of total suspended particles (TSP), collected at the remote site Agia Marina Xyliatou on Cyprus during a field campaign in April 2016. Airborne TSP samples containing air masses of various types such as African (Saharan) and Arabian dust and European and Middle Eastern pollution were collected on glass fiber filters at 24 h intervals. Sampling was performed ˜5 m above ground level and ˜521 m above sea level. During the sampling period, two major dust storms (PM 10max 118 μg/m3 and 66 μg/m3) and a rain event (rainfall amount: 3.4 mm) were documented. Chemical and physical characterizations of the particles were analyzed experimentally through filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments were performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array. Preliminary results indicate that highest IN particle numbers (INPs) occurred during the second dust storm event with lower particle concentrations. Treatments at 60˚ C lead to a gradual IN deactivation, indicating the presence of biological INPs, which were observed to be larger than 300 kDa. Additional results originating from this study will be shown. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT).

  11. Structural and electronic properties of reduced transition metal oxide clusters, M3O8 and M3O8- (M = Cr, W), from photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Dixon, David A

    2009-10-22

    We report a comparative study of reduced transition metal oxide clusters, M(3)O(8)(-) (M = Cr, W) anions and their neutrals, via anion photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) and molecular orbital theory (CCSD(T)) calculations. Well-resolved PES spectra are obtained for M(3)O(8)(-) (M = Cr, W) at 193 and 157 nm photon energies. Different PES spectra are observed for M = Cr versus M = W. Extensive DFT and CCSD(T) calculations are performed to locate the ground and low-lying excited states for the neutrals and anions. The ground states of Cr(3)O(8) and Cr(3)O(8)(-) are predicted to be the (3)B(2) and (4)B(2) states of a C(2v) structure, respectively, revealing ferromagnetic spin coupling for Cr 3d electrons. In contrast, the ground states of W(3)O(8) and W(3)O(8)(-) are predicted to be the (1)A' state (C(s) symmetry) and the (2)A(1) state (C(2v) symmetry), respectively, showing metal-metal d-d bonding in the anion. The current cluster geometries are in qualitative agreement with prior DFT studies at the PBE level for M = Cr and the B3LYP level for M = W. The BP86 and PW91 functionals significantly outperform the B3LYP functional for the Cr species, in terms of relative energies, electron detachment energies, and electronic excitation energies, whereas the B3LYP functional is better for the W species. Accurate heats of formation for the ground states of M(3)O(8) are calculated from the clustering energies and the heats of formation of MO(2) and MO(3). The energetics have been used to predict redox reaction thermochemistry.

  12. Studies of total bremsstrahlung in thick targets of Al, Ti, Sn and Pb for 90Sr beta particles in the photon energy region of 1-100 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Total bremsstrahlung (BS) spectra in thick targets of Al, Ti, Sn and Pb produced by beta emitter 90Sr (End point energy=546 keV) are studied in the photon energy range of 1-100 keV. The experimentally measured BS spectra are compared with the theoretical spectral distributions calculated from Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe-Heitler [EBH] theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe-Heitler [Fmod BH] theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung (OB) and the Avdonina and Pratt [Fmod BH+PB] theory, which include the contribution of polarization bremsstrahlung (PB) into OB. The present results are indicating the correctness of Fmod BH+PB theory in the low energy region, where PB dominates into the BS, but at the middle and higher photon energy region of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, the Fmod BH theory is more close to the experimental results. The description of the bremsstrahlung process in stripped atom (SA) approximation, which indicates the suppression of the bremsstrahlung at higher energy ends due to the production of PB in the low energy region, needs further considerations. Hence, the present measurements for BS for different target materials indicates that the considerations of the screening effects along with other secondary effects during the interaction of incident electrons with the target nuclei are important while describing the production of bremsstrahlung, particularly for the higher energy regions.

  13. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  14. Design of Instrument Lathe Control System Based on CORTEX-M3 Technology%基于CORTEX-M3技术的仪表车床控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香泉; 刘浪; 洪耀球

    2012-01-01

    采用了基于CORTEX-M3核的STM32F103VCT6 ARM芯片作为核心,实现4轴步进电机控制功能,同时系统还实现了与基于MODBUS RTU协议的文本显示或工业触摸屏的通信功能,以及获取相关输入信号和控制继电器功能.

  15. 8×104m3威金斯转炉煤气柜密封膜破损修复处理%Renovation the Broken Sealing Membrane of 8×104m3 Wiggins Converter Gas Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树奇; 张军; 刘芳荣

    2013-01-01

    文章介绍了8× 104m3威金斯转炉煤气柜发生密封膜破损泄漏事故,分析了密封膜损坏的原因分析.希望通过此次事故,能提高运行人员和点检人员对八万转炉煤气柜的高度认识和密切关注,在以后的工作当中,避免此类事情的发生.

  16. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect and Its Mechanism of Exercise Training Up-Regulating the Expression of M3 Receptor on Myocardial Infarction in Rats%运动锻炼上调 M3 R对 MI大鼠心脏产生保护效应及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振军; 张可; 陈婷

    2015-01-01

    objective :Cardioprotective effect and mechanism of exercise training up-regulating the expression of M3 receptor on myocardial infarction .Methods :48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=12 ,per group):control group (C) ,myocardial in-farction group (MI ) ,moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with myocardial infarction group (ME1) and high-intensity aerobic interval exercise with myocardial infarction group (ME2) , Rats in C group are breed normally .MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in MI group .Rats in ME1 and ME2 group take treadmill exercise for 8wk after 1wk post-operation .ME1 group running began at the speed of 10m/min for 5min , then accelerate from 3m/min to 16m/min .ME2 group running began at the speed of 10m/min for 10min ,then the speed increases to 25 m/min ,after 7min ,slow down at the speed of 15m/min for 3min .Take the process alternatively .The total exercise time of ME1 and ME2 are both 60min ,5d/1wk × 8wk .LVSP ,LVEDP ,± dp/dtmax and the cardiac function changes are measured after training .Myocardial collagen fibers were observed by histological section and Masson staining .The expression of myocardial M3 R was observed and analyzed by immun-oflourecence .The myocardial protein content of M3 R ,MEK1/2 ,P-ERK1/2 ,ERK1/2 and apoptosis related Bcl-2 and Bax were assayed by Western Blot .Results :MI increased CVF and LV-EDP (P< 0 .01) ,but decreased LVSP and -dp/dtmax (P<0 .01) .After MI myocardial M3 positive staining ,after MI M3 protein expression significantly higher (P< 0 .01) ,MEK1/2 ,P-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 protein expression were significantly increased ( P< 0 .01 ,P< 0 .01 ) ,after the MI the Bcl-2/Bax expression significantly reduced ( P< 0 .01 ) .ME1 and ME2 group CVF% ,LVEDP significantly reduced (P<0 .01) ,ME1-dp/dtmax significantly increased (P<0 .01) ,ME2 LVSP increased significantly (P< 0 .01) .ME1 and ME2 groups were identified myocardial M3 ,ME

  18. M3D-C1 simulations of the plasma response to n = 3 magnetic perturbations applied to the NSTX-U snowflake divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, G. P.; Ferraro, N. M.; Evans, T. E.; Osborne, T. H.; Menard, J. E.; Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Wingen, A.; Ciro, D.; Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Soukhanoviskii, V.; Waters, I.

    2016-10-01

    Single- and two-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations, performed with the code M3D-C1, are used to investigate the effect of n = 3 magnetic perturbations on the SF divertor configuration. The calculations are based on simulated NSTX-U plasmas and the results show that additional and longer magnetic lobes are created in the null-point region of the SF configuration, compared to those in the conventional single-null. The intersection of these additional and longer lobes with the divertor plates are expected to cause more striations in the particle and heat flux target profiles. In addition, the results indicate that the size of the magnetic lobes, in both single-null and SF configurations, are more sensitive to resonant than to non-resonant magnetic perturbations. The results also suggest that lower values of current in non-axisymmetric control coils close enough to the primary x-point would be required to suppress edge localized modes in plasmas with the SF configuration. This work has been supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Science under DOE Award DE-SC0012706.

  19. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  20. lOT Data Acquisition Substation for forestry ecology monitor Based on Cortex- M3%Cortex—M3的生态物联网数据采集分站设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骏慧; 陶华; 俞哲伟; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    The IOT(Internet of things)data acquisition substation for forestry ecology monitor is proposed, which employs the Cortex- M3 processor as the CPU. Digital temperature humidity sensor, smoke sensor, C()2 sensor and digital luminance sensor are employed to acquire the environment information which is related with forestry ecology. Then the sensors data are collected by LM3S811 and ID of substation is added to data packet. Further more, LM3SSll transmits the data packet to servers using RF module.%以Cortex—M3处理器LM3S811为核心,设计了面向森林生态监测的物联网数据采集终端分站系统。通过单总线数字式温湿度传感器、烟雾传感器、CO2传感器和环境光亮度传感器分别采集温度、湿度、可燃性颗粒物、CO2含量和光照等与林木生态相关的环境信息和林场防火的相关信息。由LM3S81l处理器处理并添加分站ID和校验码后,采用无线模块传送给服务器。

  1. 100 m3/min往复式空压机长周期安全稳定运行研究%Study on Long, Safe and Stable Operation of 100 m3/min Reciprocating Air Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈山

    2015-01-01

    介绍了安徽晋煤中能化工股份有限公司100 m3/min往复式空压机的工况,针对影响机组长周期稳定、安全运行的问题,采取了优化设备结构和工艺结构的措施,优化结果表明:年创造经济效益16.28万元,实现了节能降耗的目的。%This paper introduces the working conditions of 100 m3/min reciprocating air compressor of Anhui Jinmei Zhongneng Chemical Co. , Ltd. To solve the problem affecting long, safe and stable operation of the unit, the author optimizes the structures of the equipment and the process. The opti-mization results show that it has gained 162 800 RMB yuan/a economic benefit and achieved its energy-saving and consumption-reducing purpose.

  2. 石家庄陕鼓2×40000m^3/h空分设备设计优化%Optimized design of Shijiazhuang Shaanxi Blower Group 2 ×40000m^3/h air separation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岑; 卢子学

    2012-01-01

    At design stage of Shijiazhuang Shaanxi Blower Group 2 ×40000m^3/h air separation plants, it found unreasonable design in the nitrogen compression and supply system, air compressor vent silencer, and connection mode for feeding boosted air to plate-fin type heat exchanger, as well as the factors impairing stable and safe operation of the product continuous supply and air separation plant. Here, the optimization measures taken for the unreasonable factors are described, which puts a sound basis for stable run of the air separation plant.%在石家庄陕鼓2×40000m^3/h空分设备设计阶段,发现氮气压缩和供应系统、空压机放空消声器以及增压空气进板翅式换热器的连接方式设计不舍理,存在影响产品连续供应和空分设备稳定、安全运行的因素。介绍对这些不合理因素所采取的优化措施,为空分设备建成后稳定运行奠定基础。

  3. 3500m3/h绞吸挖泥船甲板机舱振动分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Deck Cabin Vibration in 3 500 m3/h Cutter Suction Dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜

    2015-01-01

    针对3500 m3/h绞吸式挖泥船的甲板机舱异常振动问题,建立机舱结构有限元模型,进行振动模态分析,发现甲板下支柱与柴油机工作频率耦合引起的共振是导致甲板机舱异常振动的主要原因,进行甲板机舱结构和立柱位置的优化,检测表明,优化后的结构有效避开了共振频率,振动速度峰值和加速度大幅下降,优化效果良好。%In view of abnormal vibration on deck engine room of 3 500 m3/h cutter suction dredger, the FE structural model of the engine room is established.Via the analysis of mode of vibration, resonance coupling of working frequency of the diesel en-gine with the pillar under deck is the primary cause for abnormal vibration of deck engine room.So the location of pillars is rede-signed to avoid the resonant frequency.The test results verify that the peaks of vibration acceleration and velocity are sharply de-creased;the effects of optimization are satisfactory.

  4. Logic control of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3· h-1 air separation plant%65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统逻辑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉芹

    2012-01-01

    The structure and technical process of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3/ an air separation plant of Hebi coal and electeicity 600 ktpa methanol project are briefed, automatic valve closing / opening logical control of molecular sieve purification system, automatic / manual operation sequence control program,implementation of the sequence control program and optimized reform of the sequence control configuration program of the molecular sieve absorber in accordance with site operation conditions are described.%简介鹤壁煤电股份有限公司化工分公司空分厂65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统结构和工艺流程,介绍分子筛纯化系统阀门自动开关控制逻辑、顺控程序自动/手动运行、顺控程序执行过程,以及根据现场生产运行实际情况,对分子筛吸附器顺控组态程序进行的优化改进.

  5. Design of Low-cost LCD Touch Screen Based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的低成本液晶触摸屏设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 邹卫军

    2014-01-01

    选用NXP公司内置LCD控制器的Cortex-M3处理器LPC1788作为主控,设计了一种低成本的液晶触摸屏。介绍了四线电阻式触摸屏与LPC1788的接口设计,移植emWin图形界面库为GUI提供支持。实际运用证明,低成本液晶触摸屏运行稳定,界面设计便捷。%This paper provides a Iow-cost LCD Touch Screen design which use LPC1788 as the processor.LPC1788 which is de-signed by NXP,is a SoC based on Cortex-M3 CPU and contains a buiId-in LCD controI er,and introduces the interface of 4-wire resistive touch pad with LPC1788.In addition,transpIant the graphicaI interface Iibrary emWin to provide best support for the design of GUI.The practicaI appIication shows this screen works stabIy and makes the interface design convenient.

  6. 基于ARM Cortex M3内核TFT触摸屏无线遥控设计%On Wireless Remote Control System Design Based on the ARM Cortex M3 core TFT Touch Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金赐; 梁九兴

    2012-01-01

    The designing is based on Bluetooth communication through the ARM Contex M3 core microprocessor STM32F103VET6 and TEF color LCD touch screen to design a touch-screen remote control.This kind of remote control,through touching the controls displayed on the TFT color LCD of the host computer,triggers variety of control signals and then wireless Bluetooth module sends control signals.%本设计是建立在蓝牙通信下通过ARM Cortex M3内核的微处理器STM32F103VET6与TFT彩色液晶触摸屏来设计一种触摸屏遥控器。该遥控器通过触摸上位机TFT彩色液晶触摸屏上显示的各个控件来触发各种控制信号;无线蓝牙模块发送各种控制信号。

  7. Design and Realization of GUI Based on ARM Cortex-M3%基于ARM Cortex-M3的图形用户界面设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩定

    2015-01-01

    采用基于Cortex-M3内核的LPC1788为主控芯片和320(RGB)*480 pixels的带触摸点阵液晶屏,应用emWin图形库设计了一款简单易用的小型人机交互界面,并提供大容量的图片存储空间和可扩展字库存储空间,便于用户使用,可以广泛应用于家庭自动化和工业控制领域。%The ARM Cortex-M3 kernel processor LPC1788 and 320*480 pixels LCD with touch is used to design a small Graphical User Interface. EmWin is a kind of open source software, which is used to GUI embedded system. It can be widely used in home automation and industrial control.

  8. 年产5000m3意杨LVL主材及设备量的计算与配置%Calculation and Configuration of Main Material and Equipment Quantity for Annual 5000m3 Populus LVL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋瞻

    2012-01-01

      LVL has become the fastest kind of wooden composite material product in the current woodworking industry. The configuration of materials and equipment of an enterprise located in Northern Jiangsu that manufactures 5000 m 3 Populus LVL annually is introduced, with emphasis placed on relevant design calculation and configuration of such main materials as veneer and adhesive and such main equipment as presses, with the aim to provide reference for China’s small and medium-sized plywood manufacturing enterprises in term of design of the materials and equipment for manufacturing Populus LVL products.%  LVL已成为当今木材加工行业发展速度最快的一种木质复合材料产品。介绍了苏北一家年产5000m3意杨LVL企业的加工材料与设备配置情况,着重对单板、胶黏剂主材及压机等主要设备进行了相关的设计计算与配置,为我国制造胶合板的中小型企业做好意杨LVL产品的主材及其设备的设计工作提供参考。

  9. DISCUSSION ABOUT HEAT BALANCE CALCULATION AND ENERGY SAVING FOR 2500 m3 BLAST FURNACE%承钢2500 m3高炉热平衡测算与节能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀英

    2014-01-01

    以承钢3座2 500 m3高炉为研究对象,用第一总热平衡测试法进行了高炉热平衡测算.结果表明:承钢2 500 m3高炉近年来节能主要是降低了冷却软熔带带走热量约0.29 GJ/tFe,减少煤气带走热量约0.12 GJ/tFe,降低瓦斯灰带走热量约0.04 GJ/tFe.从测算结果可以看出,因高炉工艺优化吨铁耗风量降低后,收入项中热风带入的热量减少约0.4 GJ/tFe,碳素氧化带入的热量减少约0.12 GJ/tFe.介绍了承钢高炉近年采用的节能技术及应用效果,根据热平衡测算结果和目前的前沿节能技术,提出了承钢高炉进一步降低能耗的措施.

  10. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Theoretical study of neutral and charged Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(benzene){sub m{<=}3} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynez-Rojas, Miguel; Castro, Miguel, E-mail: castro@quetzal.pquim.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Interactions of benzene molecules with scandium atoms, Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}, in the gas phase were studied by means of density functional theory. All-electron calculations were performed using the B3LYP hybrid functional in concert with 6-311+G(d,p) orbital basis sets for the Sc, C, and H atoms. Multiple-decker sandwich (MDS) structures are identified as the ground states for Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}, where the ligands are attached to the metal through Sc-C bonding, formed between the 3d electrons and the {pi}-clouds of the benzene rings. Significant distortion is produced on the absorbed benzene molecules by the metal-ligand bonding. Rice ball structures also appeared, but they were found at higher energies, in such a way that essentially MDS isomers may emerge in the molecular beams. Even the low number of valence electrons (3d{sup 2}4s{sup 1}) of the Sc atom; sextuple coordinations are formed, but they show different Sc-C bond lengths, diminishing the symmetry of neutral and charged clusters. The estimated ionization energies, in near agreement with experimental data, and electron affinities, suggest delocalization of the valence electrons through the network of 3d-{pi} bonds of Sc{sub 1,2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}. The binding energies decrease with the absorption of more benzene molecules, and in some cases increase as more metal atoms are added to the cluster.

  12. Adsorption of aromatics on the (111) surface of PtM and PtM3 (M = Fe, Ni) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, Alyssa; Schneider, Sebastian; Wang, Yong; McEwen, Jean-Sabin

    2015-09-18

    The adsorption of benzene and phenol was studied on PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces, with M being either Ni or Fe. Under vacuum, the most favorable near surface structures showed an enrichment in Pt over the M species. An analysis of the electronic structure of the metal species in the clean surfaces with different near surface structures was done with the d-band model and showed that the Pt's d-states are significantly shifted away from the Fermi level due to the Pt-M interactions while the M species' d-states were less affected, with Ni's d-band shifting closer to the Fermi level and Fe's d-band shifting away from the Fermi level. The adsorption of aromatics, benzene and phenol, on several near surface structures for the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces showed that higher surface M concentrations resulted in a stronger adsorption due to the larger amount of charge transferred between the adsorbate and surface. However, compared to the adsorption of benzene and phenol on monometallic surfaces, the adsorption of these species on the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces was significantly weakened. Overall, our results show that the observed behavior of these Pt/Fe and Pt/Ni alloys is similar to that seen for the previously studied Pd/Fe surfaces. Furthermore, balancing the weakly adsorbing Pt surface species with the more strongly interacting Fe or Ni species can lead to the tailored adsorption of aromatics with applications in both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation reactions by increasing the desorption rate of wanted aromatic products.

  13. Syntheses, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm+nCo5m+3nB2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敬魁; 陈怡; 陈小龙

    2001-01-01

    The phase relations at the 600℃ and 700℃ isothermal sections of the ternary systems R-Co-B for R= Nd, Pr and R = Sm, Gd respectively were summarized in this paper. For Rm+ n Co5m+3n B2n, two new types ofcompounds R3Co13B2(R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) (m=2, n=1) andR5Co19B6(R=Pr, Nd) (m=2,n = 3 ) were synthesized by utilizing the principle of structural combination. Their crystalstructures and easymagnetization direction were determined by X-ray powder diffraction, and structures were refined by the Rietveldmethod. The Curie temperature Tc, saturation magnetization M8 and anisotropic field HA of the new compounds weremeasured using a vibrating-sample magnetometer, an extraction sample magnetometer and M(H) - H curves of samplesin different magnetization directions respectively. The Tc and Ms of Rm + n Co5 m + 3 n B2n increase with increasing values of mat a given n value. HA increases with an increase in n when m is kept invariable. The effects of the substitution of Ni for Co on the magnetic properties of Nd13 Co15- x Nix B2 were also investigated. It was found that TsR decreased monotonously as the concentration of Ni increased, and at x = 3 the easy magnetization direction becomes axial at room temperature. The relations between crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm + nCo5m+ 3nB2n and the possible routes of synthesizing permanent magnetic materials are also discussed.

  14. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Gunbatar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3. During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  15. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbatar, Hulya; Demir, Cengiz; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Asker, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3). During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  16. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  17. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Licina

    Full Text Available Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses' station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3-1 μm particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3-10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3. Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37-81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18-59% and 1-5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1-10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  18. The Horizontal Branch in the UV Colour Magnitude Diagrams. II. The case of M3, M13 and M79

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, Emanuele; Ferraro, Francesco R; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Cassisi, Santi

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison between far-UV/optical colour Magnitude Diagrams obtained with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope data and suitable theoretical models for three Galactic Globular Clusters: M3, M13 and M79. These systems represents a classical example of clusters in the intermediate metallicity regime that, even sharing similar metal content and age, show remarkably different Horizontal Branch morphologies. As a consequence, the observed differences in the colour distributions of Horizontal Branch stars cannot be interpreted in terms of either first (metallicity) or a second parameter such as age. We investigate here the possible role of variations of initial Helium abundance (Y). Thanks to the use of a proper setup of far-UV filters, we are able to put strong constraints on the maximum Y (Y_{max}) values compatible with the data. We find differences Delta Y_{max} ~ 0.02-0.04 between the clusters with M13 showing the largest value (Y_{max} ~ 0.30) and M3 the smallest (Y_{max} ~ 0.27). In g...

  19. Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  20. Total sugars in atmospheric aerosols: An alternative tracer for biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramboni, C.; Urban, R. C.; Lima-Souza, M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Cardoso, A. A.; Allen, A. G.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient aerosols were collected in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) between May 2010 and February 2012 (n = 87). The atmosphere of the study region is highly affected by the emissions of gases and particles from sugar and fuel ethanol production, because part of the area planted with sugarcane is still burned before manual harvesting. This work proposes the quantification of total sugars as an alternative chemical tracer of biomass burning, instead of levoglucosan. The quantification of total sugars requires a small area of a filter sample and a simple spectrophotometer, in contrast to the determination of levoglucosan, which is much more complex and time-consuming. Total sugars concentrations in the aerosol ranged from 0.28 to 12.5 μg m-3, and (similarly to levoglucosan) the emissions were significantly higher at night and during the sugarcane harvest period, when most agricultural fires occur. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and total sugars (r = 0.612) was stronger than between levoglucosan and potassium (r = 0.379), which has previously been used as a biomass burning tracer. In the study region, potassium is used in fertilizers, and this, together with substantial soil dust resuspension, makes potassium unsuitable for use as a tracer. On average, ca. 40% of the total sugars was found in particles smaller than 0.49 μm. By including data from previous work, it was possible to identify from 35 to 42% of the total sugars, with biomass burning making the largest contribution. The high solubility in water of these sugars means that determination of their concentrations could also provide important information concerning the hydrophilic properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  1. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  2. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  3. Source apportionment of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lumbini, Nepal by using the positive matrix factorization receptor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengfei; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Yan, Fangping; Zhang, Qianggong; Ji, Zhengming; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is one of the most polluted regions in the world. Despite numbers of studies conducted at urban site, few data are available at rural area. In this study, characteristics of 15 particle-bound priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of total suspended particles (TSPs) collected at a typical rural area (Lumbini) of IGP from April 2013 to March 2014 were reported. The results showed that annual average TSP and PAH concentrations were 209 ± 123 μg/m3 and 94.8 ± 54.6 ng/m3, respectively, which were similar to those of large cities such as Agra and Delhi in the upwind adjacent regions. Clear seasonal variation of TSP and PAH concentrations was observed, with the highest average concentration occurring in winter followed by the pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and monsoon seasons, reflecting combined influence of source strength and monsoon circulation on PAH concentrations of Lumbini. Positive matrix factorization analysis showed that biomass combustion (50.6%) and vehicular emissions (30.4%) were first two sources of PAHs, followed by coal combustion (11.6%) and air-soil exchange (7.4%), in line with that of diagnostic molecular ratios results. Because of extensive agro-residue burning, intensive forest fires, and conducive weather conditions, contribution of biomass burning during non-monsoon season (55.7%) was higher than that of monsoon season (42.1%). The total BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) of particulate PAHs ranged between 2.51 and 47.3 ng/m3, was 2-40 times higher than the WHO guideline (1 ng/m3), implying local residents were at risk for adverse health effects.

  4. 安钢10万m3威金斯气柜利用效率探讨与应用%Efficiency Analysis and Application of Anyang Iron and Steel 100 000 m3 Wiggins Gasholder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海顺; 王志峰; 王祥凯; 张文杰; 赵卫兵

    2015-01-01

    As to the operating situation of Augang 100 000 Wiggins gas holder, this paper analyzes the efficiency factors of Wiggins gesholder, and puts forward improving weasuers, including establishing a liaision mechauism, adjusting part programs of micro oxygen analzer before gasholder in gasholder control system to improve the gas-holder efficiency.%针对安钢10万m3威金斯气柜运行现状,对影响威金斯气柜利用效率的因素进行了探讨,并提出了建立联络机制、调整气柜控制系统中气柜进口前微氧分析仪的部分程序等改进措施。采取有效措施后提高了气柜的利用效率。

  5. 高铝渣对济钢3200m3高炉冶炼的影响%Influence of High Al2O3 Slag on Operation of 3 200 m3 BF in Jinan Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2015-01-01

    To the characteristics of high Al2O3 slag with higher viscosity, poor liquidity, and poor desulphurization ability, by adjusting the thermal system and distributing system, the Mg/Al ratio in the slag is controlled lager than 0.6 by increasing the MgO content in sintering, the MgO content in the slag is made between 8%-11%, the overall operation of 3 200 m3 BF in Jinan Steel can fit smelting requirement with high Al2O3 slag. Under the condition of slag ratio increase by 43 kg/t, the silicon in the pig iron was decreased, the desulphurization ability of the slag was strengthened and third grade iron was eliminated basically.%针对高铝渣特有的黏度高、流动性差、脱硫能力差的特点,济钢3 200 m3高炉通过调整热制度和布料制度,在烧结时提高MgO含量,控制渣中镁铝比>0.6,使渣中MgO含量在8%~11%,高炉的整体操作炉型适应了高铝渣的冶炼要求.在渣铁比升高43 kg/t的条件下,高炉生铁含硅降低,炉渣脱硫能力增强,基本杜绝了三类铁.

  6. New Technology Adopted and Operation Practice in No.3 3 200 m3 BF in Laiwu Steel%莱钢3#3200 m3高炉采用的新技术及生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾利军; 孟淑敏; 王冰

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, a series of new process and technology adopted in newly built No.3 3 200 m3 BF in laiwu steel are introduced, such as comprehensive technology of blast furnace longevity,multi nozzle type and fixed hopper of PW bell-less top, technology of axial cyclone deduster plus automatically discharging ash system, environmental INBA slag granulation technology, the dehumidified blast technology of BF and so on. The blast furnace was started up smoothly and reached the design product, in addition, all kinds of operation experience was happened, for example, intensified smelting, high coal ratio, large ore batch, limited production, wind-off without plan. The results were verified that every system ran normally and had better technical and economic index.%介绍了莱钢3#3200 m3高炉采用的长寿综合技术、多流嘴式料流分配器+固定料罐的PW无料钟炉顶设备、轴流旋风除尘器+吸排罐车自动卸灰系统、环保型INBA法渣处理技术、高炉脱湿鼓风技术等设计特点,高炉顺利开炉达产,历经强化冶炼、高煤比、大矿批、限产、无计划休风等不同操作实践,炉况顺行良好,各工艺系统运行正常,取得了良好的技术经济指标。

  7. Portable and Smart Ultrasonic Fluid Level Meter Based on ARM Cortex- M3%基于ARM Cortex - M3便携式智能超声波液位计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根宝; 李秀平; 庞苏娟

    2012-01-01

    为了准确测量环境恶劣工业生产中的液位以保证生产效率,通过研究超声波测距工作原理,采用新型高性能、低功耗和低成本的ARM - Cortex M3内核微控制器,结合超声波技术、红外传输与DS1820温度补偿修正设计了一款便携式智能超声波液位计.其采用的先进微处理器以及无线传输的方式,简化了硬件电路,优化了软件编程.研究表明:该液位计设计提高了液位测量精度、实时性、灵活性与快速性.%To measure fluid level in poor industrial production conditions accurately for ensuring production efficiency,a portable intelligent correction ultrasonic fluid level meter was designed by studying the working principle of ultrasonic distance measurement. New high-performance, low power and low-cost ARM-Cortex M3 microcontroller core, combined with ultrasonic technology, infrared transmission and DS1820 temperature compensation were used in the level meter. The use of advanced microprocessor and wireless transmission, simplified hardware and optimized software programming. Studies show that the design of this fluid level gauge improved accuracy,timeliness,flexibility and rapidity of the level measurement.

  8. 莱钢3号3200 m3高炉设计创新与实践%Design innovation and practice of No. 3200 m3 BF in Laigang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 孟淑敏; 贾利军

    2016-01-01

    莱钢3号3200m3高炉设计采用了串罐无料钟炉顶、软水密闭循环冷却、炉体全覆盖冷却壁、铜冷却壁、 UCAR热压小块炭砖、改进型顶燃式热风炉、环保型INBA渣处理、轴流式旋风除尘器、环保平坦化出铁场、全干法布袋除尘、高富氧喷煤等一系列先进实用、成熟可靠、清洁环保、高效长寿的新技术设备,为实现高炉“高效、优质、低耗、长寿、环保”的目标打下了坚实的基础。%A series of advanced and suitable , mature and reliable , clean and environmentally friendly, high efficiency and long campaign techniques were adopted in the design of No. 3 3200m3 BF in Laiwu Steel, such as BLT, closed loop soft water cooling, complete coverage of furnace body cooling stave, copper cooling staves, UCAR hot pressing small pieces of carbon brick, improved top combus-tion hot blast stove, environmental friendly INBA slag treatment, axial cyclone deduster, green flat cast house, completely dry method bag deduster, high oxygen enrichment PCI, all the new technolo-gies mentioned above has laid a solid foundation for blast the target of high efficiency, high quality, low consumption, long campaign and clean environmental protection.

  9. Hearth Erosion Situation Analysis for the 1 750 m3 Blast Furnace in Jinan Steel%济钢1750 m3高炉炉缸侵蚀情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小伟; 张熙玮

    2015-01-01

    通过对生产条件及炉缸结构相同的济钢1#、3#1750 m3高炉炉缸侵蚀情况进行调查,发现1#高炉炉缸呈浅锅底—象脚状侵蚀,扒炉实测表明,炉缸、炉底交接处侵蚀最为严重,炭砖残存厚度最薄处仅为300 mm;3#高炉铁口附近炭砖出现不同程度裂纹,侵蚀严重处炭砖残存厚度600 mm。建议考虑炭砖的微孔度,使用高可靠性热电偶,降低炉底冷却水流量,增加炉缸冷却水流量等,以提高高炉寿命。%The hearth erosion of Jinan Steel’s No.1 and No.3 1 750 m3 BF have been investigated, although they have the same production conditions and hearth structure. It is found that the No.1 blast furnace hearth pale pot is like the foot-shaped erosion, griddle test shows junction of hearth and bottom are the most serious erosion position, the remaining thickness of the thinnest carbon brick is only 300 mm. The carbon bricks near the iron mouth of the No.3 BF have cracked to some extent, the remaining carbon brick thickness of severe erosion is 600 mm. To improve and prolong the life of the blast furnace, it is suggested that to apply the porous carbon bricks and high reliability thermocouples, reduce the cooling water flow for bottom, increase the cooling water flow of the hearth etc.

  10. Design of on-broad diagnose terminal with real-time warning based on CORTEX-M3%基于CORTEX-M3的实时车载诊断预警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲤文; 邹复民

    2013-01-01

    The design of ODB-II standard framework is based on embedded real-time operation and it can be realized on Cortex-M3 CPU core with uc/os II operating system. We have successful read real-time OBD-II data of vehicles from PC monitor and gather accident codes and sensor data through CAN bus, which can be used to evaluate the health of the automobiles, preventive against trouble, deduce the cost of driving and improve the driving safety. The advantage to the device is taking full account of all sorts of vehicle buses and put forward a kind of resolved scheme about remote on-boarded diagnosis in complicated vehicle circumstance.%基于嵌入式实时操作系统的OBD-Ⅱ诊断协议框架,以Cortex-M3为内核,采用uc/os Ⅱ操作系统实现了ISO15765协议,成功通过CAN总线读取了车辆的OBD-Ⅱ系统数据,通过上位机监控窗口,能实时检查汽车故障码与汽车传感器数据.可在此基础上评价汽车健康状况,并可对故障及早预防,降低行车成本,提供行车安全性;本设计充分考虑中国汽车市场主流总线发展的情况,提供了在复杂的车载环境下远程车载诊断设备的解决方案.

  11. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INGOT MOLD COOLING ON THE STRUCTURE OF SILUMINA CASTINGS AK15M3 AT VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stecenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of ways of the mold cooling on structure of castings with diameter of 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin at vertical centrifugal casting is investigated. It is established that for production of castings with diameter 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin with high mechanical and tribotechnical properties it is necessary to apply a shaped mould with water-spray cooling at expense of cooler of 0,42 m3/h.

  13. Storage Device/Package for Titanium Dioxide Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    performance of the visual obscuration grenades that were prepared with anatase TiO2 particles, no matter whether the particles were SCCO2 dried or coated...particles) and their blends with anatase TiO2 particles (CR 40 and RCL-9/DPDMS) were dispensed into the Army 190 m 3 chamber with an SRI nozzle to...The results from testing with the SRI nozzle are shown in Figure C-5. Figure C-5. Blends of fumed and anatase TiO2 particles. The best

  14. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  15. β-catenin accumulation in nuclei of hepatocellular carcinoma cells up-regulates glutathione-s-transferase M3 mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Sang Li; Min Liu; Yoshihiro Nakata; He-Bin Tang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify the differentially over-expressed genes associated with β-catenin accumulation in nuclei of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.METHODS: Differentially expressed genes were identified in radiation-induced B6C3 F1 mouse HCC cells by mRNA differential display, Northern blot and RT-PCR,respectively. Total glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity was measured by GST activity assay and β-catenin localization was detected with immunostaining in radiation-induced mouse HCC cells and in HepG2 cell lines.RESULTS: Two up-regulated genes, glutamine synthetase and glutathione-s-transferase M3 (GSTM3), were identified in radiation-induced mouse HCC cells. Influence of β-catenin accumulation in nuclei of HCC cells on upregulation of GSTM3 mRNA was investigated. The nearby upstream domain of GSTM3 contained the β-catenin/Tcf-Lef consensus binding site sequences [5'-(A/T)(A/T)CAAAG-3'], and the total GST activity ratio was considerably higher in B6C3F1 mouse HCC cells with β-cateninaccumulation in nuclei of HCC cells than in those withoutβ-catenin accumulation (0.353 ± 0.117 vs 0.071 ± 0.064,P < 0.001). The TWS119 (a distinct GSK-3β inhibitor)-induced total GST activity was significantly higher in HepG2 cells with β-catenin accumulation than in those withoutβ-catenin accumulation in nuclei of HCC cells. Additionally,the GSTM3 mRNA level was significantly higher at 24 h than at 12 h in TWS119-treated HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: β-catenin accumulation increases GST activity in nuclei of HCC cells, and GSTM3 may be a novel target gene of the β-catenin/Tcf-Lef complex.

  16. Characterization of manganese-bearing particles in the vicinities of a manganese alloy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pellón, Ana; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Ledoux, Frédéric; Courcot, Lucie; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies have associated air manganese (Mn) exposure with negative health effects, primarily neurotoxic disorders. Despite there is not a specific European regulation, institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed an annual average guideline value of 150 ng/m(3). Bioaccessibility and toxicity mechanisms of Mn remain unclear, however it is generally agreed that adverse health effects are strongly linked to particle size and morphology, chemical composition and oxidation state. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the physico-chemical characteristics of PM10 and deposition samples collected in an urban area in the proximities of a ferromanganese alloy plant. Total Mn content was determined by ICP-MS after a microwave-assisted acid digestion. The size, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were studied by SEM-EDX. XRD was used to identify the major crystalline phases. Most of the particles observed by SEM-EDX contain Mn. 60% of Mn-PM10 particles were spheres of small size and were attributed to condensation processes at the smelting unit. Mn-bearing particles present in deposition were characterized by irregular shapes and bigger sizes, most of them consisting of SiMn slags and Mn ores and alloys, and attributed to diffuse emissions from raw material and product handling and processing. Due to the differences in the characteristics of Mn-bearing particles found in the different matrices, further studies on the potential toxicity and health effects of these particles should be done, especially in relation with the small and spherical particles present in PM10, which are expected to be more problematic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On-line measurements of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Beijing wintertime air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Sarah; Wragg, Francis; Kalberer, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), present in particles or generated by particle components upon deposition of particles in the human lung, are widely thought to be one of the main contributors to particle-related toxicity. However, there is so far only relatively little data available on their concentrations in ambient air, which makes it difficult to gauge their impact on air quality. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of particle-bound ROS in secondary organic aerosol is relatively short-lived, with lifetimes of several minutes. Traditional off-line sampling with high-volume samplers is therefore likely to severely underestimate ROS concentrations, showing the need for using on-line instrumentation. We have recently developed a compact on-line instrument for the measurement of particle-bound ROS (OPROSI). To measure ROS concentrations, particles are continuously extracted and the extract is reacted with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) in presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This leads to formation of a fluorescent dye, which is detected spectroscopically. The instrument allows for up to 16 h of continuous measurement with a time resolution of ≤12 min and a limit of detection of 3.85 nmol [H2O2] equivalent per m3 air. For this study, we have used the OPROSI to continuously measure the concentration of particle-bound ROS in Beijing wintertime air during the first half of the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) campaign in November and December 2016. Measured ROS data are compared with other air pollution parameters such as total particulate mass, ozone and NOx as well as with meteorological measurements such as temperature and humidity.

  18. Tortuosity of porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrande, M; Bouchet, R; Denoyel, R

    2007-12-01

    Tortuosity is often used as an adjustable parameter in models of transfer properties through porous media. This parameter, not reducible to classical measured microstructural parameters like specific surface area, porosity, or pore size distribution, reflects the efficiency of percolation paths, which is linked to the topology of the material. The measurement of the effective conductivity of a bed of particles saturated with an electrolyte is a simple way to evaluate tortuosity. Nevertheless, it received only little attention because of the real difficulties in both getting reliable results and interpreting data. Notably, the discrimination between the contribution of interparticle and intraparticle porosities to the tortuosity is not resolved. To our knowledge, there is no model able to fit the experimental data of the tortuosity of a suspension, and a fortiori of a particle bed, in the whole porosity range. Only empirical expressions have been proposed, but they do not allow deriving intratortuosity of a porous particle. For a dilute system, Maxwell's equation predicts the effective conductivity of suspensions of spherical particles as a function of the bulk electrolyte conductivity and of particle conductivity. The intraparticle tortuosity can be derived from the particle conductivity obtained from the Maxwell equation applied to data at infinite dilution of particles. Then, by assuming that the Maxwell equation is a first-order approximation of the conductivity as a function of porosity, we propose an explicit relation of the tortuosity tau of a suspension of porous particles, obtained by conductivity measurement, as tau = tau(epsilon, epsilon(p), tau(p)), where epsilon is the total porosity of the suspension, tau(p) is the intraparticle tortuosity, and epsilon(p) is the particle porosity. This relationship fits the experimental data in the whole porosity range and can be used to determine tau(p) from an experiment at only one porosity. Finally, the obtained

  19. [Morphological changes in gastric wall of mongolian gerbils following the 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G

    2012-01-01

    Gastric wall of Meriones unguiculatus is distinguished by species-specific properties arising from the peculiar proportion of interstitium, muscle and epithelial tissues. Exposure to the factors of the 12-d Foton-M3 flight led to microfocal lesions of the mucous coat, dystrophic developments in the acid glands, dissociation of the mucous barrier function and deterioration of its biosynthetic function. Modifications of the tinctorial properties of the interstitium reticulum in every stomach layer progressed concurrently with reductions in prismatic epithelium height, as well as in mucous and muscular layer thickness. It is assumed that existence in the low gravity aboard the Biosat stimulated involutory processes in the gastric wall. Animals of the ground synchronous control conducted in the flight equipment mockup (Kontur-L) exhibited though similar yet less pronounced changes.

  20. Elements in the canine distemper virus M 3' UTR contribute to control of replication efficiency and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Anderson

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus within the genus Morbillivirus and the family Paramyxoviridae. The Morbillivirus genome is composed of six transcriptional units that are separated by untranslated regions (UTRs, which are relatively uniform in length, with the exception of the UTR between the matrix (M and fusion (F genes. This UTR is at least three times longer and in the case of CDV also highly variable. Exchange of the M-F region between different CDV strains did not affect virulence or disease phenotype, demonstrating that this region is functionally interchangeable. Viruses carrying the deletions in the M 3' UTR replicated more efficiently, which correlated with a reduction of virulence, suggesting that overall length as well as specific sequence motifs distributed throughout the region contribute to virulence.

  1. Conversión de diagramas de procesos en diagramas de casos de usos usando AToM3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS M. ZAPATA J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toda pieza de software se origina en el modelo verbal, con el cual se pueden definir los diferentes modelos conceptuales que acerquen el problema a una solución. Las herramientas convencionales para la construcción de los modelos conceptuales no toman en consideración las diferentes reglas de consistencia que se pueden presentar entre los diferentes modelos. En este artículo se emplea el AToM3 como herramienta para la definición de los meta-modelos del diagrama de procesos y el diagrama de casos de uso, con el fin de reexpresar el primero para obtener algunos elementos básicos del segundo.

  2. Anomalous Hall hysteresis in T m3F e5O12/Pt with strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chi; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Liu, Yawen; Xu, Yadong; Garay, Javier E.; Shi, Jing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate robust interface strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in atomically flat ferrimagnetic insulator T m3F e5O12 (TIG) films grown with pulsed laser deposition on a substituted G d3G a5O12 substrate which maximizes the tensile strain at the interface. In bilayers consisting of Pt and TIG, we observe large squared Hall hysteresis loops over a wide range of thicknesses of Pt at room temperature. When a thin Cu layer is inserted between Pt and TIG, the Hall hysteresis magnitude decays but stays finite as the thickness of Cu increases up to 5 nm. However, if the Cu layer is placed atop Pt instead, the Hall hysteresis magnitude is consistently larger than when the Cu layer with the same thickness is inserted in between for all Cu thicknesses. These results suggest that both the proximity-induced ferromagnetism and spin current contribute to the anomalous Hall effect.

  3. Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the F3+M3 eclipsing binary T-Lyr0-08070

    CERN Document Server

    Cakirli, O; Sipahi, E

    2012-01-01

    The multi-color photometric and spectroscopic observations of the newly discovered eclipsing binary T-Lyr0-08070 were obtained. The resultant light and radial velocities were analysed and the absolute parameters of the components were determined. The system is composed of an F3 and an M3 main-sequence stars. Masses and radii were estimated to be 1.37$\\pm$0.23 M$_{\\odot}$ and 1.60$\\pm$0.09 R$_{\\odot}$ for the primary and 0.32$\\pm$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.86$\\pm$0.06R$_{\\odot}$ for the secondary star. The less massive secondary component has a radius at least two times larger with respect to its mass. Using the BVJHK magnitudes of the system we estimated an interstellar reddening of 0.22 mag and a distance to the system as 479$\\pm$36 pc.

  4. Moment Tensors and their Uncertainties for M3 Earthquakes in the Geysers, California, from Waveform Modeling and First Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Hutchings, L. J.; Johnson, L.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate moment tensor solutions and their uncertainties for magnitude (M) ~3 earthquakes located in the northwest Geysers geothermal field, California. We are exploiting an unusual opportunity where data for M~3 events have been recorded by three different networks and have moment tensor solutions calculated by three different methods. We solve for both deviatoric and full moment tensor solutions. The data sets include local short-period instruments (4.5 Hz) of the 30 stations of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), with which we obtain waveform inversion solutions at relatively high frequencies (i.e., up to 2.5 Hz), and regionally distributed broadband stations operated by the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL), with which are used to provide waveform inversion solutions with data filtered at longer periods (i.e., > 10 sec). We also utilize the LBNL data to obtain moment tensor solutions by fitting the P-wave first motions. The USGS, LBNL, and BSL obtain different event locations, utilize different velocity models, and analyze different frequency bands and wave types (i.e., body waves for LBNL method and primarily surface waves for the BSL analysis). Preliminary results indicate that the BSL and LBNL waveform modeling analyses give similar results in terms of nodal plane characteristics, moment magnitude, and moment tensor decomposition. Analysis of the P-wave first motions recorded by LBNL stations can illuminate complexities in the source processes when compared to waveform moment tensor solutions. We discuss uncertainties in the source inversions that use broadband and/or short-period waveform modeling, and in the source inversions from first motions only. We also combine the different datasets and compare their individual importance as they can help illustrate the complex source processes happening in the Geysers. This study introduces the possibility to interpret the seismic sources as complex processes in which both shear and tensile

  5. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  6. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany we used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) to measure Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAPs), which provide an estimate of viable bioaerosol particles and can be regarded as an approximate lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (particles (1-20 μm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August-December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1μg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle (24-h) with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical analyses of PBAPs in aerosol

  7. Helix 8 and the i3 loop of the muscarinic M3 receptor are crucial sites for its regulation by the Gβ5-RGS7 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinsky-Semper, Darla; Tayou, Junior; Levay, Konstantin; Schuchardt, Brett J; Bhat, Vikas; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Farooq, Amjad; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2015-02-01

    The muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) is a Gq-coupled receptor and is known to interact with many intracellular regulatory proteins. One of these molecules is Gβ5-RGS7, the permanently associated heterodimer of G protein β-subunit Gβ5 and RGS7, a regulator of G protein signaling. Gβ5-RGS7 can attenuate M3R-stimulated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores or enhance the influx of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane. Here we show that deletion of amino acids 304-345 from the central portion of the i3 loop renders M3R insensitive to regulation by Gβ5-RGS7. In addition to the i3 loop, interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8. According to circular dichroism spectroscopy, the peptide corresponding to amino acids 548-567 in the C-terminus of M3R assumes an α-helical conformation. Substitution of Thr553 and Leu558 with Pro residues disrupts this α-helix and abolished binding to Gβ5-RGS7. Introduction of the double Pro substitution into full-length M3R (M3R(TP/LP)) prevents trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. Using atropine or other antagonists as pharmacologic chaperones, we were able to increase the level of surface expression of the TP/LP mutant to levels comparable to that of wild-type M3R. However, M3R-stimulated calcium signaling is still severely compromised. These results show that the interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8 and the central portion of the i3 loop.

  8. Design of Dynamic Electrocardiogram Based on ARM Cortex-M3%基于ARM Cortex-M3的动态心电图机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建华; 刘海波; 刘瑞芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to enrich the product categories and function of the dynamic electrocardiogram,a new type of dynamic electrocardiogram product based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-M3 is developed. The system hardware consists a processor minimum system,bioelectricity amplification module, storage module,LCD(Liquid Crstal Display) and touch screen module,high speed USB interface and the power module. For the system software, the platform was build based on CooCox CoOS embedded realtime operating system, the file system and USB middleware. The man-machine interface is realized by transplanting uC/GUI. The experiment results showed that the system could be used to control ECG signal collection,great capacity data storage and high-speed upload. The graphical user interface and real time waveform display are the innovative points.%针对目前动态心电图机产品种类和功能单一的现状,研制了基于ARM(Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-M3的新型动态心电图机.硬件主要由处理器最小系统、生物电放大模块、存储模块、LCD (Liquid Cgstal Display)和触摸屏模块、高速USB接口和电源模块构成.软件开发基于CooCox CoOS嵌入式实时操作系统,同时使用了文件系统和USB等中间件.移植uC/GUI实现人机接口设计.测试结果表明,该系统不但实现了心电信号采集、大容量数据存储和高速上传的功能,而且创新性地增加了图形用户界面和实时波形显示功能.

  9. Car Design of WiFi Internet of Things Based on SCM Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3单片机的WiFi物联网小车的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤莉莉; 黄伟; 王春波; 方规

    2014-01-01

    使用无线互联网WiFi技术,采集小车上传感器的相关数据,并做相应的处理和控制,实现远程控制和监控功能。研究的范围包括Cortex-M3内核的LPC1768单片机软件的编程,单片机温度、速度、视屏的采集处理和传输,电脑软件的编程, Windows环境下的视屏处理、模拟速度表盘和模拟温度计的设计与实现以及TCP/IP通信实现等。方案采用自下而上的模块化编程方法,对温度和速度测试模块进行了模拟测试,对WiFi通信机制做了大量的数据分析,实现用电脑软件通过无线WiFi控制小车的运动、采集相关信息并显示等功能。%The purpose of this design is to use wireless Internet WiFi technology to collect the related data of car sensor,perform appropriate process and control,and ultimately realize remote control and monitoring functions.The study covers the SCM LPC1768 soft-ware programming of Cortex-M3 core,and the temperature,speed,screen capture processing and transmission of SCM,together with the design and implementation of screen processing,analog dial of speed,analog thermometer and TCP/IP communication under Windows environments.The scheme uses a bottom-up modular programming method to implement the simulation and test for temperature and speed testing module,perform much of data analysis of WiFi communication mechanism,and finally use computer software to achieve the control the car′s movement,collect and display relevant information through wireless WiFi.

  10. Design of mine DC electrical prospecting instrument based on ARM Cortex-M3 core%基于ARM Cortex-M3内核矿井直流电法仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁殿艳; 张仲礼; 王继矿; 汪凯斌; 李超

    2011-01-01

    DC electrical prospecting instrument has played an important role in preventing mine water disaster, but the traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument has some disadvantages such as high power consumption, small storage capacity, hard operation and difficulty to carry, for it is mostly developed utilizing MCS -51 microcontroller. These restrict the application of DC electrical prospecting instrument to a certain extent. This article begins with the working principle of mine DC electrical, improves the traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument utilizing STM32 microcomputer based on Cortex - M3 core and 24 - bit Σ - A ADC component, and redesigns the hardware and software of mine DC eldetrieal instrument. The improved instrument has the advantage of high accuracy, low cost, low power consumption, large storage capacity, convenient communication and friendly man-machine interface compared with traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument.%直流电法仪在预防煤矿水害中发挥重要作用,但传统直流电法仪的核心芯片多采用51系列单片机,具有功耗大、存储容量小、操作不方便,难以携带等缺点,在一定程度上制约了直流电法仪的应用.文中从矿井直流电法仪的工作原理出发,采用基于ARM Cortex-M3内核的STM32处理器和基于Σ-Δ技术的24位高分辨率ADC器件对传统矿井直流电法仪进行了升级、改造,重新设计了硬件电路和软件程序.与传统矿井直流电法仪相比,新设计的直流电法仪具有精度高、成本低、功耗小、存储容量大、通讯方便和人机界面友好等优点.

  11. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.

  12. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  13. Particle astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Lawrence M

    1997-01-01

    Astrophysics and cosmology provide fundamental testing grounds for many ideas in elementary particle physics, and include potential probes which are well beyond the range of current or even planned accelerators. In this series of 3 lectures, I will give and overview of existing constraints, and a discussion of the potential for the future. I will attempt whenever possible to demonstrate the connection between accelerator-based physics and astrophysicas/cosmology. The format of the kectures will be to examine observables from astrophysics, and explore how these can be used to constrain particle physics. Tentatively, lecture 1 will focus on the age and mass density of the universe and galaxy. Lecture 2 will focus on stars, stellar evolution, and the abundance of light elements. Lecture 3 will focus on various cosmic diffuse backgrounds, including possibly matter, photons, neutrinos and gravitational waves.

  14. Particle encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2000-01-01

    Several engineering processes are powder based, ranging from food processing to engineering ceramic and composite production. In most of these processes, powders of different composition are mixed together in order to produce the final product, and this combining of powders of different density, shape, and surface properties is often very difficult. Mixtures may be quite inhomogeneous. This research focuses on a method of avoiding such problems, by coating individual particles of one material...

  15. Martian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of Martian soil was taken by the Phoenix Lander's atomic force microscope on Sol 74 of the mission, which began on May 25, 2008. This image of a flat, smooth-surfaced particle is consistent with the appearance of soil from Earth containing the mineral phyllosilicate. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected using filter samplers and cascade impactors in six size fractions below 1.8 microm during a severe winter air pollution event at three sites in the Central Valley of California. The smallest size fraction analyzed was 0.056 source apportionment calculations. Colocated impactor and filter measurements were highly correlated (R8 > 0.8) for retene, benzo[ghi]flouranthene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, MW302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), 17beta(H)-21alpha(H)-30-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alphabetabeta-20R-C29-ethylcholestane, levoglucosan, and cholesterol. Of these compounds, levoglucosan was present in the highest concentration (60-2080 ng m(-3)) followed by cholesterol (6-35 ng m(-3)), PAHs (2-38 ng m(-3)), and hopanes and steranes (0-2 ng m(-3)). Nighttime concentrations were higher than daytime concentrations in all cases. Organic compound size distributions were generally similar to the total carbon size distributions during the nighttime but showed greater variability during the daytime. This may reflect the dominance of fresh emission in the stagnant surface layer during the evening hours and the presence of aged organic aerosol at the surface during the daytime when the atmosphere is better mixed. All of the measured organic compound particle size distributions had a single mode that peaked somewhere between 0.18 and 0.56 microm, but the width of each distribution varied by compound. Cholesterol generally had the broadest particle size distribution, while benzo[ghi]perylene and 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane generally had sharper peaks. The difference between the size distributions of the various particle-phase organic compounds reflects the fact that these compounds exist in particles emitted from different sources. The results of the current study will prove useful for size

  17. 77 FR 76598 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... vehicles that are not already so equipped; and (b) replacement of any non U.S.- model air bags, air bag...-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...-2010 BMW M3 passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal...

  18. 某10万m3钢储罐罐体变形的修复措施%The Rectification Methodof 100,000 m3 Steel Oil Storage Tank Wall Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应付钊; 丁伟

    2013-01-01

    The differential settlement of tank foundation or low quality tank erection will cause wall deformation of steel oil storage tank, the low quality tank erection will have greater effect on the lifting of floating roof than the differential settlement of tank foundation. In the paper, the reason causing wall deformation and rectification method were introduced, some questions that need considered during steel oil storage tank erection and high pressure filling method of cavity which is between tank bottom plate and tank foundation were pointed. Finally, some referable conclusions are obtained.%地基不均匀沉降和安装不当均会引起钢储罐罐体变形,安装不当引起的罐体变形比罐基础不均匀沉降造成的罐体变形对浮船升降影响可能更大.通过对某10万m3钢储罐产生罐壁变形的原因分析和纠偏措施介绍,提出了一些大型储罐在安装过程中应注意的问题,给出了罐体顶升后间隙采用高压吹填的处理措施,对同类工程设计有一定的借鉴意义.

  19. 基于nRF24L01和Cortex-M3的无线测控系统%Wireless measurement and control system based on nRF24L01 and Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁正道; 董丽莎; 王家斌

    2012-01-01

      在井下抢险或其它搜救现场,通常都需要一种远程遥测系统来取代人工进入一些危险场所。文中提出了一种基于nRF24L01和Cortex的无线测控系统的开发方法,简要讨论了其结构和开发原理,并详细介绍了该测控系统的硬件构造和软件开发流程%  On the downhole resuce and other rescue spot, a remote-measuring system is used to enter into the dangerous areas instead of persons. A design scheme of wireless measurement and control system based on RF24L01 and Cortex-M3 is given in the paper. In the paper a brief discussion on the structure and development principles of the system is made and the hardware construction and software development process are introduced in detail.

  20. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  1. The influence of polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 and M3 on the development of human urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Schmidt, Tobias; Seidel, Thilo; Dietrich, Holger; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Reckwitz, Thomas; Sokeland, Jurgen; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Selinski, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for development of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The effect of polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and M3 (GSTM3) on the influence of cigarette smoking on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated. In total, 293 bladder cancer patients from hospitals in Dortmund and Wittenberg as well as 176 patients without any malignancy from a Department of Surgery from Dortmund were genotyped for GSTM1 and GSTM3 according to standard PCR/RFLP methods. Smoking habits were quantified by a standardized interview. The proportion of GSTM1 negative cases was 63% in the entire bladder cancer cases group compared to 50% in controls. The GSTM3*A/*A genotype was 76% in cancer cases versus 74% in controls. Smokers and ex-smokers were overrepresented in bladder cancer cases. A significant association between smoking status and GSTM1 or GSTM3 genotype was not detected. The elevated proportion of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer cases shows an effect of this polymorphic enzyme on development of bladder cancer. In contrast to other studies, an influence of GSTM1 on the risk due to cigarette smoking was not observed.

  2. Organic peroxides' gas-particle partitioning and rapid heterogeneous decomposition on secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming; Huang, Liubin; Huang, Dao

    2016-02-01

    Organic peroxides, important species in the atmosphere, promote secondary organic aerosol (SOA) aging, affect HOx radicals cycling, and cause adverse health effects. However, the formation, gas-particle partitioning, and evolution of organic peroxides are complicated and still unclear. In this study, we investigated in the laboratory the production and gas-particle partitioning of peroxides from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, which is one of the major biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and an important precursor for SOA at a global scale. We have determined the molar yields of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydromethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), peroxyformic acid (PFA), peroxyacetic acid (PAA), and total peroxides (TPOs, including unknown peroxides) and the fraction of peroxides in α-pinene/O3 SOA. Comparing the gas-phase peroxides with the particle-phase peroxides, we find that gas-particle partitioning coefficients of PFA and PAA are 104 times higher than the values from the theoretical prediction, indicating that organic peroxides play a more important role in SOA formation than previously expected. Here, the partitioning coefficients of TPO were determined to be as high as (2-3) × 10-4 m3 µg-1. Even so, more than 80 % of the peroxides formed in the reaction remain in the gas phase. Water changes the distribution of gaseous peroxides, while it does not affect the total amount of peroxides in either the gas or the particle phase. Approx. 18 % of gaseous peroxides undergo rapid heterogeneous decomposition on SOA particles in the presence of water vapor, resulting in the additional production of H2O2. This process can partially explain the unexpectedly high H2O2 yields under wet conditions. Transformation of organic peroxides to H2O2 also preserves OH in the atmosphere, helping to improve the understanding of OH cycling.

  3. Tilting structures in inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jürgen; Mühle, Claus; Hayama, Kyouhei; Abdolazimi, Vahideh; Takagi, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were performed for a series of inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = tetrel element: Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) in the temperature range 500-50 K. For Tt = Sn, Pb, they crystallize as an 'ideal' perovskite-type structure (Pm3m, cP5); however, all of them show distinct anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids of the M atoms at room temperature. This behavior vanishes on cooling for M = Ca, Sr, Eu, and the structures can be regarded as `ideal' cubic perovskites at 50 K. The anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids are much more enhanced in the case of the Ba compounds. Finally, their structures undergo a phase transition at ∼ 150 K. They change from cubic to orthorhombic (Ibmm, oI20) upon cooling, with slightly tilted OBa6 octahedra, and bonding angles O-Ba-O ≃ 174° (100 K). For the larger Ba(2+) cations, the structural changes are in agreement with smaller tolerance factors (t) as defined by Goldschmidt. Similar structural behavior is observed for Ca3TtO. Smaller Tt(4-) anions (Si, Ge) introduce reduced tolerance factors. Both compounds Ca3SiO and Ca3GeO with cubic structures at 500 K, change into orthorhombic (Ibmm) at room temperature. Whereby, Ca3SiO is the only representative within the M3TtO family where three polymorphs can be found within the temperature range 500-50 K: Pm3m-Ibmm-Pbnm. They show tiny differences in the tilting of the OCa6 octahedra, expressed by O-Ca-O bond angles of 180° (500 K), ∼ 174° (295 K) and 170° (100 K). For larger M (Sr, Eu, Ba), together with smaller Tt (Si, Ge) atoms, pronounced tilting of the OM6 octahedra, and bonding angles of O-M-O ≃ 160° (295 K) are observed. They crystallize in the anti-GdFeO3 type of structure (Pbnm, oP20), and no phase transitions occur between 500 and 50 K. The observed phase transitions are all accompanied by multiple twinning, in terms of pseudo-merohedry or reticular pseudo-merohedry.

  4. GABA(A) receptor M2-M3 loop secondary structure and changes in accessibility during channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Amal K; Chatav, Maya; Akabas, Myles H

    2002-11-08

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor M2-M3 loop structure and its role in gating were investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. Residues from alpha(1)Arg-273 to alpha(1)Ile-289 were mutated to cysteine, one at a time. MTSET(+) or MTSES(-) reacted with all mutants from alpha(1)R273C to alpha(1)Y281C, except alpha(1)P277C, in the absence and presence of GABA. The MTSET(+) closed-state reaction rate was >1000 liters/mol-s at alpha(1)N274C, alpha(1)S275C, alpha(1)K278C, and alpha(1)Y281C and was <300 liters/mol-s at alpha(1)R273C, alpha(1)L276C, alpha(1)V279C, alpha(1)A280C, and alpha(1)A284C. These two groups of residues lie on opposite sides of an alpha-helix. The fast reacting group lies on a continuation of the M2 segment channel-lining helix face. This suggests that the M2 segment alpha-helix extends about two helical turns beyond alpha(1)N274 (20'), aligned with the extracellular ring of charge. At alpha(1)S275C, alpha(1)V279C, alpha(1)A280C, and alpha(1)A284C the reaction rate was faster in the presence of GABA. The reagents had no functional effect on the mutants from alpha(1)A282C to alpha(1)I289C, except alpha(1)A284C. Access may be sterically hindered possibly by close interaction with the extracellular domain. We suggest that the M2 segment alpha-helix extends beyond the predicted extracellular end of the M2 segment and that gating induces a conformational change in and/or around the N-terminal half of the M2-M3 loop. Implications for coupling ligand-evoked conformational changes in the extracellular domain to channel gating in the membrane-spanning domain are discussed.

  5. Qualidade total do produto Products total quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira de Almeida

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o conceito de qualidade total do produto, seus determinantes, bem como as dimensões que compõem essa qualidade. Parte-se do pressuposto de que a qualidade do produto deve ser avaliada pela satisfação total do consumidor. Para o consumidor a qualidade do produto envolve pelo menos as seguintes dimensões: a qualidade do produto em si; a qualidade do produto ao longo do tempo; a qualidade dos serviços associados ao uso do produto; e o custo do ciclo de vida do produto. O trabalho procura detalhar e discutir cada uma dessas dimensões da qualidade, tendo em vista a satisfação do consumidor.The paper concerns to the concept of product's total quality, its determinants, and the dimensions wich constitute this quality. We admit that product quality should be evaluated via consumer's total satisfaction. Product quality for consumers includes at least the following dimensions: the product quality per se; the performance of product quality over time; the quality of services related to the use of the product; and the product lifecycle costs. This study seeks to specify and to discuss each of these quality dimensions related to consumer's satisfaction.

  6. 'Total IBA' - Where are we?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeynes, C., E-mail: c.jeynes@surrey.ac.uk [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bailey, M.J.; Bright, N.J.; Christopher, M.E.; Grime, G.W.; Jones, B.N.; Palitsin, V.V.; Webb, R.P. [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of 'Total IBA' is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far 'Total IBA' can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  7. "Total IBA" - Where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, C.; Bailey, M. J.; Bright, N. J.; Christopher, M. E.; Grime, G. W.; Jones, B. N.; Palitsin, V. V.; Webb, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of "Total IBA" is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far "Total IBA" can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  8. Molecular organization of the complex between the muscarinic M3 receptor and the regulator of G protein signaling, Gbeta(5)-RGS7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Simone L; Wang, Qiang; Levay, Konstantin; Buchwald, Peter; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2010-06-22

    The complex of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS), Gbeta(5)-RGS7, can inhibit signal transduction via the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R). RGS7 consists of three distinct structural entities: the DEP domain and its extension DHEX, the Ggamma-like (GGL) domain, which is permanently bound to Gbeta subunit Gbeta(5), and the RGS domain responsible for the interaction with Galpha subunits. Inhibition of the M3R by Gbeta(5)-RGS7 is independent of the RGS domain but requires binding of the DEP domain to the third intracellular loop of the receptor. Recent studies identified the dynamic intramolecular interaction between the Gbeta(5) and DEP domains, which suggested that the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer could alternate between the "open" and "closed" conformations. Here, we identified point mutations that weaken DEP-Gbeta(5) binding, presumably stabilizing the open state, and tested their effects on the interaction of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 with the M3R. We found that these mutations facilitated binding of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 to the recombinant third intracellular loop of the M3R but did not enhance its ability to inhibit M3R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization. This led us to the idea that the M3R can effectively induce the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer to open; such a mechanism would require a region of the receptor distinct from the third loop. Indeed, we found that the C-terminus of M3R interacts with Gbeta(5)-RGS7. Truncation of the C-terminus rendered the M3R insensitive to inhibition by wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7; however, the open mutant of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 was able to inhibit signaling by the truncated M3R. The GST fusion of the M3R C-tail could not bind to wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7 but could associate with its open mutant as well as with the separated recombinant DEP domain or Gbeta(5). Taken together, our data are consistent with the following model: interaction of the M3R with Gbeta(5)-RGS7 causes the DEP domain and Gbeta(5) to dissociate from each other and bind to the C-tail, and the DEP

  9. 基于Cortex-M3的电池内阻检测系统设计与实现%Design and implementation of battery internal resistance detection system based on Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐芳; 荆炳礼; 任志宏

    2015-01-01

    以电池为能源的各类电气设备,在工业生产、交通、军事、通信等领域广泛应用,电池性能对电子、电气设备的正常运行具有极其重要的作用。电池在使用过程中,其性能和容量会随充放电次数的增加而下降,所以,定期维护及检验电池性能,是保证电器设备可靠工作的重要内容。电池内阻是检验电池性能和容量的重要参数,通过内阻检测评估电池性能和容量参数,也是科学研究和工业应用的基本原理。电池内阻测量的常用方法一般采用电位差原理。但是,该测量方法对于大型设备的高容量电池存在测量误差大、发热、易损电池等弊端。本文采用基于Cortex-M3核32位微处理微计算机控制和电位差原理的智能内阻测量系统,实现了大容量电池的精确、快速、安全测量和高度智能化的故障诊断功能,具有重要的科学研究意义及实用价值。%All kinds of electrical equipment which use battery as energy sources, are widely used in the industrial production, transportation, military, communications and other fields. And the battery performance is of great importance to normal operation of electrical and electronic equipment. Because the performance and capacity of battery decreases with the increasing number of charge cycles and discharge, the regular maintenance and test of battery performance is the important to guarantee working reliability of electrical equipment. Evaluation battery performance and capacity by testing battery internal resistance, which is the vital parameter for battery performance and capacity, is the basic principles of scientific research and industrial application. Potential difference principle is common method to measure battery internal resistance, but in which the disadvantage is that causing large measurement error, producing heat and damaging battery easily for the large capacity battery of large equipment. In this

  10. Underground low flux neutron background measurements in LSM using a large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Giomataris, I.; Bougamont, E.; Irastorza, I.; Aune, S.; Chapelier, M.; Charvin, P. H.; Colas, P.; Derre, J.; Ferrer, E.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Mangier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Salin, P.; Vergados, J. D.; Zampalo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter has been developed at CEA/Saclay, for low flux neutron measurements. The high voltage is applied to a small sphere 15mm in diameter, located in the center of the counter and the wall of the counter is grounded. Neutrons can be measured successfully, with high sensitivity, using 3He gas in the detector. The proton and tritium energy deposition in the drift gaseous volume, from the reaction 3He(n,p)3H, can provide the neutron spectra from thermal neutrons up to several MeV. The detector has been installed in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM) to measure the neutron background. The sphere has been has been filled with gas mixture of Ar + 2% CH4 +3gr He-3, at 275 mbar. The thermal neutron peak is well separated from the cosmic ray and gamma background, permitting of neutron flux calculation. Other potential applications requiring large volume of about 10 m in radius are described in detail in reference

  11. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  12. The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2016-11-15

    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, la...

  13. Full Stokes observations in the He I 1083 nm spectral region covering an M3.2 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Sainz, R Manso; Ramos, A Asensio

    2015-01-01

    We present an exceptional data set acquired with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (Tenerife, Spain) covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare stages of an M3.2 flare. The full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter in the He I 1083.0 nm spectral region. The object under study was active region NOAA 11748 on 2013 May 17. During the flare the chomospheric He I 1083.0 nm intensity goes strongly into emission. However, the nearby photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm spectral line profile only gets shallower and stays in absorption. Linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) is detected in all lines of the He I triplet during the flare. Moreover, the circular polarization (Stokes V) is dominant during the flare, being the blue component of the He I triplet much stronger than the red component, and both are stronger than the Si I Stokes V profile. The Si I inversions reveal enormous changes of the photospheric magnetic field during the flare. Before the flare magnetic field conc...

  14. Search for charmed particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascoli, G.; Cooper, J.; Francis, W.; Holloway, L.; Kirk, T.; Koester, L.; Kruse, U.; Sard, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Loomis, A.; Sessoms, A.; Wilson, R.; /Harvard U.

    1975-10-01

    We propose to use the CCM spectrometer to carry out a sensitive search for charmed particles produced in strong interactions at a nominal beam energy of 150 GeV/c. We limit ourselves to production in the beam diffraction region for reasons of acceptance and reconstruction. We present results of a test run undertaken in April 1975 to demonstrate the feasibility of K{sub S}{sup 0} trigger, which we incorporate in the present proposal. Results of the test are combined with new insights which increase our sensitivity to charmed particle production by a large factor. We request a total of 2 x 10{sup 11} negative pions at a rate of 10{sup 6} per pulse. With this illumination we estimate that we can measure a large number of hadronic decay modes. We make estimates of enhancements in mass spectra from charmed particle production and decay and calculate expected backgrounds using data from existing experiments. With conservative assumptions about the charmed particle model, we calculate effects corresponding to ten or more standard deviations in our most favorable channels.

  15. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  16. Total abdominal colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rectum. This can cause an infection or abscess. Scarring of the connection between the small intestine ... More Crohn disease Ileostomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy Ulcerative colitis Patient ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  20. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  1. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  2. Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.

    1988-06-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension - From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes - From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the High-Intensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC - An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground - the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.

  3. DISCRETE PARTICLE SIMULATION OF SIZE SEGREGATION OF PARTICLE MIXTURES IN A GAS FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Feng; A. B. Yu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the mixing/segregation behaviour of particle mixtures in a gas fluidized bed by use of the discrete particle simulation. Spherical particles with diameters 2 mm (jetsam) and 1 mm (flotsam) and density 2 500 kg·m-3 are used as solid mixtures with different volume fractions. The particles are initially packed uniformly in a rectangular bed and then fluidized by gas uniformly injected at the bottom of the bed. The gas injection velocities vary to cover fixed, partially and fully fluidized bed conditions. Segregation/mixing behaviour is discussed in terms of flow patterns, solid concentration profile and mixing kinetics. The results show that segregation, as a transient fluidization process, is strongly affected by gas injection velocities for a given particle mixture. With the increase of the volume fraction of flotsam, size segregation appears at lower velocities.

  4. Changing M3G/M6G ratios and pharmacodynamics in a cancer patient during long-term morphine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per;

    2002-01-01

    A cancer patient receiving long-term oral sustained-release morphine treatment and periodically presenting with unusually high plasma M3G/M6G ratios is described. We found the patient's formation of M6G more unstable and perhaps delayed compared to the formation of M3G. There is no apparent...... explanation for this phenomenon and the high M3G/M6G ratios had no implications for the patient's pain experience or side effects from the morphine treatment....

  5. Progress in TMT M3 system%TMT 望远镜三镜系统的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富国; 杨飞; 赵宏超; 苏燕芹; 陈宝刚

    2013-01-01

    介绍30 m望远镜(TMT)的相关背景以及我国在TMT项目中承担的任务。从TMT三镜系统的总体要求出发,论述了三镜系统的两个主要部分(M3CA和M3PA)的具体要求、技术难点以及初步方案。针对M3CA,介绍了底支撑方案和侧支撑方案,采用Kinematic的底支撑方案时其面形精度RMS可以达到109.7 nm,SlopeRMS为0.95μrad,采用Kinematic的侧支撑方案时其面形精度RMS<15 nm,一阶谐振频率等于17.7 Hz,均达到了设计要求。针对M3PA,介绍了Tilt轴系和Rotator轴系的方案。最后,简要介绍了三镜控制系统(M3CS)的要求和目标。%The background of Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT) and its mission that we should take in hand are introdced.The detailed specifications and the preliminary scheme for the M 3CA and M3PA in the 3 mirror (M3) system are presented according to the general specification .Then, the two parts,axial support and later-al support of M3CA, are designed in detail.Due to the kinematic concept design used in both of axial support and lateral support, the mirror surface error can be reduced in a acceptable level .When the kinematic axial support scheme is taken, its surface accuracy RMS is 109.7 nm and Slope RMS is 0.95μrad, while the kine-matic lateral support scheme is taken, its surface accuracy RMS is 15 nm,and the first natural frequency can reach to 17.7 Hz.The design proposal for M3PA is discussed and the control system for M3 system(M3CS) is introduced briefly.

  6. 基于MDK RTX的Cortex-M3多任务应用设计%Multi-task Application Design Based on MDK RTX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方安平; 武永谊

    2008-01-01

    MDK RL-RTX是ARM公司推出的最新实时多任务内核,Cortex-M3是ARM公司最新发布的嵌入式处理器.将RL-RTX实时多任务内核应用到Cortex-M3处理器上,可大大提高代码密度,减少系统内存,提升系统性能.本文介绍了RL-RTX在Cortex-M3上的移植以及多任务应用设计方法.

  7. Effect of Flow and Particle-Plastron Collision on the Longevity of Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokmabad, Babak Vajdi; Ghaemi, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Among diverse methods for drag reduction, superhydrophobicity has shown considerable promise because it can produce a shear-free boundary without energy input. However, the plastron experiences a limited lifetime due to the dissolution of trapped air from surface cavities, into the surrounding water. The underwater longevity of the plastron, as it is influenced by environmental conditions, such as fine particles suspended in the water, must be studied in order to implement superhydrophobicity in practical applications. We present a proof-of-concept study on the kinetics of air loss from a plastron subjected to a canonical laminar boundary layer at Reδ = 1400 and 1800 (based on boundary layer thickness) with and without suspending 2 micron particles with density of 4 Kg/m3. To monitor the air loss kinetics, we developed an in situ non-invasive optical technique based on total internal reflection at the air-water interface. The shear flow at the wall is characterized by high resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Our results demonstrate that the flow-induced particle-plastron collision shortens the lifetime of the plastron by ~50%. The underlying physics are discussed and a theoretical analysis is conducted to further characterize the mass transfer mechanisms.

  8. Effect of Flow and Particle-Plastron Collision on the Longevity of Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokmabad, Babak Vajdi; Ghaemi, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Among diverse methods for drag reduction, superhydrophobicity has shown considerable promise because it can produce a shear-free boundary without energy input. However, the plastron experiences a limited lifetime due to the dissolution of trapped air from surface cavities, into the surrounding water. The underwater longevity of the plastron, as it is influenced by environmental conditions, such as fine particles suspended in the water, must be studied in order to implement superhydrophobicity in practical applications. We present a proof-of-concept study on the kinetics of air loss from a plastron subjected to a canonical laminar boundary layer at Reδ = 1400 and 1800 (based on boundary layer thickness) with and without suspending 2 micron particles with density of 4 Kg/m3. To monitor the air loss kinetics, we developed an in situ non-invasive optical technique based on total internal reflection at the air-water interface. The shear flow at the wall is characterized by high resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Our results demonstrate that the flow-induced particle-plastron collision shortens the lifetime of the plastron by ~50%. The underlying physics are discussed and a theoretical analysis is conducted to further characterize the mass transfer mechanisms. PMID:28128296

  9. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Tianfeng; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during March to May 2015 from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) to explore the atmospheric occurrence and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when the westerly East Asian Monsoon prevailed. Total PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged from 56.8 to 261 pg m-3. Higher PCB levels were observed off the coast and minor temperature-induced changes showed that continuous emissions from East Asia remain as an important source to the regional atmosphere. A significant relationship between Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient) and KP (gas-particle partition coefficient) for PCBs was observed under continental air masses, suggesting that land-derived organic aerosols affected the PCB gas-particle partitioning after long-range transport, while an absence of this correlation was identified in marine air masses. The PCB partitioning cannot be fully explained by the absorptive mechanism as the predicted KP were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the measured Kp, while the prediction was closely matched when soot adsorption was considered. The results suggested the importance of soot carbon as a transport medium for PCBs during their long-range transport and considerable impacts of continental outflows on PCBs across the downwind area. The estimated transport mass of particulate PCBs into the ECS and NWP totals 2333 kg during the spring, constituting ca. 17% of annual emission inventories of unintentionally produced PCB in China.

  10. Occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhou, Hongqiang; Na, Guangshui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Jiping

    2014-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were measured in air samples at a remote air monitoring site established in Georgia King Island, Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica (Great Wall Station, China) to study the long-range atmospheric transport of these anthropogenic pollutants to the Antarctic. Gas- and particle-phase CPs were collected using polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) and glass fiber filters (GFF) respectively during summertime of 2012. The total atmospheric levels of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 9.6 to 20.8 pg m-3 (average: 14.9 pg m-3) and 3.7-5.2 pg m-3 (average: 4.5 pg m-3), respectively. C10 and C11 carbon chain homologues with Cl5 and Cl6 chlorine atoms predominated in SCCP formula groups both in gas- and particle-phase. Significant linear correlation was found between gas/particle partition coefficients (KP) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (pL°) (R2 = 0.437, p < 0.01), as well as KP and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) (R2 = 0.442, p < 0.01). Absolute slope values of two regression models (0.31 and 0.39) were less than 0.6 indicating that the way of absorption into organic matter of aerosol played a more important role on atmospheric partitioning and transferring of CPs in remote Antarctic area. Both the Junge-Pankow model and the KOA-based model tended to underestimate the sorption of lower chlorinated CPs and overestimate the sorption of highly chlorinated CPs.

  11. Using Predefined M3(μ3-O) Clusters as Building Blocks for an Isostructural Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Asgari, Mehrdad; Mieville, Pascal; Schouwink, Pascal; Bulut, Safak; Sun, Daniel T; Zhou, Zhongrui; Pattison, Philip; van Beek, Wouter; Queen, Wendy L

    2017-07-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in the past decade owing to their unprecedented internal surface areas, tunable topologies, designable surfaces, and various potential applications. One bottleneck in the field regarding MOF synthesis is controlling the metal-containing secondary building unit (SBU) incorporated into the structure. In this work we report the synthesis and characterization of five trimeric [M3(μ3-O)(CH3CO2)6](x) clusters (where M = Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Co(2+), or Fe(3+)/Ni(2+) and x = +1 or 0). The monocarboxylate capping ligand, acetate in this case, readily undergoes exchange with several difunctional counterparts, including 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2-BDC) and biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H2-BPDC), for the formation of an isostructural series of MOFs, several of which are newly reported (for M = Fe(3+)/Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Co(2+), and Fe(3+)/Ni(2+)) and show excellent CO2 adsorption properties. In this report, a host of techniques including NMR, ICP, and ESI-MS are used to probe the ligand exchange process and composition of the SBUs, and XAS is used to monitor the Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) environment throughout the reactions, giving strong evidence that the clusters stay intact throughout the MOF synthesis. This work reveals that predefined SBUs is an effective means to create metal-substituted analogues of known frameworks. Further, CO adsorption and in situ IR are used to probe accessibility of the metals after solvent removal. We show for the first time that the incorporation of the neutral clusters, containing weaker Lewis acids like Ni(2+) and Co(2+), can promote the formation of open metal sites in the MOF frameworks, structural features known to enhance the binding energy of small guest molecules like CO2.

  12. Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China: Mass concentration relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; You, Yan; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Liu, Yating; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Lu, Bing; Hu, Yandi

    2012-03-01

    Particle Exposure Assessment for Community Elderly (PEACE) in Tianjin, China was to characterize personal PM10 exposure, and provide data support for an epidemiological study investigating potential health effects of PM pollution on Chinese elderly population. In this study, a total of 80 elderly participants were recruited for a two-consecutive-day personal exposure measurement, and simultaneously residential indoor, residential outdoor and community PM10 were monitored in the summer and winter of 2009. Personal PM10 concentrations were 192.8 ± 100.6 μg m-3 in summer and 154.6 ± 105.4 μg m-3 in winter. Modeled personal exposures were less than measured personal exposures while a high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71 was obtained. Based on measured and modeled exposures, a mean personal cloud of 30.2 μg m-3 was estimated in summer and 16.5 μg m-3 in winter. Moderate correlation emerged between personal and community PM10 concentrations in summer (r = 0.39), and stronger correlation was found in winter (r = 0.82). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that smoking, cooking and cleaning activities did not produce significant effect on personal exposures. Further more, multivariate regression analysis performed in this study revealed that community PM10 level contributed most of personal PM10 exposure, 32% in summer and 64% in winter, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that PM10 personal exposures were considerably influenced by outdoor particulate matter rather than typical indoor sources, and ambient PM10 level measured at community monitoring sites may be used as a surrogate of personal exposure to PM10.

  13. In Situ Balloon-Borne Ice Particle Imaging in High-Latitude Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    determine particle size distributions of cloud layers. Depending on how ice particles vary through the cloud, several layers per cloud with relatively uniform properties have been analysed. Preliminary results of the balloon campaign, targeting upper tropospheric, cold cirrus clouds, are presented here. Ice particles in these clouds were predominantly very small, with a median size of measured particles of around 50 µm and about 80 % of all particles below 100 µm in size. The properties of the particle size distributions at temperatures between -36 and -67 °C have been studied, as well as particle areas, extinction coefficients, and their shapes (area ratios). Gamma and log-normal distribution functions could be fitted to all measured particle size distributions achieving very good correlation with coefficients R of up to 0.95. Each distribution features one distinct mode. With decreasing temperature, the mode diameter decreases exponentially, whereas the total number concentration increases by two orders of magnitude with decreasing temperature in the same range. The high concentrations at cold temperatures also caused larger extinction coefficients, directly determined from cross-sectional areas of single ice particles, than at warmer temperatures. The mass of particles has been estimated from area and size. Ice water content (IWC) and effective diameters are then determined from the data. IWC did vary only between 1 × 10-3 and 5 × 10-3 g m-3 at temperatures below -40 °C and did not show a clear temperature trend. These measurements are part of an ongoing study.

  14. Particle Confinement Improvement with Current Ramp in the HL-IM Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Long-Wen; WANG En-Yao; QIAN Jun; CHEN Liao-Yuan; LIU Yong

    2003-01-01

    Particle confinement with current ramp is investigated in the HL-IM tokamak. The ratio of particle confinement time to energy confinement time is used to determine confinement improvement. It increases a factor of 3 after the current rises twofold. An optimization density range to improve particle confinement is (1.5-3.5) XlO19 m~3. Particle confinement improvement during current ramp-up is beneficial to the startup of fusion reactors.

  15. A comparison between immunofluorescence staining on smears from Membrana nictitans (M3 test), immunohistopathology and routine pathology in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, K

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence method using smears from membrana nictitans (M3 test) to diagnose feline corona virus (FCV) infection was compared with immunohistopathology (using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFFA) performed on organs (IFO], and routine pathology (RP) in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A close correlation between the 2 immunofluorescence methods (IFO and M3) was observed. Although the M3 test requires samples from only 1 organ per animal, both the sensitivity and specificity were high (80%), when compared to IFO (using samples from an average of 5 organs per animal). In 21% of the cats with suspected FIP typical pathological lesions were found. As the M3 test is relatively easy to perform, it could reduce work-load of pathology laboratories and provide valuable data for clinical and epidemiological use.

  16. Analysis of the characteristics of single atmospheric particles in Chengdu using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Ouyang, Feng; Song, Hongyi; Liu, Peichuan; Cao, Pan; Schäfer, Klaus; Wang, Shigong; Huang, Xiaojuan; Lin, Yongfu

    2017-05-01

    Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province and the main city in Sichuan basin, is one of the heavily polluted cities in China. The characteristics of single particles in the atmosphere over Chengdu are critical for the in-depth understanding of their sources, formation mechanisms, and effects. In this study, a continuous ambient aerosol measurement was performed in summer in Chengdu with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other monitoring instruments. The particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations were low during our study period: PM2.5 and PM10 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 or 10 μm) were 40.5 ± 23.6 μg m-3 and 67.0 ± 38.1 μg m-3, respectively. This was mainly caused by the favorable meteorological conditions during the summer season. Twelve particle types were identified and classified as dust particles (Dust), four types of carbonaceous particles, organic nitrogen and potassium containing particles (KCN), four types of secondary particles, Na-K-containing particles (NaK), and metal-containing particles (Metal). The highest contribution of particles was from potassium with elemental carbon (KEC; 23.0%), and the lowest from elemental carbon (EC; 0.2%). All types of particles showed different diurnal variations and size distributions, which were closely related to their sources and reactions in the atmosphere. The eastern and southern air masses corresponded with high PM2.5 mass concentrations. The contributions of KEC and K-sulfate (KSO4) particles to PM2.5 were clearly higher than those in air masses from the southeast. During polluted days, the contributions of KEC and KSO4 particles increased, while the contributions of organic carbon (OC), combined OC and EC particles (OCEC), and K-nitrate (KNO3) particles decreased. This shows the importance of biomass burning and industrial emissions for the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu. These results will be useful for the in-depth understanding of the PM2

  17. The use of occupation isoboles for analysis of a response mediated by two receptors: M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtype-induced mouse stomach contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan S; Tallarida, Ronald J; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2008-06-01

    Smooth muscle contains multiple muscarinic receptor subtypes, including M2 and M3. M2 receptors outnumber M3 receptors. Based on the potency of subtype selective anticholinergics, contraction is mediated by the M3 subtype. However, results from knockout (KO) mice show that the M2 receptor mediates approximately 45% of the contractile response produced by the M3 receptor. The traditional theory of one receptor mediating a response does not allow assessment of interactions between receptors when more than one receptor participates in a response. Our study was performed using a novel analysis method based on dual receptor occupancy to determine how M2 and M3 receptor subtypes interact to mediate contraction in mouse stomach. Cumulative carbachol concentration contractile responses were determined for wild-type, M2-KO, and M3-KO stomach body smooth muscle. Using affinity constants for carbachol at M2 and M3 cholinergic receptors, the concentration values were converted to fractional receptor occupation. The resulting occupation-effect relations showed maximum effects for the M2 and M3 subtypes, respectively. These occupation-effect relations allow determination of the additive (expected) isobole based on this dual occupancy, thereby providing a curve (mathematically derived) for comparison against the experimentally derived value in wild type. The actual values determined experimentally in the wild type were not statistically significantly different from that predicted by the isobole. This confirms that the interaction between these mutually occupied receptors is additive. The new method of analysis also expands the traditional Schild theory that was based on a single receptor type to which the agonist and antagonist bind.

  18. σ-Aromatic cyclic M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) clusters and their complexation with dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole, furan, noble gases and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Saha, Ranajit; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2016-04-28

    The σ-aromaticity of M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) is analyzed and compared with that of Li3(+) and a prototype σ-aromatic system, H3(+). Ligands (L) like dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole and furan are employed to stabilize these monocationic M3(+) clusters. They all bind M3(+) with favorable interaction energy. Dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene forms the strongest bond with M3(+) followed by pyridine, isoxazole and furan. Electrostatic contribution is considerably more than that of orbital contribution in these M-L bonds. The orbital interaction arises from both L → M σ donation and L ← M back donation. M3(+) clusters also bind noble gas atoms and carbon monoxide effectively. In general, among the studied systems Au3(+) binds a given L most strongly followed by Cu3(+) and Ag3(+). Computation of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and its different extensions like the NICS-rate and NICS in-plane component vs. NICS out-of-plane component shows that the σ-aromaticity in L bound M3(+) increases compared to that of bare clusters. The aromaticity in pyridine, isoxazole and furan bound Au3(+) complexes is quite comparable with that in the recently synthesized Zn3(C5(CH3)5)3(+). The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital also increases upon binding with L. The blue-shift and red-shift in the C-O stretching frequency of M3(CO)3(+) and M3(OC)3(+), respectively, are analyzed through reverse polarization of the σ- and π-orbitals of CO as well as the relative amount of OC → M σ donation and M → CO π back donation. The electron density analysis is also performed to gain further insight into the nature of interaction.

  19. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its indoor...

  20. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.

  1. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  2. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-06-27

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation.

  3. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  4. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  5. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  6. Particle multiplicities and particle ratios in excluded volume model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, M

    2008-01-01

    One of the most surprising results is to find that a consistent description of all the experimental results on particle multiplicities and particle ratios obtained from the lowest AGS to the highest RHIC energies is possible within the framework of a thermal statistical model. We propose here a thermodynamically consistent excluded-volume model involving an interacting multi-component hadron gas. We find that the energy dependence of the total multiplicities of strange and non-strange hadrons obtained in this model agrees closely with the experimental results. It indicates that the freeze out volume of the fireball is uniformly the same for all the particles. We have also compared the variation of the particle ratios such as $/, /, K^{-}/K^{+}, \\bar{p}/p, \\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda, \\bar{\\Xi}/\\Xi, \\bar{\\Omega}/\\Omega, /, /, /$ and $/$ with respect to the center-of-mass energy as predicted by our model with the recent experimental data.

  7. Strictness and Totality Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, K. L.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    We define a novel inference system for strictness and totality analysis for the simply-typed lazy lambda-calculus with constants and fixpoints. Strictness information identifies those terms that definitely denote bottom (i.e. do not evaluate to WHNF) whereas totality information identifies those ...

  8. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat...

  9. Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Samburova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical nature of a large mass fraction of ambient organic aerosol particles is not known. High molecular weight compounds (often named humic-like substances have recently been detected by several authors and these compounds seem to account for a significant fraction of the total organic aerosol mass. Due to the unknown chemical structure of these compounds quantification as well as a determination of their molecular weight is difficult. In this paper we investigate water soluble humic-like substances in ambient urban aerosol using size exclusion chromatography-UV spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS. LDI-MS was used for the first time to investigate HULIS from atmospheric aerosols. A careful evaluation of the two method shows that both methods complement each other and that both are needed to learn more about the molecular weight distribution and the concentration of humic-like substances. An upper molecular weight limit of humic-like substances of about 700 Da and a concentration of 0.3-1.6 µg/m3 air can be estimated, corresponding to 9-30% of the total organic carbon for an urban background site.

  10. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  11. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-10-01

    This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 μm). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

  12. Physical properties, chemical composition, sources, spatial distribution and sinks of indoor aerosol particles in a university lecture hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, I.; Dosztály, K.; Borsós, T.; Söveges, B.; Weidinger, T.; Kristóf, G.; Péter, N.; Kertész, Zs.

    2013-01-01

    PM10 mass, particle number (N) and CO2 concentrations, particle number size distributions and meteorological parameters were determined with high time resolution, and daily aerosol samples were collected in the PM10-2.0 and PM2.0 size fractions for chemical analysis in the middle of a university lecture hall for one week. Median concentrations for the PM10 mass and N of 15.3 μg m-3 and 3.7 × 103 cm-3, respectively were derived. The data are substantially smaller than the related outdoor levels or typical values for residences. There were considerable concentration differences for workdays, weekends and various lectures. Main sources of PM10 mass include the usage of chalk sticks for writing, wiping the blackboard, ordinary movements and actions of students and cleaning. High PM10 mass concentration levels up to 100 μg m-3 were realised for short time intervals after wiping the blackboard. The mass concentrations decreased rapidly after the emission source ceased to be active. Two classes of coarse particles were identified. General indoor dust particles exhibited a residence time of approximately 35 min, while the residence time for the chalk dust particles was approximately 20 min as lower estimates. Emission source rate for wiping the blackboard was estimated to be between 8 and 14 mg min-1. This represents a substantial emission rate but the source is active only up to 1 min. Suspension of the chalk (made mainly of gypsum) dust particles was confirmed by enrichment of Ca and S in the hall with respect to ambient urban aerosol. Contribution of ambient aerosol via the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) facility was considerable for time intervals when the indoor sources of PM10 mass were not intensive. The HVAC facility introduces, however, the major amount of aerosol particles from the outdoors as far as their number concentration is regarded. Mean contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number was (69 ± 7)%, which is smaller

  13. Isotope effects on particle transport in the Compact Helical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Ida, K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Osakabe, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Isobe, M.; Morita, S.; Matsuoka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogen isotope effects of particle transport were studied in the hydrogen and deuterium dominant plasmas of the Compact Helical System (CHS). Longer decay time of electron density after the turning-off of the gas puffing was observed in the deuterium dominant plasma suggesting that the recycling was higher and/or the particle confinement was better in the deuterium dominant plasma. Density modulation experiments showed the quantitative difference of the particle transport coefficients. Density was scanned from 0.8  ×  1019 m-3 to 4  ×  1019 m-3 under the same magnetic field and almost the same heating power. In the low density regime (line averaged density  2.5  ×  1019 m-3) no clear difference was observed. This result indicates that the isotope effects of particle transport exist only in the low density regime. Comparison with neoclassical transport coefficients showed that the difference of particle transport is likely to be due to the difference of turbulence driven anomalous transport. Linear character of the ion scale turbulence was studied. The smaller linear growth rate qualitatively agreed with the reduced particle transport in the deuterium dominant plasma of the low density regime.

  14. 北极夏季大气气溶胶单颗粒研究%Characteristics of individual aerosol particles in Arctic summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦亚玲; 贾铭鑫; 李文凯; 常嘉敏; 迟建伟; 刘磊; 孙俊英; 李卫军; 王文兴

    2014-01-01

    为研究北极地区大气气溶胶颗粒的物理化学特性,于2013年8月8~12日环Svalbard岛收集大气气溶胶样品,利用带能谱的透射电子显微镜(TEM-EDS)共分析2530个单颗粒,并获得颗粒物的形貌特征和化学组成.结果表明,北极地区颗粒物主要表现为5种类型,分别为海盐颗粒、富S颗粒、富Fe颗粒、含碳颗粒和矿物颗粒.后向气流轨迹显示,采样期间大气污染物主要来自于北极点周边的海洋上空和附近格陵兰岛地区.来自海洋上空的大气中主要包含海盐颗粒,所占数量比例为54.7%;经过陆地的大气样品中95.4%为矿物颗粒.利用时间密度因子法估算出北极地区PM2.5质量浓度范围为0.55~0.72µg/m3.%Samples of individual particle were collected around Svalbard island during 8-12August, 2013. Physicochemical characteristics of 2530 aerosol particles were analysed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Arctic aerosol particles were classified as five types: sea-salt, S-rich, Fe-rich, carbonaceous and mineral dust particles. Air masses showed either atmospheric circulation in the arctic ocean or transport of air from Svalbard and Greenland. Samples collected under the air mass of the arctic ocean mainly contained sea-salt particles (54.7% of total in the samples). Mineral dust may be transported from the land, because samples of air mass from Svalbard and Greenland were dominated by mineral dust particles (95.4% of total particles in the samples). We estimated the PM2.5 mass concentration ranging from 0.55µg/m3 to 0.72µg/m3 in Arctic atmosphere.

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  16. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  17. The M3 phosphorylation site is required for trafficking and biological roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeeun Ki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes.

  18. The M3 Phosphorylation Site Is Required for Trafficking and Biological Roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Daeeun; Sasayama, Daisuke; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes.

  19. Biogenic contributions to the chemical composition of airborne particles in a coniferous forest in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewka, Antje; Gnauk, Thomas; Brüggemann, Erika; Herrmann, Hartmut

    Airborne particles in and above the canopy of a middle European spruce forest were investigated in summer 2001 and in day/night rhythm in summer 2002 near Waldstein site (Fichtelgebirge, Germany). The particles were size-segregated collected and analyzed for main components (inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon) as well as oxalic acid and alkanes. A mass closure for the chemical composition including water was performed successfully for both years. For analysis of other organic compounds high volume (HV) samplers were used in order to obtain more particle mass. The HV filter particles were measured with GC/MS after extraction and derivatisation. The highest concentrations were found for the sugars and the dicarboxylic acids. Four terpene acids, pinonaldehyde and isoprene oxidation products were detected. Differences between day and night samples were found for pinonaldehyde (night: 13.7 ng m -3; day: 2.7 ng m -3), for pinic acid (night: 3.2 ng m -3; day: 9.5 ng m -3) and also for the 2-methyltetrols (night: 4.0 ng m -3; day: 8 ng m -3). The detected terpene and isoprene oxidation products account only for a small part of the measured organic carbon content of particles. In all cases oxalic acid accounts for the major fraction of the speciated organic carbon. The origin of the main components like inorganic ions, OC, and EC is associated with the origin of air masses.

  20. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  1. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  2. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  3. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  5. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  7. Microwave irradiation induces neurite outgrowth in PC12m3 cells via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Motoda, Hirotoshi; Koike, Yoshihisa; Kawamura, Kenji; Hiragami, Fukumi; Kano, Yoshio

    2008-02-13

    The increasing use of mobile phone communication has raised concerns about possible health hazard effects of microwave irradiation. We investigated damage and differentiation caused by microwave irradiation on drug-hypersensitive PC12 cell line (PC12m3). These cells showed enhancement of neurite outgrowth to various stimulants. The frequency of neurite outgrowth induced by 2.45 GHz (200 W) of microwave irradiation was approximately 10-fold greater than that of non-irradiated control cells. Incubation of PC12m3 cells with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, resulted in marked inhibition of the microwave radiation-induced neurite outgrowth. Also, activation of the transcription factor CREB induced by microwave irradiation was inhibited by SB203580. Heat shock treatment at 45 degrees C had a strong toxic effect on PC12m3 cells, whereas microwave treatment had no toxic effect on PC12m3 cells. These findings indicate that p38 MAPK is responsible for the survival of PC12m3 cells and might induce neurite outgrowth via a CREB signaling pathway when subjected to microwave irradiation.

  8. Virtual Screening of M3 Protein Antagonists for Finding a Model to Study the Gammaherpesvirus Damaged Immune System and Chemokine Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Torktaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: M3 protein is a chemokine decoy receptor involved in pathogenesis of persistent infection with gammaherpesvirus and complications related to the latency of this pathogen. We proposed that antagonists of the M3 would provide a unique opportunity for studying new therapeutic strategies in disordered immune system, immune-deficient states and role of chemokines in pathogenesis development. Methods: Comparative modeling and fold recognition algorithms have been used for prediction of M3 protein 3-D model. Evaluation of the models using Q-mean and ProSA-web score, has led to choosing predicted model by fold recognition algorithm as the best model which was minimized regarding energy level using Molegro Virtual Docker 2011.4.3.0 (MVD software. Pockets and active sites of model were recognized using MVD cavity detection, and MetaPocket algorithms. Ten thousand compounds accessible on KEGG database were screened; MVD was used for computer simulated docking study; MolDock SE was selected as docking scoring function and final results were evaluated based on MolDock and Re-rank score. Results: Docking data suggested that prilocaine, which is generally applied as a topical anesthetic, binds strongly to 3-D model of M3 protein. Conclusion: This study proposes that prilocaine is a potential inhibitor of M3 protein and possibly has immune enhancing properties.

  9. Source apportionment of fine PM and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a regional background site in the western Mediterranean: a 2.5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM1) over a period of 2.5 years for a regional background site in the western Mediterranean are presented in this work. Furthermore, sub-micron particle number concentrations and the sources of these particles are also presented. The mean PM1 concentration for the measurement period was 8.9 μg m-3, with organic matter (OM) and sulphate comprising most of the mass (3.2 and 1.5 μg m-3 respectively). Six sources were identified in PM1 by Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF): secondary organic aerosol, secondary nitrate, industrial, traffic + biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and secondary sulphate. Typically anthropogenic sources displayed elevated concentrations during the week with reductions at weekends. Nitrate levels were elevated in winter and negligible in summer, whereas secondary sulphate levels underwent a contrasting seasonal evolution with highest concentrations in summer, similar to the fuel oil combustion source. The SOA source was influenced by episodes of sustained pollution as a result of anticyclonic conditions occurring during winter, giving rise to thermal inversions and the accumulation of pollutants in the mixing layer. Increased levels in summer were owing to higher biogenic emissions and regional recirculation of air masses. The industrial source decreased in August due to decreased emissions during the vacation period. Increases in the traffic + biomass burning source were recorded in January, April and October, which were attributed to the occurrence of the aforementioned pollution episodes and local biomass burning emission sources, which include agriculture and domestic heating systems. Average particle number concentrations (N9-825 nm) from 5/11/2010 to 01/06/2011 and from 15/10/2011 to 18/12/2011 reached 3097 cm-3. Five emission sources of particle of sub-micron particles were determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA); industrial + traffic + biomass

  10. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available provides a formal proof that each particle converges to a stable point. An empirical analysis of multidimensional stochastic particles is also presented. Experimental results are provided to support the conclusions drawn from the theoretical findings...

  11. Research on sub-surface damage and its stress deformation in the process of large aperture and high diameter-to-thickness ratio TMT M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-xiang; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Hai-fei; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2016-10-01

    Large flat mirrors play important roles in large aperture telescopes. However, they also introduce unpredictable problems. The surface errors created during manufacturing, testing, and supporting are all combined during measurement, thus making understanding difficult for diagnosis and treatment. Examining a high diameter-to-thickness ratio flat mirror, TMT M3MP, and its unexpected deformation during processing, we proposed a strain model of subsurface damage to explain the observed phenomenon. We designed a set of experiment, and checked the validity of our diagnosis. On that basis, we theoretical predicted the trend of this strain and its scale effect on Zerodur®, and checked the validity on another piece experimentally. This work guided the grinding-polishing process of M3MP, and will be used as reference for M3M processing as well.

  12. Indoor Particle Contamination in Airlaid Papermaking Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junjie; WANG Meng; PEI Jingjing

    2006-01-01

    An onsite testing based on eight-site air sampling was carried out in an airlaid papermaking workshop in Tianjin, China. By theoretical calculation, super absorbent polymer (SAP) size and its existent state in indoor static airflow were obtained. SAP content in the sampled air was test ed through chemical analysis method and found to be 3.0-7.2 times that of the human health limit in production areas. The concentrations of total suspending particles (TSP) and respirable particles were achieved by weighing. Particles of the most concern differ for varied function areas. Particles smaller than 10 μm are mostly produced in the main production process, and 73%-90% particles generated in packing areas are larger than 10 μm. SAP raw material particles can easily changed to suspending form by inevitable extrusion and frication. Correlation between respirable particles andTSP agrees well with that in atmospheric environment.

  13. Heterodyne holographic microscopy of gold particles

    CERN Document Server

    Atlan, Michael; Desbiolles, Pierre; Absil, Emilie; Tessier, Gilles; Coppey-Moisan, Maité

    2007-01-01

    We report experimental results on heterodyne holographic microscopy of subwavelength-sized gold particles. The apparatus uses continuous green laser illumination of the metal beads in a total internal reflection configuration for dark-field operation. Detection of the scattered light at the illumination wavelength on a charge-coupled device array detector enables 3D localization of brownian particles in water

  14. Quantum Mechanical Probability of Electrodynamic Particle(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng-Johansson, J X

    2010-01-01

    A distribution of electromagnetic fields presents a statistical assembly of a particular type, which is at scale h a quantum statistical assembly itself and has also been instrumental to concretisation of the basic probability assumption of quantum mechanics. Of specific concern in this discussion is an extensive train of radiation fields, of a total wave function \\psi, which are continuously (re)emitted and (re)absorbed by an oscillatory (point) charge of a zero rest mass and yet a finite dynamical mass, with the waves and charge together making up an extensive undulatory IED particle. The IED particle will as any real particle be subject to interactions with the environmental fields and particles, hence to excitations, and therefore will explore all possible states over time; at scale $h$ the states are discrete. On the basis of the principles of statistics and statistical mechanics combined with first principles solutions for the IED particle, we derive for the IED particle the probability functions in pos...

  15. Comparison of Transport Calculation Between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G at Core Barrel of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant(KSNP), OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, Young Jae; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chun Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institutes, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The DORT code for 2D/1D synthesis has been actively applied to calculate the fast neutron (E>1.0MeV) fluence exposure of RPV. RAPTOR-M3G code is also applied for the comparison of 2D/1D synthesis, and it was found that 2D/1D synthesis method generally provided more conservative results than RAPTOR-M3G at both RPV and surveillance capsule locations. As a result, definitely RAPTOR-M3G for 3D calculation must apply for accurate evaluation of the integrity and ageing of RPV and internal structures. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compare the differences in terms of geometric aspect of KSNP model between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G at core barrel area. 2D/1D synthesis method shows still higher results at the shortest distance of bypass water region. The reason is that 2D/1D synthesis method has excessive conservatism because of having just one model of R-θ and R-Z separately. Angles (5, 25, 45, 65 and 90 degrees) that RAPTOR-M3G results are higher than 2D/1D synthesis results seem to have almost regular interval. The reason can be that neutron flux to reach to barrel is affected by the nearest core definitely and all of near core areas including bypass water. RAPTOR-M3G performing 3D calculation can be applied to various reactor structures, because the code can simulate the model realistically and reasonably in geometric view points. Understanding the phenomenon that 45 degree shows downward peak, in spite of baffle corner location, remains.

  16. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  17. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  18. Length and amino acid sequence of peptides substituted for the 5-HT3A receptor M3M4 loop may affect channel expression and desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole K McKinnon

    Full Text Available 5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4 and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-A(n = 2-7. Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC(50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT. The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A(2, 5-HT3A-A(4, 5-HT3A-A(6, and 5-HT3A-A(7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A(3 and 5-HT3A-A(5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A(1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function.

  19. Binding properties of nine 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) analogues to M1, M2, M3 and putative M4 muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Tastenoy, M.; Christophe, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. We compared the binding properties of 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methiodide (4-DAMP) and nine analogues of this compound on muscarinic receptors of human neuroblastoma NB-OK1 cells (M1 subtype), rat heart (M2 subtype), rat pancreas (M3 subtype) and to the putative M4 subtype in striatum. 2. The requirements for high affinity binding were somewhat different for the four receptor subtypes. In general, the requirements of M3 receptors were more stringent than for M1, M2 or putativ...

  20. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulmonary toxicity and fate of agglomerated 10 and 40 nm aluminum oxyhydroxides following 4-week inhalation exposure of rats: toxic effects are determined by agglomerated, not primary particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Inhaled polydisperse micronsized agglomerated particulates composed of nanosized primary particles may exert their pulmonary toxicity in either form, depending on whether these tightly associated structures are disintegrated within the biological system or not. This hypothesis was tested in a rat bioassay using two calcined aluminum oxyhydroxides (AlOOH) consisting of primary particles in the range of 10-40 nm. Male Wistar rats were nose-only exposed to 0.4, 3, and 28 mg/m(3) in two 4-week (6 h/day, 5 days/week) inhalation studies followed by a 3-month postexposure period. The respective mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of agglomerated particles in inhalation chambers was 1.7 and 0.6 mum. At serial sacrifices, pulmonary toxicity was characterized by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. The retention kinetics of aluminum (Al) was determined in lung tissue, BAL cells, and selected extrapulmonary organs, including lung-associated lymph nodes (LALNs). Significant changes in BAL, lung, and LALN weights occurred at 28 mg/m(3). Histopathology revealed alveolar macrophages with enlarged and foamy appearance, increased epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and focal septal thickening. The determination of aluminum in lung tissue shows that the cumulative lung dose was higher following exposure to AlOOH-40 nm/MMAD-0.6 mum than to AlOOH-10 nm/MMAD-1.7 mum, despite identical exposure concentrations. The associated pulmonary inflammatory response appears to be principally dependent on the agglomerated rather than primary particle size. Despite high lung burdens, conclusively increased extrapulmonary organ burdens did not occur at any exposure concentration and postexposure time point. Particle-induced pulmonary inflammation was restricted to cumulative doses exceeding approximately 1 mg AlOOH/g lung following 4-week exposure at 28 mg/m(3). It is concluded that the pulmonary toxicity of nanosized, agglomerated AlOOH particles appears to be determined by the

  2. Particle size distribution and anion content at a traffic site in Sha-Lu, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K F; Fang, G C; Lu, C S; Bai, H L

    2001-11-01

    Ambient air particle concentrations were sampled by two total suspended particle (TSP) samplers, PM10/PM2.5 specific sampler and micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) during July-October 2000 at a traffic sampling site in central Taiwan. The average TSP concentration (194 microg/m3) was about a factor of two higher than that of the fraction size class size distribution was bimodal in the ambient air at the traffic site. The major peaks appear at particle diameters between 0.56-1.0 and 3.2-5.6 microm. The percentages of anions contained in TSP were 0.24% F-, 13.7% Cl, 0.52% Br, 12.0% NO-, 18.9% NO2-, and 54.6% SO2-. The Cl-, NO2-, and NO3- size distributions were all unimodal and the major peaks appeared at 3.2-5.6 microm. The SO2 size distribution was bimodal, with major peaks at 0.32-0.56 and 3.2-5.6.

  3. Charge-exchange limits on low-energy alpha-particle fluxes in solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh; MacKinnon, Alec; Woods, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Lyman-alpha line of He ii at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary alpha particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He ii bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV/nucleon. We study ten events in total, including the gamma-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic...

  4. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  5. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...

  6. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  7. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  8. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  9. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  10. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  11. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...

  12. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  13. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise. Trea...

  14. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  15. Total Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus in Change, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM) is frequently presented as a way to change and improve public education. This issue of "Focus in Change" examines Deming's original 14 TQM points and their application to education. Myron Tribus lays out the core philosophy of the movement and discusses its possible application to…

  16. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.

  17. Biofilter media gas pressure loss as related to media particle size and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Røjgaard Andreasen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Pressure loss (ΔP) is a key parameter for estimating biofilter energy consumption. Accurate predictions of ΔP as a function of air velocity (V) are therefore essential, to assess energy consumption and minimize operation costs. This paper investigates the combined impact of medium particle size...... and shape on the V - ΔP relationship. V - ΔP measurements were performed using three commercially available materials with different particle shapes: crushed granite (very angular particles), gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and Leca® (almost spherical particles). A total of 21 different...

  18. Calculation method for particle mean diameter and particle size distribution function under dependent model algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Tang; Xiaogang Sun; Guibin Yuan

    2007-01-01

    In total light scattering particle sizing technique, the relationship among Sauter mean diameter D32, mean extinction efficiency Q, and particle size distribution function is studied in order to inverse the mean diameter and particle size distribution simply. We propose a method which utilizes the mean extinction efficiency ratio at only two selected wavelengths to solve D32 and then to inverse the particle size distribution associated with (Q) and D32. Numerical simulation results show that the particle size distribution is inversed accurately with this method, and the number of wavelengths used is reduced to the greatest extent in the measurement range. The calculation method has the advantages of simplicity and rapidness.

  19. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ila Gosselin, Marie; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Crawford, Ian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Schmer, Beatrice; Després, Viviane R.; Engling, Guenter; Gallagher, Martin; Stone, Elizabeth; Pöschl, Ulrich; Huffman, J. Alex

    2016-12-01

    Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer) and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3) instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs) during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP) high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013) previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013). Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m-3) and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m-3) were 3-4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m-3, accounting for 2-5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17-23 % during rainy periods, were obtained from scaling the

  20. Source apportionment of fine PM and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a regional background site in the western Mediterranean: a 2.5 yr study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM1) over a period of 2.5 yr for a regional background site in the western Mediterranean are presented in this work. Major components (such as SO12-, NO3-, NH4+, organic and elemental carbon) and trace elements were analysed and the emission sources affecting PM1 were determined using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). Furthermore, sub-micron particle number concentrations and the sources of these particles are also presented. Sources of sub-micron particles were determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The mean PM1 concentration for the measurement period was 8.9 μg m-3, with organic matter (OM) and sulphate comprising most of the mass (3.2 and 1.5 μg m-3). A clear seasonal variation was recorded with higher PM1 concentrations in summer (11.2 μg m-3) compared to winter (6.6 μg m-3). This summer increase was due to elevated levels of sulphate and OM. Six sources were identified by PMF: secondary organic aerosol, secondary nitrate, industrial, traffic + biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and secondary sulphate. The daily variations of these sources were also determined, whereby the typically anthropogenic sources displayed elevated concentrations during the week with reductions at weekends. Nitrate levels were elevated in winter and negligible in summer, whereas secondary sulphate levels underwent a contrasting seasonal evolution with highest concentrations in summer, similar to the fuel oil combustion source. The SOA source was influenced by episodes of sustained pollution as a result of anticyclonic conditions occurring during winter, giving rise to thermal inversions and the accumulation of pollutants in the mixing layer. Increased levels in summer were owing to higher biogenic emissions and regional recirculation of air masses. The industrial source decreased in August due to decreased emissions during the vacation period. Increases in the traffic + biomass burning source

  1. Oxylipin biosynthesis in spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii: Molecular cloning and identification of divinyl ether synthases CYP74M1 and CYP74M3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Svetlana S; Toporkova, Yana Y; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Smirnova, Elena O; Chechetkin, Ivan R; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Gogolev, Yuri V; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2016-04-01

    Nonclassical P450s of CYP74 family control the secondary conversions of fatty acid hydroperoxides to bioactive oxylipins in plants. At least ten genes attributed to four novel CYP74 subfamilies have been revealed by the recent sequencing of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron genome. Two of these genes CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 have been cloned in the present study. Both recombinant proteins CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 were active towards the 13(S)-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids (13-HPOT and 13-HPOD, respectively) and exhibited the activity of divinyl ether synthase (DES). Products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual oxylipins were purified by HPLC and finally identified by their NMR data, including the (1)H NMR, 2D-COSY, HSQC and HMBC. CYP74M1 (SmDES1) specifically converted 13-HPOT to (11Z)-etherolenic acid and 13-HPOD to (11Z)-etheroleic acid. CYP74M3 (SmDES2) turned 13-HPOT and 13-HPOD mainly to etherolenic and etheroleic acids, respectively. CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 are the first DESs detected in non-flowering plants. The obtained results demonstrate the existence of the sophisticated oxylipin biosynthetic machinery in the oldest taxa of vascular plants.

  2. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635...

  3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panot Tangsucharit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist, but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist. These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  5. Metal-organic Kagome lattices M3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (M = Ni and Cu): from semiconducting to metallic by metal substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-02-28

    Motivated by recent experimental synthesis of a semiconducting metal-organic graphene analogue (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 8859), i.e., Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 [Ni3(HITP)2], a new Kagome lattice, Cu3(HITP)2, is designed by substituting the coordination of Ni by Cu. Such substitution results in interesting changes in electronic properties of the M3(HITP)2 bulk and two-dimensional (2D) sheets. In Ni3(HITP)2, each Ni atom adopts the dsp(2) hybridization, forming a perfect 2D conjugation, whereas in Cu3(HITP)2, each Cu atom adopts the sp(3) hybridization, resulting in a distorted 2D sheet. The M3(HITP)2 bulks, assembled from M3(HITP)2 sheets via both strong π-π interaction and weak metal-metal interaction, are metallic. However, the 2D Ni3(HITP)2 sheet is a semiconductor with a narrow band gap whereas the 2D Cu3(HITP)2 sheet is a metal. Remarkably, both the 2D M3(HITP)2 Kagome lattices possess Dirac bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Additional ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that both sheets exhibit high thermal stability at elevated temperatures. Our theoretical study offers new insights into tunability of electronic properties for the 2D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  6. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635...... and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective....

  7. Correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and airborne particle mutagenicity in the rubber factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, B; Palus, J; Rogaczewska, T; Szymczak, W; Spiechowicz, E

    1992-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between benzo[a]pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations and mutagenic activity of airborne particles sampled at different workplaces of the factory producing various types of tires. The solid phase of aerosols was collected on Whatman glass-fibers filters using Staplex pumps. Coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs) were extracted from sample filters using ultrasonic-benzene extraction and determined by the gravimetric method. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography with a spectrofluorimetric detector. The mutagenic substances were extracted from collected material with acetone. The mutagenic properties were estimated with the Ames' test using S. typhimurium strain TA98 without and with S9 fraction. At nearly all workplaces the concentrations of BaP and CTPVs were within the range of 4-61 ng/m3 and 0.11-1.26 mg/m3, respectively. Only at weighing were they much higher and amounted to 172-2261 ng/m3 for BaP and 3.05-4.07 mg/m3 for CTPVs. The highest exposure to mutagenic airborne particulate matter was found at weighing (1500 rev/m3), the mixers loading level (> 500 rev/m3) and the carbon black station (> 150 rev/m3). The air mutagenic activity at other workplaces, especially at the extruder mill of the mixer (> 90 rev/m3), the two-roll mill of mixers (> 70 rev/m3), mixer I loading (> 70 rev/m3), calendering (> 70 rev/m3) and fender vulcanizing (> 80 rev/m3) was even much more higher than that found in the urban indoor and outdoor air (2-9 rev/m3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M3 receptor subtype (CHO-M3). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC50 of 14 μM. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC50 (pKb) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M3 receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC50=880 nM). In CHO-M3 cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M3 cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M3 receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action in IBS patients suffering with diarrhoea. PMID

  9. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-12-01

    1. Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. 2. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype (CHO-M(3)). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. 3. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC(50) of 14 micro M. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC(50) (pK(b)) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). 4. Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M(3) receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. 5. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)=880 nM). 6. In CHO-M(3) cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. 7. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M(3) cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action

  10. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  11. Origin of Synthetic Particles in Honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebezeit Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 honeys and 22 flowering plants was analysed for their load of synthetic fibres and fragments. In all samples investigated foreign particles were found. These include also black carbon particles which were not enumerated. Fibres and fragments ranged from 10 to 336 kg-1 and 2 to 82 kg-1 honey, respectively. The data of the flowering plants analysed indicate that a major proportion of the particle load may originate from external sources, i.e. these particles are brought into the beehive by the worker bees during nectar collection.

  12. Particle creation by peak electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M

    2016-01-01

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially-increasing and another exponentially-decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered.

  13. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  14. Images and properties of individual nucleated particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Zoltán; Pósfai, Mihály; Nyirő-Kósa, Ilona; Aalto, Pasi; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected in Budapest, Hungary in April-June onto lacey Formvar substrates by using an electrostatic precipitator during the beginning phase of the particle growth process in ten nucleation and growth events. Median contribution of the nucleated particles - expressed as the concentration of particles with a diameter between 6 and 25 nm to the total particle number concentration - was 55%, and the median electrical mobility diameter of the particles was approximately 20 nm. The sample was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Major types of individual particles such as soot, sulphate/organic and tar ball particles were identified in the sample. In addition, particles with an optical diameter range of 10-30 nm were also observed. They clearly differed from the other particle types, showed homogeneous contrast in the bright-field TEM images, and evaporated within tens of seconds when exposed to the electron beam. They were interpreted as representatives of freshly nucleated particles.

  15. Particle formation in ambient MALDI plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musapelo, Thabiso; Murray, Kermit K

    2011-09-01

    The ablated particle count and size distribution of four solid matrix materials commonly used for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) combined with a light scattering aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). The two particle sizing instruments allowed size measurements in the range from 10 nm to 20 μm. The four solid matrixes investigated were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 4-nitroaniline (NA), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), and sinapic acid (SA). A thin film of the matrix was deposited on a stainless steel target using the dried droplet method and was irradiated with a 337 nm nitrogen laser at atmospheric pressure. The target was rotated during the measurement. A large number of nanoparticles were produced, and average particle diameters ranged from 40 to 170 nm depending on the matrix and the laser fluence. These particles are attributed to agglomeration of smaller particles and clusters and/or hydrodynamic sputtering of melted matrix. A coarse particle component of the distribution was observed with diameters between 500 nm and 2 μm. The coarse particles were significantly lower in number but had a total mass that was comparable to that of the nanoparticles. The coarse particles are attributed to matrix melting and spallation. Two of the compounds, CHCA and SA, had a third particle size distribution component in the range of 10 to 30 nm, which is attributed to the direct ejection of clusters.

  16. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation...... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....

  17. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing

    2015-09-18

    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.

  18. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  19. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Anca ȘERBAN; Oana DUMITRAȘCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated t...

  20. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  1. Involvement of M3 Cholinergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway in Regulation of the Expression of Chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 Genes in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海; 陈道达; 张景輝; 田原

    2004-01-01

    Whether M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway is involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB and the expression of chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, atropine and PDTC in vitro. The MOB-1 and MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected by using RT-PCR. The activation of NF-κB was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.The results showed that as compared with control group, M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (103mol/L, 104-4ol/L carbachol) could induce a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA in pancreatic acinar cells. After treatment with 10 -3mol/L carbachol for 2 h, the expression of MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA was strongest. The activity of NF-κB in pancreatic acinar cells was significantly increased (P<0.01) after treated with M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (10-3 mol/L carbachol) in vitro for 30 min. Either M3 cholinergic receptor antagonist (10-5 mol/L atropine) or NF-κB inhibitor (10-2 mol/L PDTC) could obviously inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the chemokine MOB-1, MCP-1 mRNA expression induced by carbachol (P <0.05). This inhibitory effect was significantly increased by atropine plus PDTC (P<0.01). The results of these studies indicated that M3 cholinergic receptor signal transduction pathway was likely involved in regulation of the expression of chemokine MOB-1 and MCP-1genes in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro through the activation of NF-κB.

  2. Response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles from traffic: experimental controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dormans Jan AMA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, this experimental study has explored the role of two distinct size fractions: ultrafine (3 to 3613 μg/m3 for fCAP and from 269μg/m3 to 556 μg/m3 for u+fCAP. Results Ammonium, nitrate, and sulphate ions accounted for 56 ± 16% of the total fCAP mass concentrations, but only 17 ± 6% of the u+fCAP mass concentrations. Unambiguous particle uptake in alveolar macrophages was only seen after u+fCAP exposures. Neither fCAP nor u+fCAP induced significant changes of cytotoxicity or inflammation in the lung. However, markers of oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde were affected by both fCAP and u+fCAP exposure, although not always significantly. Additional analysis revealed heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels that followed a nonmonotonic function with an optimum at around 600 μg/m3 for fCAP. As a systemic response, exposure to u+fCAP and fCAP resulted in significant decreases of the white blood cell concentrations. Conclusion Minor pulmonary and systemic effects are observed after both fine and ultrafine + fine PM exposure. These effects do not linearly correlate with the CAP mass. A greater component of traffic CAP and/or a larger proportion ultrafine PM does not strengthen the absolute effects.

  3. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  4. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  5. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  6. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  7. Dechlorane Plus and decabromodiphenyl ether in atmospheric particles of northeast Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric particles were collected in several cities in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing) using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter. The summer and winter samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for Dechlorane Plus (DP). Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was also analyzed for the samples from Kanazawa and Beijing. DP was detected in all samples. The mean total DP (ΣDP) concentration was highest (6.7 pg/m(3)) and lowest (0.87 pg/m(3)) in the winter samples from Sagamihara and Busan, respectively. The seasonal variation of DP concentrations varied by sampling site in this study. BDE-209 was detected in all the analyzed samples except for one of the Kanazawa winter samples. BDE-209 concentration was considerably higher in Beijing than in Kanazawa. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of ΣDP and BDE-209 in the winter samples from Kanazawa and in both summer and winter samples from Beijing. This similarity in the atmospheric behavior of DP and BDE-209, especially in winter, is assumed to reflect a common end usage and release mechanism.

  8. Accurate particle position measurement from images

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; 10.1063/1.2735920

    2011-01-01

    The moment method is an image analysis technique for sub-pixel estimation of particle positions. The total error in the calculated particle position includes effects of pixel locking and random noise in each pixel. Pixel locking, also known as peak locking, is an artifact where calculated particle positions are concentrated at certain locations relative to pixel edges. We report simulations to gain an understanding of the sources of error and their dependence on parameters the experimenter can control. We suggest an algorithm, and we find optimal parameters an experimenter can use to minimize total error and pixel locking. Simulating a dusty plasma experiment, we find that a sub-pixel accuracy of 0.017 pixel or better can be attained. These results are also useful for improving particle position measurement and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video microscopy, in fields including colloids, biology, and fluid mechanics.

  9. Culturable bioaerosols along an urban waterfront are primarily associated with coarse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Montero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The source, characteristics and transport of viable microbial aerosols in urban centers are topics of significant environmental and public health concern. Recent studies have identified adjacent waterways, and especially polluted waterways, as an important source of microbial aerosols to urban air. The size of these aerosols influences how far they travel, their resistance to environmental stress, and their inhalation potential. In this study, we utilize a cascade impactor and aerosol particle monitor to characterize the size distribution of particles and culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols along the waterfront of a New York City embayment. We seek to address the potential contribution of bacterial aerosols from local sources and to determine how their number, size distribution, and taxonomic identity are affected by wind speed and wind direction (onshore vs. offshore. Total culturable microbial counts were higher under offshore winds (average of 778 CFU/m3 ± 67, with bacteria comprising the majority of colonies (58.5%, as compared to onshore winds (580 CFU/m3 ± 110 where fungi were dominant (87.7%. The majority of cultured bacteria and fungi sampled during both offshore winds (88% and onshore winds (72% were associated with coarse aerosols (>2.1 µm, indicative of production from local sources. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05 of wind speed with both total and coarse culturable microbial aerosol concentrations. Taxonomic analysis, based on DNA sequencing, showed that Actinobacteria was the dominant phylum among aerosol isolates. In particular, Streptomyces and Bacillus, both spore forming genera that are often soil-associated, were abundant under both offshore and onshore wind conditions. Comparisons of bacterial communities present in the bioaerosol sequence libraries revealed that particle size played an important role in microbial aerosol taxonomy. Onshore and offshore coarse libraries were found to be most similar

  10. Dynamics of Carroll particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Longhi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate particles whose dynamics are invariant under the Carroll group. Although a single, free such Carroll particle has no non-trivial dynamics (the Carroll particle does not move), we show that non-trivial dynamics exists for a set of interacting Carroll particles. Furthermore, we gauge th

  11. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  12. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  13. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  14. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  15. Free and combined amino compounds in atmospheric fine particles (PM 2.5) and fog waters from Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Anastasio, Cort

    Atmospheric fine particles (PM 2.5) collected during August 1997-July 1998 and wintertime fog waters collected during 1997-1999 at Davis, California were analyzed for free and combined amino compounds. In both PM 2.5 and fog waters, the average concentrations of combined amino compounds (CAC, e.g., proteins and peptides) were generally 4-5 times higher than those of free amino compounds (FAC, i.e., amino acids and alkyl amines). Concentrations of total amino compounds (TAC=FAC+CAC) ranged from 1260 to 3650 pmol m -3 air in PM 2.5, and from 1620 to 5880 pmol m -3 air in fog waters. Average values (±1 σ) were 2500±879 and 3400±1430 pmol m -3 air, respectively. Concentrations of amino compounds in PM 2.5 varied seasonally, with a peak during late winter and early spring. Ornithine was a major FAC component in both PM 2.5 and fog waters (typically accounting for ˜20% of FAC), but these sample types otherwise had fairly different FAC distributions. FAC in PM 2.5 were enriched in protein-type amino species such as glycine/threonine, serine and alanine, while fog water FAC had significantly higher levels of non-protein species such as methylamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ethanolamine. The compositions of CAC in PM 2.5 and fogs were fairly similar and were mainly protein-type. Mass concentrations of TAC in PM 2.5 and fog waters were, on average, 302 and 399 ng m -3 air, respectively. Amino compounds were an important component of the organic carbon pool for both fog and particles, with TAC accounting for an average of 13% of the dissolved organic carbon in fog waters and ˜10% of the water-soluble organic carbon in PM 2.5. At these levels amino compounds likely play important roles in the chemistry of fog drops and fine particles, for example by influencing their buffering capacity and basicity.

  16. Particle Behavior at Anisotropically Curved Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Zeng, Chuan; Davidovitch, Benny; Dinsmore, Anthony; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    A particle bound to an anisotropically curved liquid interface, such as a cylinder or catenoid, cannot maintain a constant contact angle without deforming the interface. Theory suggests that the particles will experience a force that depends on the interfacial shape and migrate to minimize the total interfacial energy. To test these predictions, particles were deposited on top of liquid semi-cylinders of ionic liquid or melted polystyrene confined on chemically patterned surfaces. Particles were also deposited on liquid catenoid structures created by placing a melted polymer film under an electric field. The location of the particles on these structures was observed by optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. The implications for the directed assembly of particles and stability of Pickering emulsions are also discussed.

  17. Silicon in submicron particles in the southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Marc; Flocchini, Robert G.; Draftz, Ronald G.; Cahill, Thomas A.; Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Eldred, Robert A.

    Silicon in the fine particle size range (less than about 2 μm) was investigated. Elemental and microscopical analysis of size segregated, ambient particulate and suspended soil samples from the rural southwest indicate that the particles are earth crust material. The composition of the soil related materials changes with changing particle size. Smaller particles tend to vary more in their elemental makeup than corresponding large particles. Numerous thin mineral plates with diameters of several micrometers are aerodynamically sized in the smallest sample size range (< 0.5 μm). Since silicon accounts for one-quarter to one-half the total mass in the fine particle size range, it may be a significant causal factor in regional visibility degradation.

  18. Identity and total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a psychiatric institution resident’s identity (self- construction processes. Our quest was grounded on constructivist theoretical paradigm that sees identity as a manner a person defines oneself in accordance with offered social repertoire. In other words, the total institution milieu offers limited range of identities to its residents. On the other hand, the latter are not just passive subjects that identity is imposed upon. They are able to use a number of adjustment mechanisms to the knowledge about themselves - ranging from symbolic escape to open resistance against the imposed image about them; to obedience, and we were interested to understand the (supposed complex dynamic of identity (re-building in, so-called, special or forensic patients. In order to understand this process and attempting to discover, besides the manifest also the latent layer of the story about self, the local, or personal, identity understanding was examined.

  19. Total organic carbon analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  20. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  1. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation filling of a 6$m^3$ vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A; Gendotti, A; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Coleman, J; Lewis, M; Mavrokoridis, K; McCormick, K; Touramanis, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 $m^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to $all$ sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  2. Sources and physical processes responsible for OH/H2O in the lunar soil as revealed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Combe, J.-P.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Sunshine, J.M.; Clark, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of two absorption features near 3 m in the lunar reflectance spectrum, observed by the orbiting M3 spectrometer and interpreted as being due to OH and H2O, is presented, and the results are used to discuss the processes producing these molecules. This analysis focuses on the dependence of the absorptions on lunar physical properties, including composition, illumination, latitude, and temperature. Solar wind proton-induced hydroxylation is proposed as the creation process, and its products could be a source for other reported types of hydrogen-rich material and water. The irregular and damaged fine-grained lunar soil seems especially adapted for trapping solar wind protons and forming OH owing to abundant dangling oxygen bonds. The M3 data reveal that the strengths of the two absorptions are correlated and widespread, and both are correlated with lunar composition but in different ways. Feldspathic material seems richer in OH. These results seem to rule out water from the lunar interior and cometary infall as major sources. There appear to be correlations of apparent band strengths with time of day and lighting conditions. However, thermal emission from the Moon reduces the apparent strengths of the M3 absorptions, and its removal is not yet completely successful. Further, many of the lunar physical properties are themselves intercorrelated, and so separating these dependencies on the absorptions is difficult, due to the incomplete M3 data set. This process should also operate on other airless silicate surfaces, such as Mercury and Vesta, which will be visited by the Dawn spacecraft in mid-2011. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Virulence of two Streptococcus pyogenes strains (types M1 and M3) associated with toxic-shock-like syndrome depends on an intact mry-like gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Casal, J F; Dillon, H F; Husmann, L K; Graham, B.; Scott, J R

    1993-01-01

    The major virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes, the M protein, is positively regulated at the transcriptional level by mry in the M type 6 strain studied. We show here that in two S. pyogenes strains isolated from cases of toxic-shock-like syndrome, a type M1 strain and a type M3 strain, an mry-like gene is also required for resistance to phagocytosis.

  4. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  5. 肌肉白天使!——G—Power BMW M3(E92)GT2 R

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斌志

    2013-01-01

    G-Power为德国老字号BMW改装商之一,推出了超暴力型的M3(E92)GT2R版本。雪白车漆配搭赛车拉花、20英寸黑色锻造轮毂、GT大尾翼以及全车碳纤宽体处理,横竖看都是暴力!!!

  6. RR Lyrae stars in the outer region of the globular cluster M3: a shortage of long periods at r ~ 3.5 to 6 arcmin ?

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D J

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of the radial distribution of ab-type RR Lyrae star periods in the outer region of the globular cluster M3 at r >= 0.83 arcmin has been performed. That analysis points towards a real shortage of stars with long periods in the radial distance range 3.5 to 6 arcmin (or about 7 to 12 core radii). A brief discussion is presented. The origin of the phenomenon remains an open question.

  7. Impact of particle formation on atmospheric ions and particle number concentrations in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Jayaratne, E. R.; Morawska, L.

    2015-04-01

    A measurement campaign was conducted from 3 to 19 December 2012 at an urban site of Brisbane, Australia. Size distribution of ions and particle number concentrations were measured to investigate the influence of particle formation and biomass burning on atmospheric ion and particle concentrations. Overall ion and particle number concentrations during the measurement period were found to be (- 1.2 × 103 cm- 3 | + 1.6 × 103 cm- 3) and 4.4 × 103, respectively. The results of correlation analysis between concentrations of ions and nitrogen oxides indicated that positive and negative ions originated from similar sources, and that vehicle exhaust emissions had a more significant influence on intermediate/large ions, while cluster ions rapidly attached to larger particles once emitted into the atmosphere. Diurnal variations in ion concentration suggested the enrichment of intermediate and large ions on new particle formation event days, indicating that they were involved in the particle formation processes. Elevated total ions, particularly larger ions, and particle number concentrations were found during biomass burning episodes. This could be due to the attachment of cluster ions onto accumulation mode particles or production of charged particles from biomass burning, which were in turn transported to the measurement site. The results of this work enhance scientific understanding of the sources of atmospheric ions in an urban environment, as well as their interactions with particles during particle formation processes.

  8. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  9. Sleep as spatiotemporal integration of biological processes that evolved to periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis: The 2m3d paradigm of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Edward Claro; Mader, Annie Cielo Llave

    2016-08-15

    Sleep continues to perplex scientists and researchers. Despite decades of sleep research, we still lack a clear understanding of the biological functions and evolution of sleep. In this review, we will examine sleep from a functional and phylogenetic perspective and describe some important conceptual gaps in understanding sleep. Classical theories of the biology and evolution of sleep emphasize sensory activation, energy balance, and metabolic homeostasis. Advances in electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging, and neuroplasticity allow us to view sleep within the framework of neural dynamics. With this paradigm shift, we have come to realize the importance of neurodynamic homeostasis in shaping the biology of sleep. Evidently, animals sleep to achieve neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. We are not aware of any framework for understanding sleep where neurodynamic, metabolic, homeostatic, chronophasic, and afferent variables are all taken into account. This motivated us to propose the two-mode three-drive (2m3d) paradigm of sleep. In the 2m3d paradigm, local neurodynamic/metabolic (N/M) processes switch between two modes-m0 and m1-in response to three drives-afferent, chronophasic, and homeostatic. The spatiotemporal integration of local m0/m1 operations gives rise to the global states of sleep and wakefulness. As a framework of evolution, the 2m3d paradigm allows us to view sleep as a robust adaptive strategy that evolved so animals can periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis while remaining sensitive to their internal and external environment.

  10. Describing the heavy-ion above-barrier fusion using the bare potentials resulting from Migdal and M3Y double-folding approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontchar, I. I.; Chushnyakova, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Systematic calculations of the Coulomb barrier parameters for collisions of spherical nuclei are performed within the framework of the double folding approach. The value of the parameter {B}Z={Z}P{Z}T/({A}P{1/3}+{A}T{1/3}) (which estimates the Coulomb barrier height) varies in these calculations from 10 MeV up to 150 MeV. The nuclear densities came from the Hartree-Fock calculations which reproduce the experimental charge densities with good accuracy. For the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction two analytical approximations known in the literature are used: the M3Y and Migdal forces. The calculations show that Migdal interaction always results in the higher Coulomb barrier. Moreover, as B Z increases the difference between the M3Y and Migdal barrier heights systematically increases as well. As the result, the above barrier fusion cross sections calculated dynamically with the M3Y forces and surface friction are in agreement with the data. The cross sections calculated with the Migdal forces are always below the experimental data even without accounting for the dissipation.

  11. Describing the heavy-ion above-barrier fusion using the bare potentials resulting from Migdal and M3Y double-folding approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gontchar, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Systematic calculations of the Coulomb barrier parameters for collisions of spherical nuclei are performed within the framework of the double folding approach. The value of the parameter $B_Z=Z_PZ_T/(A^{1/3}_P+(A^{1/3}_P)$ (which estimates the Coulomb barrier height) varies in these calculations from 10 MeV up to 150 MeV. The nuclear densities came from the Hartree-Fock calculations which reproduce the experimental charge densities with good accuracy. For the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction two analytical approximations known in the literature are used: the M3Y and Migdal forces. The calculations show that Migdal interaction always results in the higher Coulomb barrier. Moreover, as $B_Z$ increases the difference between the M3Y and Migdal barrier heights systematically increases as well. As the result, the above barrier fusion cross sections calculated dynamically with the M3Y forces and surface friction are in agreement with the data. The cross sections calculated with the Migdal forces are always bel...

  12. K3M3 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  13. Particle size distribution and air pollution patterns in three urban environments in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xinyi; Guinot, Benjamin; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Three urban environments, office, apartment and restaurant, were selected to investigate the indoor and outdoor air quality as an inter-comparison in which CO2, particulate matter (PM) concentration and particle size ranging were concerned. In this investigation, CO2 level in the apartment (623 ppm) was the highest among the indoor environments and indoor levels were always higher than outdoor levels. The PM10 (333 µg/m(3)), PM2.5 (213 µg/m(3)), PM1 (148 µg/m(3)) concentrations in the office were 10-50% higher than in the restaurant and apartment, and the three indoor PM10 levels all exceeded the China standard of 150 µg/m(3). Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 µm, 0.4 to 0.5 µm and 0.5 to 0.65 µm make largest contribution to particle mass in indoor air, and fine particles number concentrations were much higher than outdoor levels. Outdoor air pollution is mainly affected by heavy traffic, while indoor air pollution has various sources. Particularly, office environment was mainly affected by outdoor sources like soil dust and traffic emission; apartment particles were mainly caused by human activities; restaurant indoor air quality was affected by multiple sources among which cooking-generated fine particles and the human steam are main factors.

  14. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years. The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80° and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°. Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°. However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25° of extension (45° out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100. Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18% out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head

  15. Single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles and the source apportionment of on-line PM2.5 by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Shexia; Gao, Bo; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yanjun; Cai, Jing; Li, Mei; Yao, Ling'ai; Huang, Bo; Zheng, Mei

    2017-09-01

    In order to accurately apportion the many distinct types of individual particles observed, it is necessary to characterize fingerprints of individual particles emitted directly from known sources. In this study, single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles in a tunnel were performed. These data were used to evaluate particle signatures in a real-world PM2.5 apportionment study. The dominant chemical type originating from average positive and negative mass spectra for vehicle exhaust particles are EC species. Four distinct particle types describe the majority of particles emitted by vehicle exhaust particles in this tunnel. Each particle class is labeled according to the most significant chemical features in both average positive and negative mass spectral signatures, including ECOC, NaK, Metal and PAHs species. A single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was also employed during the winter of 2013 in Guangzhou to determine both the size and chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles, with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the size range of 0.2-2μm. A total of 487,570 particles were chemically analyzed with positive and negative ion mass spectra and a large set of single particle mass spectra was collected and analyzed in order to identify the speciation. According to the typical tracer ions from different source types and classification by the ART-2a algorithm which uses source fingerprints for apportioning ambient particles, the major sources of single particles were simulated. Coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and secondary ion were the most abundant particle sources, contributing 28.5%, 17.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. The fraction with vehicle exhaust species particles decreased slightly with particle size in the condensation mode particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  17. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to culturable and total microbiota in cultural heritage conservation laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał L. Górny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To date, the scientific source materials usually focus on microbial contamination of the museum or library collections themselves, while the exposure of persons who professionally deal with this type of objects in cultural heritage conservation laboratories is ignored. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in 9 naturally ventilated conservation laboratories with no history of water damage. Viable (understood as culturable bioaerosol stationary samples were collected in both outdoor and indoor environments using 6-stage Andersen impactor. Simultaneously, stationary and personal indoor bioaerosol measurements were carried out using both Gesamtstaubprobenahme an der Person (GSP and Button filter samplers. These measurements were complemented by evaluation of microbial content in the dust settled on conserved works of art. All impactor, filter, and settled dust samples were quantitatively examined to obtain viable and total concentrations of bacteria and fungi. All isolated microbial strains were taxonomically identified. Results: At workplaces, the concentrations of viable microorganisms in air were below 2000 cfu/m3 and accounted for not more than 5.5% of total microbiota. The study showed that quantitative assessment of viable bioaerosol can be made with an Andersen impactor as well as by using Button and GSP filter samplers, irrespective of whether they are applied for personal or stationary measurements. Compared to the impactor, however, the use of filter samplers for microbial contamination monitoring substantially limits the scope of qualitative information which can be obtained. Size distribution analysis revealed that the largest “load” of microorganisms can penetrate into the respiratory tract between the trachea and terminal bronchi, and thereby may be responsible for allergic inflammations in exposed workers. Conclusions: The precise assessment of microbial hazards in conservation laboratories should comprise

  19. Particle physics: Axions exposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2016-11-01

    Physicists are hunting for a particle called the axion that could solve two major puzzles in fundamental physics. An ambitious study calculates the expected mass of this particle, which might reshape the experimental searches. See Letter p.69

  20. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  1. Multiscale Simulations Using Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore

    We are developing particle methods as a general framework for large scale simulations of discrete and continuous systems in science and engineering. The specific application and research areas include: discrete element simulations of granular flow, smoothed particle hydrodynamics and particle...... vortex methods for problems in continuum fluid dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics for flow at the meso scale, and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidic systems. We employ multiscale techniques to breach the atomistic and continuum scales to study fundamental problems in fluid...

  2. Particle number size distribution and new particle formation (NPF) in Lanzhou,Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gao; Fahe Chai; Tao Wang; Wenxing Wang

    2011-01-01

    Particle number size distribution from 10 to 10,000 nm was measured by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS-1000XP) at a downwind site north of downtown Lanzhou,western China,from 25 June to 19 July 2006.we first report the pollution level,diurnal variation of particle concentration in different size ranges and then introduce the characteristics of the particle formation processes,to show that the number concentration of ultrafine particles was lower than the values measured in other urban or suburban areas in previous studies.However,the fraction of ultrafine particles in total aerosol number concentration was 0found to be much higher.Furthermore,sharp increase of ultrafine particle concentration was frequently observed at noon.An examination of the diurnal pattern suggests that the burst of the ultrafine particles was mainly due to nucleation process.During the 25-day observation,new particle formation (NPF) from homogeneous nucleation was observed during 33% of the study period.The average growth rate of the newly formed particles was 4.4 nm/h,varying from 1.3 to 16.9 nm/h.The needed concentration of condensable vapor was 6.1 × 107 cm-3,and its source rate was 1.1 × 106 cm-3 s-1.Further calculation on the source rate of sulphuric acid vapor indicated that the average participation of sulphuric acid to particle growth rate was 68.3%.

  3. Effective Hamiltonians for Complexes of Unstable Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Urbanowski, K

    2014-01-01

    Effective Hamiltonians governing the time evolution in a subspace of unstable states can be found using more or less accurate approximations. A convenient tool for deriving them is the evolution equation for a subspace of state space sometime called the Krolikowski-Rzewuski (KR) equation. KR equation results from the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the total system under considerations. We will discuss properties of approximate effective Hamiltonians derived using KR equation for $n$--particle, two particle and for one particle subspaces. In a general case these affective Hamiltonians depend on time $t$. We show that at times much longer than times at which the exponential decay take place the real part of the exact effective Hamiltonian for the one particle subsystem (that is the instantaneous energy) tends to the minimal energy of the total system when $t \\rightarrow \\infty$ whereas the imaginary part of this effective Hamiltonian tends to the zero as $t\\rightarrow \\infty$.

  4. Seasonality of ultrafine and sub-micron aerosols and the inferences on particle formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Chen, M.-J.; Huang, W.-R.; Huang, S.-H.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Lee, C. S.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100nm) and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 μm) in an East-Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at the TARO, an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC) and size distribution (PSD) with size range of 4-736 nm. The results indicate that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with peak level of 18.5 μg m-3 in spring, whereas the highest UFPs concentration was measured in summertime with a seasonal mean of 1.62 μg m-3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents in PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9 × 103 cm-3 in autumn to 19.4 × 103 cm-3 in spring. The PSD information retrieved from the corresponding PNC measurements indicates that the nucleation mode PNC (N4-25) peaked at 11.6 × 103 cm-3 in winter, whereas the Aitken mode (N25-100) and accumulation mode (N100-736) exhibited summer maxima at 6.0 × 103 and 3.1 × 103 cm-3, respectively. The shift in PSD during summertime is attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributes to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, remarkable photochemical production of particles was observed in spring and summer seasons, which was characterized with averaged particle growth and formation rates of 4.3 ± 0.8 nm h-1 and 1.6 ± 0.8 cm-3 s-1, respectively. The prevalence of new particle formation (NPF) in summer is

  5. When is a Particle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Sidney D.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a new definition for the concept of the elementary particle in nuclear physics. Explains why the existance of the quark as an elementary particle could be an accepted fact even though it lacks what traditionally identifies a particle. Compares this with the development which took place during the discovery of the neutrino in the early…

  6. Massless interacting particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyakov, B P [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov, 607190 Nizhnii Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kosyakov@vniief.ru

    2008-11-21

    We show that classical electrodynamics of massless charged particles and the Yang-Mills theory of massless quarks do not experience rearranging their initial degrees of freedom into dressed particles and radiation. Massless particles do not radiate. We propose a conformally invariant version of the direct interparticle action theory for these systems.

  7. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  8. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2003-05-01

    particle number concentration increased slightly with increasing load, at the same time the fine mode particles became smaller. This was probably caused by different degree of particle coagulation as the residence time in the boiler was changed. The mean diameter during combustion of forest residue was around 100 nm compared to 70-80 nm for dry wood and pellets, while the total number was close to constant. This explains the differences in mass concentration found in the impactor measurements. The concentrations of CO and THC was highest for the dry wood fuel, the PAH concentration was highest for pellets combustion in boiler 4, however this boiler was poorly tuned at the time of measurement. The PAH concentration was 5 times higher during combustion of dry wood compared to forest residue. The concentration of CO, THC and PAH varied to a great extend. The high concentrations were measured in boilers running at a low load. The concentration of particle organic carbon was less than 15% of PMI for all fuels. However we used heated primary dilution, which inhibits the condensation of organic components into, the particle phase. A significant fraction of the emitted organic carbon may condense to the particle phase during dilution after the stack or after being oxidized in the atmosphere. We also measured elemental carbon in the particle phase. The contribution to PM1 was as high as 25-30% during pellets combustion at low load and 8% at low load during combustion of dry wood. In all other cases the EC-concentration was less than 3% of PMI. PIXE and lon-chromatography confirmed that alkali-salts were the dominant chemical species. PIXE analysis revealed that emitted amounts of heavy metals such as Zn, Cd and Pb are strongly dependent on the type of the fuel used. Forest residues gave high emissions of Zn, Cd and Pb, while pellets gave very high emissions of Cd and Zn. The fuel with the lowest emissions of heavy metals was dry wood. This again could be related to ash content in

  9. A miniaturized microbial fuel cell with three-dimensional graphene macroporous scaffold anode demonstrating a record power density of over 10 000 W m-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Tian, He; Gardner, Cameron L.; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chae, Junseok

    2016-02-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than other power sources/converters. Such a low performance can primarily be attributed to two bottlenecks: (i) ineffective electron transfer from microbes located far from the anode and (ii) an insufficient buffer supply to the biofilm. This work takes a novel approach to mitigate these two bottlenecks by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene scaffold anode in a miniaturized MFC. This implementation has delivered the highest power density reported to date in all MFCs of over 10 000 W m-3. The miniaturized configuration offers a high surface area to volume ratio and improved mass transfer of biomass and buffers. The 3D graphene macroporous scaffold warrants investigation due to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and excellent conductivity and biocompatibility which facilitates EET and alleviates acidification in the biofilm. Consequently, the 3D scaffold houses an extremely thick and dense biofilm from the Geobacter-enriched culture, delivering an areal/volumetric current density of 15.51 A m-2/31 040 A m-3 and a power density of 5.61 W m-2/11 220 W m-3, a 3.3 fold increase when compared to its planar two-dimensional (2D) control counterparts.A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than

  10. Metal particle's precipitation behavior in direct reading ferrography precipitator tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤福; 李谋渭

    2004-01-01

    A new metal particle monitoring instrument was developed by improving the traditional direct reading ferrography. The precipitation behaviors of sub-magnetic particles, magnetic particles, and the mixture of these particles were examined with the instrument. The results show that the precipitation behavior of sub-magnetic metal particles of copper and aluminum is not random as it was believed previously. The sub-magnetic particles show a distribution in the precipitator tube, almost the same as the deposition curves as the magnetic particles have. The deposition amount of particles is increased in the oil which consists of several different kinds of particles. On the base of these experiments, a new index used for the total quantity of wear was redefined.

  11. Bonding the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K): An effective strategy to improve the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic B40 nanocage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yu, Guangtao; Zhang, Xueying; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by the fascinating finding of all-boron fullerene B40 (Nat Chem, 2014, 6, 727), we propose a new and effective strategy to construct a series of typical Donor-Acceptor (D-A) frameworks via linking the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K) unit with the low ionization potential to the B40 nanocage with large electron affinity. By means of the density functional theory computations, we have systematically investigated the structures, electronic properties, the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of these modified B40 nanocage systems. Owing to the formation of a B-O chemical bond, these composite systems (M3O)n-B40 (M = Li and K, n = 1 and 2) can possess the considerably large binding energy ranging from 57.0 to 99.8 kcal/mol, indicating their high structure stabilities. Compared with the pristine B40 nanocage, linking the superalkali M3O can effectively narrow the wide energy gap from the original 2.86 eV to 0.61-1.11 eV, and significantly increase the first and second hyperpolarizabilities to as large as 5.00 × 104-2.46 × 105 au and 1.48 × 107-4.85 × 108 au, respectively, owing to the occurrence of evident electron transfer process in this kind of typical D-A framework. These fascinating findings will be advantageous for promoting the potential applications of the inorganic boron-based nanosystems in the new type of electronic nanodevices and high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  12. Study of the continuum removal method for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and its application to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun-Yu; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The absorption band center of visible and near infrared reflectance spectra is a key spectral parameter for lunar mineralogical studies, especially for the mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxene) of mare basalts, which have two obvious absorption bands at 1000 nm (Band I) and 2000nm (Band II). Removal of the continuum from spectra, which was developed by Clark and Roush and used to isolate the particular absorption feature, is necessary to estimate this parameter. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data are widely used for lunar mineral identification. However, M3 data show a residual thermal effect, which interferes with the continuum removal, and systematic differences exist among optical data taken during different optical periods. This study investigated a suitable continuum removal method and compared the difference between two sets of M3 data taken during different optical periods, Optical Period 1B (OP1B) and Optical Period 2A (OP2A). Two programs for continuum removal are reported in this paper. Generally, a program respectively constructs two straight lines across Band I and Band II to remove the continuum, which is recommended for locating band centers, because it can find the same Band I center with different right endpoints. The optimal right endpoint for continuum removal is mainly dominated by two optical period data at approximately 2480 and 2560nm for OP1B and OP2A data, respectively. The band center values derived from OP1B data are smaller than those derived from OP2A data in Band I but larger in Band II, especially for the spectra using longer right endpoints (>2600 nm). This may be due to the spectral slopes of OP1B data being steeper than those of OP2A data in Band I but gentler in Band II. These results were applied to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium, and the measurements were found to mainly vary from intermediate- to high-Ca pyroxene.

  13. Classification of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML M2 and AML M3) using Momentum Back Propagation from Watershed Distance Transform Segmented Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Esti; Wiharto; Palgunadi, Sarngadi; Nurcahya Pradana, TP

    2017-01-01

    This study uses image processing to analyze white blood cell with leukemia indicated that includes the identification, analysis of shapes and sizes, as well as white blood cell count indicated the symptoms of leukemia. A case study in this research was blood cells, from the type of leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), M2 and M3 in particular. Image processing operations used for segmentation by utilizing the color conversion from RGB (Red, Green dab Blue) to obtain white blood cell candidates. Furthermore, the white blood cells candidates are separated by other cells with active contour without edge. WBC (White Blood Cell) results still have intersected or overlap condition. Watershed distance transform method can separate overlap of WBC. Furthermore, the separation of the nucleus from the cytoplasm using the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity). The further characteristic extraction process is done by calculating the area WBC, WBC edge, roundness, the ratio of the nucleus, the mean and standard deviation of pixel intensities. The feature extraction results are used for training and testing in determining the classification of AML: M2 and M3 by using the momentum backpropagation algorithm. The classification process is done by testing the numeric data input from the feature extraction results that have been entered in the database. K-Fold validation is used to divide the amount of training data and to test the classification of AML M2 and M3. The experiment results of eight images trials, the result, was 94.285% per cell accuracy and 75% per image accuracy

  14. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints facilitates distal colonic motility via activating M3 receptors and somatic afferent C-fibers in normal, constipated, or diarrhoeic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Qin, Q; Yu, X; Liu, K; Li, L; Qiao, H; Zhu, B

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of somatic stimulation for patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, little effort has been made to investigate the effects of acupuncture on colonic motility, particularly in pathological conditions. The precise mechanism employed in the regulation of acupuncture on colonic motility still remains unclear. We assessed the effect of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on distal colonic motility using a warm-water-filled manometric balloon inserted 5-6 cm into the rectum of anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. Choline chloride, 4-DAMP, cobra venom and capsaicin were separately applied to investigate the role of M3 receptors in the regulation of distal colonic motility by acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, and whether Aδ- and/or C-fibers are required for triggering distal colonic motility by acupuncture. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints increased distal colonic motility not only in normal rats but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. M3 receptors play an important role in the facilitation of distal colonic motility triggered by acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints. Afferent nerve Aδ- and C-fibers mediate the transduction of the acupuncture signal and C-fibers are essential for enhancing the effect of acupuncture at the heterotopic acupoint on distal colonic motility. Our results reveal that acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints increases distal colonic motility regardless of normal or pathological conditions via predominately activating C-fibers of somatic afferent nerve and M3 receptors. © 2015 The Authors.Neurogastroenterology & Motility published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Light scattering by cosmic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; Min, M.

    2008-01-01

    We define cosmic particles as particles outside the Earth. Two types of cosmic particles can be distinguished, namely liquid and solid particles. The solid particles are often called grains or cosmic dust particles. Cosmic particles occur in a great variety of astronomical objects and environments.

  16. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  17. Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sachchida

    2010-05-01

    Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere Marykutty Michael1, Sachchida Nand Tripathi1,2,3, Pratima Arya1 1Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 2Oak Ridge Associated Universities 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Observations by two instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft, Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and CAssini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS), revealed the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile species with masses of several thousand atomic mass units at altitudes of 950 - 1400 km in the atmosphere of Titan (Waite et al., 2007; Crary et al., 2009). Though these particles were believed to be molecules, they are most likely aerosols formed by the clumping of smaller molecules (Waite et al., 2009). These particles were estimated to have a density of 10-3 kg m-3 and a size of up to 256 nm. The existence of very heavy ions has also been observed by the CAPS components with a mass by charge ratio of up to 10000 (Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Sittler et al., 2009). The goal of this paper is to find out whether the so called heavy ions (or charged particles) are generated by the charge transfer of ions and electrons to the particles. The charging of these particles has been studied by using the charge balance equations that include positive ions, negative ions, electrons, neutral and charged particles. Information on the most abundant ion clusters are obtained from Vuitton et al., (2009) and Wilson and Atreya, (2004). Mass by charge ratio thus calculated will be compared with those observed by Coates et al. (2007). References: Coates AJ, et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22103, 2007. Coates AJ, et al., Heavy negative ions in titan's ionosphere: altitude and latitude dependence. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009, 2009. Crary F.J., et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in titan's ionosphere: Combined cassini caps and inms observations. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006, 2009

  18. Definición y cálculo del aire acondicionado de los espacios habilitados de un buque LNG de 130.000 m3