WorldWideScience

Sample records for m-1 settling basins

  1. M-Area Settling Basin and vicinity: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Colven, W.P.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the M-Area Settling Basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  2. Closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colven, W.P.; Pickett, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    The areas addressed in this closure plan include a process sewer line, surface impoundment (settling basin), overflow ditch, seepage area, and a Carolina Bay known as Lost Lake. Since it is proposed that the basin and vicinity be closed with the hazardous wastes placed and stabilized in the basin, it will be closed pursuant to regulations for closing a hazardous waste landfill. No free liquids will remain in the impoundment after closure is completed

  3. 3D Numerical Investigation of the Flow Pattern in Settling Basins by SSIIM2 Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Merufinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Settling basins are considered as a major and important component in conventional water treatment processes. The high cost of constructing these basins accounts for approximately 30% of the total capital investment of water treatment plants. Hence, it is essential to model and optimize their performance beforehand. In settling and sedimentation basins, different areas of flow including secondary and rotational flows occur due to the velocity gradient. Such phenomena cause short paths, increase flow stationary and dead zones, and change the mixing rates of the flow, which collectively prevent laminar conditions to be created for the sedimentation process, and thereby reduce process efficiency. The remedy is to reduce as far as possible the dead zones in the flow. The first step to optimize a settling basin is to calculate accurately the velocity field and the volume of rotation zones. The present study presents the numerical simulation of a flow in a rectangular basin. Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations are solved using finite volume method. A 3D flow simulation is performed using the standard k-ε turbulence model for settling basins with and without baffles. Finally, the numerical results obtained are compared with experimental results reported elsewhere.

  4. Extended characterization of M-Area settling basin and vicinity. Technical data summary. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J B

    1985-10-01

    The Savannah River Plant M-Area settling basin, an unlined surface impoundment, has received process effluents from the M-Area fuel and target fabrication facilities since 1958. The waste effluents have contained metal degreasing agents (chlorinated hydrocarbons), acids, caustics, and heavy metals. Data analyses are provided.

  5. Respiratory and reproductive characteristics of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting a coal ash settling basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, B.P.; Hopkins, W.A.; Novak, J.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2004-01-01

    Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins negatively affects metabolism and reproduction in a variety of organisms, including a number of fish species. Some species, most notably the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), are known to maintain viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present in these systems, their degree of tolerance to coal ash has not been investigated using sublethal metrics of exposure. It is possible that eastern mosquitofish persist in habitats affected by coal ash, but experience significant costs such as changes in metabolism and fecundity. Thus, we investigated the effects of coal ash on standard metabolic rate and reproduction of eastern mosquitofish inhabiting a coal-ash contaminated settling basin. Standard metabolic rates of mosquitofish from the ash contaminated site and a reference site were not significantly different. Despite elevated contaminant concentrations in ash basin females (selenium, arsenic, copper, and cadmium) and their offspring (selenium), brood sizes and offspring viability did not differ between clutches collected from ash basin and reference site females. Our data provide further evidence of the high degree of tolerance of eastern mosquitofish to exposure to aquatic coal ash disposal generated by power plants. However, the basis for such tolerance to ash remains unclear. Further investigations are required to determine whether such tolerance is a result of species-specific characteristics or population characteristics due to local adaptation.

  6. Closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colven, W.P.; Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Boone, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    The closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity was originally submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in September 1984. The plan was revised in July and November 1985 in response to SCDHEC comments. After public comment in April through July 1986, the closure plan was conditionally approved by SCDHEC in March 1987. The conditions included (1) providing a temporary wastewater treatment facility to process the water remaining in the basin, (2) using a burn box to limit ash emissions from burning in the basin, (3) obtaining SCDHEC approval prior to operating the leach field, and (4) completing all closure activities within three years of the startup date

  7. Measuring water and sediment discharge from a road plot with a settling basin and tipping bucket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Black; Charles H. Luce

    2013-01-01

    A simple empirical method quantifies water and sediment production from a forest road surface, and is well suited for calibration and validation of road sediment models. To apply this quantitative method, the hydrologic technician installs bordered plots on existing typical road segments and measures coarse sediment production in a settling tank. When a tipping bucket...

  8. Reynolds number and settling velocity influence for finite-release particle-laden gravity currents in a basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.

  9. Modeling Precipitating Tub (Settling Basin) For Reduction Sedimentation Effect in Irrigation Channel at Micro Hydro Power (Case Study At Gorontalo Province Irrigation Channel)

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin Matoka; Nadjamuddin H; Salama M; M. Arsyad T

    2016-01-01

    Potential irrigation channels widely in Indonesia and suitable for turbine type Plopeler Open Flume. From observation this sedimentation processes was effect on turbin and quality electric power generated. This study was determine the relationship effect of sedimentation on parameter MHP and modeling sedimentation basin to reduce its influence. The settling basin modeling into 3 design models and 2 codition,. MHP conditions in the rain without modeling with the data voltage dev...

  10. Assessment of Jet Erosion for Potential Post-Retrieval K-Basin Settled Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-29

    Packaged K-Basin sludge will be transported to the T Plant on the Hanford Site where it will be interim stored. The sludge will be retrieved from the storage containers and processed for disposal. A sample of high uranium content canister sludge, designated 96-13, "self-cemented" during laboratory storage. This sample was uncharacteristically strong compared to expected K-Basin material. The purpose for this work is to evaluate the potential retrieval of such sludge after storage at the T Plant via jet erosion. The specific objectives of this report are to determine the modes of erosion and the methods used to measure/assess the erodibility parameters of sludge and identify those parameters applicable to jet erosion. The erodibility parameters of sample 96-13 are characterized to the extent possible. These objectives have been met based on literature review, past experience at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and observation of sample 96-13 video during hot-cell activities.

  11. Geochemistry of mercury and other constituents in subsurface sediment—Analyses from 2011 and 2012 coring campaigns, Cache Creek Settling Basin, Yolo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Michelle R.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Sneed, Michelle; Morita, Andrew Y.; Salas, Antonia

    2017-10-31

    Cache Creek Settling Basin was constructed in 1937 to trap sediment from Cache Creek before delivery to the Yolo Bypass, a flood conveyance for the Sacramento River system that is tributary to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Sediment management options being considered by stakeholders in the Cache Creek Settling Basin include sediment excavation; however, that could expose sediments containing elevated mercury concentrations from historical mercury mining in the watershed. In cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook sediment coring campaigns in 2011–12 (1) to describe lateral and vertical distributions of mercury concentrations in deposits of sediment in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and (2) to improve constraint of estimates of the rate of sediment deposition in the basin.Sediment cores were collected in the Cache Creek Settling Basin, Yolo County, California, during October 2011 at 10 locations and during August 2012 at 5 other locations. Total core depths ranged from approximately 4.6 to 13.7 meters (15 to 45 feet), with penetration to about 9.1 meters (30 feet) at most locations. Unsplit cores were logged for two geophysical parameters (gamma bulk density and magnetic susceptibility); then, selected cores were split lengthwise. One half of each core was then photographed and archived, and the other half was subsampled. Initial subsamples from the cores (20-centimeter composite samples from five predetermined depths in each profile) were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, total reduced sulfur, iron speciation, organic content (as the percentage of weight loss on ignition), and grain-size distribution. Detailed follow-up subsampling (3-centimeter intervals) was done at six locations along an east-west transect in the southern part of the Cache Creek Settling Basin and at one location in the northern part of the basin for analyses of total mercury; organic content; and cesium-137, which was

  12. Final Alternatives Assessment of Interim Response Actions for Other Contamination Sources M-1 Settling Basins, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    u = W. QU- -; t2 E~ zi=- 6e-1 wo u CC .2 211 ~ .CC > . I- - . Ece Zc a- c’ cC I C! 0. - ZEC E ~C C 6-12 E 0 U- .0 E ~E 0 -6 -1 1 I- 8t~ V- .~ u osz w18...Materials and Waste Management Division Colorado Department of Health 4210 East 11th Avenue Denver, CO 80020 Victoria Peters , Esq. Office of Attorney...999 18th Street, Suite 500 Denver, CO 80202-2405 Dr. Peter Gober U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bldg. 111 Commerce City, CO

  13. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for plantations of the Eucalyptus, genus, settled down by the PRECA in the carboniferous basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, Sandra Ximena; Molano M, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the first measure is to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forest plantations of the Eucalyptus genus, settled down by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense highland and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations settled down in each carboniferous basin are determined and statistical models that will allow to calculate the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. globulus)

  14. Edward Settle | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle Photo of Edward Settle Edward Settle Senior Project Leader - Financing Edward.Settle energy microgrid project. He has more than 25 years of experience providing leadership and advisory projects. Research Interests Energy project finance Energy project tax matters Microgrids Resiliency

  15. The formation of early settled villages and the emergence of leadership: A test of three theoretical models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathan Mcdonald

    Despite obvious necessities for understanding later developments in the region, Preceramic cultures in the Titicaca Basin are poorly understood due to lacking empirical data. This dissertation focuses on examination of two processes occurring in the Rio Ilave drainage during the Late 5000--3100 B.C.E. (6000--4400 B.P.) and Terminal 3100--1500 B.C.E. Archaic (4400--3200 B.P.): the formation of settled villages and the emergence of leadership. These processes are tested against theoretical predictions derived from: population resource imbalance, human behavioral ecology, and agency theories. Resource imbalance theory predicts appearance of density dependent adaptive problems prior to major cultural transformations. Human behavioral ecology predicts increased dietary diversity and incorporation of greater processing costs occuring coincidentally with reduced residential mobility. Symbolic mate value advertising is a predicted leadership strategy. Agency theory predicts internal sources of social tension, potentially independent of external forces, as primary causes of cultural change. Feast hosting and the formation political economy are expected to be central to both social processes investigated from this perspective. Local paleoclimatic proxies suggest aridity from ca 4000--2000 B.C.E. Reanalysis of pedestrian survey data indicate population growth during the Late Archaic. Excavation and ground penetrating radar survey at Pirco and Jiskairumoko demonstrate reduced residential mobility and increased evidence for social differentiation appearing during the Late Archaic's (before 3000 B.C.E.) end. New cultural patterns include: pithouses, more groundstone, internal storage, costly non-local artifacts, domesticated plants and animals, costly grave goods, and use of ochre in symbolic contexts. No clear cut evidence for inter-community promotional feasting was identified but some finds suggest intra-community alliance feasts. By the end of the Terminal Archaic ca. 1500 B

  16. The use of geotextile tube containers for dewatering the Restigouche open pit zinc mine and settling pond basin in New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douheret [Terratube, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of geotextile tube containers for the dewatering of an open pit zinc mine and settling pond in New Brunswick (NB). The zinc and lead mine closed in 1996 and will be re-opened in 2007. Remediation of the site has been challenged by severe discharge criteria for treated water, as well as by the different types of wastewater produced at the site, which is located in a mountainous area with no impermeable soil. The remediation projects include an open pit cleaning procedure where water is removed and the mine is then desludged. A wastewater treatment plant will then be installed. More than 32,000 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated at the bottom of the pit. The zinc content of the sludge was estimated at 2.5 ppm. The water management phase of the project will include batch treatments and the addition of 140 metric tonnes of lime to raise the pH and to precipitate metal ions. The sludge management program included the use of mechanical dewatering, the construction of a storage area, and the use of geocontainers for dewatering and temporary containment. Seventeen geotextile containers were used to reduce the zinc content of the water to less than the 250 ppb authorized by environmental agencies. The containers were changed once every 2 months. tabs., figs.

  17. Pharmacy settles suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-02

    A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.

  18. Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Claus Poulsen

    This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of secondary settling tanks. In the first part, the status on the development of numerical models for settling tanks and a discussion of the current design practice are presented. A study of the existing numerical models...... and design practice proved a demand for further development to include numerical models in the design of settling tanks, thus improving the future settling tanks....

  19. What is 'settled Science'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.

    2013-12-01

    Republican strategist Frank Luntz famously advised party leaders to emphasize the lack of ';scientific certainty' about global warming because, once the public became convinced of a scientific consensus on global warming, they would accept it and policies responding to it. But philosophical work on scientific methodology puts absolute certainty out of reach. Today almost all philosophers are fallibilists, holding that every belief is subject to correction. Does it follow that an honest report of what science has to say about any topic cannot claim that the matter is settled? I defend a more confident view: much of what science has to say about the world is settled. On this view, settled science doesn't require philosophical certainty. Instead, it is based on stable agreement and practical reliability--values central to C.S. Peirce's account of the scientific method. Defending this position requires care over changes in theory that can undermine the language in which these settled points were initially expressed. It also requires epistemic modesty, since our confidence in any claim, including observational claims, depends on a kind of induction, and could, in principle, be undermined. Interestingly, this line of thought also suggests many of the central claims the historical sciences make about our world are more stable and reliable than the more theory-dependent claims we think of as central to the foundations of physics. David Hume undermined philosophical certainty about causal laws when he argued that, no matter how many times we make observations confirming a law, it could still fail the next test. This point is sometimes confused with healthy scientific skepticism, but Hume's worry has a much broader scope than scientific skepticism. For Hume each instance of a causal relation was doubtful, no matter how similar to previous instances. But scientists are diffident about applying a well-tested law only when the circumstances differ. For instance, particle

  20. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m3/m2/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling.

  1. Settling velocities in batch sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.

    1982-10-01

    The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles

  2. Sedimentation process and design of settling systems

    CERN Document Server

    De, Alak

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive source of information of sedimentation processes and design of settling systems, especially as applied to design of such systems in civil and environmental engineering. The book begins with an introduction to sedimentation as a whole and goes on to cover the development and details of various settling theories. The book traces the chronological developments of the comprehensive knowledge of settling studies and design of settling systems from 1889.A new concept of 'Velocity Profile Theorem', tool for settling problem analysis, has been employed to the analysis of the phenomenon of short circuiting. Complete theory of tube settling has been developed and its application to the computation of residual solids from the assorted solids through the same has been demonstrated. Experimental verification of the tube settling theory has also been presented. Field-oriented compatible design and operation methodology of settling system has been developed from the detailed...

  3. Contrast settling in cerebral aneurysm angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijie; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Guterman, Lee R; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Meng Hui

    2005-01-01

    During angiography, blood flow is visualized with a radiopaque contrast agent, which is denser than blood. In complex vasculature, such as cerebral saccular aneurysms, the density difference may produce an appreciable gravity effect, where the contrast material separates from blood and settles along the gravity direction. Although contrast settling has been occasionally reported before, the fluid mechanics behind it have not been explored. Furthermore, the severity of contrast settling in cerebral aneurysms varies significantly from case to case. Therefore, a better understanding of the physical principles behind this phenomenon is needed to evaluate contrast settling in clinical angiography. In this study, flow in two identical groups of sidewall aneurysm models with varying parent-vessel curvature was examined by angiography. Intravascular stents were deployed into one group of the models. To detect contrast settling, we used lateral view angiography. Time-intensity curves were analysed from the angiographic data, and a computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted. Results showed that contrast settling was strongly related to the local flow dynamics. We used the Froude number, a ratio of flow inertia to gravity force, to characterize the significance of gravity force. An aneurysm with a larger vessel curvature experienced higher flow, which resulted in a larger Froude number and, thus, less gravitational settling. Addition of a stent reduced the aneurysmal flow, thereby increasing the contrast settling. We found that contrast settling resulted in an elevated washout tail in the time-intensity curve. However, this signature is not unique to contrast settling. To determine whether contrast settling is present, a lateral view should be obtained in addition to the anteroposterior (AP) view routinely used clinically so as to rule out contrast settling and hence to enable a valid time-intensity curve analysis of blood flow in the aneurysm

  4. Simulation of sediment settling in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Kuhn, Brigitte; Rüegg, Hans-Rudolf; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, Stokes' Law or similar empirical models, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle settling in a gas or liquid, carry the notion of a drag as a property of a particle, rather than a force generated by the flow around the particle. For terrestrial applications, this simplifying assumption is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on other planetary bodies. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks, e.g. on Mars and the search for traces of life. Simulating sediment settling velocities on other planets based on a numeric simulation using Navier-Stokes equations and Computational Fluid Dynamics requires a prohibitive amount of time and lacks measurements to test the quality of the results. The aim of the experiments presented in this study was therefore to quantify the error incurred by using settling velocity models calibrated on Earth at reduced gravities, such as those on the Moon and Mars. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and liquid. However, the use of such analogues creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under reduced gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling velocity measurements within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation, the results

  5. Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.

  6. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  7. Settling and sedimentation behavior of fine-grained materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Sookie

    2005-01-01

    Channeling has already been an observed phenomenon that often occurs during settling and sedimentation processes of finer materials. However, it has been regarded as a minor factor affecting settling process, e.g. settling velocity or consolidation rate. In this study, settling behaviors of talcs, kaolins and attapulgite were reviewed by experiments with small and large settling columns with special focus on channel formation during sedimentation. The large settling column is equipped with tw...

  8. A Novel Model for the Entire Settling-Thickening Process in a Secondary Settling Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Wang, Hongchen; Qi, Lu; Yin, Xunfei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wen, Yang

    2016-12-01

      Sludge settling and thickening occur simultaneously in secondary settling tanks (SSTs). The ability to accurately calculate the settling and thickening capacity of activated sludge was of great importance. Despite extensive studies on the development of settling velocity models for use with SSTs, these models have not been applied due to the difficulty in calibrating the related parameters. Additionally, there have been some studies of the thickening behavior of the activated sludge in SSTs. In this study, a novel settling and thickening model for activated sludge was developed, and the model was validated using experimental data (R2 = 0.830 to 0.963, p settling and thickening behavior of the activated sludge in an SST. The application of these models requires only one critical parameter, namely, the stirred sludge volume index SSVI3.5, which is readily available in a water resource recovery facility.

  9. m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    For neutrons the critical angle of Ni is defined as m=1. If one needs a coating with reflectivity above m=1, people have traditionally used Ni58 or Ni-based multilayers. The reason to use Ni is the high neutron scattering density and the fact that it is easy to coat Ni using magnetron sputtering....... For a neutron guide the cost of shielding around the guide is a substantial part of the total cost of the guide. We are therefore looking at other materials than Ni for m=1 coatings. Both Be and diamond have the same or higher neutron scattering density than Ni, and have a much smaller absorption cross section....... Because of the lower absorption cross section, and because of fewer emitted gamma ray photons when a neutron is absorbed, these coatings are producing much less gamma radiation and therefore reduce the shielding costs. Be is frequently used in a wide range of science and technology applications. The only...

  10. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling

  11. Predicting Trainability of M1 Crewmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Load Main Gun Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON M1 TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Launcher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION...Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON Ml TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Lauacher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION FOR OPERATION ON Ml

  12. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  13. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  14. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut

    2000-01-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 -Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  15. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes

  16. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  17. E-ELT M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, P.; Sedghi, B.; Mueller, M.

    2012-09-01

    During the advanced design phase of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) several critical components have been prototyped. During the last year some of them have been tested in dedicated test stands. In particular, a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror has been assembled with 2 active and 2 passive segments. This test stand is equipped with complete prototype segment subunits, i.e. including support mechanisms, glass segments, edge sensors, position actuators as well as additional metrology for monitoring. The purpose is to test various procedures such as calibration, alignment and handling and to study control strategies. In addition the achievable component and subsystem performances are evaluated, and interface issues are identified. In this paper an overview of the activities related to the E-ELT M1 Test Facility will be given. Experiences and test results are presented.

  18. Convection and crystal settling in sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Henderson, C. Michael B.

    1992-02-01

    It has been advocated that convective and crystal settling processes play significant, and perhaps crucial, roles in magmatic differentiation. The fluid dynamics of magma chambers have been extensively studied in recent years, both theoretically and experimentally, but there is disagreement over the nature and scale of the convection, over its bearing on fractionation and possibly over whether it occurs at all. The differential distribution of modal olivine with height in differentiated alkaline basic sills provides critical evidence to resolve this controversy, at least for small to medium-large magma chambers. Our own and others' published data for such sills show that, irrespective of overall olivine content, modal olivine contents tend to increase in a roughly symmetrical manner inwards from the upper and lower margins of the sill, i.e. the distribution patterns are more often approximately D-shaped rather than the classic S-shape generally ascribed to gravity settling. We concur with the majority of other authors that this is an original feature of the filling process which has survived more or less unchanged since emplacement. We therefore conclude that the magmas have not undergone turbulent convection and that gravity settling has usually played only a minor modifying role since the intrusion of these sills. We offer a possible explanation for the apparent contradiction between fluid dynamical theory and the petrological evidence by suggesting that such sills rarely fill by the rapid injection of a single pulse of magma. Rather, they form from a series of pulses or a continuous pulsed influx over a protracted interval during which marginal cooling severely limits the potential for thermal convection.

  19. Introduction to the m = 1 helicity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The m = 1 Helicity Source, formerly called the Kinked Z-pinch, was developed as part of the Electrode Studies program at Los Alamos. The Electrode Studies program was initiated to study the control of electrode erosion in long discharge duration spheromak sources. Erosion control is necessary to reduce plasma impurities and to obtain adequate electrode lifetimes. The first task of the Electrode Studies program is to determine, from among a variety of configurations including the coaxial one, a helicity source geometry with good prospects for erosion control. The more efficient the helicity source the easier it will be to control erosion, but the source most also be easy to diagnose and modify if it is to be a useful test bed. The various erosion control techniques which have been proposed will require extensive experimentation to evaluate and optimize. Proposed techniques include, using refractory metals, profiling of the electrodes and magnetic fields, and various gas injection schemes including porous electrodes. It is considered necessary to do these experiments on an optimized helicity source so that the electrode geometries and plasma properties will be relevant. Therefore the present Electrode Studies program is aimed at developing an improved helicity source design

  20. Settling of fixed erythrocyte suspension droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that when particles behave collectively rather than individually, the fractionation of micron-size particles on the basis of size, density, and surface characteristics by centrifugation and electrophoresis is hindered. The formation and sedimentation of droplets containing particles represent an extreme example of collective behavior and pose a major problem for these separation methods when large quantities of particles need to be fractionated. Experiments are described that measure droplet sizes and settling rates for a variety of particles and droplets. Expressions relating the particle concentration in a drop to measurable quantities of the fluids and particles are developed. The number of particles in each droplet is then estimated, together with the effective droplet density. Red blood cells from different animals fixed in glutaraldehyde provide model particle groups.

  1. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  2. Characterization and modeling of sediment settling, consolidation, and suspension to optimize coastal Louisiana restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, X.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Robichaux, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Many research efforts have been undertaken over many decades in the field of Louisiana coastal restoration, but long-term experiments for sediment suspension and consolidation in diversion-receiving basins are still limited, despite significance of this topic to ongoing restoration strategies. Sediment samples were collected from two active diversions on the Mississippi River: West Bay, a semi-enclosed bay located on the Mississippi River Delta and fed by the West Bay Diversion, and from Big Mar pond, a receiving basin of the Caernarvon freshwater diversion from the lower Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA. A dual-core Gust Erosion Microcosm System was used to measure time-series (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6-months after initial settling) erodibility at seven shear stress regimes (0.01-0.60 Pa) using experimental cores prepared with two initial sediment concentrations (60 and 120 kg m-3). A 230-cm tall settling column with nine sampling ports was used to measure the consolidation rates for initial sediment concentrations ranging from fluid mud (10 kg m-3) to dredge effluent (120 kg m-3), in combination with two levels of salinity (1 and 5). The erodibility of West Bay sediment decreased with increasing time of consolidation. The critical shear stress for resuspension increased from 0.2 Pa after 2 months to 0.45 Pa after 4 months of consolidation. The consolidation rates were inversely and exponentially related to initial sediment concentrations. Consolidation tests in salinity of 1 generally settled faster than that in salinity of 5, and consolidation tests with low sediment concentration tests generally settled faster than high-concentration tests. An exponential coefficient was added in the Sanford (2008) model to better predict the consolidation profile of both rapid early settling and slow self-weight consolidation processes. Our study suggests that enclosed basin, low salinity, relatively low sediment concentration and minimized disturbance for 4 months all favor

  3. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Yde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids...... distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges...... associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM...

  4. A Method for Measuring Sludge Settling Characteristics in Turbulent Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    A method for the determination of the settlilng velocity for sludge as a funktion of turbulence intensity and sludge concentration has been developed. The principle of the method is to continuously feed the top of a settling column with sludge so that a steady state and uniform concentration...... distribution occurs in the middle of the column. This eliminates time scale effects such as flocculation from the measurements, as the resulting settling velocity only can be found at steady state and uniform conditions. The method assumes that flocculated sludge settles faster than disintegratedsludge to make...... a mass balance involving concentration at the top and the middle of the column as well as the inlet sludge flow. The resulting mass balance is used to calculate a lokal settling velocity. The turbulence is introduced by an oscillating grid in the whole depth of the settling column. Settling velocities...

  5. A Combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST Approach to Identify the Settling Velocity of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangang Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sediment settling velocity based on mineral grain size distribution in erosion models ignores the effects of aggregation on settling velocity. The alternative approach, wet-sieved aggregate size distribution, on the other hand, cannot represent all destructive processes that eroded soils may experience under impacting raindrops. Therefore, without considering raindrop impact, both methods may lead to biased predictions of the redistribution of sediment and associated substances across landscapes. Rainfall simulation is an effective way to simulate natural raindrop impact under controlled laboratory conditions. However, very few methods have been developed to integrate rainfall simulation with the settling velocity of eroded sediment. This study aims to develop a new proxy, based on rainfall simulation, in order to identify the actual settling velocity distribution of aggregated sediment. A combined Raindrop Aggregate Destruction Test-Settling Tube (RADT-ST approach was developed to (1 simulate aggregate destruction under a series of simulated rainfalls; and (2 measure the actual settling velocity distribution of destroyed aggregates. Mean Weight Settling Velocity (MWSV of aggregates was used to investigate settling behaviors of different soils as rainfall kinetic energy increased. The results show the settling velocity of silt-rich raindrop impacted aggregates is likely to be underestimated by at least six times if based on mineral grain size distribution. The RADT-ST designed in this study effectively captures the effects of aggregation on settling behavior. The settling velocity distribution should be regarded as an evolving, rather than steady state parameter during erosion events. The combined RADT-ST approach is able to generate the quasi-natural sediment under controlled simulated rainfall conditions and is adequately sensitive to measure actual settling velocities of differently aggregated soils. This combined approach provides

  6. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.

    2017-12-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  7. Mixing and settling in continuous metal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.J.; Laaspere, J.T.; Fitzpatrick, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern metallurgical processes produce metal from ore in a single converter operated in horizontal mode to permit staging of bath and oxygen potential by utilizing bottom-blowing of oxygen and fuel. The submerged injectors must create sufficient turbulence to provide excellent gas-liquid contact in order to maximize heat and mass transfer in the bath, but this turbulence must be selectively localized so as to provide adequate phase separation zones of metal and slag between the active turbulent zones. It is important to know the behavior of gas and liquids in the bubble plume, the nature and paths of liquids and entrainment into the plume, and separation phenomena including travel and behavior in the settling zones. Such knowledge is of fundamental value in designing reactors for continuous direct metal making. In this work the mixing caused by submerged injection of gas into a bath simulating a converter and subsequent phase separation of two immiscible liquids representing slag and metal respectively, are being studied experimentally and analytically. First results of experiments and of the numerical analysis are presented

  8. The Yukon settlement settled little enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillars, L.

    1997-01-27

    Northern Cross, a small Alberta oil company has discovered the first promising petroleum prospect in the Yukon Territories in three decades. However, the company is unable to proceed with construction and production because the aboriginal community of Old Crow alleged that the project endangers the famous Porcupine Caribou Herd, has international implications, and infringes on traditional Gwitchin Indian territory. The wells in question were originally drilled in the 1960s, but abandoned due to lack of infrastructure, and ongoing negotiations with native groups. In 1993 the federal government indicated that land claim issues were settled. Northern Cross was the first company in to resume work on the wells, since the Dempster Highway, built in the meantime, makes getting the oil out a much more feasible proposition. The delay in approving Northern Cross`s application revolves around the dispute about the location of the wells,i.e. are they situated on tribal land or on Crown Land. The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs is investigating the rival claims, and promises to have a ruling within 12 months.

  9. Gravity settling of precipitated magnetite and ferric floc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, N.S.; Loft, P.R.

    1983-06-01

    A comparison is presented of the gravity settling performance of ferric floc and magnetite, both in batch settling tests, and on a continuous gravity settler. The precipitation of magnetite from solution on a continuous basis was also demonstrated, and the process was shown not to be significantly affected by the presence of a wide range of chemical species. (U.K.)

  10. Dateline USA: Settling the West, 1800-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara; O'Laughlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of titles related to the theme "Settling the West" which are appropriate for primary, elementary, and middle grades. Topics include overviews of Western history; early 19th century; the gold rush; the pony express; travelers by trail, rail, and ship; settling the West; cowboys and cattle; and the…

  11. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  12. A new settling velocity model to describe secondary sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Wágner, Dorottya S; Yde, Lars; Binning, Philip J; Rasmussen, Michael R; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-12-01

    Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are the most hydraulically sensitive unit operations in biological wastewater treatment plants. The maximum permissible inflow to the plant depends on the efficiency of SSTs in separating and thickening the activated sludge. The flow conditions and solids distribution in SSTs can be predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Despite extensive studies on the compression settling behaviour of activated sludge and the development of advanced settling velocity models for use in SST simulations, these models are not often used, due to the challenges associated with their calibration. In this study, we developed a new settling velocity model, including hindered, transient and compression settling, and showed that it can be calibrated to data from a simple, novel settling column experimental set-up using the Bayesian optimization method DREAM(ZS). In addition, correlations between the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters and sludge concentration were identified with data from batch rheological experiments. A 2-D axisymmetric CFD model of a circular SST containing the new settling velocity and rheological model was validated with full-scale measurements. Finally, it was shown that the representation of compression settling in the CFD model can significantly influence the prediction of sludge distribution in the SSTs under dry- and wet-weather flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flocculation and Settling Velocity Estimates for Reservoir Sedimentation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    viscosity ). Stokes’ law is commonly used to describe settling velocity of a single particle and is applicable when the particle Reynolds number (Rep...fluid viscosity , and ν is kinematic viscosity . Several researchers recognize that large, fast-settling particles disobey the laminar boundary...interparticle attraction caused by electrostatic and physiochemical forces. These properties give clays their stickiness and control essential

  14. Purification of drilling fluids by vibration-settling tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Reznichenko, I.N.; Skvortsov, D.S.; Volkov, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of studies done by the authors of a prototype of a new tool for cleaning a drilling fluid, a vibration settling tank. It is indicated that the vibration settling tank has many advantages over the most advanced vibration screens VS-1. This makes it possible to recommend development and broad industrial testing of this apparatus.

  15. Infinitely many N=1 dualities from m+1m=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit; Intriligator, Kenneth; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We discuss two infinite classes of 4d supersymmetric theories, T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)}, labelled by an arbitrary non-negative integer, m. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} theory arises from the 6d, A{sub N−1} type N=(2,0) theory reduced on a 3-punctured sphere, with normal bundle given by line bundles of degree (m+1,−m); the m=0 case is the N=2 supersymmetric T{sub N} theory. The novelty is the negative-degree line bundle. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories likewise arise from the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a 4-punctured sphere, and can be regarded as gluing together two (partially Higgsed) T{sub N}{sup (m)} theories. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can be represented, in various duality frames, as quiver gauge theories, built from T{sub N} components via gauging and nilpotent Higgsing. We analyze the RG flow of the U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories, and find that, for all integer m>0, they end up at the same IR SCFT as SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors and quartic superpotential. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can thus be regarded as an infinite set of UV completions, dual to SQCD with N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} duals have different duality frame quiver representations, with 2m+1 gauge nodes.

  16. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Morrison, I.

    1988-01-01

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for β → g, γ → g and γ → γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character. (orig.)

  17. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-03

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for ..beta.. -> g, ..gamma.. -> g and ..gamma.. -> ..gamma.. M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  18. Stochasticity and the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Stodiek, W.; Park, W.

    1986-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that stochasticity resulting from toroidal coupling could lead to a saturation of the m = 1 internal mode in tokamaks. We present results from the nonlinear evolution of the m = 1 mode with toroidal coupling that show that stochasticity is not enough to cause saturation of the m = 1 mode

  19. Coral larvae settle at a higher frequency on red surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.; Beard, M.; Miller, M. W.

    2011-09-01

    Although chemical cues serve as the primary determinants of larval settlement and metamorphosis, light is also known to influence the behavior and the settlement of coral planulae. For example, Porites astreoides planulae settle preferentially on unconditioned red substrata. In order to test whether this behavior was a response to color and whether other species also demonstrate color preference, settlement choice experiments were conducted with P. astreoides and Acropora palmata. In these experiments, larvae were offered various types of plastic substrata representing three to seven different color choices. Both species consistently settled on red (or red and orange) substrata at a higher frequency than other colors. In one experiment, P. astreoides settled on 100% of red, plastic cable ties but failed to settle on green or white substrata. In a second experiment, 24% of larvae settled on red buttons, more than settled on six other colors combined. A. palmata settled on 80% of red and of orange cables ties but failed to settle on blue in one experiment and settled on a greater proportion of red acrylic squares than on four other colors or limestone controls in a second experiment. The consistency of the response across a variety of plastic materials suggests the response is related to long-wavelength photosensitivity. Fluorescence and reflectance spectra of experimental substrata demonstrated that the preferred substrata had spectra dominated by wavelengths greater than 550 nm with little or no reflection or emission of shorter wavelengths. These results suggest that some species of coral larvae may use spectral cues for fine-scale habitat selection during settlement. This behavior may be an adaptation to promote settlement in crustose coralline algae (CCA)-dominated habitats facilitating juvenile survival.

  20. Settling rates of plutonium-bearing particles in Pond B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandini, K.A.; Bowling, J.W.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1986-01-01

    Research is being conducted in Pond B to determine the relative importances of (1) changes in particles settling rates, (2) changes in remobilization rates, and (3) the influence of the macrophytes on the annual cycle in /sup 239,240/Pu inventories. The initial research has emphasized (1) an evaluation of the importance of particle adherence to macrophytes in reducing Pu inventories in the water column and (2) measurements of particle settling rates at different times of the year. This report describes the research on measurements of particle settling rates. 3 figures, 1 table

  1. A phenomenological retention tank model using settling velocity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruejouls, T; Vanrolleghem, P A; Pelletier, G; Lessard, P

    2012-12-15

    Many authors have observed the influence of the settling velocity distribution on the sedimentation process in retention tanks. However, the pollutants' behaviour in such tanks is not well characterized, especially with respect to their settling velocity distribution. This paper presents a phenomenological modelling study dealing with the way by which the settling velocity distribution of particles in combined sewage changes between entering and leaving an off-line retention tank. The work starts from a previously published model (Lessard and Beck, 1991) which is first implemented in a wastewater management modelling software, to be then tested with full-scale field data for the first time. Next, its performance is improved by integrating the particle settling velocity distribution and adding a description of the resuspension due to pumping for emptying the tank. Finally, the potential of the improved model is demonstrated by comparing the results for one more rain event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  3. Determination of Settling Tanks Performance Using an Eulerian- Lagrangian Method

    OpenAIRE

    A Tamayol; B Firoozabadi; G Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Circulation regions always exist in settling tanks. These regions reduce the tank’s performance and decrease its effective volume. The recirculation zones would result in short-circuiting and high flow mixing problems. The inlet position would also affect the size and location of the recirculation region. Using a proper baffle configuration could substantially increase the performance of the settling tanks. A common procedure for the comparison of the performances of diffe...

  4. Gravity settling of Hanford single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Rector, D.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to use gravity settling in million-gallon storage tanks while pretreating sludge on the Hanford site. To be considered viable in these large tanks, the supernatant must become clear, and the sludge must be concentrated in an acceptable time. These separations must occur over the wide range of conditions associated with sludge pretreatment. In the work reported here, gravity settling was studied with liter quantities of actual single-shell tank sludge from hanford Tank 241-C-107. Because of limited sludge availability, an approach was developed using the results of these liter-scale tests to predict full-scale operation. Samples were centrifuged at various g-forces to simulate compaction with higher layers of sludge. A semi-empirical settling model was then developed incorporating both the liter-scale settling data and the centrifuge compression results to describe the sludge behavior in a million-gallon tank. The settling model predicted that the compacted sludge solids would exceed 20 wt% in less than 30 days of settling in a 10-m-tall tank for all pretreatment steps

  5. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-01

    Using the {1}/{N} expansion technique we derive expressions for β→g, γ→g and γ→γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  6. Dust settles at Dalrymple Bay Terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    With an annual loading capacity approaching 60Mt, Queensland's Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal is one of the largest and most efficient coal export facilities in Australia. Each day, DBCT handles thousands of tonnes of coal transported directly from the Bowen Basin via an electrified railway and bound, ultimately, for out-loading onto bulk carrier ships. It is little wonder then that dust control and an accurate knowledge of coal moisture content are key priorities for DBCT. In early 2004, these priorities, together with an undertaking to the Co-ordinator General to reduce dust emissions, saw DBCT investigate the CSIRO-developed Low Frequency Microwave (LFM) Moisture Analyser. The LFM Analyser is specifically designed to deliver accurate, online measurements of moisture in continuous on-conveyor applications. At this stage, it was already enjoying significant success in the iron ore market with BHP Billiton Iron Ore investing in multiple units as part of its moisture control strategy for the Marra Mamba ore-types. The LFM Analysers, now being commercialised by spin-out company Intalysis, were commissioned in July 2004. Babcock and Brown Infrastructure (BBI), the company that holds the long-term leasehold of DBCT, was heavily involved in the analyser's commissioning. BBI's electrical supervisor Doug Mitchell says the analyser offers the means for DBCT to meet the environmental conditions of the terminal license while at the same time enabling it to meet its individual contract obligations with the terminal customers. 'This basically involves ensuring the moisture content for each coal type does not exceed that which has been agreed upon with terminal customer,' Mitchell says. DBCT has installed two analysers on the in loading conveyors, each about 100m from the coal discharge hoppers. They are fitted to steel cord belts at a nominal speed of around 6m/sec that carry the coal to either 4250tph or 5500tph yard stacking machines, depending on the string selected for

  7. Multiphase modeling of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Dillon, Robert; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop biowaste fluid dynamics for collision, aggregation and breakup of clusters. • Explore the mechanisms of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester. • Biowaste particles tended to have fluid properties. • Aided with CFD simulation, the scale-up effect was reduced. - Abstract: Effective suspension and settling are critical for controlling biomass retention in a bioreactor. In this paper, a multi-fluid model with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) was established to describe these phenomena in the biowaste particles flow in anaerobic digesters. Solid retention time (SRT) was added as a parameter into anaerobic digestion No.1 (ADM1) model to evaluate its effect on the biogas productivity. The model was experimentally validated in a liquid–gas–solid column reactor with gas and solid volume fraction and granular temperature as the major variables. The wastewater residence time distribution was also determined through modeling and measurement to evaluate the mixing pattern in the pilot column reactor. The effect of restitution coefficient on flow behavior of biowaste particles, particles settling and suspension were predicted. Settling and suspension processes of anaerobic digesters were simulated for lab and pilot-scale reactors with comparisons made for reactor configuration and geometry model, respectively. This study demonstrated that the multi-fluid model with KTGF could provide better understanding of impact of suspension and settling upon retaining biomass particles in the anaerobic digesters

  8. Characterization of the variability of settling in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, Hayet; Touhami, Youssef; Shayeb, Hedi

    2009-01-01

    The processes of biological treatment of wastewater in activated sludge are complex dynamic processes are difficult to manage. The ability of the sludge settling is a key parameter for the overall effectiveness of pollution control process and for preserving the quality of the receiving environment. So for better management of wastewater treatment plants, a study of interactions between the couple reactor clarifier is necessary. A new management technique must notify the operator to problems related to sludge mainly to the loss of the sludge blanket which will have adverse effects on the environment. The approach is widely adopted and applied an approach aims to identify factors that may explain the observed phenomena in order to draw strategies that could improve the sludge settling on an industrial scale. The widely used approach is based on measuring Mohlman index and gives an impression, on the ability of the mud settling, but does not prevent the operator to anomalies that have places in the decanter.

  9. Settling-velocity specific SOC distribution on hillslopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yaxian; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    The net effect of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2, is determined by the spatial (re-)distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC). The depositional position of eroded SOC is a function of the transport distances of soil fractions where the SOC...... fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples were fractionated into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The spatial distribution of soil settling classes...... shows a coarsening effect immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend at the slope tail. The 13C values of soil fractions were more positive at the footslope than on the slope shoulder or at the slope tail, suggesting enhanced decomposition rate of fresh SOC input at the footslope...

  10. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...

  11. Measuring and modeling the magnetic settling of superparamagnetic nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigiobbe, Valentina; Ko, Saebom; Huh, Chun; Bryant, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present settling experiments and mathematical modeling to study the magnetic separation of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) from a brine. The experiments were performed using SPIONs suspensions of concentration between 3 and 202g/L dispersed in water and separated from the liquid under the effect of a permanent magnet. A 1D model was developed in the framework of the sedimentation theory with a conservation law for SPIONs and a mass flux function based on the Newton's law for motion in a magnetic field. The model describes both the hindering effect of suspension concentration (n) during settling due to particle collisions and the increase in settling rate due to the attraction of the SPIONs towards the magnet. The flux function was derived from the settling experiments and the numerical model validated against the analytical solution and the experimental data. Suspensions of SPIONs were of 2.8cm initial height, placed on a magnet, and monitored continuously with a digital camera. Applying a magnetic field of 0.5T of polarization, the SPION's velocity was of approximately 3·10(-5)m/s close to the magnet and decreases of two orders of magnitude across the domain. The process was characterized initially by a classical sedimentation behavior, i.e., an upper interface between the clear water and the suspension slowly moving towards the magnet and a lower interface between the sediment layer and the suspension moving away from the magnet. Subsequently, a rapid separation of nanoparticle occured suggesting a non-classical settling phenomenon induced by magnetic forces which favor particle aggregation and therefore faster settling. The rate of settling decreased with n and an optimal condition for fast separation was found for an initial n of 120g/L. The model agrees well with the measurements in the early stage of the settling, but it fails to describe the upper interface movement during the later stage, probably because of particle

  12. Relative importance of secondary settling tank models in WWTP simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in a study using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1) show that a one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) model structure and its parameters are among the most significant sources of uncertainty in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) simulations [Ramin et al., 2011......]. The sensitivity results consistently indicate that the prediction of sludge production is most sensitive to the variation of the settling parameters. In the present study, we use the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), a plant-wide benchmark, that combines the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1...

  13. Symbiotic nature of the object M1-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrt'eva, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Many year spectral observations show, that the object M1-77 is the symbiotic system, which consists of a M-giant and a B-star. An emission spectra arises from an envelope, which was formed from a giant's extended atmosphere, and now is ionized by the hotter component. Some spectral changes were registered in M1-77: the forbidden lines intensities increase relatively to that of Hα. It is connected with the decrease of hydrogen emission. (author)

  14. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps...

  15. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2010-09-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more than a thousand buildings, mostly residences, in seven countries. In aggregate, measured median data are reported in these studies for 66 different SVOCs whose octanol-air partition coefficients ( Koa) span more than five orders of magnitude. We use these data to test a simple equilibrium model for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured results for each SVOC in each study, dustborne mass fractions predicted using Koa and gas-phase concentrations correlate reasonably well with measured dustborne mass fractions ( R2 = 0.76). Combined with theoretical understanding of SVOC partitioning kinetics, the empirical evidence also suggests that for SVOCs with high Koa values, the mass fraction in settled dust may not have sufficient time to equilibrate with the gas phase concentration.

  16. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  17. Modelling and test of aeration tank settling (ATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. K.; Bechmann, H.; Henze, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The use of aeration tank settling during high hydraulic loads on large wastewater treatment plants has previously been demonstrated as a reliable technique and proven valuable. The paper proposes a simplified deterministic model to predict the efficiency of the method. It is shown...

  18. 37 CFR 10.67 - Settling similar claims of clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clients. 10.67 Section 10.67 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.67 Settling similar claims of clients. A practitioner who represents two or more clients shall not make or participate in the making of an aggregate settlement of the...

  19. Settling of a cylindrical particle in a stagnant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    The objective of this work is to collect data and develop models for cylindrical particles which could be used in numerical multiphase flow modeling. Trajectories of cylindrical particles settling in stagnant water are filmed from two directions in order to derive detailed information on their mo...

  20. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  1. Study of settling of peat on channel banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaryan, L S; Bazin, Ye T; Stepanichev, V G

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of studies of settling of the peat formation of the upper type on banks of drying channels. A technique is presented for forecasting evaluation in the decrease in depth of the channels because of packing of the peat on the sides of the dryers.

  2. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  3. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  4. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  5. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  6. M1 transitions between superdeformed states in 195Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xing; Xingqu Chen; Xiaochun Wang

    1996-01-01

    Using a triaxial-particle-rotor model, the quadrupole and dipole transition energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, electromagnetic transition probabilities and the relative intensity of the E2 γ-transitions are calculated for superdeformed bands in 195 Tl. A strong perturbation effect of rotation on transition energies and M1 and E2 transitions of superdeformed states is investigated. The total M1 transitions, enhanced by internal conversion, are expected to compete strongly with the E2 γ-ray at low spins in the superdeformed 195 Tl nucleus. (author)

  7. M1-transitions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackman, R.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1977-03-01

    In the MIT bag model, the M1-transitions of low lying hadrons are investigated. The following calculations are performed: 32 hadron masses are recomputed with a choice of bag parameters designed to give the correct values for the proton magnetic moment, μ/sub p/, and several masses, M/sub rho/ M/sub ω/ M/sub Δ/ M/sub Ω/, and M/sub D/; (2) eta, eta', eta/sub c/ mixing is computed in an untrustworthy approximation; and the widths for 38 M1-transitions are computed

  8. Genetic analysis of rice semidwarf mutant Tad-M-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Yang Rencui

    1995-01-01

    This paper dealed with the inheritance of the rice semidwarf of Tad-M-,a mutant line bred from traditional indica rice Variety Tadukan by radiation. The results indicated that semidwarf of Tad-M-1 was controlled by one pair of recessive gene, which was nonallelic to sd-1 gene of variety Aijiaonante and sd-g gene of variety Xinguiai and allelic to the semidwarf gene of Yunnan japonica variety Xueheaizao and Sichuan indica variety Yizila.The possible uses of Tad-M-1 in rice breeding was also discussed

  9. assessing aflatoxin m1 levels among lactating mothers' in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    1Department of Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure in breast milk, a possible risk factor for infant early ..... Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and ...

  10. Analytic theory of the nonlinear M = 1 tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    Numerical studies show that the m = 1 tearing mode continues to grow exponentially well into the nonlinear regime, in contrast with the slow, ''Rutherford,'' growth of m > 1 modes. We present a single helicity calculation which generalizes that of Rutherford to the case when the constant-psi approximation is invalid. As in that theory, the parallel current becomes an approximate flux function when the island size, W, exceeds the linear tearing layer width. However for the m = 1 mode, W becomes proportional to deltaB, rather than (deltaB)/sup 1/2/ above this critical amplitude. This implies that the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law, which couples the m = 0 component to the m = 1 component, dominates the resistive diffusion term. The balance between the inductive electric field and this convective nonlinearity results in exponential growth. Assuming the form of the perturbed fields to be like that of the linear mode, we find that the growth occurs at 71% of the linear rate

  11. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  12. Theory of the m=1 kink mode in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.H. de.

    1990-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the stability problems arising in tokamak experiments. In part I of this thesis the internal m=1 kink instability in tokamak plasmas is considered within the confines of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD), in which model the pressure is considered to be isotropic, while state is assumed. Because irreversible processes are disregarded, there is an energy principle. By extremizing the energy associated with infinitesimal perturbations of the plasma, a normal mode is obtained. The m=n=1 mode is resonant at the q=1 surface, and therefore, equilibria with a broad region where q#approx = # 1 are expected to be particularly unstable. The m=1 instability is computed for these q profiles. In Part II of this thesis, the internal m=1 kink instability is considered in a stationary rotating tokamak plasma, in which the particle velocity distribution is allowed to be non-thermal. In a tokamak plasma that is intensely heated by neutron beams or radiofrequent waves, these features, which cannot be described with ideal MHD, may become important, especially in the cases with high m=1 growth rates found in Part I. The energy principle of a generalized fluid theory is applied in these cases, without specifying the equation of state of the plasma. Therefore the resulting energy functional for the m=1 mode is incomplete and not direct applicable, however, the result makes clear that a kinetic description of the plasma is required only to a first approximation, and can therefore be applied analytically. The guiding center approximation is applied, which neglects finite gyroradius effects and collisions. Application of the dispersion relation, that is obtained from kinetic theory, shows that compared to the ideal MHD case, growth rates are strongly reduced due to Landau damping while the stability boundaries are not changed. (author). 72 refs.; 11 figs

  13. Numerical simulation of particle settling and cohesion in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johno, Y; Nakashima, K; Shigematsu, T; Ono, B [SASEBO National College of Technology, 1-1 Okishin, Sasebo, Nagasaki, 857-1193 (Japan); Satomi, M, E-mail: yjohno@post.cc.sasebo.ac.j [Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corporation, Kikuchigun, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the motions of particles and particle clusters in liquid were numerically simulated. The particles of two sizes (Dp=40mum and 20mum) settle while repeating cohesion and dispersion, and finally the sediment of particles are formed at the bottom of a hexahedron container which is filled up with pure water. The flow field was solved with the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle motions were solved with the Lagrangian-type motion equations, where the interaction between fluid and particles due to drag forces were taken into account. The collision among particles was calculated using Distinct Element Method (DEM), and the effects of cohesive forces by van der Waals force acting on particle contact points were taken into account. Numerical simulations were performed under conditions in still flow and in shear flow. It was found that the simulation results enable us to know the state of the particle settling and the particle condensation.

  14. Stochastic growth of cloud droplets by collisions during settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madival, Deepak G.

    2018-04-01

    In the last stage of droplet growth in clouds which leads to drizzle formation, larger droplets begin to settle under gravity and collide and coalesce with smaller droplets in their path. In this article, we shall deal with the simplified problem of a large drop settling amidst a population of identical smaller droplets. We present an expression for the probability that a given large drop suffers a given number of collisions, for a general statistically homogeneous distribution of droplets. We hope that our approach will serve as a valuable tool in dealing with droplet distribution in real clouds, which has been found to deviate from the idealized Poisson distribution due to mechanisms such as inertial clustering.

  15. Coating degradation at tank bottomdue to settled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, U.; Rizvi, M.A.; Khan, I.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, coating degradation as a result of settled water on fuel storage tank bottoms has been reported with the help of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), blister analysis and gravimetric analysis (water uptake). Blistering occurs underneath the coating at the tank bottom due to direct contact with settled water. Degradation behavior of polyamide epoxy coatings on mild steel has been reported in term of coating resistance at the start of the experiments, after 96 hours and at the end of EIS experiments. Coating degradation in terms of shift in phase angle (theta) at high frequency as a function of exposure time has also been reported. The blister formation and gravimetric analysis data has also been reported in support of EIS result. (author)

  16. Geodesic Monitoring of Settling in Vertical Fuel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Acosta-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the settling in a vertical tank used for fuel storage was studied. Monitoring was conducted using the geodesic model for the geometric leveling of high accuracy category II. The original project varied during construction by replacing deep foundations with a surface one applying compaction techniques to improve soil resistance. The deformation values obtained provided valuable information on the implementation of the proposed foundation alternative depending on time and loads. The maximum settling was reported to be 132,6 mm. The displacements in the control points located in the perimeter of the tank had a distinct nature with a maximum of 44,2 mm, which caused the foundation structure to crack.

  17. Mobilization and mixing of settled solids in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted using submerged jets for the mobilization and mixing of settled solids to form a suspension that can easily be removed from storage tanks. These studies focus on the specific problems relating to horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks. Of primary consideration are the storage tanks located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory which are used for the collection of remote-handled, radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes are in two phases. A layer of undissolved, settled solids varying from 2 to 4 feet in depth under a layer of supernate. Using a surrogate of the tank contents and an approximate 2/3 dimensional scale tank, tests were performed to determine the optimum design and location of suction and discharge nozzles as well as the minimum discharge velocity required to achieve complete mobilization of the solids in the tank

  18. Grey-box modelling of aeration tank settling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechman, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-04-01

    A model of the concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the aeration tanks and in the effluent from these during Aeration tank settling (ATS) operation is established. The model is based on simple SS mass balances, a model of the sludge settling and a simple model of how the SS concentration in the effluent from the aeration tanks depends on the actual concentrations in the tanks and the sludge blanket depth. The model is formulated in continuous time by means of stochastic differential equations with discrete-time observations. The parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood method from data from an alternating BioDenipho waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The model is an important tool for analyzing ATS operation and for selecting the appropriate control actions during ATS, as the model can be used to predict the SS amounts in the aeration tanks as well as in the effluent from the aeration tanks.

  19. Effect of Ionic Strength on Settling of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    M Ahmadi Moghadam, M Soheili, MM Esfahani

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of activated sludge flocs were found to be sensitive to small changes in ionic strength. This study investigates the effect of ionic strength on settling of activated sludge. Samples were taken from activated sludge process of Ghazvin Sasan soft drink wastewater treatment plant, then treated with different ionic strengths of KCl and CaCl2 solution, after that the turbidity of supernatant was measured. The results indicated that low ionic strength resulted in a steeper sl...

  20. Directions for improving the design of horizontal settling tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basev, V A; Vaseva, V N

    1979-01-01

    Basic trends are presented for improving the design of horizontal settling tanks in recent years in order to increase hydraulic load on them and their efficient operation. An analysis is made of the suggested different designs of feed and uptake water-distributors, systems of concentrated recovery of clarified water and fine-layer elements. The most advanced of them was selected. The latter was recommended for practical use or experimental verification during purification of mine waters from suspended substances.

  1. Polymer aids for settling and filtration of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Section; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Oil sand tailings are segregated into coarse and fine tailings. High volumes of toxic fluids and tailings are created in the process. Tailings ponds are an environmental risk with high operating and maintenance costs. Current commercial technologies uses chemical additions to create recycled water and composite tailings (CT). Researchers are now investigating centrifuged and dry mature fine tailings (MFT). Filtration processes with flocculants are used to separate the tailings into warm recycle water and dried cakes that can be used in reclamation processes. Studies are being conducted to find a polymer than can effectively flocculate and filter whole oil sands tailings. The filtration procedure uses pressure to produce released water. Polymers include magnafloc and Al-PAM polymer concentrations are used in slurry masses. Tests have been conducted to determine the settling rates of the polymers. The tests showed that Al-PAM filtered the tailings effectively. Paraffinic froth treatment tests have also been conducted to determine settling rates. A cake produced with froth treatment tailings of Al-PAM 400 ppm had a water content 42.5 wt per cent. The tests showed that while Magnafloc 1011 is a good settling aid, but a poor filtration addition. Al-PAM aided in both the flocculation and filtration processes. Higher Al-PAM dosages are needed for froth treatment tailings processes. It was concluded that dry cakes are produced with the addition of Al-PAM. tabs., figs.

  2. Grain-resolving simulations of settling cohesive sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Bernhard; Whithers, Jade; Meiburg, Eckart; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in natural environments such as rivers, lakes and coastal ecosystems. For this type of sediment, we can no longer ignore the short-range attractive forces that result in flocculation of aggregates much larger than the individual grain size. Hence, understanding the complex dynamics of the interplay between flocculated sediment and the ambient fluid is of prime interest for managing aquatic environments, although a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena is still lacking. In the present study, we address this issue by carrying out grain-resolved simulations of cohesive particles settling under gravity using the Immersed Boundary Method. We present a computational model formulation to accurately resolve the process of flocculation. The cohesive model is then applied to a complex test case. A randomly distributed ensemble of 1261 polydisperse particles is released in a tank of quiescent fluid. Subsequently, particles start to settle, thereby replacing fluid at the bottom of the tank, which induces a counter flow opposing the settling direction. This mechanism will be compared to experimental studies from the literature, as well as to the non-cohesive counterpart to assessthe impact of flocculation on sedimentation.

  3. M-area basin closure-Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway

  4. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.; Keesman, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In

  5. Sludge Settling Rate Observations and Projections at the Savannah River Site - 13238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillam, Jeffrey M.; Shah, Hasmukh B.; Keefer, Mark T. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, sludge batches have included a high percentage of stored sludge generated from the H- modified (HM) process. The slow-settling nature of HM sludge means that the settling is often the major part of the washing tank quiescent period between required pump runs to maintain flammability control. Reasonable settling projections are needed to wash soluble salts from sludge in an efficient manner, to determine how much sludge can be washed in a batch within flammability limits, and to provide composition projections for batch qualification work done in parallel with field preparation. Challenges to providing reasonably accurate settling projections include (1) large variations in settling behavior from tank-to-tank, (2) accounting for changing initial concentrations, sludge masses, and combinations of different sludge types, (3) changing the settling behavior upon dissolving some sludge compounds, and (4) sludge preparation schedules that do not allow for much data collection for a particular sludge before washing begins. Scaling from laboratory settling tests has provided inconsistent results. Several techniques have been employed to improve settling projections and therefore the overall batch preparation efficiency. Before any observations can be made on a particular sludge mixture, projections can only be made based on historical experience with similar sludge types. However, scaling techniques can be applied to historical settling models to account for different sludge masses, concentrations, and even combinations of types of sludge. After sludge washing/settling cycles begin, the direct measurement of the sludge height, once generally limited to a single turbidity meter measurement per settle period, is now augmented by examining the temperature profile in the settling tank, to help determine the settled sludge height over time. Recently, a settling model examined at PNNL [1,2,3] has been applied to observed thermocouple and turbidity meter readings to

  6. On the hindered settling of suspensions of mud and mud-sand mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions are present in many natural environments. When the concentration becomes large enough, particles start to interfere with each other and their settling velocity reduces. This is called hindered settling. As a result of the reduced settling velocity, particles remain in

  7. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...

  8. 16 CFR 1209.4 - Test procedures for determining settled density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... density. 1209.4 Section 1209.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... procedures for determining settled density. The settled density of lose fill insulation must be determined.... This section describes the procedure for determining the settled density of loose fill insulation. (a...

  9. Draft Final Risk Assessment Lime Settling Basins. Version 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-25

    the top carnivores on RMA is the black-tailed prairie dog . The nearest active prairie dog colony to the IRA implementation area is approximately 800 to...ppm in the diet during days 6-15 of gestation (Hart, 1980). DCPD had oral LD.,’s of 520 and 378 mg/kg in male and female rats and 190 and 250 mg/kg in...floodplains. The prairie , steppe, and savannah communities characteristic of the Great Plains region and existing on RMA support a variety of terrestrial

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Solid seperation in retention basins is strongly non-linear and depends significantly on the flow rate and the settling characteristics of the particles. Accordingly the calculation of the annual loads of pollutants from storm overflows including basins is rather complex and time consuming...... in order to calculate annual loads of pollutants from urban catchments. The study cover Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and PAH....

  11. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1sc +→21+ transition of Gd was determined using results from high-statistics photon scattering. This provides a possibility for a new approach on the search of Jsc + members of the rotational band built on the scissors mode. By application of Alaga's rule, which is justifiable as 156Gd is a well-deformed rotor with good K quantum number, a transition strength of B (E 2 ;2sc +→01+)=0.034 (13 ) W.u. is estimated.

  12. Flavonoids with M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyyammai Swaminathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-active compounds have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic flavones and flavonols was assayed in vitro for their ability to inhibit radioligand binding at human cloned M1 muscarinic receptors. Several compounds were found to possess competitive binding affinity (Ki = 40–110 µM, comparable to that of acetylcholine (Ki = 59 µM. Despite the fact that these compounds lack a positively-charged ammonium group under physiological conditions, molecular modelling studies suggested that they bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor, mainly through non-polar interactions.

  13. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  14. Settling for less out of fear of being single.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Stephanie S; MacDonald, Geoff; Maxwell, Jessica A; Joel, Samantha; Peragine, Diana; Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A

    2013-12-01

    The present research demonstrates that fear of being single predicts settling for less in romantic relationships, even accounting for constructs typically examined in relationship research such as anxious attachment. Study 1 explored the content of people's thoughts about being single. Studies 2A and 2B involved the development and validation of the Fear of Being Single Scale. Study 2C provided preliminary support for the hypothesis that fear of being single predicts settling for less in ongoing relationships, as evidenced by greater dependence in unsatisfying relationships. Study 3 replicated this effect in a longitudinal study demonstrating that fear of being single predicts lower likelihood of initiating the dissolution of a less satisfying relationship. Studies 4A and 4B explored the predictive ability of fear of being single for self-reported dating standards. Across both samples, fear of being single was unrelated to self-reported standards for a mate, with the exception of consistently higher standards for parenting. Studies 5 and 6 explored romantic interest in targets that were manipulated to vary in responsiveness and physical attractiveness. These studies found that fear of being single consistently predicted romantic interest in less responsive and less attractive dating targets. Study 7 explored fear of being single during a speed-dating event. We found that fear of being single predicted being less selective in expressing romantic interest but did not predict other daters' romantic interest. Taken together, the present research suggests that fear of being single is a meaningful predictor of settling for less in relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Decontamination technology of contaminated water with flocculating and settling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Hosobuchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In the joint research and development of treatment systems of cooling water for cutting asphalt pavement surface with our authors' group, the liquid-solid separation technology by flocculating and settling technology, and the flocculants for the use of systems were developed. In this paper, the developed flocculating and settling technology and the flocculants are discussed first. Next, the demonstration tests of decontamination technology on the contaminated water in swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture had been conducted by use of the stationary purification system of contaminated water and the flocculants compounding with or without iron ferrocianide developed by the preliminary test. It was clarified from the results that ionized cesium (Cs) rarely exists in the stagnant water in pools, ponds, lakes and so on at the time when nine months have passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accidents. Further, it is necessary to use the flocculants compounding iron ferrocianide in the case where ionized Cs exists in water. From the above-mentioned results, the following problems were pointed out: One problem was cyanide dissolution in the purified water and the other one was the dissolution from the dehydration sludge. Finally, the high-performance mobile purification units of contaminated water which is capable for carrying with trucks have been developed, and the demonstration test was performed in Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture to purify the contaminated water in a pond and generated by the high-pressure water washing in a Public Hall. From the test results, it was made clear that the dehydration sludge separated by liquid-solid settling of the contaminated water of around 1,000Bq/l became a high radiation dose of about 185,000Bq/l. (author)

  16. DUST TRANSPORT IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS THROUGH TURBULENCE AND SETTLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N. J.; Carballido, A.; Sano, T.

    2010-01-01

    We apply ionization balance and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust grains can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among solar-mass T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variations in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can plausibly be produced by varying these parameters together with the disk magnetic flux. The diverse shapes and strengths of the mid-infrared silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magnetorotational turbulence, through the following three effects. First, recombination on grains 1 μm or smaller yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending more than two scale heights from the midplane, while turbulent motions in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoot the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. Second, grains deep in the dead zone oscillate vertically in wave motions driven by the turbulent layer above, but on average settle at the rates found in laminar flow, so that the interior of the dead zone is a particle sink and the disk atmosphere will become dust-depleted unless resupplied from elsewhere. Third, with sufficient depletion, the dead zone is thinner and mixing dredges grains off the midplane. The last of these processes enables evolutionary signatures such as the degree of settling to sometimes decrease with age. The MHD results also show that the magnetic activity intermittently lifts clouds of small grains into the atmosphere. Consequently the photosphere height changes by up to one-third over timescales of a few orbits, while the extinction along lines of sight grazing the disk surface

  17. Mobility and settling rate of agglomerates of polydisperse nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrogianni, Anastasia; Karadima, Katerina S.; Goudeli, Eirini; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2018-02-01

    Agglomerate settling impacts nanotoxicology and nanomedicine as well as the stability of engineered nanofluids. Here, the mobility of nanostructured fractal-like SiO2 agglomerates in water is investigated and their settling rate in infinitely dilute suspensions is calculated by a Brownian dynamics algorithm tracking the agglomerate translational and rotational motion. The corresponding friction matrices are obtained using the HYDRO++ algorithm [J. G. de la Torre, G. del Rio Echenique, and A. Ortega, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 955 (2007)] from the Kirkwood-Riseman theory accounting for hydrodynamic interactions of primary particles (PPs) through the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor, properly modified for polydisperse PPs. Agglomerates are generated by an event-driven method and have constant mass fractal dimension but varying PP size distribution, mass, and relative shape anisotropy. The calculated diffusion coefficient from HYDRO++ is used to obtain the agglomerate mobility diameter dm and is compared with that from scaling laws for fractal-like agglomerates. The ratio dm/dg of the mobility diameter to the gyration diameter of the agglomerate decreases with increasing relative shape anisotropy. For constant dm and mean dp, the agglomerate settling rate, us, increases with increasing PP geometric standard deviation σp,g (polydispersity). A linear relationship between us and agglomerate mass to dm ratio, m/dm, is revealed and attributed to the fast Brownian rotation of such small and light nanoparticle agglomerates. An analytical expression for the us of agglomerates consisting of polydisperse PPs is then derived, us=(1/-{ρf/ρp})g 3 π μ m/dm (ρf is the density of the fluid, ρp is the density of PPs, μ is the viscosity of the fluid, and g is the acceleration of gravity), valid for agglomerates for which the characteristic rotational time is considerably shorter than their settling time. Our calculations demonstrate that the commonly made assumption of monodisperse PPs

  18. Mobility and settling rate of agglomerates of polydisperse nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrogianni, Anastasia; Karadima, Katerina S; Goudeli, Eirini; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2018-02-14

    Agglomerate settling impacts nanotoxicology and nanomedicine as well as the stability of engineered nanofluids. Here, the mobility of nanostructured fractal-like SiO 2 agglomerates in water is investigated and their settling rate in infinitely dilute suspensions is calculated by a Brownian dynamics algorithm tracking the agglomerate translational and rotational motion. The corresponding friction matrices are obtained using the HYDRO++ algorithm [J. G. de la Torre, G. del Rio Echenique, and A. Ortega, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 955 (2007)] from the Kirkwood-Riseman theory accounting for hydrodynamic interactions of primary particles (PPs) through the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor, properly modified for polydisperse PPs. Agglomerates are generated by an event-driven method and have constant mass fractal dimension but varying PP size distribution, mass, and relative shape anisotropy. The calculated diffusion coefficient from HYDRO++ is used to obtain the agglomerate mobility diameter d m and is compared with that from scaling laws for fractal-like agglomerates. The ratio d m /d g of the mobility diameter to the gyration diameter of the agglomerate decreases with increasing relative shape anisotropy. For constant d m and mean d p , the agglomerate settling rate, u s , increases with increasing PP geometric standard deviation σ p,g (polydispersity). A linear relationship between u s and agglomerate mass to d m ratio, m/d m , is revealed and attributed to the fast Brownian rotation of such small and light nanoparticle agglomerates. An analytical expression for the u s of agglomerates consisting of polydisperse PPs is then derived, u s =1-ρ f ρ p g3πμmd m (ρ f is the density of the fluid, ρ p is the density of PPs, μ is the viscosity of the fluid, and g is the acceleration of gravity), valid for agglomerates for which the characteristic rotational time is considerably shorter than their settling time. Our calculations demonstrate that the commonly made assumption of

  19. An experimental study of low concentration sludge settling velocity under turbulent condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lisha; Zhang, Daijun; Xu, Danyu; Chen, Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to study the settling of activated sludge flocs under turbulent flow conditions. Experimental results showed that a larger particle diameter led to a higher settling velocity while the higher turbulence intensity led to lower settling velocity. Based on the measurements a mathematical relation has been derived which correlates the settling velocity for individual sludge flocs under turbulent conditions through a modified Vesilind equation. Settling velocity shows a power-type relation to sludge particle diameter and an exponential-type relation with turbulence intensity and sludge concentration.

  20. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  1. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  2. Settling of virgin olive oil from horizontal screw solid bowl in static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Abraham M; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Beltrán, Gabriel; Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to study the clarification efficiency of natural decantation in settling tank on virgin olive oil obtained from a two-ways continuous process. For this purpose, the impurities content of the virgin olive oil were monitored during settling process in settling tank at two different depths. Efficiency of purging system was determined for two days. The experiments were performed at industrial scale during three crop years. During the first minutes of settling was observed an ascent of the smaller organic particles of the oil. Then, most of the virgin olive oil impurities were settled at 300 min, independently of the initial content of virgin olive oil. Finally, oil decantation showed slower rate. Higher clarification values were obtained for those decanter oils with higher impurities content, achieving clarification percentages between of 62.69 and 95.91% at 48 h of settling. The highest settling efficiency was observed for those decanter oils with initial higher impurities content. The purging system used in the settling tanks was not able to remove the most of settled impurities since a considerable amount of the impurities remained in the tank after 48 h, between 13.6 and 71.41% for the studied oils. In the tank purges was observed important oil losses. Therefore, decantation was not an efficient system for oil clarification since its settling capacity varied depending on the initial impurities content and due to the settled impurities can not be removed fully by purging system.

  3. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate. The ....... The settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably.......The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate...

  4. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  5. Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E; Seshadri, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. (communication)

  6. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  7. Mixing-settling apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolokin, L.I.; Leif, V.E.; Sednev, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A mixing-settling apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction comprises a casing. A first partition is mounted along its longitudinal axis and above an overflow device. The mixing device is connected to a means of feeding at least one of the phases and is shaped as at least one hollow element mounted essentially perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the casing. The walls of the hollow element are provided with openings, the outlet cross-sections of which are directed to the first partition. The first partition is provided with a means for regulating the height of the layer of the mixed phases M in the mixing zone, said means being located in the partition at the point most distant from the means for feeding phases L, S in the longitudinal direction. A second transporting device is mounted in the settling zone. It is fixed on to the casing and is located after the overflow device in the direction of movement of the light phase l. (author) 10 figs

  8. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  9. Interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of M1-transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregudov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study is the calculation of interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of the (γ, e) reaction. Two channels of the inelastic (γ, e) reaction are considered: resonance gamma radiation absorption by nucleus accompanied by internal conversion and photo absorption by atomic electrons. The case of M1 nuclear transition multipolarity is considered. The expression for angular dependence coefficients of interference member is obtained. General expression for (γ, e) reaction cross section is obtained in a long-wave approximation for the case when the specimen is placed in longitudinal magnetic field involving superfine nuclear level splitting. The results of disperse amplitudes calculation for 93 Kr, 119 Sn, 129 I, 149 Sm, 151 Eu, 169 Tm, 183 W, 193 Ir, 197 Au nuclei are verified. The calculations show that maximum interference effect in the (γ, e) reaction should be expected for 169 Tm isotope [ru

  10. Excitation of M1 resonances by medium energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, G.M.; Djalali, C.; Marty, N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of 201 MeV (p,p') studies of ΔL=0 spin-flip transitions at very forward angles are discussed. The reasons for making comparisons between (p,p'), (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements of M1 transitions are outlined. After presenting some of the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, a summary of the results on the Zr isotopes plus other nuclei to mass 140 is given. Results from 48 Ca, the N=28 nuclei 50 Ti, 51 V, 52 Cr and 54 Fe are discussed and compared with (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements. In the Ni isotopes, the T 0 and T 0 +1 components of the 1 + spin-flips transition were observed both in (p,p') and in (p,n) reactions

  11. Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Neutron Beam Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, Wichian

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Neutron beam tube of neutron radiography facility at Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (public organization) is a divergent beam. The rectangular open-end of the beam tube is 16 cm x 17 cm while the inner-end is closed to the reactor core. The neutron beam size was measured using 20 cm x 40 cm neutron imaging plate. The measurement at the position 100 cm from the end of the collimator has shown that the beam size was 18.2 cm x 19.0 cm. Gamma ray in neutron the beam was also measured by the identical position using industrial X ray film. The area of gamma ray was 27.8 cm x 31.1 cm with the highest intensity found to be along the neutron beam circumference

  12. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  13. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP)

  14. Finite elements model of a rotating half-bridge belonging to a circular settling tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalescu, A. E.; Lazaroiu, G.; Scupi, A. A.; Oanta, E.

    2016-08-01

    A circular settling tank is an open reservoir used for the gravitational separation of the sludge and of the clarified water which is discharged in the launder which is mounted at the periphery of the basin. The extraction of the sludge is done by the use of a rotating half-bridge which sweeps the sludge, vacuums it using a system of scrapping blades and suction pipes, collects it in some local sludge chambers and pour it in a central collecting tank. The rotating half-bridge is a complex structure under a complex system of loads, therefore advanced instruments of investigation are required to assess the state of strains and stresses in this structure. Until now an analytical model was developed based on the hypotheses specific to the strength of materials academic discipline. The numerical models presented in the paper use the finite element method to determine the displacements of the main beam loaded by the weight of the structure and by the Archimedes’ forces. The results of the models developed so far are conclusive for the future directions of research which aims a higher degree of accuracy of the models and of the according research methodology.

  15. Leachability of solidified (Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/ sediments in simulated settling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.; Snodgrass, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The decanted effluent from uranium tailings basins contains large amounts of dissolved Ra-226. To remove this Ra-226, the effluent is treated with barium chloride (BaCl/sub 2/) to precipitate barium-radium sulphate -(Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/]. The sediments are stored on the bottom of the treatment pond and the treated effluent is discharged to a local water course. However, redissolution of Ra-226 fro these sediments may occur after the tailings area has been abandoned and thus cause contamination of receiving waters. This study was conducted to investigate the rate at which this dissolution occurred and to determine if this rate could be decreased by solidification of the sediments. Solidification (also referred to as chemical fixation or encapsulation) involves mixing the sediments with chemicals to produce a solid matrix analogous to concrete. The sediments used in the study were dredged in 1976 from the bottom of the North Nordic Lake settling pond in Elliot Lake, Ontario, which receives the effluent from the Nordic tailings area

  16. Quantitative detection of settled coal dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Sahar, Nir

    2017-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing spectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in in situ data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem in semi-supervised fashion. This study presents a practical implementation of field spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to detect settled coal dust over green canopy in free/open environment. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, and pulverizing of coal. Since the inelastic nature of coal, coal dust can be created during transportation, or by mechanically handling coal. Coal dust, categorized at silt-clay particle size, of particular concern due to heavy metals (lead, mercury, nickel, tin, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, isotopes of thorium and strontium) which are toxic also at low concentrations. This hazard exposes risk on both environment and public health. It has been identified by medical scientist around the world as causing a range of diseases and health problems, mainly heart and respiratory diseases like asthma and lung cancer. It is due to the fact that the fine invisible coal dust particles (less than 2.5 microns) long lodge in the lungs and are not naturally expelled, so long-term exposure increases the risk of health problems. Numerus studies reported that data to conduct study of geographic distribution of the very fine coal dust (smaller than PM 2.5) and related health impacts from coal exports, is not being collected. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature

  17. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  18. Hydrodynamic characteristics of high speed settling clarifiers by radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith Martinez, J.; Flores Juan, P.; Cuesta Borges, J.; Damera Martinez, A.; Ramos Espinosa, K. A

    2005-01-01

    Results achieved in the evaluation of two high-speed settling cane juice Clarifiers, one denominated ICINAZ The Express and the other one with Low Residence Time (BTR), both located at the sugar factory Orlando Gonzalez employing the well established radiotracer method (Tc-99m) are presented. Several trials performed at the two Clarifiers demonstrated that the one identified as BTR was capable to assimilate the whole flow capacity of the factory with adequate characteristic of the pattern flux and residence time in the environment of 1 hour. In the other side, ICINAZ The Express Clarifier could only work at relative low flow capacity of the factory with residence time closely to the two hours and achieving occasionally a pattern flux seriously affected by fluctuations in the milling process. The radiotracer method was able to detect certain differences between the two clear juice outlet of the BTR Clarifier, probably due some problems in the construction of this equipment

  19. Estimate of Hanford Waste Rheology and Settling Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Wells, Beric E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Hall, Mark N.; Thomson, Scott L.; Smith, Gary Lynn; Johnson, Michael E.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Knight, Mark A.; Thien, Michael G.; Davis, Jim J.; Onishi, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. Piping, pumps, and mixing vessels have been selected to transport, store, and mix the high-level waste slurries in the WTP. This report addresses the analyses performed by the Rheology Working Group (RWG) and Risk Assessment Working Group composed of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL, Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), CH2M HILL, DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and Yasuo Onishi Consulting, LLC staff on data obtained from documented Hanford waste analyses to determine a best-estimate of the rheology of the Hanford tank wastes and their settling behavior. The actual testing activities were performed and reported separately in referenced documentation. Because of this, many of the required topics below do not apply and are so noted

  20. Experiments in reduced gravity sediment settling on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in Reduced Gravity: Sediment Settling on Mars is the first book to be published that reflects experiments conducted on Martian geomorphology in reduced gravity. This brief yet important book on sediment experiments assesses the theoretical and empirical foundation of the models used to analyze the increasing information we have on the past geography on Mars. The book also evaluates the need to develop new methods for analyzing new information by providing a conceptual outline and a case study on how experiments can be used to test current theoretical considerations. The conceptual approach to identifying the need for and role of experiments will be of interest to planetary scientists and geoscientists not necessarily involved with Mars, but those using experiments in their research who can apply the book's concepts. Includes figures, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs to vividly explore experiments and outcomes in reduced gravity Provides an outline of planned experiments and questions relat...

  1. Preparation of air-settled, roll-thinned phosphorus targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lozowski, W R

    1999-01-01

    Red sup 3 sup 1 P targets of 2.6 and 2.9 mg/cm sup 2+-0.1 mg/cm sup 2 with 1-cmx2-cm side dimensions were prepared for a nuclear mass measurement which required good thickness uniformity. The thinner target, with 50 mu g/cm sup 2 of gold flashed on both surfaces, withstood a 173-MeV alpha beam of 175 nA for 18 h. Adaptations will be described for an Indiana University Cyclotron Facility air-settling method used to distribute phosphorus powder, as well as the methods developed for subsequent pressing, roll thinning, and dry release to obtain self-supporting targets. An envelope of gold foil, in contact with the phosphorus during each step, was instrumental in the process.

  2. Development of a new model for batch sedimentation and application to secondary settling tanks design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamisheva, Ralica D; Islam, M A

    2005-01-01

    Assuming that settling takes place in two zones (a constant rate zone and a variable rate zone), a model using four parameters accounting for the nature of the water-suspension system has been proposed for describing batch sedimentation processes. The sludge volume index (SVI) has been expressed in terms of these parameters. Some disadvantages of the SVI application as a design parameter have been pointed out, and it has been shown that a relationship between zone settling velocity and sludge concentration is more consistent for describing the settling behavior and for design of settling tanks. The permissible overflow rate has been related to the technological parameters of secondary settling tank by simple working equations. The graphical representations of these equations could be used to optimize the design and operation of secondary settling tanks.

  3. Treatment of spent nuclear fuel L-basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westover, B.L.; Oji, L.N.; Martin, H.L.; Nichols, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Each production reactor at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) has a disassembly basin whose primary purpose is to cool irradiated production fuel and target. The disassembly basins also provide a shielded environment for personnel. Material has historically resided in the basins for 6 to 12 months. Increases in basin storage time have occurred, and have caused the buildup of a sludge layer on the basin floors to be greater than historical levels. The sludge is composed primarily of inorganic oxide and hydroxide corrosion products. The sludge layer has increased the turbidity and conductivity of the basin water, contributed to fuel corrosion, and has impacted fuel handling operations. Initial characterization of the sludge indicates that it is a low-level radioactive aqueous waste. This evaluation looked at methods to separate the sludge into its liquid and solid phases. The experimental data obtained during this evaluation clearly shows that a filtration-based approach to dewatering using an Oberlin pressure filtration unit at SRS is possible. This research task was to identify and optimize filtration and settling parameters pursuant sludge processing. The research specifically addressed: choice of filter aid, filter aid to sludge ratio, choice and dosage of polymer flocculation and settling agents, and the determination of Kynch curve settling parameters. Two commercial perlite filter-aids were identified as the most suitable. Of 11 water soluble flocculating polymers evaluated, 3 cationic commercial types formed stable flocs in the screening tests. In low doses, the flocculating polymers also enhanced sludge particle settling and decreased filtrate turbidity. The filtration cake from the sludge can be solidified to meet waste acceptance and storage criteria. However, the conductivity of the remaining filtrate does not meet Reactor Area Return Water criteria and may require a secondary filtration process. 2 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors during Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.D.; Ingildsen, P.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Aeration tank settling is a control method allowing settling in the process tank during highhydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration tank settling has been applied in several wastewater treatment plants using the present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs...... and outletcausing a disruption of the sludge blanket at the outlet and thereby reducing the retention of sludge in theprocess tank. The model has allowed us to establish a clear picture of the problems arising at the plantduring aeration tank settling. Secondly, several process tank design changes have been...

  5. Characterization of the settling process for wastewater from a combined sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, P; Carbone, M; Penna, N; Marsalek, J

    2011-12-15

    Among the methods used for determining the parameters necessary for design of wastewater settling tanks, settling column tests are used most commonly, because of their simplicity and low costs. These tests partly mimic the actual settling processes and allow the evaluation of total suspended solids (TSS) removal by settling. Wastewater samples collected from the Liguori Channel (LC) catchment in Cosenza (Italy) were subject to settling column tests, which yielded iso-removal curves for both dry and wet-weather flow conditions. Such curves were approximated well by the newly proposed power law function containing two empirical parameters, a and b, the first of which is the particle settling velocity and the second one is a flocculation factor accounting for deviations from discrete particle settling. This power law function was tested for both the LC catchment and literature data and yielded a very good fit, with correlation coefficient values (R(2)) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Finally, variations in the settling tank TSS removal efficiencies with parameters a and b were also analyzed and provided insight for settling tank design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of the static occlusion by "occlusal surface settling" in the Cerec 3D software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, C; Kordass, B

    2006-04-01

    The adjustment of the static occlusion can be automated in computer-based systems. The Cerec 3D software makes it possible to take preformed occlusal surfaces from a database and adapt them to the antagonist. In this adaptation (settling), the CAD occlusal surface "settles" as whole or each cusp individually into the occlusal surface of the antagonist until stable occlusion is reached. Two occlusal surface shapes were compared: Vita Physiodens and Lee Culp. An index was formed from the number, quality, and position of the occlusal contacts for 35 model cases (25 molars, 10 premolars). With regard to the settling of the total occlusal surfaces, there were no differences between the two occlusal surface shapes. In "cusp settling" of the molars, Vita Physiodens performed significantly better. In the comparison of the 1st with the 3rd settling process, significant improvements occurred the 3rd time in many cases when settling individual cusps, but in clearly fewer cases in the settling process of the total occlusal surface. The Lee Culp tooth occlusion improved especially after the 3rd settling process of individual cusps. It is therefore expedient to combine both settling versions with one another.

  7. U- and Th-series nuclides in settling particles: implications to sediment transport through surface waters and interior ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal is a unique ocean basin receiving large quantities of fresh water and sediment supply from several rivers draining the Indian subcontinent. The annual flux of suspended sediments discharged into the Bay of Bengal is one billion tons, about one-tenth of the global sediment discharge into the ocean. The water and sediment discharge to the Bay, show significant seasonal variation, with maximum transport coinciding with the SW-monsoon (July-September). Earlier studies on the distribution of clay minerals in sediments have led to the suggestion that the sediments of the western Bengal Fan are mainly derived from the Peninsular rivers, whereas rest of the Fan sediments is influenced by the Himalayan rivers. Settling fluxes of particulate matter through the water column of the Bay of Bengal show seasonal trends resulting from monsoon enhanced sediment supply via rivers and biological processes in the water column. It is, thus, important to understand the influence of the seasonally varying particle fluxes on the solute-particle interactions and chemical scavenging processes in the surface and deep waters of the Bay of Bengal. In this context, measurements of U- and Th-series nuclides in the settling particles are most relevant. The radionuclide fluxes ( 230 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in the settling particles provide insight into the role of their removal by vertical particle flux and/or lateral transport (removal at the ocean boundaries). A study carried out in the Northern Bay of Bengal documents that the authigenic flux of 230 Th, as measured in sediment trap samples from deep waters, is balanced by its production in the overhead water column. The sediment mass flux, Al and 228 Th fluxes are similar in the settling particles through shallow and deep waters, suggesting predominant removal by vertical particle flux in the North Bay of Bengal. In the Central Bay, particulate mass, Al and 228 Th fluxes are higher in the trap material from deep waters relative

  8. Quantitative detection of settled dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing hyperspectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in hyperspectral imagery data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem of hyperspectral imagery in semi-supervised fashion. This paper suggests that the sensitivity of sparse unmixing techniques provides an ideal approach to extract and identify dust settled over/upon green vegetation canopy using hyperspectral airborne data. Atmospheric dust transports a variety of chemicals, some of which pose a risk to the ecosystem and human health (Kaskaoutis, et al., 2008). Many studies deal with the impact of dust on particulate matter (PM) and atmospheric pollution. Considering the potential impact of industrial pollutants, one of the most important considerations is the fact that suspended PM can have both a physical and a chemical impact on plants, soils, and water bodies. Not only can the particles covering surfaces cause physical distortion, but particles of diverse origin and different chemistries can also serve as chemical stressors and cause irreversible damage. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature of a forthcoming environmental hazard are of key interest when considering the effects of pollution. According to the most basic distribution dynamics, dust consists of suspended particulate matter in a fine state of subdivision that are raised and carried by wind. In this context, it is increasingly important to first, understand the distribution dynamics of pollutants, and

  9. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  10. High-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation of the right M1 further facilitates left M1 excitability during crossed facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibel, Vincent; Muthalib, Makii; Teo, Wei-Peng; Perrey, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    The crossed-facilitation (CF) effect refers to when motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the relaxed muscles of one arm are facilitated by contraction of the opposite arm. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation (HD-tDCS) applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1) controlling the left contracting arm [50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] would further facilitate CF toward the relaxed right arm. Seventeen healthy right-handed subjects participated in an anodal and cathodal or sham HD-tDCS session of the right M1 (2 mA for 20 min) separated by at least 48 h. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit MEPs and cortical silent periods (CSPs) from the left M1 at baseline and 10 min into and after right M1 HD-tDCS. At baseline, compared with resting, CF (i.e., right arm resting, left arm 50% MVIC) increased left M1 MEP amplitudes (+97%) and decreased CSPs (-11%). The main novel finding was that right M1 HD-tDCS further increased left M1 excitability (+28.3%) and inhibition (+21%) from baseline levels during CF of the left M1, with no difference between anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS sessions. No modulation of CSP or MEP was observed during sham HD-tDCS sessions. Our findings suggest that CF of the left M1 combined with right M1 anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS further facilitated interhemispheric interactions during CF from the right M1 (contracting left arm) toward the left M1 (relaxed right arm), with effects on both excitatory and inhibitory processing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows modulation of the nonstimulated left M1 by right M1 HD-tDCS combined with crossed facilitation, which was probably achieved through modulation of interhemispheric interactions.

  11. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  12. Hydrodynamic characteristics of high speed settling clarifiers by radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith Martinez, Jose; Damera Martinez, A.; Ramos Espinosa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Results achieved in the evaluation of two high-speed settling cane juice Clarifiers, one denominated ICINAZ The Express and the other one a modified SRI, both located at the sugar factory Orlando Gonzalez employing the well established radiotracer method (Tc-99m) are presented Several trials performed simultaneously at the two Clarifiers demonstrated that the modified SRI was capable to assimilate the whole flow capacity of the factory with adequate characteristic of the pattern flux and residence time in the environment of 1 hour. In the other side, ICINAZ The Express Clarifier could only work at relative low flow capacity of the factory with residence time closely to the two hours and achieving occasionally a pattern flux seriously affected by fluctuations in the milling process. The non-availability of a flow meter did not allow to extract more information related to some pattern flux anomalies, nevertheless, the radiotracer method was able to detect certain differences between the two clear juice outlet of the modified SRI Clarifier, probably due some problems in the construction of this equipment. This fact so as other goals achieved in this work, show once more the potentiality of the radiotracer method for this type of study related to the hydrodynamic characteristics of industrial facilities. (Author)

  13. Spheres settling in an Oldroyd-B fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2017-11-01

    In this talk we present a numerical study of the dynamics of balls settling in a vertical channel with a square cross-section filled with an Oldroyd-B fluid. For the case of two balls, two typical kinds of particle dynamics are obtained: (i) periodic interaction between two balls and (ii) the formation of a vertical chain of two balls. For the periodic interaction of two balls occurred at lower values of the elasticity number, two balls draft, kiss and break away periodically and the chain is not formed due to not strong enough elastic force. For slightly higher values of the elasticity number, two balls draft, kiss and break away a couple times first and then form a chain. Such chain finally becomes a vertical one after the oscillation damps out. For higher values of the elasticity number, two balls draft, kiss and form a vertical chain right away. The formation of three ball chain can be obtained at higher values of the elasticity number. This work was supported by NSF (Grant DMS-1418308).

  14. Time to settle the tax issue for the resource industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presented a brief comment on policy issues concerning taxes imposed on the resource industry. It was suggested that if the resource industry in Canada is to remain competitive beyond the current boom, the federal government should provide a more stable tax environment for investment in the longer run. With the current internationally competitive tax rates and high neutrality among energy sectors, there is presently a unique opportunity to settle this issue and to improve the tax system as a whole. It was suggested that the federal corporate income tax rate on resource profits should be reduced from 28 per cent to 21 per cent as it is in other sectors. It was also suggested that the resource allowance should be replaced with deductibility for resource royalties as payment for the cost of using provincially owned resources. This report also described other changes that could be implemented to improve the tax system and to enhance the competitiveness of the resource sector. It was noted that the changes could result in a single corporate income tax rate on all industrial activities by 2005

  15. THE EPOCH OF DISK SETTLING: z ∼ 1 TO NOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Devriendt, Julien; Dutton, Aaron A.; Metevier, A. J.; Noeske, Kai G.; Primack, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence from a sample of 544 galaxies from the DEEP2 Survey for evolution of the internal kinematics of blue galaxies with stellar masses ranging 8.0 * (M ☉ ) g ). It is unlike the typical pressure-supported velocity dispersion measured for early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. Because both seeing and the width of our spectral slits comprise a significant fraction of the galaxy sizes, σ g integrates over velocity gradients on large scales which can correspond to non-ordered gas kinematics. We compile measurements of galaxy kinematics from the literature over 1.2 < z < 3.8 and do not find any trends with redshift, likely for the most part, because these data sets are biased toward the most highly star-forming systems. In summary, over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, blue galaxies evolve from disordered to ordered systems as they settle to become the rotation-dominated disk galaxies observed in the universe today, with the most massive galaxies being the most evolved at any time.

  16. 45 CFR 2554.48 - Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily? 2554.48 Section 2554.48 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... Appeals § 2554.48 Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily? (a) Parties may make offers of...

  17. Heavy Metal and PAH Concentrations in Highway Runoff Deposits Fractionated on Settling Velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between settling velocity and associated pollutant concentrations is of major importance for best management practice in designing, redesigning, or evaluation of the efficiency of existing pond facilities for retaining unwanted pollutants. The prospect of this note is to state...... the relationship between the settling velocity of the runoff particles and the corresponding metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration directly instead of dealing with two unknowns-the density and the shape of a single particle fraction in a settling velocity calculations. The measurements show...... and copper and there is no significant correlation between PAH concentration and settling velocity. The largest mass of metals and PAH within each pond can be found on the particle fraction with a settling velocity of 5.5-2.5 mm/s....

  18. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient...... and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational...... viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through...

  19. Numerical Investigation of Effects of Inlet Placement and Characteristics of Baffles in Settling Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shamloo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Settling tanks are one of the main parts of treatment plants and different parameters are effective in the settling tank performance. In this study effects of some of these parameters such as the situation of the inlet opening as well as the existence and position of baffles in the tanks are investigated.  2D numerical simulations of primary settling tanks are carried out using 2D Fluent software and the best position for the  inlet to enhance  the  their performance found  to be in the middle of the tank  with optimum size  of the baffle about 30% the height of settling tank  at a distance about 5-10% settling tank's length.

  20. Experimental analysis of turbulence effect in settling velocity of suspended sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salinas–Tapia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Settling velocities of sediment particles for different size ranges were measured in this work using PIV with the help of discriminatory filters. An experimental channel 10x15 cm cross section was used in order to obtain two set of turbulent characteristics corresponding with two different flow rates. The purpose was to analyze the effect of turbulence on the solids settling velocity. The technique allowed us to measure the individual settling velocity of the particles and the flow velocity field of the fluid. Capture and image analysis was performed with digital cameras (CCD using the software Sharp–provision PIV and the statistical cross correlation technique. Results showed that settling velocity of particles is affected by turbulence which enhances the fluid drag coefficient. Physical explanation of this phenomenon is related with the magnitude of the vertical fluctuating velocity of the fluid. However, more research is needed in order to define settling velocity formulas that takes into account this effect

  1. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  2. 210Pb and Mass Flux Imbalance Between the Settling Particulates and Sediments at a Sediment Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Chung, Y.; Hung, G.

    2005-05-01

    In order to evaluate the mass balance problems between the settling particulates and the underlying sediments, sediment traps were deployed at M1 site (21o32¡¦N, 119o28¡¦E; 2948m) where a box core was taken recently. The sediment trap results were previously published (Chung et al., 2004: Continental Shelf Research). We report here the 210Pb profile measured on this box core by determining its daughter, 210Po, with alpha spectrometry, assuming the paired nuclides are in radioactive equilibrium. The box core (33 cm long, taken in June, 2004) was analyzed for the distributions of its water content, loss on ignition (LOI), and 210Pb. The water content decreases with depth and averages about 55 percent; the LOI as a measure of the total organic matter (TOM) is fairly constant at about 12 percent. The 210Pb profile shows a general exponential decrease with depth, yielding a maximum sedimentation rate of 0.26cm/y, applying a constant flux and constant sedimentation rate model. This rate translates to a mass flux of 0.31g/cm2/y or about 8.5g/m2/d with a dry bulk density of 1.2g/cm3. Based on the excess 210Pb inventory integrated over the core length, the 210Pb flux is estimated at about 19.2dpm/cm2/y or 526dpm/cm2/d assuming at steady state. The 210Pb and mass fluxes obtained from the deepest trap at M1 were only 129dpm/m2/d and 0.55g/m2/d, respectively. The large ¡excess¡" of the 210Pb and mass fluxes in the sediments over those measured from the sediment trap (4 times in 210Pb flux and 14 times in mass flux) suggests either the sedimentation rate was overestimated due to neglect of the mixing effect, and/or large additional particulates, as resuspended sediments which contain less 210Pb, have been transported laterally near the bottom from elsewhere.

  3. Temporal variation of floc size and settling velocity in the Dollard estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Lee, Willem T. B.

    2000-09-01

    Temporal changes in floc size and settling velocity were measured in the Dollard estuary with an under water video camera. The results show that the flocs in the Dollard are very heterogeneous and that larger flocs have much lower effective densities than smaller flocs. Due to this density decrease, floc settling velocities show only a minor increase with increasing floc size. Floc sizes and settling velocities correlate with the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) on a tidal time scale, but not on a seasonal time scale. On a seasonal time scale floc sizes depend on the binding properties of the sediment, while floc settling velocities show hardly any variation, as an increase in floc size is mainly counterbalanced by a decrease in floc density. Tidal variations in settling velocity occur but cannot be modeled solely as a function of SSC, as the relation between floc size/settling velocity and SSC constantly changes in time and space. Settling velocity variations throughout the tide can however be expressed as a function of tidal phase.

  4. Development and validation of a novel monitoring system for batch flocculant solids settling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Zhang, Xueqian; Penkarski-Rodon, Elena

    2017-01-01

    system able to monitor batch settling tests by tracking the sludge blanket height and solid concentration along the column in the range of 1 to 8 g L-1. The system could be efficiently applied to monitor the batch settling tests of several full scale treatment plants run under different operational......Secondary sedimentation is the main hydraulic bottleneck of effective pollution control WWTP under wetweather flow conditions. Therefore, online monitoring tools are required for control and optimization of the settling process under dynamic conditions. In this work we propose a novel monitoring...

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors During Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Jensen, Mette; Ingildsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Aeration Tank Settling is a control method alowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration Tank Settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plant's using present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have...... shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. The paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet...

  6. M1 and M2 Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Contribution of Imbalance of M1/M2 Monocytes to Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Fukui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe investigated the relationships among M1 monocytes, M2 monocytes, osteoclast (OC differentiation ability, and clinical characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from RA patients and healthy donors, and we then investigated the number of M1 monocytes or M2 monocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also obtained and cultured CD14-positive cells from PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors to investigate OC differentiation in vitro.ResultsForty RA patients and 20 healthy donors were included. Twenty-two patients (55% were anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive. The median M1/M2 ratio was 0.59 (0.31–1.11, interquartile range. There were no significant differences between the RA patients and healthy donors. There was a positive correlation between the M1/M2 ratio and the differentiated OC number in vitro in RA patients (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.001. The ACPA-positive patients had significantly higher M1/M2 ratios in vivo (p = 0.028 and significantly greater numbers of OCs in vitro (p = 0.005 than the ACPA-negative patients. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the M1/M2 ratio was the sole significant contribution factor to in vitro osteoclastogenesis. RA patients with M1/M2 ratios >1 (having relatively more M1 monocytes had higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates than RA patients with M1/M2 ratios ≤1. M1-dominant monocytes in vitro produced higher concentrations of interleukin-6 upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide than M2 monocytes.ConclusionM1/M2 monocytes imbalance strongly contributes to osteoclastogenesis of RA patients. Our findings cast M1 and M2 monocyte subsets in a new light as a new target of treatments for RA to prevent progression of osteoclastic bone destruction.

  7. Accumulation of Settling Particles in Some Coral Reef Areas of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation of settling particles in coral reefs of Peninsular Malaysia. Settling particles were collected from the coral reefs of Port Dickson, Pulau Langkawi, Pulau Tioman, Pulau Redang and Pulau Tinggi from 2005 to 2008. The average total settling particles in Pulau Langkawi and Port Dickson was 49.8 mg/ cm 2 / day, while for Pulau Tioman, Pulau Redang, and Pulau Tinggi was 3.5 mg/ cm 2 / day. The results showed that accumulations rate in west coast were higher than east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. However, Pulau Tioman in the east coast received high accumulations rate of settling particles in certain times of the year due to sediment resuspension at shallow reefs caused by high energy seasonal yearly wave and monsoon. (author)

  8. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J

    2009-01-01

    The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In activated sludge systems, accurate estimation of the solids in the underflow stream will facilitate the calibration process and can lead to correct estimates of particularly kinetic parameters related to biomass growth. Using principles of compaction and consolidation, as in soil mechanics, a dynamic model of the sludge consolidation processes taking place in the secondary settling tanks is developed and incorporated to the commonly used double exponential settling model. The modified double exponential model is calibrated and validated using data obtained from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Good agreement between predicted and measured data confirmed the validity of the modified model.

  9. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Low Energy Turbulence in Estuary Margins on Fine Sediment Settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; MacVean, L. J.; Tse, I.; Mazzaro, L. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment dynamics in estuaries and near shore regions control the growth or erosion of the bed and fringing wetlands, determine the spread of sediment-associated contaminants, and limit the light availability for primary productivity through turbidity. In estuaries such as San Francisco Bay, this sediment is often cohesive, and can flocculate. Changes to the composition of the sediment and waters, the suspended sediment concentration, and the turbulence can all affect the flocculation of suspended sediment. In turn, flocculation controls the particle diameter, settling velocity, density, and particle inertia. These sediment properties drive the turbulent diffusivity, which balances with the settling velocity to impact the vertical distribution of sediment in the water column. The vertical profile strongly affects how sediment is transported through the estuary by lateral flow. Turbulence may also impact settling velocity in non-cohesive particles. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, thus particles are more likely to get swept along the downward side of a turbulent eddy than the upward side, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. We isolated the impacts of turbulence level, particle size and type, and suspended sediment concentration on particle settling velocities using uniform grain size particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Controlling the turbulence in a well-defined turbulence tank, we used Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, separated vertically, to measure turbulent velocities (w') and suspended sediment concentrations (C), which yield condition dependent settling velocities (ws), via equation 1. Lab characterization of particle settling velocities help to validate the method for measuring settling velocities in the field, and will serve as a foundation for an extensive field experiment in San Francisco Bay. Characterizing the velocity enhancement relative to the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the

  11. Food Poverty Profile in Settled Pastrol Households of Lowland Marsabit: Evidence from Micro Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamori, B.

    2002-01-01

    Frequent and severe droughts experienced in ASALs push pastoralists out of the traditional livestock monoculture, which together with the growing human population lead to increasing settlement. Unlike nomads who access traditional livestock foods at all times, settled households have limited access, which does not guarantee their food security. To achieve the food security the settled households supplement limited livestock foods with market foods. High demand for market foods increases demand for money and since pastoral communities have limited income-generating opportunities, many households are relegated to below food poverty line. Most studies on food security in ASALs focus on livestock productivity without considering that settled households depend, to a small extent, on livestock foods. Since settled households experience a lot of socio-economic changes,their food security status needs to be appropriately evaluated. The aim of this study t is to establish the food poverty profile of the settled households and recommend appropriate measures for attaining food security in the settled households

  12. Turbulent particle transport in streams: can exponential settling be reconciled with fluid mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, James N; Newbold, J Denis

    2012-05-07

    Most ecological studies of particle transport in streams that focus on fine particulate organic matter or benthic invertebrates use the Exponential Settling Model (ESM) to characterize the longitudinal pattern of particle settling on the bed. The ESM predicts that if particles are released into a stream, the proportion that have not yet settled will decline exponentially with transport time or distance and will be independent of the release elevation above the bed. To date, no credible basis in fluid mechanics has been established for this model, nor has it been rigorously tested against more-mechanistic alternative models. One alternative is the Local Exchange Model (LEM), which is a stochastic advection-diffusion model that includes both longitudinal and vertical spatial dimensions and is based on classical fluid mechanics. The LEM predicts that particle settling will be non-exponential in the near field but will become exponential in the far field, providing a new theoretical justification for far-field exponential settling that is based on plausible fluid mechanics. We review properties of the ESM and LEM and compare these with available empirical evidence. Most evidence supports the prediction of both models that settling will be exponential in the far field but contradicts the ESM's prediction that a single exponential distribution will hold for all transport times and distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In situ determination of flocculated suspended material settling velocities and characteristics using a floc camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Haught, Dan; Manning, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of suspended sediment settling are necessary for numerical sediment models, water quality studies, and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems. Settling of cohesive sediment, which is common in estuaries, is more difficult to quantify than noncohesive sediment because of flocculation. Flocs are composed of an aggregation of finer silts, clays, and organic material. Floc characteristics, such as the diameter, density, porosity, and water content determine floc settling velocities. A floc camera provides the ability to capture the settling velocities and other desired characteristics of individual flocs in situ. Water samples taken using a Van Dorn sampler are immediately subsampled using a pipette and transferred to the floc camera. The Perspex settling column is outfitted with a LED backlighting to distinguish flocs. The floc camera’s high pixel and temporal resolution allows image analysis software to detect individual flocs and process floc statistics per image. Observed changes in floc location with respect to time presents a way of calculating settling velocities. This work presents results of validation tests with known sediment size distributions and of deployment of the camera during a field study.

  14. Modification of barley powdery mildew resistance controlled by the gene M1-a212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, J.; Joergensen, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The barley line Sultan 5 carries resistance gene M1-a12. Seeds were treated with EMS or NaN 3 . Among 10381 M 1 -spike progenies inoculated with M1-a12 a-virulent isolates of Erysiphe graminis, 25 segregated for less resistant infection type. Among 10 mutants analyzed, 9 had mutant allels of M1-a12 and one had a recessive mutant gene in a different locus acting as a ''suppressor'' of M1-a12. (author)

  15. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Elena; Martí, M Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distributed settling behaviour in different settling unit processes and throughout different settling regimes (discrete, hindered and compression settling). Subsequently, a unified model framework that considers several particle classes is proposed in order to describe distributions in settling behaviour as well as the effect of variations in particle properties on the settling process. The result is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) that are valid from dilute concentrations, where they correspond to discrete settling, to concentrated suspensions, where they correspond to compression settling. Consequently, these PDEs model both PSTs and SSTs.

  16. A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.

    2009-12-01

    Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.

  17. Multiphase flow modelling of volcanic ash particle settling in water using adaptive unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R. G.

    2013-02-01

    Small-scale experiments of volcanic ash particle settling in water have demonstrated that ash particles can either settle slowly and individually, or rapidly and collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. This has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. Numerical modelling has the potential to extend the results of laboratory experiments to larger scales and explore the conditions under which plumes may form and persist, but many existing models are computationally restricted by the fixed mesh approaches that they employ. In contrast, this paper presents a new multiphase flow model that uses an adaptive unstructured mesh approach. As a simulation progresses, the mesh is optimized to focus numerical resolution in areas important to the dynamics and decrease it where it is not needed, thereby potentially reducing computational requirements. Model verification is performed using the method of manufactured solutions, which shows the correct solution convergence rates. Model validation and application considers 2-D simulations of plume formation in a water tank which replicate published laboratory experiments. The numerically predicted settling velocities for both individual particles and plumes, as well as instability behaviour, agree well with experimental data and observations. Plume settling is clearly hindered by the presence of a salinity gradient, and its influence must therefore be taken into account when considering particles in bodies of saline water. Furthermore, individual particles settle in the laminar flow regime while plume settling is shown (by plume Reynolds numbers greater than unity) to be in the turbulent flow regime, which has a significant impact on entrainment and settling rates. Mesh adaptivity maintains solution accuracy while providing a substantial reduction in computational requirements when compared to the same simulation performed using a fixed mesh, highlighting the benefits of an

  18. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremy, J M; Roiland, J C; Gaymard, A

    1990-01-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  19. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for the 116-C-5 retention basins characteristic dangerous waste determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; Dunks, K.L.

    1996-03-01

    Cooling water flow from the rear face of the 100-B and 100-C reactors was diverted to large retention basins prior to discharge to the Columbia River. These retention basins delayed the release of the reactor coolant for decay of the short-lived activation products and for thermal cooling. Some of the activation products were deposited in sludge that settled in the basins and discharge lines. In addition, some contamination was deposited in soil around the basins and associated piping. The sampling objective of this project is to determine if regulated levels of leachable lead are present in the abrasive materials used to decontaminate the retention basin tank walls, in the material between the tank base plate and the concrete foundation, and in the soils immediately surrounding the perimeter of the retention basins. Sampling details, including sampling locations, frequencies, and analytical requirements, are discussed. Also described is the quality assurance plan for this project

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  2. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately

  3. FoxM1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snai1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chun-Peng; Yu, Shui; Shi, Lei; Wang, Song; Li, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) is aberrantly expressed in several types of human malignancy, and serves an important role in tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells has been associated cancer metastasis; however, the implication of FoxM1 in EMT and its putative roles in the regulation of cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression of FoxM1, Snai1 and E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with various meta...

  4. Target-specific M1 inputs to infragranular S1 pyramidal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, Erika E.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of input from the primary motor cortex (M1) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is unclear; one key to understanding this pathway may lie in elucidating the cell-type specific microcircuits that connect S1 and M1. Recently, we discovered that a subset of pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of S1 receive especially strong input from M1 (Kinnischtzke AK, Simons DJ, Fanselow EE. Cereb Cortex 24: 2237–2248, 2014), suggesting that M1 may affect specific classes of pyramidal neurons differently. Here, using combined optogenetic and retrograde labeling approaches in the mouse, we examined the strengths of M1 inputs to five classes of infragranular S1 neurons categorized by their projections to particular cortical and subcortical targets. We found that the magnitude of M1 synaptic input to S1 pyramidal neurons varies greatly depending on the projection target of the postsynaptic neuron. Of the populations examined, M1-projecting corticocortical neurons in L6 received the strongest M1 inputs, whereas ventral posterior medial nucleus-projecting corticothalamic neurons, also located in L6, received the weakest. Each population also possessed distinct intrinsic properties. The results suggest that M1 differentially engages specific classes of S1 projection neurons, thereby regulating the motor-related influence S1 exerts over subcortical structures. PMID:27334960

  5. Sludge settling processes in SBR-related sewage treatment plants according to the Biocos method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, S; Englert, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the investigations in a sedimentation and circulation reactor (SU-reactor) of a three-phase Biocos plant. The aim of these investigations was the determination of the temporal and depth-dependent distribution of suspended solid contents, as well as describing the sludge sedimentation curves. The calculated results reveal peculiarities of the Biocos method with regard to sedimentation processes. In the hydraulically uninterrupted (pre-)settling phase, a sludge level depth was observed, which remained constant over the reactor surface and increased linearly according to the sludge volume. The settling and the thickening processes of this phase corresponded to a large extent to the well-known settling test in a one-litre measuring cylinder. During the discharge phase, the investigated settling rate was overlaid by the surface loading rate and the sludge level changed depending on the difference between those two parameters. The solid distribution of the A-phase indicated a formation of functional zones, which were influenced by the surface loading. The formation was comparable to the formation of layers in secondary settling tanks with vertical flow. The concentration equalisation between the biological reactor and the SU-reactor proved to be problematic during the circulation phase, because a type of internal sludge circulation occurred in the SU-reactor. A permanent sludge recirculation seems to be highly recommendable.

  6. An analysis of multiple particle settling for LMR backup shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Backup shutdown systems proposed for future LMRs may employ discreet absorber particles to provide the negative reactivity insertion. When actuated, these systems release a dense packing of particles from an out-of-core region to settle into an in-core region. The multiple particle settling behavior is analyzed by the method of continuity waves. This method provides predictions of the dynamic response of the system including the average particle velocity and volume fraction of particles vs. time. Although hindered settling problems have been previously analyzed using continuity wave theory, this application represents an extension of the theory to conditions of unrestrained settling. Typical cases are analyzed and numerical results are calculated based on a semi-empirical drift-flux model. For 1/4-inch diameter boron-carbide particles in hot liquid sodium, the unrestrained settling problem assumes a steady-state solution when the average volume fraction of particles is 0.295 and the average particle velocity is 26.0 cm/s

  7. Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on Delayed Settling Behavior of Marine Snow Aggregates at Sharp Density Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, K. W.; Montgomery, Q. W.; Prairie, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Marine snow aggregates play a fundamental role in the marine carbon cycle. Since marine snow aggregates are larger and thus sink faster than individual phytoplankton, aggregates often dominate carbon flux. Previous studies have shown that marine snow aggregates will significantly decrease their settling velocity when passing through sharp density transitions within the ocean, a phenomenon defined as delayed settling. Given the importance of aggregate settling to carbon export, these small-scale changes in aggregate settling dynamics may have significant impacts on the efficiency of the biological pump. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how different physical properties of aggregates can affect this delayed settling. In this study, we investigated the effect of phytoplankton growth phase on delayed settling behavior. Using phytoplankton cultures stopped at four different growth phases, we formed marine snow aggregates in the laboratory in rotating cylindrical tanks. We then observed individual aggregates as they settled through a stratified tank. We will present data which illustrates that aggregates experience greatly reduced settling rates when passing through sharp density gradients and that the growth phase of the phytoplankton used to form these aggregates has a significant effect on this delayed settling behavior. A thorough understanding of the impact of phytoplankton growth phase on the delayed settling behavior of marine snow will offer insight into the way phytoplankton growth phase may influence the efficiency of the biological pump, carbon flux, and the carbon cycle as a whole.

  8. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-07-09

    The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  9. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano José

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  10. Properties of M1-M2-Si-Al-O-N glasses (M1 = La or Nd, M2 = Y or Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, M.J.; Nestor, E.; Hampshire, S. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials and Surface Science Inst.; Ramesh, R. [Littelfuse Ireland, Dundalk, Co. Louth (Ireland)

    2002-07-01

    Mixed lanthanide cation oxynitride glasses have been prepared in the M1 - M2 - Si-Al-O-N systems where M1 = La or Nd and M2 = Y or Er. The densities ({rho}), Young's moduli (E), microhardnesses (H{sub v}), glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}), dilatometric softening temperatures (T{sub dil}) and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of 13 glasses were determined. The molar volume values (MV) calculated from density data, E, H{sub v}, T{sub g}, T{sub dil} and CTE values were all found to vary linearly with the effective cation field strength arising from the M1 and M2 modifier cations. Least squares intercept and slope values are presented which correlate each property to effective cation field strength together with error values which arise from glass and specimen preparation and measurement inconsistencies. These linear correlations clearly indicate that the overall glass structure remains the same for each of the thirteen glasses with only the modifier cation(s) having any influence. This influence appears to be a cross-linking effect, the strength of which increases as the effective cation field strength of the M1, M2 modifiers increases. (orig.)

  11. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt sz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt sz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  13. Nodalisation of the Marviken pressuriser and inter-volume gravitational settling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.A.

    1989-04-01

    A long-standing issue in the calculation of aerosol transport phenomena is the treatment of gravitational sedimentation in volumes which have no real settling surfaces. The VICTORIA primary circuit computer code has been extended to model inter-volume settling, and has been used to evaluate the importance of this mechanism for Marviken test 2b. The main conclusion of this study is that the neglect of inter-volume settling may result in the distortion of predicted deposition profiles and aerosol size distributions under certain conditions. These errors in the predicted aerosol behaviour may then give rise to further complications downstream. The results of the VICTORIA calculations are in good agreement with the data from test 2b. (author)

  14. On time discretizations for the simulation of the batch settling-compression process in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Mejías, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the recently introduced Bürger-Diehl simulation model for secondary settling tanks was to resolve spatial discretization problems when both hindered settling and the phenomena of compression and dispersion are included. Straightforward time integration unfortunately means long computational times. The next step in the development is to introduce and investigate time-integration methods for more efficient simulations, but where other aspects such as implementation complexity and robustness are equally considered. This is done for batch settling simulations. The key findings are partly a new time-discretization method and partly its comparison with other specially tailored and standard methods. Several advantages and disadvantages for each method are given. One conclusion is that the new linearly implicit method is easier to implement than another one (semi-implicit method), but less efficient based on two types of batch sedimentation tests.

  15. Hydrodynamics of a continuous vertical settling tank of the plate type with separation of extractive emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, V.M.; Lyubimov, V.K.; Rakovets, S.M.; Kucharina, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an investigation of the continuous process of separation of extractive emulsion in a long vertical plate-like settling tank used in mixing-settling extractors. The object of study consisted of a section of the mixer-settler with pulsational mixing and a platelike settler 60 mm wide, 1000 mm long, and 300 mm high, made of acrylic plastic. The setup was used to demonstrate the circulation of each of the reagents (phases) in its own contour; they were injected into the mixing chamber by submersible centrifugal pumps, one placed in the volume with the light phase and the other in the volume with the heavy phase. After separation in the settling tank the liquid phases were each continuously poured into their own volume

  16. Comparison of clinicopathological parameters with FoxM1 expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Kocarslan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that FoxM1 have a progressive oncogenic role in ccRRC. Our results suggested that higher expression of FoxM1 in tumor tissues predicts a locally aggressive behavior and poor outcome of patients with ccRCC, but not in patient with non-ccRCC.

  17. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and...

  18. Nanometre-accurate form measurement machine for E-ELT M1 segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    To enable important scientific discoveries, ESO has defined a new ground-based telescope: the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The baseline design features a telescope with a 39-m-class primary mirror (M1), making it the largest and most powerful telescope in the world. The M1 consists of

  19. 78 FR 13897 - Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration RIN 1210-AB51 Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... revisions to the Form M-1, Report for Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements (MEWAs) and Certain Entities...

  20. Formulation and Validation of an Efficient Computational Model for a Dilute, Settling Suspension Undergoing Rotational Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, Michael A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Crawford, Nathan C.; Fischer, Paul F.

    2017-04-11

    Designing processing equipment for the mixing of settling suspensions is a challenging problem. Achieving low-cost mixing is especially difficult for the application of slowly reacting suspended solids because the cost of impeller power consumption becomes quite high due to the long reaction times (batch mode) or due to large-volume reactors (continuous mode). Further, the usual scale-up metrics for mixing, e.g., constant tip speed and constant power per volume, do not apply well for mixing of suspensions. As an alternative, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful for analyzing mixing at multiple scales and determining appropriate mixer designs and operating parameters. We developed a mixture model to describe the hydrodynamics of a settling cellulose suspension. The suspension motion is represented as a single velocity field in a computationally efficient Eulerian framework. The solids are represented by a scalar volume-fraction field that undergoes transport due to particle diffusion, settling, fluid advection, and shear stress. A settling model and a viscosity model, both functions of volume fraction, were selected to fit experimental settling and viscosity data, respectively. Simulations were performed with the open-source Nek5000 CFD program, which is based on the high-order spectral-finite-element method. Simulations were performed for the cellulose suspension undergoing mixing in a laboratory-scale vane mixer. The settled-bed heights predicted by the simulations were in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental observations. Further, the simulation results were in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained torque and mixing-rate data, including a characteristic torque bifurcation. In future work, we plan to couple this CFD model with a reaction-kinetics model for the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, allowing us to predict enzymatic digestion performance for various mixing intensities and novel reactor designs.

  1. Sedimentation from flocculated suspensions in the presence of settling-driven gravitational interface instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, Mohamad; Strom, Kyle

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally examine sedimentation from a freshwater suspension of clay flocs overlying saltwater in the presence of gravitational instabilities. The study seeks to determine: (1) if flocculation hampers or alters interface instability formation; (2) how the removal rates of sediment from the buoyant layer compare to those predicted by individual floc settling; and (3) whether or not it is possible to develop a model for effective settling velocity. The experiments were conducted in a tank at isothermal conditions. All experiments were initially stably stratified but later developed instabilities near the interface that grew into downward convecting plumes of fluid and sediment. Throughout, we measured sediment concentration in the upper and lower layers, floc size, and plume descent rates. The data showed that flocculation modifies the mixture settling velocity, and therefore shifts the mode of interface instability from double-diffusive (what one would expect from unflocculated clay) to settling-driven leaking and Rayleigh-Taylor instability formation. Removal rates of sediment from the upper layer in the presence of these instabilities were on the same order of magnitude as those predicted by individual floc settling. However, removal rates were found to better correlate with the speed of the interface plumes. A simple force-balance model was found to be capable of reasonably describing plume velocity based on concentration in the buoyant layer. This relation, coupled with a critical Grashof number and geometry relations, allowed us to develop a model for the effective settling velocity of the mixture based solely on integral values of the upper layer.

  2. Depth-variable settlement patterns and predation influence on newly settled reef fishes (Haemulon spp., Haemulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance K B Jordan

    Full Text Available During early demersal ontogeny, many marine fishes display complex habitat-use patterns. Grunts of the speciose genus Haemulon are among the most abundant fishes on western North Atlantic coral reefs, with most species settling to shallow habitats (≤12 m. To gain understanding into cross-shelf distributional patterns exhibited by newly settled stages of grunts (<2 cm total length, we examined: 1 depth-specific distributions of congeners at settlement among sites at 8 m, 12 m, and 21 m, and 2 depth-variable predation pressure on newly settled individuals (species pooled. Of the six species identified from collections of newly settled specimens (n = 2125, Haemulon aurolineatum (tomtate, H. flavolineatum (French grunt, and H. striatum (striped grunt comprised 98% of the total abundance; with the first two species present at all sites. Prevalence of H. aurolineatum and H. flavolineatum decreased substantially from the 8-m site to the two deeper sites. In contrast, H. striatum was absent from the 8-m site and exhibited its highest frequency at the 21-m site. Comparison of newly settled grunt delta density for all species on caged (predator exclusion and control artificial reefs at the shallowest site (8-m revealed no difference, while the 12-m and 21-m sites exhibited significantly greater delta densities on the caged treatment. This result, along with significantly higher abundances of co-occurring piscivorous fishes at the deeper sites, indicated lower predation pressure at the 8-m site. This study suggests habitat-use patterns of newly settled stages of some coral reef fishes that undergo ontogenetic shifts are a function of depth-variable predation pressure while, for at least one deeper-water species, proximity to adult habitat appears to be an important factor affecting settlement distribution.

  3. Dynamic of Mud Banks In French Guiana : An Experimental Investigation of Sediment Settling Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratiot, N.; Lefebvre, J. P.

    The coast of French Guiana is characterized by the periodic northwestward migration of mud banks originated from the Amazone mouth. From previous studies, the char- acteristical size of banks has been estimated by remote sensing processing as well as their mean rate of alongshore transport. However, the physical mecanisms leading to their displacements are not yet fully quantified. The present work aimed at investigating different processes known to be involved in coastal and estuarine dynamics and expected to occur during the migration of mud banks. The relative magnitudes of flocculation, hindered settling and consolidation have been determined. The material tested has been sampled during a field survey of the french National Pro- gram of Coastal Environment (PNEC-Chantier Guyane). Settling column experiments have been performed under quiescent condition for various mean sediment concen- trations in the range of 2-110g/l. The time dependent vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration were monitored by mean of a 32 pre-calibrated optical sen- sors device. The corresponding settling velocity was deduced from the conservation of mass equation. This study yields usefull information for a better understanding of settling processes related to the fluid mud layer observed on the forepart of the bank. Time scales of hindering and consolidation processes are larger than these of mixing mecanisms such as tides or propagating waves. Therefore, it prevents any consolidation to occur. At the opposite, the individual floc settling velocity is too small to counterbalance the turbulent mixing induced by breaking waves. The experiments also pointed out that additional flocculation by differential settling should enhance sedimentation during slack water conditions.

  4. [Appearance of aflatoxin M1 during the manufacture of Camembert cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémy, J M; Roiland, J C

    1979-01-01

    Several classic cheese making of camembert are made from raw milk spiked with Aflatoxin M1. Three Aflatoxin levels 7.5 microgram/l, 3 microgram/l are used. In respective curds 35.6, 47.1 and 57.7% of Aflatoxin M1 are recovered and 64.4, 52.9 and 42.3% in respective whey. During the first 15 days of storage the Aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decrease respectively 25, 55, 75%. A similar experience is made with a milk contamined in Aflatoxin M1 C14 labelled. Same results are recovered, except about behaviour of Aflatoxin M1 in cheese: a same C14 activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  5. Research advances and challenges in one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, M K

    2014-11-15

    Sedimentation is one of the most important processes that determine the performance of the activated sludge process (ASP), and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) have been frequently investigated with the mathematical models for design and operation optimization. Nevertheless their performance is often far from satisfactory. The starting point of this paper is a review of the development of settling theory, focusing on batch settling and the development of flux theory, since they played an important role in the early stage of SST investigation. The second part is an explicit review of the established 1-D SST models, including the relevant physical law, various settling behaviors (hindered, transient, and compression settling), the constitutive functions, and their advantages and disadvantages. The third part is a discussion of numerical techniques required to solve the governing equation, which is usually a partial differential equation. Finally, the most important modeling challenges, such as settleability description, settling behavior understanding, are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in in vitro dissolution properties of settled and airborne uranium material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Crist, K.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Soderholm, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The dissolution behavior of settled and airborne uranium material produced by firing of depleted uranium munitions was studied using an in vitro dissolution technique. Differences in the composition of bulk and respirable fraction samples of these materials were observed. Dissolution analysis results suggest that under some conditions a rapidly dissolving uranium fraction may be formed. This fraction may play an important role in determining hazard potential associated with inhalation exposure to uranium materials. The fact that a larger rapidly dissolving fraction was observed in the airborne material than in the settled material indicates that dissolution analysis should be performed on appropriate size fraction samples. 20 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  7. Settling distances of benthic invertebrates in a sediment mobilization simulation in semi-natural flumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drift time and distance depend on the ability of the drifting invertebrates to alter their body posture or by swimming, and these behaviors may change according to the local hydraulic environment, resulting in different distances travelled before exiting the drift. Such drift and settlement mediated invertebrate movement determine dispersal processes and ultimately generates distribution patterns within streams. We conducted an experiment in an open-air, artificial flume system directly fed by an Alpine stream, where we disturbed the sediment in the flumes, inducing catastrophic drift in the benthic community, and then assessed the settlement distances of benthic invertebrates. For each flume, we collected drift samples by disturbing the substrate at 1.5 m intervals, at increasing distance from the downstream end, for a total of 7 disturbances and a maximum settling distance of 10 m in each flume, with five replicates (i.e., five flumes for each disturbance. The disturbances induced a massive catastrophic drift in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, always higher than the behaviorally-occurring basedrift. The Settling Index calculated over the total drift collected at each distance increased with increasing distance, and after 10 m, 90% of the drifting animals had settled. Evenness and taxa richness progressively decrease with increasing settling distance. All drifting taxa were represented mainly by young instars. We used the drift collected at 1 m from the disturbance to standardize the remaining samples, based on the assumption that 1 m is not a distance long enough to allow animals to settle at that water velocity. We calculated the percentage of possible drifters which settled by computing a Settling Index for each taxon. The drifting taxa listed by decreasing Settling Index scores were Epeorus sp., Rhithrogena semicolorata, Isoperla spp., Sericostoma spp., Ecdyonurus spp., Nemoura spp., Leuctra spp., Baetis spp., Hydropsyche spp

  8. Gravitational settling of a highly concentrated system of solid spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Usanina, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the process of gravity sedimentation of a cloud of monodispersed solid spherical particles with initial volume concentration C > 0.03, which was performed in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An analytical estimate of the settling regimes of spherical particle clouds is presented. A new method for creating a spherical particle cloud with a high concentration of particles is proposed. A qualitative picture of the settling process of a highly concentrated particle cloud under gravity is revealed. A criterial dependence for the drag coefficient of a sedimenting spherical particle cloud as an entity is obtained.

  9. Estimation of settling velocity of sediment particles in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiha, Hussain J.; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-04-01

    A model for estimating the settling velocity of sediment particles (spherical and non-spherical) in estuarine and coastal waters is developed and validated using experimental data. The model combines the physical, optical and hydrodynamic properties of the particles and medium to estimate the sediment settling velocity. The well-known Stokes law is broadened to account for the influencing factors of settling velocity such as particle size, shape and density. To derive the model parameters, laboratory experiments were conducted using natural flaky seashells, spherical beach sands and ball-milled seashell powders. Spectral light backscattering measurements of settling particles in a water tank were made showing a distinct optical feature with a peak shifting from 470-490 nm to 500-520 nm for particle populations from spherical to flaky grains. This significant optical feature was used as a proxy to make a shape determination in the present model. Other parameters experimentally determined included specific gravity (ΔSG) , Corey shape factor (CSF) , median grain diameter (D50) , drag coefficient (Cd) and Reynolds number (Re) . The CSF values considered ranged from 0.2 for flaky to 1.0 for perfectly spherical grains and Reynolds numbers from 2.0 to 105 for the laminar to turbulent flow regimes. The specific gravity of submerged particles was optically derived and used along with these parameters to estimate the sediment settling velocity. Comparison with the experiment data showed that the present model estimated settling velocities of spherical and non-spherical particles that were closely consistent with the measured values. Findings revealed that for a given D50, the flaky particles caused a greater decrease in settling velocity than the spherical particles which suggests that the particle shape factor has a profound role in influencing the sediment settling velocity and drag coefficients, especially in transitional and turbulent flow regimes. The present model can

  10. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8) CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  11. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  12. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Elena; Marti, M. Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Burger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Francois, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distribu...

  13. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  14. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in ...

  16. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M(1) subtype (oxotremorine ...'s abuse-related effects, whereas non-M(1)/M(4) receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine effects of systemically applied, M(1) receptor agonists and suggest the possibility of a new approach to pharmacotherapy...

  17. Triaxiality and alternating M1 strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabor, S L; Johnson, T D; Holcombe, J W; Womble, P C; Doring, J; Nazarewicz, W [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of alternating patterns in B(M1) strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei is surveyed. The M1 alternations in a sequence of N= 41 isotones, in conjunction with particle-rotor model calculations, is shown to provide information about changing {gamma} deformation. In addition to other odd-A nuclei, several odd-odd nuclei are shown to exhibit alternating B(M1) values and signature inversion. alternations have also been reported in a 4 quasiparticle band in {sup 86}Zr, where they have been interpreted in terms of the interacting boson model. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  18. Fine structure of the giant M1 resonance in 90Zr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G; Tsoneva, N; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Schwengner, R; Tonchev, A P; Adekola, A S; Hammond, S L; Kelley, J H; Kwan, E; Lenske, H; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2013-01-11

    The M1 excitations in the nuclide 90Zr have been studied in a photon-scattering experiment with monoenergetic and linearly polarized beams from 7 to 11 MeV. More than 40 J(π)=1+ states have been identified from observed ground-state transitions, revealing the fine structure of the giant M1 resonance with a centroid energy of 9 MeV and a sum strength of 4.17(56) μ(N)(2). The result for the total M1 strength and its fragmentation are discussed in the framework of the three-phonon quasiparticle-phonon model.

  19. Helmint eggs elimination performance during lammelar settling and sand filters in Beniel WWTP (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Cardin Mifsut, C.; Pacheco Ballarin, S.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Vicente Gonzalez, J. A.; Llosar Llacer, C.

    2010-01-01

    With this study, it was observed Ascaris suum eggs elimination yield of tertiary treatment in Beniel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Murcia Region (Spain). It was inoculated a sample of Ascaris suum eggs in the treatment in maximum flow conditions and it was calculated the retention yield of the lamellar settling and sand filters. (Author) 3 refs.

  20. Factors controlling the field settling velocity of cohesive sediment in estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in the correlation of the description of W-50 and the controlling parameters from each area can be obtained. A generic algorithm describing the data from all the investigated areas is suggested. It works well within specific tidal areas but fails to give a generic description of the field settling velocity....

  1. Recognizing the ‘sparsely settled forest’: Multi-decade socioecological change dynamics and community exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek B. Van Berkel; Bronwyn Rayfield; Sebastián Martinuzzi; Martin J. Lechowicz; Eric White; Kathleen P. Bell; Chris R. Colocousis; Kent F. Kovacs; Anita T. Morzillo; Darla K. Munroe; Benoit Parmentier; Volker C. Radeloff; Brian J. McGill

    2018-01-01

    Sparsely settled forests (SSF) are poorly studied, coupled natural and human systems involving rural communities in forest ecosystems that are neither largely uninhabited wildland nor forests on the edges of urban areas. We developed and applied a multidisciplinary approach to define, map, and examine changes in the spatial extent and structure of both the landscapes...

  2. 13 CFR 142.38 - Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily? 142.38 Section 142.38 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.38 Can the administrative...

  3. 45 CFR 681.42 - Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can the administrative complaint be settled voluntarily? 681.42 Section 681.42 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.42 Can the...

  4. Integrated real time control of influent pumping station and primary settling tanks at WWTP Eindhoven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daal-Rombouts, P.M.M.; de Jonge, J; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This research deals with the design and implementation of an integrated control for the WWTP of Eindhoven. The control influences the operation of the primary settling tanks and influent pumping station to reduce reduce ammonia peaks in the WWTP effluent. The control takes into account the treatment

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation in process reactors during aeration tank settling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D; Ingildsen, P; Rasmussen, M R; Laursen, J

    2006-01-01

    Aeration tank settling is a control method allowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration tank settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plants using the present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. This paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet and outlet causing a disruption of the sludge blanket at the outlet and thereby reducing the retention of sludge in the process tank. The model has allowed us to establish a clear picture of the problems arising at the plant during aeration tank settling. Secondly, several process tank design changes have been suggested and tested by means of computational fluid dynamics modelling. The most promising design changes have been found and reported.

  6. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools : The HITEA school study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. H.; Krop, E. J M; Borras-Santos, A.; Zock, J. P.; Taubel, M.; Hyvarinnen, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D. J J

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with

  7. Particle imaging velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations on a single sphere settling under gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Cate, A.; Nieuwstad, C.H.; Derksen, J.J.; Van den Akker, H.E.A.

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between experiments and simulations on a single sphere settling in silicon oil in a box. Cross-correlation particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out at particle Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.5 to 31.9. The particle Stokes number varied from 0.2 to 4 and at

  8. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Ferguson, C.; Koopman, D.

    2011-01-27

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. This process adds monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution (and entrained sludge solids). While the process is operating, the solid particles will begin to settle at temperatures up to 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods (i.e., 1-61 days) at elevated temperatures (i.e., 23-80 C) can develop large shear strengths which could make them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors are conducting rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge, MST, and crystalline silicotitanate (CST, ground and unground) that have been aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally heated to 30, 45, or 60 C. Additional tests are being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of settling time and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This document describes the rheology of slurries containing MST and simulated sludge that sat at elevated temperatures (i.e., up to 60 C) for up to 13 weeks. Rheology of CST-containing slurries, as well as results of the long term settling (6, 12, and 24 months) and irradiation tests (10 and 100 MRad), will be reported later. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) MST only slurries that sat at elevated temperatures had larger shear strength, yield stress, and consistency than MST plus sludge slurries that

  9. Rheology Of Settled Solids In The Small Column Ion Exchange Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.; Ferguson, C.; Koopman, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. This process adds monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution (and entrained sludge solids). While the process is operating, the solid particles will begin to settle at temperatures up to 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods (i.e., 1-61 days) at elevated temperatures (i.e., 23-80 C) can develop large shear strengths which could make them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors are conducting rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge, MST, and crystalline silicotitanate (CST, ground and unground) that have been aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally heated to 30, 45, or 60 C. Additional tests are being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of settling time and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This document describes the rheology of slurries containing MST and simulated sludge that sat at elevated temperatures (i.e., up to 60 C) for up to 13 weeks. Rheology of CST-containing slurries, as well as results of the long term settling (6, 12, and 24 months) and irradiation tests (10 and 100 MRad), will be reported later. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) MST only slurries that sat at elevated temperatures had larger shear strength, yield stress, and consistency than MST plus sludge slurries that

  10. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  11. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  12. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of lactating cows is a public health issue, and because of its importance several techniques are used for its detection and quantification. These techniques include the physical-chemical as thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and the biological techniques including immunoassays such as RIA and ELISA. This review aimed to present the techniques used to quantify aflatoxins M1 and M2 in milk and dairy products.

  13. Addendum to 'Half coalescence of the m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.

    1985-01-01

    As an addendum to our previous work concerning the half-coalescence instability of an m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks, the potential energy is given for an arbitrary shape of the separatrix. (orig.)

  14. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  15. Inelastic electron scattering, fine structure of M1 giant resonances and Gamow-Teller states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in obtaining detailed fine structure distributions of magnetic giant resonances in nuclei using high resolution inelastic electron scattering at low energy is discussed. Specific examples chosen are the medium heavy nuclei 40 42 44 48 Ca in which M1 excitations are due to neutron spin-flip transitions and the N=28 isotones 50 Ti, 52 Cr and 54 Fe where in addition also proton excitations contribute to the measured M1 strength. It is found that the M1 strength is very fragmented and considerably quenched in comparison to predictions of shell model calculations in a model space that includes up to 2p-2h excitations. Finally, the old problem of M1 strength in 208 Pb is revisited and the results of a form factor measurement of a recently discovered low lying Jsup(π)=1 + state by nuclear resonance fluorescence are presented. (Auth.)

  16. The mutual dependence of M1 fertility and M2 mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1982-01-01

    The mutual dependence of M 1 fertility and M 2 mutations in rice was studied after treatment with gamma rays and EMS. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with decrease in seed fertility when M 1 ears were selected at random. However, at the lowest fertility class the mutation frequency was low. This reduction is attributed to the elimination of mutants in the high sterility class. The mutation yield can therefore be significantly enhanced by selecting M 1 ears of low fertility. The segregation ratio of mutants increased as fertility decreased. Mutation spectrum was however not influenced by M 1 fertility. This makes selection for fertility quite ineffective in altering the mutation spectrum. (author)

  17. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes, R.; Berg, J. S.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Liu, A.; Pasternak, J.; Rogers, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  18. 76 FR 799 - Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Entities Claiming Exception. It is generally identical to the...

  19. Colloidal stability of suspended and agglomerate structures of settled carbon nanotubes in different aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often processed in suspended form and therefore a release of CNT-suspensions into the aquatic environment is plausible. In this study, the behaviour of two physico-chemically very different CNT types in the presence of varying, environmentally relevant calcium-containing media was investigated, including the long-term colloidal stability and the sedimentary structures of settled CNTs. Calcium induced CNT flocculation, however, the stability of the CNTs in the medium did not monotonously decrease with increasing calcium concentration. At intermediate calcium concentrations (0.5-1.5 mM Ca) pre-dispersed CNTs were stabilized in humic acid medium to similar, temporarily even to higher degree than in the absence of calcium. Between pH 5 and 8 only at the highest pH an influence on CNT stability was observed by either promoting flocculation or stabilisation depending on the CNT type. Humic acid stabilized CNTs much better than fulvic acid. Generally, the colloidal stability of the long, thick CNTs with higher surface oxygen content was less affected by the media composition. An investigation of the settled CNT material using analytical electron microscopy revealed the presence of spheroidal, bundle-like and net like CNT-agglomerate structures. Calcium possibly acted as bridging agent linking CNTs in a network like manner, temporarily increasing the CNT concentrations stabilized in the supernatants due to the low density of these structures. With increasing settling time the CNTs formed a fluffy sediment layer at the bottom of the reaction vessels. Bundle-like CNT agglomerates were also observed within that layer of settled CNTs, possibly caused by calcium neutralizing the surface charges. Furthermore, the CNT suspensions contained spheroidal CNT agglomerates, most likely residues from the original dry powder that were not disaggregated. The analysis of settled CNT material is a novelty and illustrates CNT agglomerate structures possibly

  20. Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-08-01

    Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  2. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  3. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  4. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Thiago Pereira Motta; Thamires Martins; Livia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, preg...

  5. Toroidal effects on the non-linearly saturated m = 1 island in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Haas, F.A.; Thyagaraja, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of toroidal effects (due to the coupling of various poloidal harmonics) on the non-linear saturation of the m=1 island. Bounds are obtained relating the aspect ratio, the shear at the q=1 surface and the saturated island width. Provided these bounds are satisfied, then we find that the cylindrical m=1 island theory is valid for toroidal geometry. (author)

  6. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  7. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  8. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  9. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  10. The effect of proton correlations in the M1 scattering strengths of even calcium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, L.; Poves, A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton correlations are evaluated in Ca isotopes using the wave functions obtained in an extended shell model calculation in the [1dsub(3/2), 1fsub(7/2), 1fsub(5/2)] valence space. The inclusion of 2p-2h correlations in M1 scattering strengths and magnetic moments improves the agrreement with the experimental data. The M1 strength in 40 Ca is correctly reproduced. (orig.)

  11. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  12. [Recombinant human gapM1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its anti-diabetic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiang; Du, Renqian; Li, Xi; Huang, Haiyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Qiqun

    2009-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue, and it can lower the blood glucose level and increase free fatty acid oxidation. In the current study, we developed the globular domain of adiponectin (gapM1) to treat type II diabetes. In both flask and fermentor, we cultivated Pichia pastoris expressing recombinant gapM1 and established the purification procedure by using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. To evaluate the biological activity of recombinant gapM1, we used rat type II diabetes model fed high-fat diet in combination with low-dose STZ (Streptozocin) induction. We purified 200 mg gapM1 with purity of 96% from 10 liters of supernatant. The recombinant gapM1 significantly lowered blood glucose (34.2%), serum triglyceride (79.6%) and total cholesterol (62.1%) in type II diabetes induced rat. Therefore, the recombinant human gapM1 is successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and effectively treated type II diabetes in rat models.

  13. The improvement of M1 polarization in macrophages by glycopeptide derived from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Jie; Li, Wei-Dong; Niu, Yan-Dong; Sun, Yu; Hu, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Duan, Xin-Suo

    2017-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Ganodermataceae) is a medicinal mushroom that has been extensively used in China for centuries to promote longevity and improve vigor without significant adverse effects. There is continuous interest in the bioactive properties of G. lucidum in view of its newly developed popularity in other regions besides Asia, such as Europe. Glycopeptide derived from G. lucidum (Gl-PS) is one of the main effective components isolated from this mushroom. The Gl-PS has been demonstrated pleiotropic with many bioactivities including immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Macrophages are important cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2), with their different roles, display distinct cytokine profiles: M1 preferentially produces TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12; conversely, M2 generates more IL-10 and arginase. Gl-PS might have the potential to promote macrophage M1 polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, LPS was used to induce the M1 polarization. It was shown that the level of the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 were increased and the IL-10 and arginase I were decreased in the polarized M1 macrophages after application of Gl-PS compared to the control. The results indicated the potential of Gl-PS to promote M1 polarization vs M2, with the health beneficial understanding of the bioactivities of Gl-PS.

  14. AP4M1 is abnormally expressed in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Cheng, X Y; Sheng, G Y

    2014-03-20

    AP4M1 mutations have been suggested to be associated with autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome. But the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how AP4M1 expression is changed in injured neurons. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared for this experiment. They were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leading to apoptosis, mimicking brain ischemia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was labeled immunofluorescently to confirm that the purity of neuron was higher than 90%. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the gene expression. AP4M1 was labeled with MAP2 or Tau-1 to observe the distribution. We found that the AP4M1 protein levels immediately after the procedure were similar between the OGD group and the sham group. However, down-regulation was observed 12h after the reperfusion, and became more notable at 24h. The real-time PCR showed similar results, except that the down-regulation of mRNA was able to be detected immediately after the OGD. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed AP4M1 distributed in the dendrites of normal neurons, but it redistributed to the axons after the OGD procedure. In conclusion, AP4M1 is not only down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, but also redistributed from dendrites to axons in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with inelastic proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, M.; Birkhan, J.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Tamii, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The quenching of spin-isospin modes in nuclei is an important field of research in nuclear structure. It has an impact on astrophysical reaction rates and on fundamental processes like neutrinoless double-β decay. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-flip M 1 strengths are quenched. Concerning the latter, the Jπ=1+ resonance in the doubly magic nucleus 48Ca, dominated by a single transition, serves as a reference case. Purpose: The aim of the present work is to search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with a high-resolution (p ,p') experiment at 295 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ and a comparison with results from a similar study using backward-angle electron scattering at low momentum transfers in order to estimate their contribution to the total B (M 1 ) strength in 48Ca. Methods: The spin-M 1 cross sections of individual peaks in the spectra are deduced with a multipole decomposition analysis (MDA) and converted to reduced spin-M 1 transition strengths by using the unit cross-section method. For a comparison with electron-scattering results, corresponding reduced B (M 1 ) transition strengths are extracted following the approach outlined in Birkhan et al. [Phys. Rev. C 93, 041302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041302]. Results: In total, 30 peaks containing a M 1 contribution are found in the excitation energy region 7-13 MeV. The resulting B (M 1 ) strength distribution compares well to the electron-scattering results considering different factors limiting the sensitivity in both experiments and the enhanced importance of mechanisms breaking the proportionality of nuclear cross sections and electromagnetic matrix elements for weak transitions as studied here. The total strength of 1.14(7) μN2 deduced assuming a nonquenched isoscalar part of the (p ,p') cross sections agrees with the (e ,e') result of 1.21(13) μN2. A bin-wise analysis above 10 MeV provides an upper limit of 1.51(17) μN2. Conclusions: The present results confirm the previous electron

  16. Distributions of Heterocyst Glycolipids in Settling Particulate Matter Record Ecological and Environmental Parameters in a Tropical Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan Kumar, D.; Hopmans, E.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.; Bauersachs, T.; Werne, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is a critical component of paleoenvironmental reconstructions, yet it is notoriously difficult to measure in terrestrial archives. Presented here is an investigation of unique glycolipids produced by heterocystous cyanobacteria, so-called heterocyst glycolipids (HGs), in the water column of Lake Malawi (East Africa). The goal of the study is to evaluate the potential of HGs to function as a paleotemperature proxy in tropical lacustrine environments. HGs in Lake Malawi were extracted from settling particulate matter (SPM) collected at bi-monthly intervals from 2011 - 2013. Sediment traps were moored in the metalimnion of both the north and south basins of the lake in order to evaluate the spatial and the temporal trends in lipid production and export. This study is the first to analyze HGs in SPM and contains the longest time-series of HG production in a natural environment to date. HGs are consistently present throughout the three-year study period, but maximum fluxes occur annually in December, coincident with the timing of cyanobacterial blooms in the lake. HGs in SPM appear to be sourced from living cyanobacteria populations, indicating rapid export of the lipids through the water column. Temperatures reconstructed with published HG-based indices, which are derived from the relative abundances of HG diols and triols to HG keto-(di)ols, do not accurately reflect the seasonal variability in measured surface water temperatures. Rather, the production of C28 HG keto-ols appears to be related to the timing of heterocyst differentiation. Heterocystous cyanobacteria in Lake Malawi may instead respond to growth temperatures by elongating the alkyl side chain of HG diols, as indicated by increases in the abundance of the C28 HG diol relative to the C26 HG diol with warmer surface water temperatures. Distributions of HGs thus may indeed provide a novel tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in tropical lakes.

  17. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks...... (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D...... of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets...

  18. β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages: Comprehensive localization in the M1–M2 spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Ho, Hsin-Yun; Ong, Tiffany H.; Kawanishi, Carly K.; Stoffers, Victoria L.; Ahlawat, Nivedita; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2016-01-01

    β-adrenergic signaling can regulate macrophage involvement in several diseases and often produces anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, which are similar to M2 properties in a dichotomous M1 vs. M2 macrophage taxonomy. However, it is not clear that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages may be classified strictly as M2. In this in vitro study, we utilized recently published criteria and transcriptome-wide bioinformatics methods to map the relative polarity of murine β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages within a wider M1–M2 spectrum. Results show that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages did not fit entirely into any one predefined category of the M1–M2 spectrum but did express genes that are representative of some M2 side categories. Moreover, transcript origin analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles located β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages firmly on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum and found active suppression of M1 side gene transcripts. The signal transduction pathways involved were mapped through blocking experiments and bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor binding motifs. M2-promoting effects were mediated specifically through β2-adrenergic receptors and were associated with CREB, C/EBPβ, and ATF transcription factor pathways but not with established M1–M2 STAT pathways. Thus, β-adrenergic-signaling induces a macrophage transcriptome that locates on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum but likely accomplishes this effect through a signaling pathway that is atypical for M2-spectrum macrophages. PMID:27485040

  19. Learning stage-dependent effect of M1 disruption on value-based motor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Demaret, Sophie; Zénon, Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2017-11-15

    The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money. We investigated the functional contribution of M1 to the implementation of the implicit rule in subjects' motor decisions. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over M1 either on Day 1 or on Day 3, producing a temporary lesion either during reinforcement learning (cTBS Learning group) or after consolidation of the implicit rule, during decision-making (cTBS Decision group), respectively. Interestingly, disrupting M1 activity on Day 1 improved the reliance on the implicit rule, plausibly because M1 cTBS increased dopamine release in the putamen in an indirect way. This finding corroborates the view that cTBS may affect activity in unstimulated areas, such as the basal ganglia. Notably, this effect was short-lasting; it did not persist overnight, suggesting that the functional integrity of M1 during learning is a prerequisite for the consolidation of implicit value information to occur. Besides, cTBS over M1 did not impact the use of the implicit rule when applied on Day 3, although it did so when applied on Day 2 in a recent study where the reliance on the implicit rule declined following cTBS (Derosiere et al., 2017). Overall, these findings indicate that the human M1 is functionally involved in the consolidation and implementation of implicit value information underlying motor decisions. However, M1 contribution seems to vanish as subjects become more experienced in using

  20. Hyperglycemia induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moganti, Kondaiah; Li, Feng; Schmuttermaier, Christina; Riemann, Sarah; Klüter, Harald; Gratchev, Alexei; Harmsen, Martin C; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in diabetic pathology. Macrophages are essential regulators of inflammation which can be classified into two major vectors of polarisation: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Both types of macrophages play a role in diabetes, where M1 and M2-produced cytokines can have detrimental effects in development of diabetes-associated inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on differentiation and programming of primary human macrophages was not systematically studied. We established a unique model to assess the influence of hyperglycaemia on M1 and M2 differentiation based on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. The effects of hyperglycaemia on the gene expression and secretion of prototype M1 cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and prototype M2 cytokines IL-1Ra and CCL18 were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Hyperglycaemia stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra during macrophage differentiation. The effect of hyperglycaemia on TNF-alpha was acute, while the stimulating effect on IL-1beta and IL-1Ra was constitutive. Expression of CCL18 was supressed in M2 macrophages by hyperglycaemia. However the secreted levels remained to be biologically significant. Our data indicate that hyperglycaemia itself, without additional metabolic factors induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile that can support of diabetes-associated inflammation and development of vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

  2. First case report of M1 macrophage polarization in an untreated symptomatic patient with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Graziano; Di Lisio, Chiara; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Liberatore, Marcella; Aiello, Francesca Bianca

    2018-03-27

    In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease. Following laboratory, radiological, and pathological analyses, she was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on lymph node sections. More than 50% of the macrophages in the lymph node microgranulomas were M1 macrophages, defined by CD68 + /p-Stat1 + staining, and the presence of T helper 1 lymphocytes indicated an immune response known to induce M1 macrophage polarization. Activated endothelial cells were found only in inflamed areas. No therapy was administered before or after diagnosis, and the lymphadenopathy resolved after a follow-up of 5 months. This is the first report to demonstrate the presence of M1 macrophages in human toxoplasmosis. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and encourage further studies on the role of macrophage polarization in human toxoplasmosis.

  3. Dopaminergic mesocortical projections to M1: role in motor learning and motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aurel Hosp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the architecture of a dopaminergic (DA system within the primary motorcortex (M1 was well characterized anatomically, its functional significance remainedobscure for a long time. Recent studies in rats revealed that the integrity ofdopaminergic fibers in M1 is a prerequisite for successful acquisition of motor skills.This essential contribution of DA for motor learning is plausible as it modulates M1circuitry at multiple levels thereby promoting plastic changes that are required forinformation storage: at the network level, DA increases cortical excitability andenhances the stability of motor maps. At the cellular level, DA induces the expressionof learning related genes via the transcription factor c-fos. At the level of synapses,DA is required for the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP, a mechanism thatlikely is a fingerprint of a motor memory trace within M1. Dopaminergic fibersinnervating M1 originate within the midbrain, precisely the ventral tegmental area(VTA and the medial portion of substantia nigra (SN. Thus, they could be part of themeso-cortico-limibic pathway – a network that provides information about saliencyand motivational value of an external stimulus and is commonly referred as

  4. Nonlinear ω*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Zakharov, L.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies ω* i,e are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important

  5. Analysis of experimental air-detritiation data using TSOAK-M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Minkoff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code (TSOAK-M1) has been developed which permits the determination of tritium reaction (T 2 to HTO)/adsorption/release and instrument correction parameters from enclosure (building) detritiation test data. The code is based on a simplified model which treats each parameter as a normalized time-independent constant throughout the data-unfolding steps. TSOAK-M1 was used to analyze existing small-cubicle test data with good success, and the resulting normalized parameters were employed to evaluate hypothetical reactor-building detritiation scenarios. It was concluded from the latter evaluation that the complications associated with moisture formation, adsorption, and release, particularly in terms of extended cleanup times, may not be as great as was previously thought. It is recommended that the validity of the TSOAK-M1 model be tested using data from detritiation tests conducted on large experimental enclosures (5 to 10 m 3 ) and, if possible, actual facility buildings

  6. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  7. Application of commercial RIA kit in investigating milk contamination with M1 aflatoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Measured were samples of commercially sold milk produced by two Czech dairies and samples of unprocessed cow's milk from three farms. The determination of aflatoxin M 1 in liquid milk was carried out with a RIA-test-aflatoxin M 1 B 1 kit. The range of the calibration curve of the kit is 0.06 to 2.0 μg/l. In samples of commercially sold milk a higher share of aflatoxin M 1 free samples was found (93%) and 7% samples contained 0.050 to 0.1 μg aflatoxin/l. The dilution effect was manifest in commercially sold milk. On the other hand in 7% samples of raw milk aflatoxin concentration exceeded the limits set by hygiene inspection bodies for consumption by infants. The detected aflatoxin concentrations are compared with data from abroad. (E.S.). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  8. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  9. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  10. Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Langseth, Wenche; Kristensen, Petter; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesise that inhalant exposure to mycotoxins causes developmental outcomes and certain hormone-related cancers that are associated with grain farming in an epidemiological study. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate determinants of measured trichothecene mycotoxins in grain dust as work environmental trichothecene exposure indicators. Settled grain dust was collected in 92 Norwegian farms during seasons of 1999 and 2000. Production characteristics and climatic data were studied as determinants of trichothecenes in settled dust samples obtained during the production of barley (N = 59), oats (N = 32), and spring wheat (N = 13). Median concentrations of trichothecenes in grain dust were grain dust in this study. Differences in cereal species, production properties and districts contributed less to explain mycotoxin concentrations. Fungal forecasts are validated as indicators of mycotoxin exposure of grain farmers and their use in epidemiological studies may be warranted.

  11. First evidence for spin-flip M1 strength in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.C.; Rainovski, G.; Pietralla, N.; Ahn, T.; Costin, A.; Tonchev, A.P.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A.; Parpottas, Y.; Perdue, B.A.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R.; Angell, C.; Keeter, K.J.; Li, J.; Mikhailov, S.; Wu, Y.K.; Lisetskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 40 Ar(γ→,γ ' ) photon scattering reaction was used to search for spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar. The nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam of HIγS, in an energy region from 7.7 to 11 MeV, was employed in this study. 28 dipole excitations were observed. The azimuthal intensity asymmetry indicated that all of these states were E1 except for the state at E x =9.757 MeV. Shell-model calculations were used to interpret this state as one fragment of the spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar

  12. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and radionuclides sorption of suspended particulate matters in freshwater according to their settling kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brach-Papa, C.; Boyer, P.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.

    2004-01-01

    In freshwater, the transfers of radionuclides depend both on exchanges between liquid and solid phases and on mass transfers between suspended matter and bottom sediment. Whereas the former ones depend on chemical processes (such as sorption/desorption, complexation, the latter ones are regulated by hydrological and sedimentary considerations (dispersion, erosion, deposit closely related to the interactions between flow, suspended matter and bed sediment. Some of our previous studies highlight the need to consider the matter heterogeneity and its specific sediment dynamics to correctly report the inhomogeneity of fluxes in time and in space. These considerations lead us to develop experimental methods to distinguish the different matter classes, present in natural water, mainly according to their erosion threshold and settling kinetics. In this context, this paper presents the experimental protocol TALISMEN to characterize a natural bulk suspension according the identification of its main settling kinetics groups. In a first step, this identification is achieved by the use of a settling tank, that allows the monitoring of the suspended solid concentration at various depths, combined to a vertical mono-dimensional settling model applying a multi-class approach. In a second step, the particle groups are isolated and their physico-chemical properties are determined ( i.e mineral composition, specific surface area, particulate organic carbon, in order to fully characterized them. In a last one, the sorption property of each group toward radionuclides is determined by the measurements of its distribution coefficients (Kd). The results confirm the interest to consider these heterogeneities for the modelling of the radionuclides transfer in freshwater. From one group to other, these heterogeneities appear at two levels: 1) their sediment dynamics and 2) their radionuclides sorption properties. These conclusions can be equally applying to others xenobiotics as heavy metals

  14. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  15. Effects of Turbulence on Settling Velocities of Synthetic and Natural Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C.; Jendrassak, M.; Gurka, R.; Hackett, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    For large-scale sediment transport predictions, an important parameter is the settling or terminal velocity of particles because it plays a key role in determining the concentration of sediment particles within the water column as well as the deposition rate of particles onto the seabed. The settling velocity of particles is influenced by the fluid dynamic environment as well as attributes of the particle, such as its size, shape, and density. This laboratory study examines the effects of turbulence, generated by an oscillating grid, on both synthetic and natural particles for a range of flow conditions. Because synthetic particles are spherical, they serve as a reference for the natural particles that are irregular in shape. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed imaging systems were used simultaneously to study the interaction between the fluid mechanics and sediment particles' dynamics in a tank. The particles' dynamics were analyzed using a custom two-dimensional tracking algorithm used to obtain distributions of the particle's velocity and acceleration. Turbulence properties, such as root-mean-square turbulent velocity and vorticity, were calculated from the PIV data. Results are classified by Stokes number, which was based-on the integral scale deduced from the auto-correlation function of velocity. We find particles with large Stokes numbers are unaffected by the turbulence, while particles with small Stokes numbers primarily show an increase in settling velocity in comparison to stagnant flow. The results also show an inverse relationship between Stokes number and standard deviation of the settling velocity. This research enables a better understanding of the interdependence between particles and turbulent flow, which can be used to improve parameterizations in large-scale sediment transport models.

  16. Escherichia coli in settled-dust and air samples collected in residential environments in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, I; Salinas, E; Yela, A; Calva, E; Eslava, C; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and outdoor environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this study suggest that intestinal infections produced by environmental strains could be of more e...

  17. Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Stefanie; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Path-based transaction (PBT) networks, which settle payments from one user to another via a path of intermediaries, are a growing area of research. They overcome the scalability and privacy issues in cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum by replacing expensive and slow on-chain blockchain operations with inexpensive and fast off-chain transfers. In the form of credit networks such as Ripple and Stellar, they also enable low-price real-time gross settlements across different currencies. F...

  18. Settling fluxes and ecotoxicological risk assessment of fine sedimentary metals in Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2018-01-01

    Sediment traps were deployed in the Tema Harbour to estimate the settling fluxes of silt-clay particles and associated metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Hg, Sn and As) and characterise their potential ecotoxicological risks. The mean daily settling fluxes of the silt-clay particles and associated metals ranged from 42.7 to 85.0gm -2 d -1 and 1.3×10 -2 to 49.4mgm -2 d -1 , respectively, and were characterised by large fluctuations at each station. The silt-clay and metal fluxes strongly correlated, indicating the important role of the silt-clay particles in metal transport and distribution in the harbour. Geochemical indices indicated anthropogenic influences on the harbour as the Pb, Cr, Zn, Hg, Sn and As content in the settling silt-clay particles exceeded their average crustal concentrations. Sediment quality guidelines indicated these metals pose appreciable ecotoxicological risks, particularly As. Increasing temporal trends in As necessitates increased pollution control efforts at the harbour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Settling time of dental x-ray tube head after positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol; Wang, Se Myung; Koh, Chang Sung

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a method of obtaining the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube heads relative to time using an accelerometer. An Accelerometer, Piezotron type 8704B25 (Kistler Instrument Co., Amherst, NY, USA) was utilized to measure the horizontal oscillation of the x-ray tube head immediately after positioning the tube head for an intraoral radiograph. The signal from the sensor was transferred to a dynamic signal analyzer, which displayed the magnitude of the acceleration on the Y-axis and time lapse on the X-axis. The horizontal oscillation of the tube head was measured relative to time, and the settling time was also determined on the basis of the acceleration graphs for 6 wall type, 5 floor-fixed type, and 4 mobile type dental x-ray machines. The oscillation graphs showed that tube head movement decreased rapidly over time. The settling time varied with x-ray machine types. Wall-type x-ray machines had a settling time of up to 6 seconds, 5 seconds for fixed floor-types, and 11 seconds for the mobile-types. Using an accelerometer, we obtained the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube head relative to time. The oscillation graph with time can guide the operator to decide upon the optimum exposure moment after xray tube head positioning for better radiographic resolution.

  20. Settling time of dental x-ray tube head after positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Se Myung; Koh, Chang Sung [Department of Mechatronics, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce a method of obtaining the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube heads relative to time using an accelerometer. An Accelerometer, Piezotron type 8704B25 (Kistler Instrument Co., Amherst, NY, USA) was utilized to measure the horizontal oscillation of the x-ray tube head immediately after positioning the tube head for an intraoral radiograph. The signal from the sensor was transferred to a dynamic signal analyzer, which displayed the magnitude of the acceleration on the Y-axis and time lapse on the X-axis. The horizontal oscillation of the tube head was measured relative to time, and the settling time was also determined on the basis of the acceleration graphs for 6 wall type, 5 floor-fixed type, and 4 mobile type dental x-ray machines. The oscillation graphs showed that tube head movement decreased rapidly over time. The settling time varied with x-ray machine types. Wall-type x-ray machines had a settling time of up to 6 seconds, 5 seconds for fixed floor-types, and 11 seconds for the mobile-types. Using an accelerometer, we obtained the oscillation graphs of the dental x-ray tube head relative to time. The oscillation graph with time can guide the operator to decide upon the optimum exposure moment after xray tube head positioning for better radiographic resolution.

  1. Low power fast settling multi-standard current reusing CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Wenfeng; Feng Peng; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2012-01-01

    A low power fast settling multi-standard CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer is proposed.The current reusing and frequency presetting techniques are adopted to realize the low power fast settling multi-standard fractional-N frequency synthesizer.An auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) is embedded to avoid the repetitive calibration process and to save power in practical application.This PLL is implemented in a 0.18μm technology.The frequency range is 0.3 to 2.54 GHz and the settling time is less than 5μs over the entire frequency range.The LC-VCO with the stacked divide-by-2 has a good figure of merit of-193.5 dBc/Hz.The measured phase noise of frequency synthesizer is about -115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset when the carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz and the reference spurs are less than -52 dBc.The whole frequency synthesizer consumes only 4.35 mA @ 1.8 V.

  2. Study of virgin olive oil clarification by settling under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Abraham; Bejaoui, Mohamed Aymen; Beltrán, Gabriel; Aguilera, María Paz; Jiménez, Antonio

    2018-04-16

    Vertical centrifugation is the main method for virgin olive oil (VOO) clarification. However, in recent years, settling tanks are also being used to clarify the oils from decanters. They can operate under static or dynamic conditions. In this work, vertical centrifugation and settling under dynamic conditions for VOO clarification and their effects on VOO characteristics were compared. VOO quality parameters were not affected by the clarification systems studied. The vertical centrifugal separator (VCS) showed higher clarification efficiency, giving clarified oils with higher phenol content and better sensory characteristics. VOOs clarified by dynamic settling showed notable losses of phenols and worse sensory characteristics, since the tank purge system was not efficient, with most of the impurities remaining in the tanks. The VCS with minimal water addition is a quick operation with low water consumption and is a better option to produce VOOs of improved quality, especially in terms of longer shelf life and preservation of positive sensory notes. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks: a reliable numerical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Farås, Sebastian; Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks (SSTs) leads to a partial differential equation (PDE) of nonlinear convection-diffusion type as a one-dimensional model for the solids concentration as a function of depth and time. This PDE includes a flux that depends discontinuously on spatial position modelling hindered settling and bulk flows, a singular source term describing the feed mechanism, a degenerating term accounting for sediment compressibility, and a dispersion term for turbulence. In addition, the solution itself is discontinuous. A consistent, reliable and robust numerical method that properly handles these difficulties is presented. Many constitutive relations for hindered settling, compression and dispersion can be used within the model, allowing the user to switch on and off effects of interest depending on the modelling goal as well as investigate the suitability of certain constitutive expressions. Simulations show the effect of the dispersion term on effluent suspended solids and total sludge mass in the SST. The focus is on correct implementation whereas calibration and validation are not pursued.

  4. Low power fast settling multi-standard current reusing CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Wenfeng; Feng Peng; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2012-01-01

    A low power fast settling multi-standard CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer is proposed. The current reusing and frequency presetting techniques are adopted to realize the low power fast settling multi-standard fractional-N frequency synthesizer. An auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) is embedded to avoid the repetitive calibration process and to save power in practical application. This PLL is implemented in a 0.18 μm technology. The frequency range is 0.3 to 2.54 GHz and the settling time is less than 5 μs over the entire frequency range. The LC-VCO with the stacked divide-by-2 has a good figure of merit of −193.5 dBc/Hz. The measured phase noise of frequency synthesizer is about −115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset when the carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz and the reference spurs are less than −52 dBc. The whole frequency synthesizer consumes only 4.35 mA and 1.8 V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. The maximum discharge speed measured was 3.6 m s(-1). Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R(2) = 0.58-0.65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0.84-1.86 cm s(-1), about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species.

  6. Design of an E-ELT M1 segment measurement machine with nanometer accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; te Voert, M.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The baseline design of the European Extremely Large Telescope features a telescope with a 39-meter-class primary mirror (M1), consisting of 798 hexagonal segments. A measurement machine design is presented based on a non-contact single-point scanning technique, capable of measuring the form error of

  7. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Kalidass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1  queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme. The corresponding steady state probabilities have been obtained. We also obtain the time dependent performance measures of the systems

  8. Study the Effect of Processing of Commercial Kashk Making on Aflatoxin M1 Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a highly toxic compound which is stable during milk processing, and Storage. Hence, it may be found as contaminant in milk and dairy products with hazardous effects for human beings. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated the potential of process to remove Aflatoxin M1 from dairy product. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the ability commercial kashk making to reduce Aflatoxin M1 artificially contaminated milk using a natural process of kashk making. Methods: In this study the commercial cheese from cow's milk (skim milk which was contaminated artificially at a level of 0.25 micrograms per liter of aflatoxin M1 was produced at three replications, and the effects of kashk making process on the AFM1 contents were investigated. The HPLC method was used to determine the presence and levels of AFM1. Results: In the commercial kashk production in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk caused losses of AFM1 about 91%. These losses were found to be statistically significant (P <0.052 in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate that the processing of commercial kashk could help to reduce harmful effects of AFM1 humans through consumption of contaminated milk or dairy products.

  9. A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two

  10. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  11. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' = 0.

  12. Homocysteine elicits an M1 phenotype in murine macrophages through an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Lee J; Veeranki, Sudhakar; Givvimani, Srikanth; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with inflammatory diseases and is known to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and to decrease endothelial nitric oxide production. However, the impact of HHcy on macrophage phenotype differentiation is not well-established. It has been documented that macrophages have 2 distinct phenotypes: the "classically activated/destructive" (M1), and the "alternatively activated/constructive" (M2) subtypes. We hypothesize that HHcy increases M1 macrophage differentiation through extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a known inducer of matrix metalloproteinases. murine J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with 100 and 500 μmol/L Hcy, respectively, for 24 h. Samples were analyzed using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Homocysteine treatment increased cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40; M1 marker) in J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages. MMP-9 was induced in both cell lines. EMMPRIN protein expression was also increased in both cell lines. Blocking EMMPRIN function by pre-treating cells with anti-EMMPRIN antibody, with or without Hcy, resulted in significantly lower expression of CD40 in both cell lines by comparison with the controls. A DCFDA assay demonstrated increased ROS production in both cell lines with Hcy treatment when compared with the controls. Our results suggest that HHcy results in an increase of the M1 macrophage phenotype. This effect seems to be at least partially mediated by EMMPRIN induction.

  13. M1 and E2 transitions in the ground-state configuration of atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have calculated the forbidden transition (M1 and E2) parameters such as transition energies, log- arithmic weighted ... Keywords. Forbidden transitions; transition energies; logarithmic weighted oscillator strengths; .... optimizing the energy function based on the non-relativistic Hamiltonian of an atom,. HNR = N. ∑ j=1. (12∇ ...

  14. Advances in thermal control and performance of the MMT M1 mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.; Callahan, S.; Comisso, B.; Ortiz, R.; Williams, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Strategies for thermal control of the 6.5-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary (M1) mirror at the MMT Observatory have included: 1) direct control of ventilation system chiller setpoints by the telescope operator, 2) semiautomated control of chiller setpoints, using a fixed offset from the ambient temperature, and 3) most recently, an automated temperature controller for conditioned air. Details of this automated controller, including the integration of multiple chillers, heat exchangers, and temperature/dew point sensors, are presented here. Constraints and sanity checks for thermal control are also discussed, including: 1) mirror and hardware safety, 2) aluminum coating preservation, and 3) optimization of M1 thermal conditions for science acquisition by minimizing both air-to-glass temperature differences, which cause mirror seeing, and internal glass temperature gradients, which cause wavefront errors. Consideration is given to special operating conditions, such as high dew and frost points. Precise temperature control of conditioned ventilation air as delivered to the M1 mirror cell is also discussed. The performance of the new automated controller is assessed and compared to previous control strategies. Finally, suggestions are made for further refinement of the M1 mirror thermal control system and related algorithms.

  15. TSOAK-M1: an examination of its model and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgell, D.H.

    1983-05-01

    Fusion facilities will contain a sizable inventory of tritium fuel that will be vulnerable to release. Once released, molecular tritium begins converting into tritiated water which is 10000 times more hazardous and tends to adsorb onto surfaces. The rate of conversion and adsorption/desorption must be accurately known to estimate cleanup times and radiation hazards realistically. Argonne National Laboratory developed a computer code, TSOAK-M1, to determine the conversion/ adsorption/desorption parameters and to model cleanups. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project examined the program for reliability and potential applications. TSOAK-M1 assumes a pseudo second order radiolytic conversion where a first order surface reaction seems more appropriate. This difference in order should be investigated to accurately determine the reaction law. TSOAK-M1 determines the model parameters from experimental data using an optimization routine. However the data used is judged insufficient. More data is needed where the conversion of molecular tritium to tritiated water has a significant effect due to adsorption/desorption. SOAKER, an improved version of the TSOAK-M1 model, which combines first and second order reactions has been implemented in Wang BASIC. Once the reaction law and the parameters have been accurately determined the program could be a useful tool in the study and design of decontamination systems

  16. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  17. First Observation of the M1 Transition psi -> gamma eta(c)(2S)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, L.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium S-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited S-wave spin-singlet states: psi(3686) -> gamma

  18. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  19. Project Management Plan 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The KE Basin contains over 1,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The bulk of this inventory consists of over 50,000 zircaloy clad, uranium metal N-Reactor fuel element assemblies, along with less than half a metric ton of single-pass reactor fuel elements, stored in over 3,600 open top canister assemblies. In addition, sludge containing fissile and fission product material from damaged/degraded fuel has accumulated in the basin. The sludge, particularly the fines, impacts basin operations by clouding the water and making activities requiring a clear view impossible to complete until after sludge settles. Packaging would get the sludge out of the operator's way and allow it to be moved within the basin in a more manageable state. The primary project objective is to develop, procure, and quality the equipment needed to remove all sludge from the KE Basin with minimal dose commitment, minimal cost, and on schedule. The project will provide: (1) the development, testing, and installation of equipment for sludge retrieval and packaging; (2) understanding of and experience with actual sludge through near-term sludge packaging feature tests in the KE Basin; (3) sludge removal and handling equipment required to support debris removal, fuel handling, and other activities involving sludge within the KE Basin; and (4) enlist industry expertise in all phases of the project. This Project Management Plant establishes the organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for the execution of project activities for KE Basin sludge retrieval packaging, to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  20. Disposal of sediments from the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.; Duncan, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the characterization of the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) sediments, summarizes the data obtained, the resultant waste categorization, and the preferred disposal method. The EDB is an outdoor, concrete storage pond with a 3/16-in. carbon steel liner. The basin (completed in 1963) originally served as a quenching pool for reactor blowdown in the event of a primary coolant leak. Later, the basin received blowdown from the N Reactor steam generators. The steam generator blowdowns and leading isolation valves allowed radioactively contaminated water (from primary and secondary reactor coolant leaks) to enter the basin. Windblown dust and sand have settled in the basin over the years (because of its outdoor location), causing the present layer of sediments. To minimize potential airborne contamination, the water level was kept constant by adding water. However, the addition of water was stopped to minimize the amount of contaminated water needing disposal. To ensure that the surfaces exposed as a result of evaporation pose no immediate airborne contaminant problem, the contamination levels are monitored by Radiation Control Technicians. As part of the deactivation of N Reactor facilities, the EDB will be stabilized for long-term surveillance and maintenance prior to final decontamination and demolition

  1. Long-term Simulation of the Removal of Pollutants in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, Ole; Kaasgaard, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    -dependant sedimentation and the variation of the settling velocity of the particles. The results show that including these effects lead to significant lower discharges of pollutants compared to conventional methods of estimation. As an example computations with a spectrum of basins which cover realistic sizes show......The paper describes a method for the long-term simulation of the discharge of pollutants to the environment from storm sewer overflows in combined sewer systems, which has a connected retention basin. This study covers Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and PAH. The method includes both the influence of the flow...

  2. Long Term Estimates of Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, O.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a method for the long-term simulation of the discharge of pollutants to the environment from storm sewer overflows in combined sewer systems, which have a connected retention basins. This study covers heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) and PAH. The method includes both...... the influence of the flow-dependant sedimentation and the variation of the settling velocity of the particles. The results show that including these effects lead to significant lower discharges of pollutants compared to conventional methods of estimation. As an example computations with a spectrum of basins...

  3. Studi Numerik Karakterisasi Aliran 3 Dimensi Multifase (Gas-Solid) Pada Gravity Settling Chamber Dengan Variasi Kecepatan Inlet Dan Diameter Partikel Pada Aliran Dilute Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Isa’i, Adi Mochammad; Widodo, Wawan Aries

    2013-01-01

    Kegiatan pemilahan pada aktivitas produksi merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang banyak dilakukan pada dunia industri. Penggunaan gravity settling chamber merupakan teknologi pemilahan partikel yang paling sedehana dan murah. Maka dalam perancangan suatu gravity settling chamber perlu diketahui parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja dari alat tersebut. Analisa karakteristik aliran pada gravity settling chamber dilakukan dengan metode simulasi numerik menggunakan persamaan Eularian-Lagrangian. Sebu...

  4. Studi Numerik Karakterisasi Aliran 3 Dimensi Multifase (Gas-Solid) Pada Gravity Settling Chamber Dengan Variasi Kecepatan Inlet Dan Diameter Partikel Pada Aliran Dilute Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Mochammad Isa’i; Wawan Aries Widodo

    2013-01-01

    Kegiatan  pemilahan pada aktivitas produksi merupakan salah satu kegiatan yang banyak dilakukan pada dunia industri. Penggunaan gravity settling chamber merupakan teknologi pemilahan partikel yang paling sedehana dan murah. Maka dalam perancangan suatu gravity settling chamber perlu diketahui parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja dari alat tersebut. Analisa karakteristik aliran pada gravity settling chamber dilakukan dengan metode simulasi numerik menggunakan persamaan Eularian-Lagrangian. Sebu...

  5. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnov, O.P.; Manykin, A.A.; Rossman, J.S.; Klenk, H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  6. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, pregnant women and elderly. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of B1 aflatoxin in feed supplied to dairy cows and the presence of M1 aflatoxin in milk. Samples were collected from complete diet (corn silage and concentrate from a batch of 15 lactating cows from a dairy farm in the Campinas region. Two samples of diets were collected directly into the troughs in intervals of 24 hours at every 15 days, totalizing a period of 45 days. Milk samples of those cows were collected 24 hours after diet collection, directly from sample valves in the glass jars.. B1 and M1 aflatoxins were detected by the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after extraction and purification on immunoaffinity columns. From the 40 samples of diets evaluated, 40% were contaminated with B1 aflatoxin, and the levels found ranged from 1.93 to 43.78μg/Kg. One sample showed result higher than the maximum recommended for grain and animal feed in Brazil (20μg/Kg. From the 75 milk samples analyzed, the presence of M1 aflatoxin was detected in 13.3% with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.16μg/L, not exceeding the maximum permitted for marketing in the country of 0.5μg/L, however 80% of contaminated samples had values above the maximum permissible levels of 0.05μg/L, value found among countries with abundant milk production... The presence of aflatoxins highlights the importance of monitoring the production, the storage and the importance of handling food and

  7. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirnov, O.P., E-mail: zhirnov@inbox.ru [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Manykin, A.A. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Rossman, J.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT27NJ (United Kingdom); Klenk, H.D. [Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg 35037 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  8. Larvae of the Commercial Tropical Oyster Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby) are induced to settle by Pheromones from the Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Pediveliger larvae of the commercial tropical oyster Crassostrea belcheri were allowed to settle under different conditions. Two types of seawater were used for the experiments: aged seawater (1 month) and aged seawater conditioned by the presence of adult oysters for 24 hours. Two groups of five...... other species within the same genus or from a different genus. Settling frequency was increased by the presence of living oysters together with soaked spatfall collectors in commercial aquaculture. The fact that larvae are induced to settle by pheromones released from the adults is an important...... mechanism that favours the gregariousness of the oysters in nature. Settling behaviour of oyster larvae was observed and the behaviour of the three main stages was described: free swimming searching stage, crawling stage and cementing stage....

  9. Monitoring and troubleshooting of non-filamentous settling and dewatering problems in an industrial activated sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, B. V.; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    dewaterability. The monitoring program revealed that a deterioration of the floc strength and the settling properties in the process tanks was closely connected to downstream dewatering problems and poor effluent quality. Particularly severe problems were observed a few weeks after the production at the factory......A large industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plant had temporary problems with settling and dewatering of the sludge. Microscopical investigations revealed that the poor settling properties were not due to presence of filamentous bacteria, but poor floc properties. In order...... to characterise the changes in floc properties that led to settling and dewatering problems and to find reasons for this taking place, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted during more than one year. The monitoring program included various measurements of floc settleability, floc strength and sludge...

  10. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  11. CD64: An Attractive Immunotherapeutic Target for M1-type Macrophage Mediated Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusiji A. Akinrinmade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, no curative therapy is available for the treatment of most chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or autoimmune disorders. Current treatments require a lifetime supply for patients to alleviate clinical symptoms and are unable to stop the course of disease. In contrast, a new series of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the Fc γ receptor I (CD64 have emerged and demonstrated significant clinical potential to actually resolving chronic inflammation driven by M1-type dysregulated macrophages. This subpopulation plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of a series of chronic diseases. The novel recombinant M1-specific immunotherapeutics offer the prospect of highly effective treatment strategies as they have been shown to selectively eliminate the disease-causing macrophage subpopulations. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the data generated, together with the advantages and the clinical potential of CD64-based targeted therapies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. B(M1) values in the band-crossing of shears bands in 197Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.; Cooper, J. R.; Beausang, C. W.; Novak, J. R.; Dewald, A.; Klug, T.; Kemper, G.; von Brentano, P.; Carpenter, M.; Wiedenhöver, I.

    We present details of the band crossing mechanism of shears bands using the example of 197Pb. Absolute reduced matrix elements B(M1) were determined by means of a RDM lifetime measurement in one of the shears bands in 197Pb. The experiment was performed using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) in conjunction with the Gammasphere array. Band mixing calculations on the basis of the semi-classical model of the shears mechanism are used to describe the transition matrix elements B(M1) and energies throughout the band-crossing regions. Good agreement with the data was obtained and the detailed composition of the states in the shears band are discussed.

  13. Observation of the M1 giant resonance by resonance averaging in 106Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of capture of 2 keV and 24 keV neutrons in a 105 Pd target resulted in resonance-averaged intensities of primary gamma rays with energies between 5.2 and 9.5 MeV. From these intensities the gamma ray strength functions have been evaluated for E1, M1 and E2 radiation and compared with predictions of the giant resonance theory. The inclusion of an energy dependent spreading width for the E1 giant resonance is necessary. The energy distribution of M1 reduced strength is consistent with an interpretation of a broad resonance around 8.8 MeV. E2 data agrees satisfactorily with the giant extrapolation. (orig.)

  14. IKKα Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis by Limiting Recruitment of M1-like Polarized Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan I. Göktuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of immune cells into solid tumors is an essential prerequisite of tumor development. Depending on the prevailing polarization profile of these infiltrating leucocytes, tumorigenesis is either promoted or blocked. Here, we identify IκB kinase α (IKKα as a central regulator of a tumoricidal microenvironment during intestinal carcinogenesis. Mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity are largely protected from intestinal tumor development that is dependent on the enhanced recruitment of interferon γ (IFNγ-expressing M1-like myeloid cells. In IKKα mutant mice, M1-like polarization is not controlled in a cell-autonomous manner but, rather, depends on the interplay of both IKKα mutant tumor epithelia and immune cells. Because therapies aiming at the tumor microenvironment rather than directly at the mutated cancer cell may circumvent resistance development, we suggest IKKα as a promising target for colorectal cancer (CRC therapy.

  15. Prototyping the E-ELT M1 local control system communication infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Grudzien, T.; Dimmler, M.; Andolfato, L.; Barriga, P.

    2016-08-01

    The primary mirror of the E-ELT is composed of 798 hexagonal segments of about 1.45 meters across. Each segment can be moved in piston and tip-tilt using three position actuators. Inductive edge sensors are used to provide feedback for global reconstruction of the mirror shape. The E-ELT M1 Local Control System will provide a deterministic infrastructure for collecting edge sensor and actuators readings and distribute the new position actuators references while at the same time providing failure detection, isolation and notification, synchronization, monitoring and configuration management. The present paper describes the prototyping activities carried out to verify the feasibility of the E-ELT M1 local control system communication architecture design and assess its performance and potential limitations.

  16. Efficacy of magnetoacustoradiation treatment of experimental M-1, PC-1 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizh, D.V.; Krutilina, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The urgency of the struggle against malignant tumors is determined by a stable growth of cancer incidence, high level of disability and morbidity, the cost and difficulty of treatment. The influence of low-frequency ultrasound and alternating magnetic field on transplanted tumors of sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 together with radiation therapy at a SFD of 5 Gy and 20 Gy was investigated in the experiments on animals. It was established that the influence of the above physical factors inhibited sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 growth, prolonged the life and survival of the animals of the investigated groups when compared to the intact controls, which definitely expanded the ideas about the capabilities of ultrasound and magnetic fields in cancer treatment.

  17. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of gamma and fast neutron irradiations on M1 seedling growth in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Mohammad, T.; Khan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of soybean, i.e. Bragg, Hodgson and Lee-74, having a moisture content of 11-13% were irradiated with doses of gamma, 100,200,300,400 and 500 Gray and fast neutron, 5,10,20,25 and 30 Gray, to study the effect on M1 seedling growth. The parameters studied were germination, seedling height and epicotyl length. Growth inhibition was found to increase with increasing radiation doses and the effect on germination was observed only at higher doses. Among early assessable M1 parameters for radio-sensitivity, epicotyl length has proved to be most sensitive, and hence most useful. The Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for the three varieties differed slightly for epicotyl length and the difference was more pronounced for seedling height. A dose range of 150-300 Gray of gamma rays and 10-15 Gray of fast neutron might prove useful for efficient induced mutation. (authors)

  19. Scissors and unique-parity modes of M1 excitation in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the possible modes of M1 excitation in deformed even-even nuclei are studied in terms of the particle-number-conserved Nilsson + BCS formalism with the standard parameters. The spurious motion with respect to the rotation is removed. In addition to the Scissors mode, the Unique-Parity Spin and Normal-Parity Spin modes are suggested, although the latter may be fragmented to a large extent. The Scissors mode carries most of the orbital strength, while the others the spin strength. The proton Unique-Parity (i.e. Oh 11/12 ) Spin mode for 164 Dy is obtained just below Ex = 3 MeV with B(M1) ∼ 0.2 μ 2 N ) in the sum rule limit. This is in a good agreement to the recent experimental data

  20. Forbidden Raman scattering processes. I. General considerations and E1--M1 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The generalized theory of forbidden Raman scattering processes is developed in terms of the multipole expansion of the electromagnetic interaction Hamiltonian. Using the general expressions, the theory of electric dipole--magnetic dipole (E1--M1) Raman scattering is derived in detail. The 1 S 0 → 3 P 1 E1--M1 Raman scattering cross section in atomic magnesium is calculated for two applicable laser wavelengths using published f-value data. Since resonantly enhanced cross sections larger than 10 -29 cm 2 /sr are predicted it should be possible to experimentally observe this scattering phenomenon. In addition, by measuring the frequency dependence of the cross section near resonance, it may be possible to directly determine the relative magnitudes of the Axp and AxA contributions to the scattering cross section. Finally, possible applications of the effect in atomic and molecular physics are discussed

  1. Theoretical expression of the internal conversion coefficient of a M1 transition between two atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Karpeshin, F.; Harston, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have established a general relation for the expression of the internal conversion of an M 1 transition a 1s electronic state to an empty ns electronic bound state. Under the hypothesis that the density of the electron level ρ n satisfies the condition ρ n Γ >> 1 (where Γ is the total width of the excited atomic state) a calculation in the first order gives a relation for the internal conversion coefficient.This relation shows that the internal conversion coefficient takes a resonant character when the nuclear energy transition is smaller than the binding energy of the 1s electron. An application of this relation to an M 1 transition in the case of the ion 125 T e with a charge state Q = 45 and an 1s electron binding energy E B 45 = 35.581 KeV gives the value for the internal conversion coefficient R = 5.7

  2. INVESTIGATING DEPRESSION SITUTATION OF THE STUDENTS WHO HAVE SETTLED WITH CENTRAL EXAMINATION SYSTEM AND PRIVATE ABILITY EXAM TO UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercüment ERDOĞAN, Levent ÖZDEMİR

    2018-01-01

    The most often seen psychological problem is found as a depression in universty students. It causes to lose his fertility, to lose quality of his life. In addition this must be under debate as a public health problem. We aimed in our works to compare depression level of students who are settled in Cumhuriyet University with Central Exam System with students who are settled in Cumhuriyet University with Private Ability Exam. Also we aimed to explain the relation with socio demography depressio...

  3. Influence of sludge properties and hydraulic loading on the performance of secondary settling tanks--full-scale operational results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, R J; Günthert, F Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Full-scale investigations at a WWTP with a two-stage secondary settling tank process revealed relationships between significant operating parameters and performance in terms of effluent suspended solids concentration. Besides common parameters (e.g. surface overflow rate and sludge volume loading rate) feed SS concentration and flocculation time must be considered. Concentration of the return activated sludge may help to estimate the performance of existing secondary settling tanks.

  4. Factors governing the ability of clean-up plant to remove settling particles from contaminants: theory for stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, J.P.

    1979-11-01

    Consideration is given to the processes by which particles are removed from fluid systems. In particular, it is noted that in tank, as opposed to loop, systems the natural process of gravitational settling competes with engineered removal systems. Calculational methods are given for estimating the relative amounts of settling and removal to clean-up plant for well-mixed fluids, unmixed fluids with horizontal or vertical flow, and turbulent diffusion with incomplete mixing. The criteria for complete mixing are discussed. (author)

  5. Status and perspectives of the M1 scissors mode in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1988-07-01

    The present status of the M1 scissors mode which is now known in deformed nuclei ranging from 46 Ti to 238 U is summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on a discussion of the structure, the excitation energy, the transition strength, the form factor and the spin to orbit ratio in the strength of the mode. Finally it is demonstrated how strongly this mode contributes to the magnetic dipole polarizability of nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic susceptibility and M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb. [Sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, M; Lipparini, E; Orlandini, G; Stringari, S [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Trento, Italy

    1979-04-16

    M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb are studied by evaluating energy-weighted and inverse energy-weighted sum-rules. The role of the nuclear interaction is widely discussed. It is shown that the nuclear potential increases the energy-weighted sum rule and lowers the inverse energy-weighted sum rule, with respect to the prediction of the pure shell model. Values of strengths and excitation energies are compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations.

  7. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  8. Presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptor modulates spontaneous release of acetylcholine from rat basal forearm slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujimoto, LK.; Oohata, H.; Kawashima, K.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous release of (ACh) from rat basal forebrain slices in the presence of cholinesterase inhibitor was directly determined using a specific radioimmunoassay for ACh. The release was calcium dependent. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed throughout the experiment. Atropine (10- 8 to 10- 5 M) and pirenzepine (10- 7 to 10- 5 M) enhanced spontaneous ACh release. These findings indicate the presence of an M 1 muscarenic autoreceptor that modulates spontaneous release of ACh in the rat forebrain

  9. Rac2 controls tumor growth, metastasis and M1-M2 macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Joshi

    Full Text Available Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis.

  10. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  11. Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable Resistance to Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulec, Emilia; Abdelwahed Bagga, Rym Ben; Chevallier, Lucie; O'Donnell, Hope; Guillas, Chloé; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2017-09-15

    Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined. SEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis-induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague. MPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Current status of the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Siripone; Julanan, Mongkol; Charncanchee, Decharchai

    2006-01-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1 went critical on 27 October 1962 at the maximum power of 1 MW. It was located at Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) in Bangkok. Since then, TRR-1 was continuously operated and eventually shut down in 1975. Plate type, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 A1 cladding were used as the reactor fuel. Light water was used as moderator and coolant as well. In 1975, because of the problem from fuel supplier and also to supporting the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon or NPT, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. A new core was a hexagonal core shape designed by General Atomics (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and ZrH alloy as fuel. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. At present, the reactor is operating with core No.14. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. (author)

  13. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  14. Assessment of airborne soy-hull allergen (Gly m 1) in the Port of Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicelli, L; Ruello, M L; Monsalve, R I; González, R; Fava, G; Bonifazi, F

    2010-10-01

    Epidemic asthma outbreaks are potentially a very high-risk medical situation in seaport towns where large volumes of soybean are loaded and unloaded Airborne allergen assessment plays a pivotal role in evaluating the resulting environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to measure the airborne Gly m 1 allergen level in the seaport of Ancona in order assess the soybean-specific allergenic risk for the city. Allergen and PM10 were evaluated at progressive distances from the port area. Allergen analysis was performed by monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay on the sampled filters. Daily meteorological data were obtained from the local meteorological station. For estimating the assimilative capacity of the atmosphere, an approach based on dispersive ventilation coefficient was tried. The allergen concentrations detected were low (range = 0.4-171 ng/m3). A decreasing gradient of the airborne allergen from the unloading area (22.1 +/- 41.2 ng/m3) to the control area (0.6 +/- 0.7 ng/m3) was detected. The concentration of the airborne Gly m 1 was not coupled with the presence of the soy-carrying ships in the port. A statistically significant relationship between airborne allergen, PM10 and local meteorological parameters quantifies the association with the atmospheric condition. Airborne Gly m 1 is part of the atmospheric dust of Ancona. The low level of this allergen seems consistent with the absence of asthma epidemic outbreak.

  15. Energetic M1 transitions as a probe of nuclear collectivity at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1987-01-01

    At ORNL, we have recently utilized the Spin Spectrometer setup to investigate the differential effects of increasing spin and excitation energy on nuclear shape and collectivity in 158 Yb. Along the yrast line of this and other N = 88 nuclei, weakly prolate shapes gradually give way to triaxial, and then finally to non-collective oblate shapes as the spin approaches 40 h-bar. However, above the yrast line, large deformation and collectivity once again sets in. This is evidenced by the emergence of a broad quadrupole structure (E/sub γ/ ≅ 1.2 MeV) in the continuum gamma-ray spectra that grows with increasing temperature. The short (sub ps) lifetimes of these transitions attest to the collective nature of these structures. The emergence and growth of the quadrupole structure at high excitation energies is closely correlated with the appearance of energetic (E/sub γ/ ≅ 2.5 MeV), fast M1 transitions which form another broad structure in the continuum spectra. From the centroid of the M1 bump, a quadrupole deformation parameter of 0.35 is inferred. Because of this sensitivity, these energetic M1 transitions provide a unique probe of nuclear shape in the excitation energy range of ≅ 3 to 10 MeV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  16. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  17. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  18. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results

  19. Heat exchanger operation in the externally heated air valve engine with separated settling chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko; Wojewoda, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The crucial role in the externally heated air valve engine is played by its heat exchangers which work in a closed cycle. These are: a heater and a cooler and they are subject to a numerical analysis in the paper. Both of them are equipped with fixed volumes that are separate settling chambers causing that heat exchangers behave as almost stationary recuperators and analysis of the stationary behaviour is the main goal of the paper. Power and efficiency of the engine must be not lower than their averaged values for the same engine working in unsteady conditions. The results of calculations confirm such a statement. The pressure drop in the exchanger is another natural phenomenon presented. It has been overcome by use of additional blowers and the use of them is an additional focus of the presented analysis. A separation of settling chambers and additional blowers is a novelty in the paper. There is also a pre-heater applied in the engine which does not differ from well-known heat exchangers met in energy generation devices. The main objective of the paper is to find the behaviour of the engine model under stationary conditions of the heat exchangers and compare it with the non-stationary ones. - Highlights: • Externally heated air engine combined with forced working gas flow (supercharging). • Separate settling chambers allow for achieving stable and constant heat exchange parameters. • Pressure drop in heat exchangers overcome by additional blowers. • Reciprocating piston air engine, cam governing system, standard lubrication for externally heated engine. • Different fuels: oil, coal, gas, biomass also solar or nuclear energy

  20. Effects of rotation on crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean: Spherical shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, C.; Hansen, U.

    2015-12-01

    Like Moon or Mars, Earth experienced one or several deep magma ocean periods of globalextent in a later stage of its accretion. The crystallization of these magma oceans is of keyimportance for the chemical structure of Earth, the mantle evolution and the onset of platetectonics. Due to the fast rotation of early Earth and the small magma viscosity, rotationprobably had a profound effect on differentiation processes. For example, Matyska et al.[1994] propose that the distribution of heterogeneities like the two large low shear velocityprovinces (LLSVP) at the core mantle boundary is influenced by rotational dynamicsof early Earth. Further Garnero and McNamara [2008] suggest that the LLSVPs arevery long-living anomalies, probably reaching back to the time of differentiation andsolidification of Earth. However, nearly all previous studies neglect the effects of rotation.In our previous work using a Cartesian model, a strong influence of rotation as well asof latitude on the differentiation processes in an early magma ocean was revealed. Weshowed that crystal settling in an early stage of magma ocean crystallization cruciallydepends on latitude as well as on rotational strength and crystal density.In order to overcome the restrictions as to the geometry of the Cartesian model, we arecurrently developing a spherical model to simulate crystal settling in a rotating sphericalshell. This model will allow us not only to investigate crystal settling at the poles andthe equator, but also at latitudes in-between these regions, as well as the migration ofcrystals between poles and equator. ReferencesE. J. Garnero and A. K. McNamara. Structure and dynamics of earth's lower mantle.Science, 320(5876):626-628, 2008.C. Matyska, J. Moser, and D. A. Yuen. The potential influence of radiative heat transferon the formation of megaplumes in the lower mantle. Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, 125(1):255-266, 1994.

  1. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  2. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Nopens, Ingmar

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is partly to build consensus on a consistent modelling methodology (CMM) of complex real processes in wastewater treatment by combining classical concepts with results from applied mathematics, and partly to apply it to the clarification-thickening process in the secondary settling tank. In the CMM, the real process should be approximated by a mathematical model (process model; ordinary or partial differential equation (ODE or PDE)), which in turn is approximated by a simulation model (numerical method) implemented on a computer. These steps have often not been carried out in a correct way. The secondary settling tank was chosen as a case since this is one of the most complex processes in a wastewater treatment plant and simulation models developed decades ago have no guarantee of satisfying fundamental mathematical and physical properties. Nevertheless, such methods are still used in commercial tools to date. This particularly becomes of interest as the state-of-the-art practice is moving towards plant-wide modelling. Then all submodels interact and errors propagate through the model and severely hamper any calibration effort and, hence, the predictive purpose of the model. The CMM is described by applying it first to a simple conversion process in the biological reactor yielding an ODE solver, and then to the solid-liquid separation in the secondary settling tank, yielding a PDE solver. Time has come to incorporate established mathematical techniques into environmental engineering, and wastewater treatment modelling in particular, and to use proven reliable and consistent simulation models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  4. Comparative genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 isolates differing in virulence and propensity to cause systemic infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebig, A.; Loof, T.G.; Babbar, A.; Itzeg, A.; Koehorst, J.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Nitsche-Schmitz, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 is a frequent cause of severe infections in humans. Some M1 isolates are pathogenic in mice and used in studies on infection pathogenesis. We observed marked differences in murine infections caused by M1 strain SF370, 5448, 5448AP or AP1 which prompted us to

  5. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  6. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mário Henrique M; Hauck, Franziska; Dreyer, Johannes H; Kempkes, Bettina; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for

  7. The treatment of low level effluents by flocculation and settling at the Chooz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1989-01-01

    At the Chooz plant, radioactive effluents were formerly treated by evaporation, but because throughput was low, another method was studied. After laboratory tests, a 500 L/h flocculation and settling pilot plant was constructed, followed later by a 5 m 3 /h installation. The main isotopes eliminated are caesium-134 and caesium-137. Flocculation with copper ferrocyanide reduces the total activity to less than 500 Bq/L. The installation described in the paper was commissioned in 1984 and has been in industrial operation since 1985, processing all types of effluent. The evaporator can be set aside for boric acid recovery. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, Hartmut J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1057 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10th North American Conference... on Multiphase Technology 2016, Banff, Canada 8 – 10 June 2016 Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries H J Ilgner ABSTRACT: Novel instrumentation has been developed to detect stationary...

  9. ["The severe degree of negligence" and its application in the settle of medical malpractice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Min; Zhang, Qin-Chu

    2006-04-01

    To found the quantifiable index of "The severe degree of negligence" in describing the general severity degree of medical malpractice or medical dispute. "The severe degree of negligence" can be calculated by the way of multiplying the coefficient of medical malpractice's grade by the coefficient of responsibility degree. There are 15 grades of "The severe degree of negligence" through calculation, from the severest degree of 1 to the lightest degree of 20. "The severe degree of negligence" can give an order of severe degree to different grade and different responsibility of medical malpractice. According to this order, the operation of medical malpractice and medical dispute settle will be easier and more rationality.

  10. Dispersal of volcaniclasts during deep-sea eruptions: Settling velocities and entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Soule, S. Adam; Sohn, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    We use tank experiments to measure settling rates of deep-sea volcaniclastic material recovered from the Arctic (85°E Gakkel Ridge) and Pacific (Juan de Fuca Ridge, Loihi seamount) Oceans. We find that clast size and shape exert a strong influence on settling velocity, with velocities of ~ 30 cm/s for large (~ 8 mm), blocky clasts, compared to velocities of ~ 2.5 cm/s for small (Pele) entrained in a megaplume could be advected as far as a few kilometers from a source region. These results indicate that entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes during an eruption may play an important role in clast dispersal, but it is not clear if this mechanism can explain the distribution of volcaniclastic material at the sites on the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca Ridges where our samples were acquired. In order to understand the dispersal of volcaniclastic material in the deep-sea it will be necessary to rigorously characterize existing deposits, and develop models capable of incorporating explosive gas phases into the eruption plume.

  11. Behavior of aerosols undergoing Brownian coagulation, Brownian diffusion and gravitational settling in a closed chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo; Yoshida, Tetsuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols undergoing Brownian coagulation. Brownian diffusion and gravitational settling in a closed chamber was studied by solving the basic equation, the so-called population balance equation, numerically for a polydisperse aerosol system and analytically for a monodisperse system, and then the results were examined by experiment. In solving the basic equation, two dimensionless parameters, which are determined by the initial properties of an aerosol and the chamber dimension and also characterize the relative effects of Brownian coagulation and Brownian diffusion to gravitational settling, were introduced in order to generalize the behavior under arbitrary conditions. The calculated results, the time-dependent changes in particle number concentration and particle size distribution for a polydisperse system, were presented graphically by using the above two parameters. And further using these parameters, the domains of the three controlling factors were mapped to show the extent of each effect of these factors under various conditions for a monodisperse system. Some of the calculated results were compared with the experimental results obtained by the ultramicroscopic size analysis previously developed by the authors. (auth.)

  12. Cell structures caused by settling particles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhoon; Park, Sangro

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent thermal convection is an important phenomenon frequently found in nature and industrial processes, often with laden particles. In the last several decades, the vast majority of studies have addressed single phase convective flow with focus on the scaling relation of flow parameters associated with heat transfer. Particle-laden Rayleigh-Bénard convection, however, has not been sufficiently studied. In this study, modulation of cell structures by settling particles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a doubly periodic square channel is investigated using direct numerical simulation with a point particle approach. Flow parameters are fixed at Rayleigh number=106, Prandtl number=0.7, the aspect ratio=6, and Froude number=0.19. We report from the simulations that settling heavy particles modulate irregular large-scale thermal plume structures into organized polygonal cell structures. Different shapes of flow structures are obtained for different particle diameters and mass loadings. We found that polygonal cell structures arise due to asymmetric feedback force exerted by particles onto hot and cold plumes. Increasing the number of particles augments the asymmetry and the polygonal cell structures become smaller, eventually going to the hexagonal structures.

  13. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (EU/m(3) and EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  14. CHEMISTRY OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH GRAIN SETTLING AND Lyα RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bethell, Thomas J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Calvet, Nuria; Semenov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a model of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our models, we directly calculate the changing propagation and penetration of a high energy radiation field with Lyα radiation included. We also explore the effect on our models of including dust grain settling. We find that, in agreement with earlier studies, the evolution of dust grains plays a large role in determining how deep the UV radiation penetrates into the disk. Significant grain settling at the midplane leads to much smaller freeze-out regions and a correspondingly larger molecular layer, which leads to an increase in column density for molecular species such as CO, CN, and SO. The inclusion of Lyα radiation impacts the disk chemistry through specific species that have large photodissociation cross sections at 1216 A. These include HCN, NH 3 , and CH 4 , for which the column densities are decreased by an order of magnitude or more due to the presence of Lyα radiation in the UV spectrum. A few species, such as CO 2 and SO, are enhanced by the presence of Lyα radiation, but rarely by more than a factor of a few.

  15. In situ holographic measurements of the sizes and settling rates of oceanic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Betzer, Peter R.

    1982-07-01

    A free-floating sediment trap equipped with a holographic particle velocimeter (HPV) was deployed for 14.4 hours at a depth of 30 m in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The system recorded the in situ sizes, shapes, orientations, and settling rates of microscopic particles moving through the laser beam. The primary data reduction revealed particles from the system's lower limit of resolution, 15 micrometers in diameter, to 250 micrometers in diameter with settling velocities ranging from 0.0190 to 0.2302 cm/s (16-198 m/day). Individual particle densities, calculated from a modified Stokes equation, ranged from 1.37 to 5.10 g/ml. The presence of high density particles was independently corroborated through individual particle analysis of the trapped material with a computer-controlled, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In the future, in situ holographic systems might be used to further our understanding of primary productivity, sediment erosion/deposition, and particle aggregation/disruption/dissolution.

  16. Processed kaolin affects the probing and settling behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Lividae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo P; Zanardi, Odimar Z; Tomaseto, Arthur F; Volpe, Haroldo Xl; Garcia, Rafael B; Prado, Ernesto

    2018-03-05

    Alternative methods that have the potential to reduce the entry of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the major citrus pest worldwide, into commercial groves could be a viable approach for huanglongbing management. Kaolin is an aluminum silicate that when sprayed on plants forms a white particle film that interferes with host recognition by the insects. Diaphorina citri orients towards the host plants by visual and olfactory cues. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of processed kaolin on D. citri settling (no-choice) and probing behavior [electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique] under laboratory conditions, and to study its host plant finding ability and dispersal under field conditions in the absence and presence of young shoots. Under laboratory conditions, kaolin caused an overall reduction of 40% in the number of psyllids settled on treated seedlings; furthermore, the proportion of individuals that were able to reach the phloem was 50% lower on kaolin-treated plants than on untreated plants. In the field, the plant finding ability of D. citri was disrupted on kaolin-treated trees (overall reduction of 96%), regardless of the vegetative condition, and psyllid dispersal was slower in kaolin-treated plots than in the untreated control. This study clearly demonstrates that processed kaolin interferes negatively with different aspects of the host plant finding ability of D. citri. These findings suggest that processed kaolin has a high potential to reduce huanglongbing primary infection. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Floc Size and Settling Velocity Observations From Three Contrastingly Different Natural Environments in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew; Schoellhamer, David; Mehta, Ashish; Nover, Daniel; Schladow, Geoffrey

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally, monitoring the movement of suspended cohesive sediments is highly desirable in both estuaries and lakes. When modelling cohesive sediment transport and mass settling fluxes, the settling speed of the suspended matter is a key parameter. In contrast to purely non-cohesive sandy sediments, mud can flocculate and this poses a serious complication to the modelling of sediment pathways. As flocs grow in size they become more porous and significantly less dense, but their settling speeds continue to rise due to a Stokes' Law relationship. Much research has been conducted on the flocculation characteristics of suspended muddy sediments in saline/brackish tidal conditions, where electrostatic particle bonding can occur. However very little is known about freshwater floc dynamics. This is primarily due to flocs being extremely delicate entities and are thus very difficult to observe in situ. This paper primarily describes a recently developed, portable, low intrusive instrument INSSEV_LF, which permits the direct, in situ measurement of both floc size (D) and settling velocity (Ws), simultaneously. Examples of floc spectra observed from three different environments within the USA are presented and compared. The first site was the turbidity maximum zone in San Francisco Bay, where the suspended solids concentration (SSC) was 170 mg.l-1 and many low density macroflocs up to 400 μm in diameter, settling at speeds of 4-8 mm.s-1 were observed. The second location was the shallow (1.7 m mean depth), freshwater environment of Lake Apopka in Florida. It is highly eutrophic, and demonstrates a turbid SSC of 750 mg.l-1 within a benthic suspension layer. These conditions resulted in D from 45 μm up to 1,875 μm; 80% of the floc were > 160 μm (i.e. macroflocs). Present theories for the settling of flocs rely on fractal theory of self-similarity, but this does not appear to be applicable to the Lake Apopka flocs because they do not possess any basic geometric unit

  18. Relationship between pattern of ischemic manifestation and hemodynamics in symptomatic M1 stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Naoki; Sako, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Shizuka; Shirai, Wakako

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism through which ischemic manifestations develop in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis is still uncertain. It may cause ischemic symptoms through both embolic and hemodynamic mechanisms. In this study, we compared the findings from cerebral angiograms with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with M1 stenosis to determine the pathogenesis of ischema. At our hospital from 1994 to 2000, 14 patients (12 males and 2 females; mean age, 60.9; range, 31 to 85 years) with angiographically demonstrated symptomatic M1 stenosis were enrolled in this study. In 10, their stenotic lesion was located at the proximal site of the perforating arteries and for the other 4, stenosis was found at the distal site. Nine presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 5 with completed stroke for an initial episode. The discrepancy in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in relation to the site and degree of stenosis, type of ischemic presentation, and frequency of ischemic events. There was no significant difference in CBF between the patients with stenosis involving the proximal site and those with distal stenosis; but the cortical CBF decreased significantly in those with severe stenosis compared with moderate stenosis. The cortical CBF of those who had a complete stroke is similar to that of the patients with TIA; but CBF of BGA decreased significantly in those with a complete stroke. The single ischemic event group showed a significant decrease in cortical CBF. On the other hand, the group with multiple ischemic events exhibited normal hemodynamics. We concluded that multiple ischemic events that occurred in M1 stenosis are caused by an embolic mechanism. (author)

  19. Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, L H S; Rodrigues, A P D; Coêlho, E C; Santos, M F; Sampaio, S C; Silva, E O

    2017-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL-1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

  20. Mice in Bion-M 1 Space Mission: Training and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Boyle, Richard; Alberts, Jeffrey; Shenkman, Boris; Vinogradova, Olga; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Darya; Soldatov, Pavel; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Sychev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    After a 16-year hiatus, Russia has resumed its program of biomedical research in space, with the successful 30-day flight of the Bion-M 1 biosatellite (April 19–May 19, 2013). The principal species for biomedical research in this project was the mouse. This paper presents an overview of the scientific goals, the experimental design and the mouse training/selection program. The aim of mice experiments in the Bion-M 1 project was to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms, underlying the adaptation of key physiological systems to long-term exposure in microgravity. The studies with mice combined in vivo measurements, both in flight and post-flight (including continuous blood pressure measurement), with extensive in vitro studies carried out shortly after return of the mice and in the end of recovery study. Male C57/BL6 mice group housed in space habitats were flown aboard the Bion-M 1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control groups were used to account for housing effects and possible seasonal differences. Mice training included the co-adaptation in housing groups and mice adaptation to paste food diet. The measures taken to co-adapt aggressive male mice in housing groups and the peculiarities of “space” paste food are described. The training program for mice designated for in vivo studies was broader and included behavioral/functional test battery and continuous behavioral measurements in the home-cage. The results of the preliminary tests were used for the selection of homogenous groups. After the flight, mice were in good condition for biomedical studies and displayed signs of pronounced disadaptation to Earth's gravity. The outcomes of the training program for the mice welfare are discussed. We conclude that our training program was effective and that male mice can be successfully employed in space biomedical research. PMID:25133741

  1. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  2. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  3. Observation of the m = 1 mode by microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Segui, J.L.; Pecquet, A.L.; Gil, C.

    1991-06-01

    Microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak exhibit low-frequency oscillations of the transmitted power, associated to the presence of a saturated m = 1, n = 1 mode, as observed by soft X-ray diagnostics. It is shown that these oscillations are related to refraction effects, and specifically to modulations of the electron density profile due to a rotating magnetic island. An analytical solution of the ray equations in the presence of a rotating density perturbation is found, explaining the frequency spectrum of the oscillations

  4. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. of Plasma Physics and Fusion Research)

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (r{SIGMA}B{sup 2})' {le} 0, where {SIGMA} = 1 - (P{sub parallel} - P{sub perpendicular} {sub to})/B/sup 2/. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition {SIGMA} {ge} 0.

  5. Effects of pressure anisotropy on the M=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1986-05-01

    A new model is used to investigate the effect of the pressure anisotropy on the internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collision- less and cylindrical plasma is performed. A comparison of the derived stability criterion with that of ideal MHD is made. The conclusion is that the stability criterion (rSigmaB/sp2/) ' 0, where Sigma=1-(P/sb/(parall)-P/sb/(perpend)/ B/sp/2. (author)

  6. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB 2 )' ≤ 0, where Σ = 1 - (P parallel - P perpendicular to )/B 2 . It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ ≥ 0. (orig.)

  7. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  8. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  9. Nuclear critical opalescence and the M1 form factors of 12C and 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.; Figureau, A.; Guichon, P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that core polarization by the nuclear pion field has opposite effects on the M1 form factors of 12 C(15.11 MeV) and 13 C(g.s.). New data on 13 C are found to agree with this prediction and a common interpretation of the experiments is shown to be possible for the two nuclei in terms of critical opalescence. Discrimination from alternative explanations of the observed anomalies should await further experiments, especially photopion reactions. (orig.)

  10. Comparing Fear of Death of the Elderly Settled in Elderly’s Home and Inhabited in City Houses of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Nouhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the one hand, increased growth of the elderly population and on the other hand, social– economic changes, personal and family lifestyles have caused an increased number of the elderly protecting centres. The aim of the present survey is to compare the fear of death among the elderly settled in elderly home and inhabited in city houses of Isfahan. Methods & Materials: This study is an analysis – cross sectional study and statistical population are all of the elderly over 60 years inhabited in 14 – fold zones of Isfahan and the ones settled in Sadeghieh elderly home. Participants in this survey were 300 elderly people that 102 people settled in the elderly home (31 males and 71 females and 198 people inhabited in the community (97 males and 101 females. The elderly inhabited in the community were selected through a cluster sampling method and the ones settled in the elderly home through available sampling method and evaluated through a questionnaire of Collett-Lester Fear of Death. In order to analyse collected data, parametric statistical methods of K–Square test and independent–T have been used . Results: The finding of this survey showed that fear of death total score mean was 70.5±15.5 in the elderly group inhabited in houses that significantly was more than that the elderly group settled in the elderly home (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this survey showed that fear of death in the elderly group settled in city houses is higher than elderly settled in the elderly’s home. It is necessary that the authorities pay more attention to the sanitary systems in all levels, evaluate the causes and, try to get the aids of the relevant organizations in order to Reduced fear of death of elderly people.

  11. Contamination levels of aflatoxin M1 in bulk raw milk of Chaloos and Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Barami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination rate of raw milk whit aflatoxin M1 in Chaloos and Ramsar raw milk collection centers. Two hundred bulk raw milk samples were collected during winter (January and February and summer (June and July seasons. The milk samples were analyzed by ELISA method for the presence of AFM1. During the winter, AFM1 was detected in 100% and 59/79% of the bulk raw milk samples in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively; however, during summer 83/52% and 50/1 of the samples was found as positive in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively. Furthermore, 45% of Ramsar and 30% of Chaloos bulk milk samples showed higher contamination level of AFM1 than maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by National Standard as well as European Union. Although, the difference between the contamination rate in samples obtained during summer and winter seasons was not statistically significantly, (p

  12. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M; Golding, Sarah J; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Trenholme, Katharine R; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Degori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M; Gardiner, Donald L; Whisstock, James C; Dalton, John P

    2009-02-24

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.

  13. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  14. E2 and M1 transition strengths in heavy deformed nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Popa, G.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vargas, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    An update on the status of pseudo-SU(3) shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is presented. Representative results for energy levels as well as E2 (quadrupole) and M1 (scissors) transitions strengths in 162 Dy (even-even) and 163 Dy (odd-mass) are given. The calculations use realistic single-particle energies and quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interaction strengths fixed from systematics. The strengths of rotor-like terms included in the Hamiltonian- all small relative to the other terms in the interaction were adjusted to give an overall best fit to the energy spectra. The results present a paradox: for even-even nuclei (integer angular momentum) non-zero pseudo-spin configurations seems to be unimportant while for the odd-mass systems (half-integer angular momentum) pseudo-spin mixing is essential as spin-flip couplings appear to dominate the M1 transition strengths. (Author)

  15. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Emre, E-mail: etabar@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Yakut, Hakan, E-mail: hyakut@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Kuliev, Ali Akbar [Azerbaijan National Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-01-15

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed {sup 229–233}Th and {sup 233–239}U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even {sup 228–232}Th and {sup 232–238}U nuclei. For {sup 235}U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5–2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  16. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  17. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran

    2007-11-15

    During the years 2005 and 2006, samples of raw and of pasteurized milk (72 samples each) were collected randomly from various parts of Urmia city in Iran for the detection of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 levels were assessed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a high incidence of AFM1 (100%), in both raw and pasteurized milk samples. The AFM1 levels in 6.25% of samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (50 ng L(-1)), while the observed mean ofAFM1 was lower than those proposed for European diets. Maximum level ofAFM1 in raw and pasteurized samples were 91.8 and 28.5 ng L(-1), while minimum levels were 4.3 and 5.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The levels ofAFM1 in total samples indicated that feeds for cows in this region were contaminated with AFB1 in such a level that appears to be a serious public health problem at the moment. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits.

  18. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw and pasteurized milk produced in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafakheri, Sh.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the levels of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk samples during different seasons by Enzyme- Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay in Sanandaj, Iran. In 257 (94.49% out of 272 milk samples the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.007 and 115.930 ng/l. AFM1 level in 12 (4.4% of positive samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by Iran and European Union countries. Statistical evaluations showed that the differences between raw and pasteurized samples were not significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between spring and summer but the differences between other seasons were statistically significant. Winter samples with 22.35 ng/l and summer samples with 5.14 ng/l had the highest and lowest concentration, respectively (p<0.05. Since contamination of milk with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health, milk and milk products should be controlled periodically for Aflatoxin contamination.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of the m=1 kink-tearing instability in a modified magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1995-01-01

    A theory is given for the nonlinear dynamical evolution of the collisionless m=1 kink-tearing instability, including the effects of electron inertia and electron pressure gradient in a generalized Ohm's law. It is demonstrated that electron pressure gradients can cause near-explosive growth in the nonlinear regime of a thin m=1 island. This near-explosive phase is followed by a rapid decay phase as the island width becomes comparable to the radius of the sawtooth region. An island equation is derived for the entire nonlinear evolution of the instability, extending recent work on the subject [X. Wang and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1627 (1993)] to include the effects of both electron inertia and electron pressure gradient. Comparisons are made with experimental data from present-day tokamaks. It is suggested that the present model not only accounts for fast sawtooth crashes, but also provides possible explanations for the problems of sudden onset and incomplete reconnection that have been, heretofore, unexplained features of observations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J.; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M.; Golding, Sarah J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; DeGori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH2]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite. PMID:19196988

  1. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  2. Compressional effects in nonneutral plasmas, a shallow water analogy and m=1 instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Barnes, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Diocotron instabilities form an important class of ExB shear flow instabilities which occur in nonneutral plasmas. The case of a single-species plasma confined in a cylindrical Penning trap, with an axisymmetric, hollow (nonmonotonic) density profile is studied. According to the standard linear theory, the m=1, k z =0 diocotron mode is always stable. On the other hand, experiments by Driscoll [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 645 (1990)] show a robust exponential growth of m=1 diocotron perturbations in hollow density profiles. The apparent contradiction between these experimental results and linear theory has been an outstanding problem in the theory of nonneutral plasmas. A new instability mechanism due to the radial variation of the equilibrium plasma length is proposed in this paper. This mechanism involves the compression of the plasma parallel to the magnetic field and implies the conservation of the line integrated density. The predicted growth rate, frequency, and mode structure are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The effect of a linear perturbation of the plasma length is also shown to give instability with a comparable growth rate. The conservation of the line integrated density in the plasma is analogous to the conservation of the potential vorticity in the shallow water equations used in geophysical fluid dynamics. In particular, there is an analog of Rossby waves in nonneutral plasmas. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, V. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D. [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K}=1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode of deformed nuclei has been studied extensively in (e,e{sup '}) and (γ,γ{sup '}) experiments over the last 30 years with the main focus on strong M1 transitions to the ground state band. In the framework of the semiclassical two-rotor-model it has its origin in quadrupole deformation. A considerable E2 matrix element between the rotational band of the scissors mode and the ground band is predicted which has not been addressed experimentally. A photon-scattering experiment with linearly-polarized quasi monoenergetic vector (γ)-rays has been performed at the High Intensity vector (γ)-ray Source (HIvector (γ)S) at Duke University, Durham, NC, exploiting the γ{sup 3} setup. We have measured an E2/M1-multipole mixing ratio for the 1{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition for the first time. The Alaga rule is applicable and delivers a first estimate of the transition strength B(E2:2{sup +}{sub sc}→0{sup +}{sub 1}). A candidate for a 2{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition is discussed.

  4. Current status of muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors as drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Goldsmith, Paul J; Jackson, Kimberley; Sanger, Helen E; Evans, David A; Mogg, Adrian J; Broad, Lisa M

    2018-01-25

    The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects. More recent compound screening and medicinal chemistry optimization of orthosteric and allosteric agonists, and positive allosteric modulators binding to sites distinct from the highly homologous acetylcholine binding pocket have yielded a collection of highly selective tool compounds for preclinical validation studies. Several M1 selective ligands have progressed to early clinical development and in time will hopefully lead to useful therapeutics for treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. An Approach to Understanding Cohesive Slurry Settling, Mobilization, and Hydrogen Gas Retention in Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2009-05-22

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. Some of these vessels have mixing-system requirements to maintain conditions where the accumulation of hydrogen gas stays below acceptable limits, and the mixing within the vessels is sufficient to release hydrogen gas under normal conditions and during off-normal events. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries of solid particles suspended in Newtonian fluids that behave as non-Newtonian slurries, such as Bingham yield-stress fluids. When these slurries are contained in the process vessels, the particles can settle and become progressively more concentrated toward the bottom of the vessels, depending on the effectiveness of the mixing system. One limiting behavior is a settled layer beneath a particle-free liquid layer. The settled layer, or any region with sufficiently high solids concentration, will exhibit non-Newtonian rheology where it is possible for the settled slurry to behave as a soft solid with a yield stress. In this report, these slurries are described as settling cohesive slurries.

  6. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  7. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  8. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  9. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  10. Cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells of mice exposed on the biosatellite "BION-M1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Ivanov, Alexander

    In studies of cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of astronauts, conducted in recent years, have shown an increase in the frequency of chromosomal damage bound, as believe, with influence on an organism of astronauts of space radiation (B.S. Fedorenko, G.P. Snigireva, 2004). However, in recent years published evidence that both acute and chronic stress induce chromosomal aberrations and modified genome sensitivity to mutagens of different nature, including to ionizing radiation (F.I. Ingel et al, 2005 ). This question is especially actual for space biology and medicine due to a number of specific features of space flights, when the interaction of factors more pronounced than in normal terrestrial conditions. In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out at intervals of 15-20 minutes by method of cervical dislocation after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite. Level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. Differences are not significant. The maintenance of animals in experiment with the onboard equipment (ground experiment) led to some increase in aberrant mitoses (2,3 ± 0,4%) and to decrease in a mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION - M1" statistically significant increase of level of chromosomal aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). Since the mouse is a suitable experimental model , also had several ground experiments on research of combined effect of irradiation and other stress factors specific to space flight, with marked tendency to increase the level of aberrant mitoses under the combined action of radiation and stress exposure group housing male mice. Statistically

  11. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  12. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  13. On the GI/M/1 Queue with Vacations and Multiple Service Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a GI/M/1 queue with vacations and multiple service phases. Whenever the system becomes empty, the server takes a vacation, causing the system to move to vacation phase 0. If the server returns from a vacation to find no customer waiting, another vacation begins. Otherwise, the system jumps from phase 0 to some service phase i with probability qi,  i=1,2,…,N. Using the matrix geometric solution method and semi-Markov process, we obtain the distributions of the stationary system size at both arrival and arbitrary epochs. The distribution of the stationary waiting time of an arbitrary customer is also derived. In addition, we present some performance measures such as mean waiting time of an arbitrary customer, mean length of the type-i cycle, and mean number of customers in the system at the end of phase 0. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  14. Optimization of an M/M/1/N Feedback Queue with Retention of Reneged Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has become a threat to the business world. Firms employ various customer retention strategies to retain their impatient (or reneged customers. Customer retention mechanisms may help to retain some or all impatient customers. Further, due to unsatisfactory service, customers may rejoin a queue immediately after departure. Such cases are referred to as feedback customers. Kumar and Sharma take this situation into account and study an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with retention of reneged customers. They obtain only a steady-state solution for this model. In this paper, we extend the work of Kumar and Sharma by performing an economic analysis of the model. We develop a model for the costs incurred and perform the appropriate optimization. The optimum system capacity and optimum service rate are obtained. (original abstract

  15. Atomic spectroscopy with twisted photons: Separation of M 1 -E 2 mixed multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Solyanik, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We analyze atomic photoexcitation into the discrete states by twisted photons, or photons carrying extra orbital angular momentum along their direction of propagation. From the angular momentum and parity considerations, we are able to relate twisted-photon photoexcitation amplitudes to their plane-wave analogs, independently of the details of the atomic wave functions. We analyze the photoabsorption cross sections of mixed-multipolarity E 2 -M 1 transitions in ionized atoms and found fundamental differences coming from the photon topology. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that it is possible to extract the relative transition rates of different multipolar contributions by measuring the photoexcitation rate as a function of the atom's position (or impact parameter) with respect to the optical vortex center. The proposed technique for separation of multipoles can be implemented if the target's atom position is resolved with subwavelength accuracy; for example, with Paul traps. Numerical examples are presented for Boron-like highly charged ions.

  16. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  17. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions in Fe X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energies of the 54 levels belonging to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d and 3s3p 5 3d configurations of Fe X have been calculated using the GRASP code of Dyall and colleagues (1989). Additionally, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among these levels. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 3%, whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20% . Additionally, the agreement between measured and calculated lifetimes is better than 10%. (authors)

  18. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V; Baecklin, A; Fogelberg, B; Malmskog, S G

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  20. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanso, E.N.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Ten thousand plants of M 1 V 3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  1. The MCNP Simulation of a PGNAA System at TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaroon, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Picha, R.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.

    2017-06-01

    The prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been installed at Thai Research Reactor-1/Modified 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1999. The purpose of the system is for elemental and isotopic analyses. The system mainly consists of a series of the moderator and collimator, neutron and gamma-ray shielding and the HPGe detector. In this work, the condition of the system is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code and the experiment. The flux ratios (Φthermal/Φepithermal and Φthermal/Φfast) and thermal neutron flux have been obtained. The simulated prompt gamma rays of the Portland cement sample have been carried out. The simulation provides significant contribution in upgrading the PGNAA station to be available in various applications.

  2. M1 transitions between low-lying states in the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Robert; Werner, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei in the A=90 region have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. Collective symmetric structures appear when protons and neutrons are in phase, whereas mixed-symmetric structures occur when they are not. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetric state was identified from strong M1 transitions to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between higher-spin states, and are predicted by the shell model. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg Interacting Boson Model 2 in order to obtain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and results from first model calculations will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under grant number DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  3. An Automatic Detection Method of Nanocomposite Film Element Based on GLCM and Adaboost M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic detection model adopting pattern recognition technology is proposed in this paper; it can realize the measurement to the element of nanocomposite film. The features of gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM can be extracted from different types of surface morphology images of film; after that, the dimension reduction of film can be handled by principal component analysis (PCA. So it is possible to identify the element of film according to the Adaboost M1 algorithm of a strong classifier with ten decision tree classifiers. The experimental result shows that this model is superior to the ones of SVM (support vector machine, NN and BayesNet. The method proposed can be widely applied to the automatic detection of not only nanocomposite film element but also other nanocomposite material elements.

  4. Low pressure injection sequence sensitivity study of the M1 module of MEDICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.; Norkus, J.K.; Welzbacker, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the consequences of a PWR containment failure and the ensuing radiological source term following a severe reactor accident, it is necessary to understand the ex-vessel behavior of the molten core. The M1 module of MEDICI models the dynamic fuel-coolant mixing, energetic interaction, and ejection of fuel and coolant from the reactor cavity following such an accident. A sensitivity study of the low pressure injection sequence was performed utilizing a Box-Behnken statistical design to treat five sets of input variables considered to be significant in the mixing and steam explosion processes. The low pressure injection sequence was studied in which the molten corium is modeled as a pour stream entering the cavity without entraining or sweeping out fuel or coolant

  5. The frequency of occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovinski-Horvatović Miroslava S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is one of the most common mycotoxins which can be found in milk. It represents a natural metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that occurs as a result of animal metabolism and the body's attempt to detoxificate it. It is excreted in milk, feces and urine of animals that consumed contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1. The carry-over from feed to milk depends on many factors, ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Aflatoxin M1 is in the first group of carcinogens according to the IRAC classification from 2002, but it is considered to have only 10% of carcinogenicity from its precursor aflatoxin B1. Legislation in member countries of European Union for this mycotoxin in milk intended for people is 0.05 μg/l, while the rest of the countries that also have legislation for this mycotoxin allow the concentration that is ten times higher, and that is 0.5 μg/l. In this paper, we have tried to provide on insight into the quality of milk, food often consumed by children, from the standpoint of mycotoxicology, and to compare the obtained data with data available from literature, from countries in the region that have similar climatic and agricultural conditions. From a total of 65 samples of processed milk, aflatoxin M1 was found in 18 samples and none of the samples exceeded the level of 0.05 μg/l, which is allowed by the legislation of the European Union.

  6. Effect of closed shells on the multipole mixing parameter δ(E2/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of the magnitude and sign of the mixing parameter δ(E2/M1) in even-even nuclei has been studied in a number of papers. The most extensive data has been given for transitions of the type 3 γ + , 2 γ + , 2 β + →2 g + . The data on δ are relatively scarce for mixed transitions in odd nuclei with magic or semimagic cores. However, certain conclusions can be drawn about the behavior of δ in transitions in odd nuclei near magic numbers, and also in transitions in even-even nuclei when passing through quasishells: (1) the absolute value of the reduced mixing parameter in transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational states in odd nuclei decreases as a closed shell is approached; (2) δ has the same sign for transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational levels in nuclei with Z=83 and 85 and N=83, 85, and 87; (3) in odd nuclei the sign of δ is positive for transitions between positive-parity states s 1/2 -d 3/2 in Cd, Sm, and Tl isotopes and is negative for transitions between negative-parity states f 7/2 π and h 9/2 π in Sm, Gd, Bi, and At isotopes, independently of whether these transitions are neutron or proton transitions; (4) the removal of ±2 nucleons in an even shell from a magic core (and in certain nuclei a larger number of pairs of nucleons) does not lead to a change in sign of δ in transitions producing an odd nucleus; (5) the closure of quasishells at N=96 and 104 in even-even nuclei is associated with an increase in the absolute value of δ(E2/M1)/E γ , but the sign of δ does not change

  7. Phenotype and molecular analysis of M1 generation of stylosanthes irradiated by 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weili; Liu Fengmin

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Stylosanthes guianensis SW. ‘Reyan No.13’ were irradiated by 60 Co at 0, 325, 487 and 974 Gy. Phenotype and molecular variations of Stylosanthes M 1 generations were studied. Germination percentage, plant height, leaf length and stem diameter of M 1 seedlings were determined using SRAP-PCR. Results showed that biological character indices of treatments were significantly lower than that of control (CK). Irradiation inhibited plant growth. Growth indices of 974 Gy treatment, except leaf length, were significantly lower than CK and other two treatments. Eight effective primers selected from 24 primers combination were used for SRAP-PCR. SRAP analysis revealed that the 57 of 88 DNA fragments were amplified showing polymorphisms. The average percentage of polymorphic bands was 64.77%. The effects of 60 Coγ irradiation on DNA variation of seedlings were varied from different treatments. Numbers of polymorphic bands changed after irradiation. Coefficient of variation was in direct proportion to irradiation doses. Variation rates of 325 Gy, 487 Gy and 974 Gy treatments were 22.0%, 38.1% and 41.5%, respectively. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of all treatments was ranged from 0.585 to 0.780 by software NTSYSpc 2.1 based on SRAP results and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.678. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of 974 Gy treatment was 0.585 and variation degree was highest among all treatments, 487 Gy treatment was second and 325 Gy treatment was the lowest one. Based on present bands, four irradiated treatments were classified into two major groups by UPGMA cluster analysis. Group 1 included CK, 325 Gy and 487 Gy treatment and group 2 included 974 Gy. SRAP analysis determined variation of Stylosanthes after irradiation and the results of SRAP analysis were consistent with their biological indexes in some extent

  8. Single-channel ground airborne radio system (SINCGARS) based remote control for the M1 Abrahms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Joseph R.

    1995-04-01

    Remote control of the Ml Abrahms Main Battle Tank through a minefield breach operation will remove the vehicle crew from the inherent hazard. A successful remote control system will provide automotive control yet not impair normal operation. This requires a minimum of physical parts, and an unobtrusive installation. Most importantly, a system failure must not impair the regular operation as a manned system. The system itself need not be complex. A minefield breach only requires simple control of automotive function and a mine plow interface. Control hardware for the Ml-Al can be reduced to two linear actuators, an electrical interface for the engine control unit, an interface for the mine plow, and the associated cables. Communication between vehicle control and operator control takes place over the vehicles organic radio (typically SINCGARS). This helps reduce the number of special purpose components for the remote control device. The device is currently awaiting an automotive safety test to prepare for its safety release. Because of the specific nature of the MDL-STD 1553-B data bus the device will not control an M1-A2 Main Battle Tank. The architecture will allow control of the M1-A2 through the 1553-B data bus however the physical hardware has not been constructed. The control scheme will not change. The communication interface will provide greater flexibility when interfacing to the vehicle tactical radio. Operational utility will be determined by U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command personnel. The obvious benefit is that if a remote tank is lost during a minefield breach the crew is saved.

  9. In Vivo Measurements in Mice in the Bion-M 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Popova, Anfisa; Borovik, Anatoliy; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga

    The main aim of BION-M 1 mission was to reveal morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to prolonged exposure in microgravity. Besides that functional state and behavior were assessed in vivo using test battery, home cage observations and implantable telemetry in space-flown mice (SF), control mice from the ground replica of the flight experiment (GC) and in mice kept in vivarium (SFV and GCV). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously in a subgroup of mice using implantable telemetry throughout the flight as well as before and after it. After 30-days flight aboard BION-M 1 biosatellite SF mice have gained more weight than GC, SFV or GCV mice (11%). SF mice displayed pronounced motor impairment upon examination shortly after landing. 1 day after the flight mice were less active and more anxious in the open-field test, less coordinated in the Rotarod and aerial drop test and had less grip force compared to both control and pre-flight values. Exercise performance was greatly reduced after 30-days flight and recovered by day 7 post-flight. Before the flight mice were trained to perform a simple task using positively reinforced free operant conditioning approach. After the flight performance in the same task was preserved, however learning ability was impaired. Mice displayed drastic reduction of heart rate during launch and reentry acceleration periods. Heart rate (by 8-10%) and, to a lesser extent blood pressure (by 5%) were elevated during the 30-days flight. After return heart rate in SF mice remained elevated throughout the 7-days observation period with no apparent recovery. In summary, mice display pronounced disadaptation to 1g after 30-days exposure in microgravity with different physiological systems having different recovery dynamics. Of particular interest, hemodynamic reactions in mice closely resemble reactions in larger organisms, implying that factors that govern the cardiovascular system adaptation to

  10. Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, D.J.; Yanagishita, M.; Hascall, V.C.; Bickel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family

  11. Conflict management strategies in settling workplace disputes: The case of air Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiso Ngcobo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to conduct the analysis of the conflict management strategies that Air Zimbabwe, a service delivery company in Zimbabwe in Southern Africa, employs in settling workplace disputes between it and its employees. The research approach relies mainly on a survey questionnaire that is completed by both the employees and management. The analysis of data is descriptive. The respondents indicate that strategies can move from a positive to a negative approach within a short space of time. The results are often detrimental to the quality of service that the company provides to its clientele. It is recommended that the parties should rely on negotiation and mediation to arrest conflicts before they escalate.

  12. Utilization of C-14 settled urease for diagnosing Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Y.; Coelho, L.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method for diagnosing the Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach is described, using C-14 settled urease. Campylobacter Pylori is now being considered the most probable causative agent of antral chronic gastritis, pepitic ulcer and non-ulcerous dyspepsia. The technique is based on ingestion of the tracer, its recovery by exhalation in etanol hyamine solution, followed by counting and dates evaluation. The test was applied to forty two voluntary male and female patients, after their written acquiescence. Their ages varied from 19 to 62 years old. Thirty of the results were positive and twelve negative. All of them were comproved by microbiological (cultura) and hystologycal studies of gastric biopsy gotten by gastroscopy. They were performed at the Gastroentherology Departament of the 'Hospital das Clinicas' that belongs to the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Repetitivity of the breath test was confirmed by repetition of the results in five positive patients and five negative ones. (author) [pt

  13. The Characterisation of Settled Dust by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilton, Vaughan; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David; Williams, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Settled dust has been collected inside the main foyers oft hree University buildings in Wolverhampton City Centre,U.K. Two of the three buildings are located in a street canyon used almost exclusively by heavy duty diesel vehicles. The dust was collected on adhesive carbonspectro-tabs to be in a form suitable for analysis by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Using these analytical techniques, individual particle analysis was undertaken for morphology and chemistry. Seasonal variations and variations due to location were observed in both the morphological measurements and chemical analysis. Many of the differences appear attributable to the influence of road traffic, in particular, the heavy duty diesel vehicles, travelling along the street canyon

  14. JURISTIC OBSTACLE IN DECLARING BANKRUPTCY AGAINST INSURANCE COMPANY WHICH FAIL TO SETTLE ITS DEBT LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal obligation to pay compensation of an insurance company arise immediatelyafter the evenement occurred, if this obligation not being settled right away it can becategorized as “fall due debt” and “claimable”, and this can be used as a reason to proposebankruptcy application. The creditor’s fundamental rights practically impeded by Section 2article (5 of Insolvency Act, which give absolute authority to Minister of Finance in proposingbankruptcy application for insurance company. This authority is attached to the status of Ministerof Finance as the guider and supervisor of insurance institution in Indonesia, but this authorityoften might reduce people’s trust to insurance institution itself if it is not used carefully andwisely. For the sake of law and justice, Minister of Finance should acts proportionally if thebankruptcy application doesn’t have enough reason, according to Minister’s authority in thecase of bankruptcy application for insurance company against their insured and other creditors.

  15. Dynamic one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks and system robustness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, M K

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional secondary settling tank models are widely used in current engineering practice for design and optimization, and usually can be expressed as a nonlinear hyperbolic or nonlinear strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation (PDE). Reliable numerical methods are needed to produce approximate solutions that converge to the exact analytical solutions. In this study, we introduced a reliable numerical technique, the Yee-Roe-Davis (YRD) method as the governing PDE solver, and compared its reliability with the prevalent Stenstrom-Vitasovic-Takács (SVT) method by assessing their simulation results at various operating conditions. The YRD method also produced a similar solution to the previously developed Method G and Enquist-Osher method. The YRD and SVT methods were also used for a time-to-failure evaluation, and the results show that the choice of numerical method can greatly impact the solution. Reliable numerical methods, such as the YRD method, are strongly recommended.

  16. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  17. Impacts of Sediments on Coral Energetics: Partitioning the Effects of Turbidity and Settling Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Reef K.; Browne, Nicola K.; Erftemeijer, Paul L. A.; Todd, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment loads have long been known to be deleterious to corals, but the effects of turbidity and settling particles have not previously been partitioned. This study provides a novel approach using inert silicon carbide powder to partition and quantify the mechanical effects of sediment settling versus reduced light under a chronically high sedimentary regime on two turbid water corals commonly found in Singapore (Galaxea fascicularis and Goniopora somaliensis). Coral fragments were evenly distributed among three treatments: an open control (30% ambient PAR), a shaded control (15% ambient PAR) and sediment treatment (15% ambient PAR; 26.4 mg cm−2 day−1). The rate of photosynthesis and respiration, and the dark-adapted quantum yield were measured once a week for four weeks. By week four, the photosynthesis to respiration ratio (P/R ratio) and the photosynthetic yield (Fv/Fm) had fallen by 14% and 3–17% respectively in the shaded control, contrasting with corals exposed to sediments whose P/R ratio and yield had declined by 21% and 18–34% respectively. The differences in rates between the shaded control and the sediment treatment were attributed to the mechanical effects of sediment deposition. The physiological response to sediment stress differed between species with G. fascicularis experiencing a greater decline in the net photosynthetic yield (13%) than G. somaliensis (9.5%), but a smaller increase in the respiration rates (G. fascicularis = 9.9%, G. somaliensis = 14.2%). These different physiological responses were attributed, in part, to coral morphology and highlighted key physiological processes that drive species distribution along high to low turbidity and depositional gradients. PMID:25197883

  18. Impacts of sediments on coral energetics: partitioning the effects of turbidity and settling particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reef K Junjie

    Full Text Available Sediment loads have long been known to be deleterious to corals, but the effects of turbidity and settling particles have not previously been partitioned. This study provides a novel approach using inert silicon carbide powder to partition and quantify the mechanical effects of sediment settling versus reduced light under a chronically high sedimentary regime on two turbid water corals commonly found in Singapore (Galaxea fascicularis and Goniopora somaliensis. Coral fragments were evenly distributed among three treatments: an open control (30% ambient PAR, a shaded control (15% ambient PAR and sediment treatment (15% ambient PAR; 26.4 mg cm(-2 day(-1. The rate of photosynthesis and respiration, and the dark-adapted quantum yield were measured once a week for four weeks. By week four, the photosynthesis to respiration ratio (P/R ratio and the photosynthetic yield (Fv/Fm had fallen by 14% and 3-17% respectively in the shaded control, contrasting with corals exposed to sediments whose P/R ratio and yield had declined by 21% and 18-34% respectively. The differences in rates between the shaded control and the sediment treatment were attributed to the mechanical effects of sediment deposition. The physiological response to sediment stress differed between species with G. fascicularis experiencing a greater decline in the net photosynthetic yield (13% than G. somaliensis (9.5%, but a smaller increase in the respiration rates (G. fascicularis = 9.9%, G. somaliensis  = 14.2%. These different physiological responses were attributed, in part, to coral morphology and highlighted key physiological processes that drive species distribution along high to low turbidity and depositional gradients.

  19. Significance of uncertainties derived from settling tank model structure and parameters on predicting WWTP performance - A global sensitivity analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty derived from one of the process models – such as one-dimensional secondary settling tank (SST) models – can impact the output of the other process models, e.g., biokinetic (ASM1), as well as the integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models. The model structure and parameter...... and from the last aerobic bioreactor upstream to the SST (Garrett/hydraulic method). For model structure uncertainty, two one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) models are assessed, including a first-order model (the widely used Takács-model), in which the feasibility of using measured...... uncertainty of settler models can therefore propagate, and add to the uncertainties in prediction of any plant performance criteria. Here we present an assessment of the relative significance of secondary settling model performance in WWTP simulations. We perform a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) based...

  20. Application of radionuclides in water management. I. Sedimentation of industrial and municipal waste waters in settling basing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, L; Thyn, J [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Spilowski, S; Strzelczak, G [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1978-04-01

    Methods are described of measurement and processing of the pulse response of liquids obtained inside and on the outlet of industrial settling tanks of the DORRA type. The results are used for determining the hydrodynamic characteristics, for estimating the internal recycle and the efficient volume of the tank and for determining the mean flow rates between measuring points. The /sup 82/Br nuclide was used for the determination of the pulse response. A radiotracer (/sup 198/Au) was used for labelling suspended solid particles in determining sedimentation curves in a vertical glass tube. The sedimentation curves and the pulse response of the device were used for the evaluation of the settling process. On the basis of these measurements, the variation of the critical depth of sedimentation and the effective volume of the settling tank were determined as a function of the suspension flow rate in the device (2 to 10 m/sup 3/min/sup -1/).

  1. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2014-10-15

    Current research focuses on predicting and mitigating the impacts of high hydraulic loadings on centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under wet-weather conditions. The maximum permissible inflow to WWTPs depends not only on the settleability of activated sludge in secondary settling tanks (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets for WWTP model calibration, and propose optimal choice of 1-D SST models under different flow and settling boundary conditions. Additionally, the hydraulic parameters in the second-order SST model are found significant under dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. These results highlight the importance of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model in second-order 1-D SST models in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A numerical investigation of fine sediment resuspension in the wave boundary layer - effect of hindered settling and bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T. J.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, X.

    2016-02-01

    The wave bottom boundary layer is a major conduit delivering fine terrestrial sediments to the continental margin. Hence, studying the fine sediment resuspension in the wave boundary layer is crucial to the understanding of various components of the earth system, such as carbon cycle. By assuming the settling velocity to be a constant in each simulation, previous turbulence-resolving numerical simulations reveal the existence of three transport modes in the wave boundary layer associated with the sediment availability. As the sediment availability and hence the sediment-induced stable stratification increase, a sequence of transport modes, namely, (I) well-mixed transport, (II) formulation of lutocline resembling a two-layer system, and (III) completely laminarized transport are observed. In general, the settling velocity is a flow variable due to the floc dynamics and hindered settling. This study further investigate the effect of hindered settling. Particularly, for flocs with lower gelling concentrations, the hindered settling effect can play a key role in sustaining large amount of suspended sediment load and results in the laminarized transport (III). For the simulation with a very significant hindered settling effect due to a low gelling concentration, results also indicate the occurrence of gelling ignition, a state in which the erosion rate is always higher than the deposition rate. A condition for the occurrence of gelling ignition is proposed for a range of wave intensities as a function of sediment/floc properties and erodibility parameters. These aforementioned studies are limited to fine sediment transport over a flat bed. However, recent field and laboratory observation show that a small amount of sand fraction can lead to the formation of small bedforms, which can armor the bed while in the meantime enhance near bed turbulence. Preliminary investigation on the effect of bedforms on the resulting transport modes will also be presented.

  3. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  4. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  5. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  6. Preventing the settling of salts of calcium and magnesium in oil production on the Boka oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katincic, Z

    1972-01-01

    The results are given of laboratory and plant tests of the influence of sodium hexametaphosphate on the prevention of separation and settling of the salts of calcium and magnesium in the pipelines of the Boka oil field. All the former methods of fighting the salts consisted in dissolving the sediments of salt and paraffin in pipelines and the obligatory holding up of production, which required a loss in production in addition to material costs. By using the sodium hexametaphosphate, the settling of Ca and Mg salts in pipelines was prevented without holding up the production at considerably smaller cost.

  7. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  8. HLA-B27M1M2 and high immune responsiveness to Shigella flexneri in post-dysenteric arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Nabbe, A. J.; Landheer, J. E.; Grumet, F. C.; Mazurkiewicz, E. S.; Dinant, H. J.; Lionarons, R. J.; van Bodegom, P. C.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The heterogeneous HLA-B27 antigen is closely associated with post-infectious or reactive arthritis (ReA) and is comprised of two serologically defined variants: B27M1+M2+ and B27M1+M2-. An outbreak of dysentery (n = 120) caused by a Shigella flexneri 2a strain, which possessed cell envelope antigens

  9. Uncovering SUMOylation Dynamics during Cell-Cycle Progression Reveals FoxM1 as a Key Mitotic SUMO Target Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Joost; Eifler, Karolin; Sigurdsson, Jón Otti

    2014-01-01

    Loss of small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) in mice causes genomic instability due to the missegregation of chromosomes. Currently, little is known about the identity of relevant SUMO target proteins that are involved in this process and about global SUMOylation dynamics during cell......-cycle progression. We performed a large-scale quantitative proteomics screen to address this and identified 593 proteins to be SUMO-2 modified, including the Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1), a key regulator of cell-cycle progression and chromosome segregation. SUMOylation of FoxM1 peaks during G2 and M...... relieving FoxM1 autorepression. Cells deficient for FoxM1 SUMOylation showed increased levels of polyploidy. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of SUMOylation during cell-cycle progression....

  10. Identification of the yeast gene encoding the tRNA m1G methyltransferase responsible for modification at position 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jane E; Montange, Rebecca K; Malik, Harmit S; Phizicky, Eric M

    2003-05-01

    Methylation of tRNA at the N-1 position of guanosine to form m(1)G occurs widely in nature. It occurs at position 37 in tRNAs from all three kingdoms, and the methyltransferase that catalyzes this reaction is known from previous work of others to be critically important for cell growth in Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. m(1)G is also widely found at position 9 in eukaryotic tRNAs, but the corresponding methyltransferase was unknown. We have used a biochemical genomics approach with a collection of purified yeast GST-ORF fusion proteins to show that m(1)G(9) formation of yeast tRNA(Gly) is associated with ORF YOL093w, named TRM10. Extracts lacking Trm10p have undetectable levels of m(1)G(9) methyltransferase activity but retain normal m(1)G(37) methyltransferase activity. Yeast Trm10p purified from E. coli quantitatively modifies the G(9) position of tRNA(Gly) in an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent fashion. Trm10p is responsible in vivo for most if not all m(1)G(9) modification of tRNAs, based on two results: tRNA(Gly) purified from a trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strain is lacking detectable m(1)G; and a primer extension block occurring at m(1)G(9) is removed in trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta-derived tRNAs for all 9 m(1)G(9)-containing species that were testable by this method. There is no obvious growth defect of trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strains. Trm10p bears no detectable resemblance to the yeast m(1)G(37) methyltransferase, Trm5p, or its orthologs. Trm10p homologs are found widely in eukaryotes and many archaea, with multiple homologs in several metazoans, including at least three in humans.

  11. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmskog, S.G.; Hoejeberg, M.

    1967-08-01

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in 233 U: T 1/2 (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 ± 0.15) x 10 -10 sec, T 1/2 (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 ± 1.0) x 10 -11 sec, T 1/2 (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 ± 2.0) x 10 -11 sec and T 1/2 (415.8 keV level) -11 sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters δ and (g K - g R ) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account

  12. Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.

  13. Pancreatic Resections for Advanced M1-Pancreatic Carcinoma: The Value of Synchronous Metastasectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Seelig

    2010-01-01

    Materials and Methods. From January 1, 2004 to December, 2007 a total of 20 patients with pancreatic malignancies were retrospectively evaluated who underwent pancreatic surgery with synchronous resection of hepatic, adjacent organ, or peritoneal metastases for proven UICC stage IV periampullary cancer of the pancreas. Perioperative as well as clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. Results. There were 20 patients (9 men, 11 women; mean age 58 years identified. The primary tumor was located in the pancreatic head (n=9, 45%, in pancreatic tail (n=9, 45%, and in the papilla Vateri (n=2, 10%. Metastases were located in the liver (n=14, 70%, peritoneum (n=5, 25%, and omentum majus (n=2, 10%. Lymphnode metastases were present in 16 patients (80%. All patients received resection of their tumors together with metastasectomy. Pylorus preserving duodenopancreatectomy was performed in 8 patients, distal pancreatectomy in 8, duodenopancreatectomy in 2, and total pancreatectomy in 2. Morbidity was 45% and there was no perioperative mortality. Median postoperative survival was 10.7 months (2.6–37.7 months which was not significantly different from a matched-pair group of patients who underwent pancreatic resection for UICC adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (median survival 15.6 months; P=.1. Conclusion. Pancreatic resection for M1 periampullary cancer of the pancreas can be performed safely in well-selected patients. However, indication for surgery has to be made on an individual basis.

  14. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  15. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  16. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: Biological Properties and Their Involvement in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marchese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in feeds and foods. When the ruminants eat feedstuffs containing Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, this toxin is metabolized and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is excreted in milk. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified AFB1 and AFM1 as human carcinogens belonging to Group 1 and Group 2B, respectively, with the formation of DNA adducts. In the last years, some epidemiological studies were conducted on cancer patients aimed to evaluate the effects of AFB1 and AFM1 exposure on cancer cells in order to verify the correlation between toxin exposure and cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In this review, we summarize the activation pathways of AFB1 and AFM1 and the data already reported in literature about their correlation with cancer development and progression. Moreover, considering that few data are still reported about what genes/proteins/miRNAs can be used as damage markers due to AFB1 and AFM1 exposure, we performed a bioinformatic analysis based on interaction network and miRNA predictions to identify a panel of genes/proteins/miRNAs that can be used as targets in further studies for evaluating the effects of the damages induced by AFB1 and AFM1 and their capacity to induce cancer initiation.

  17. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 2{sup 33}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G; Hoejeberg, M

    1967-08-15

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in {sup 233}U: T{sub 1/2} (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup -10} sec, T{sub 1/2} (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -11} sec, T{sub 1/2} (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -11} sec and T{sub 1/2} (415.8 keV level) < 3 x 10{sup -11}sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters {delta} and (g{sub K} - g{sub R}) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account.

  18. Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 548 raw milk samples were collected in the western, central and eastern regions of Croatia during February and March 2015. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 concentrations were quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. The method limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 22.2 and 34.2 ng/kg, respectively. The mean AFM1 levels measured in the three regions were (ng/kg as follows: western 3.69, central 3.11 and eastern 4.14. In total, the 548 samples analysed concentrations were below the LOD value and accordingly below the European Union maximum residue level (EU MRL of 50 ng/kg. The results suggest an absence of use of contaminated with aflatoxin B1 supplementary feedstuff for lactating cows in winter 2015. Such results might be related to the improved storage conditions for feed as well as to the enhanced and more stringent feed control system for mycotoxins in Croatia.

  19. Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Milk in Babol city, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Saa; Mirzae, M; Assmar, M; Naddaf, Sr

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is the metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and is found in milk when lactating animals are fed with contaminated feedstuff. The presence of AFM(1) in milk, pose a major risk for humans especially kids as it can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The present study is aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM(1) in subsidized pasteurized milk in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Some 72 pasteurized milk packages were collected from supermarkets in various districts of city during January to March 2006. Milk samples were centrifuged and amounts of 100 μl of skimmed milk were tested for AFM(1) contamination by competitive ELISA. All the samples (100%) exhibited contamination with AFM(1). The contamination levels means in January, February, and March were 227.85, 229.64, and 233.1ng/l, respectively. The amount of AFM(1) in all the samples were above 50ng/l, the threshold set by the European community regulations. Monitoring of AFM(1) level should be part of quality control procedures in dairy factories, particularly the ones providing infant's milk. Production of safer and healthier milk and other dairy products with minimum AFM(1) level can be achieved by adopting prophylactic measures including control of humidity and water content of feedstuff, which favors mould production.

  20. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  1. A survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk samples from farms was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that in samples from collection centers and pasteurized milk. The concentration of AFM1 was not influenced by season, location, or type of farm. The concentrations of AFM1 in all samples were lower than the Iranian national standard limit (100 ng/L, but in 30% of raw cow milk samples they were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/L; therefore, more effort is needed to control AFM1 levels in milk produced in Southern Iran.

  2. Development of an Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of ultratrace amounts of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in food products. The sensor was based on a competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP as a tag. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody (anti-AFM1 were used to separate the bound and unbound fractions. The samples containing AFM1 were incubated with a fixed amount of antibody and tracer [AFM1 linked to HRP (conjugate] until the system reached equilibrium. Competition occurs between the antigen (AFM1 and the conjugate for the antibody. Then, the mixture was deposited on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes, and the mediator [5-methylphenazinium methyl sulphate (MPMS] was added. The enzymatic response was measured amperometrically. A standard range (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ppb of AFM1-contaminated milk from the ELISA kit was used to obtain a standard curve for AFM1. To test the detection sensitivity of our sensor, samples of commercial milk were supplemented at 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 ppb with AFM1. Our immunosensor has a low detection limit (0.01 ppb, which is under the recommended level of AFM1 [0.05 µg L-1 (ppb], and has good reproducibility.

  3. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  4. Distribution of radiative strength with excitation energy: the E1 and M1 giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Speth, J.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the giant dipole resonance in the particle-hole model, employing empirical values for the unperturbed particle and hole energies, have been unsuccessful in pushing the dipole state to a sufficiently high energy. it is argued that unperturbed levels correspondign to an effective mass of m*/m approx. 0.6 to 0.7 should be employed. The couplings of particles and holes to vibrations are the crucial ingredients in these considerations. More generally, it is argued that the effective mass relevant to excitations near the Fermi surface is that corresponding to empirical single-particle levels, m*/m greater than or equal to 1.0. For particle-hole excitations above the Fermi surface, it is a decreasing function of excitation energy, reaching the above values 0.6 to 0.7 for E greater than or equal to 2 dirac constant/b omega, dirac constant/sub omega/ being the shell spacing. This has the consequence of spreading out the M1 strength. A new interpretation of experimental strengths is proposed

  5. CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms: genetic susceptibility to lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is considered an environment-related disease that develops as a consequence of exposure to mutagenic agents, namely those present in tobacco. The CYP1A1 gene codifies the phase I enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxilase (AHH belonging to the cytochrome P450 system that plays a major role in the bio-activation of tobacco procarcinogenes. Two CYP1A1 polymorphisms, m1 (T6235C transition and m2 (A4889G transition, are associated with greater enzymatic activity and have been described as genetic susceptibility factors for lung cancer.The aim of this study was to verify if this association holds true in blood samples of 175 lung cancer patients and 217 non-cancer patients from Portugal's midlands region. The samples were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay.The allelic frequencies of the mutant alleles were 0.12 for allele C and 1.14 for allele G in the control population. The results were not statistically different from those alleles in the patient population. There was also no statistically significant difference in genotype distribution in lung cancer patients and controls even when combining high risk genotypes. In our control sample, as in other populations of different ethnic origin, both polymorphisms also seem to be in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that in this sample of the Portuguese population, CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms are too rare to be of clinical relevance, and do not seem to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Resumo: O cancro do pulmão é considerado uma doença relacionada com o meio ambiente, consequência da exposição a agentes mutagénicos, nomeadamente os presentes no fumo do tabaco. O gene CYP1A1 codifica a enzima aril hidrocarboneto hidroxilase (AHH, da fase I, do sistema multienzimático do citocromo P450, que desempenha uma função preponderante na bioactivação dos procarcinogénios do tabaco. Dois polimorfismos do CYP1A1, m1 (transi

  6. Development of an impedimetric aptasensor for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamboulié, Georges; Paniel, Nathalie; Zara, Lorena; Reguillo Granados, Lucia; Barthelmebs, Lise; Noguer, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    An aptasensor was designed for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk based on DNA-aptamer recognition and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy detection. A hexaethyleneglycol-modified 21-mer oligonucleotide was immobilized on a carbon screen-printed electrode through carbodiimide immobilization, after diazonium activation of the sensing surface. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe were used to characterize each step of the aptasensor development. Aptamer-AFM1 interaction induced an increase in electron-transfer resistance, allowing the determination of AFM1 in buffer in the range 2-150 ng/L (LOD=1.15 ng/L). Application to milk analysis showed that a preliminary treatment was mandatory. A simple filtration through a 0.2 µm PTFE membrane allowed determination of AFM1 in milk for concentrations ranging from 20 to 1000 ng/kg. These performances are compatible with the AFM1 levels set in European Union for milk and dairy products for adults (50 ng/kg) and infants (25 ng/kg). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  8. Genomic Comparison among Lethal Invasive Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Fernandes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS, is a human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. A GAS outbreak occurred in Brasilia, Brazil, during the second half of the year 2011, causing 26 deaths. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina platform. The sequences were assembled and genes were predicted for comparative analysis with emm type 1 strains: MGAS5005 and M1 GAS. Genomics comparison revealed one of the invasive strains that differ from others isolates and from emm 1 reference genomes. Also, the new invasive strain showed differences in the content of virulence factors compared to other isolated in the same outbreak. The evolution of contemporary GAS strains is strongly associated with horizontal gene transfer. This is the first genomic study of a Streptococcal emm 1 outbreak in Brazil, and revealed the rapid bacterial evolution leading to new clones. The emergence of new invasive strains can be a consequence of the injudicious use of antibiotics in Brazil during the past decades.

  9. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Levels during Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Milk (Ergo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsige Shigute

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels during lab-scale ergo production was investigated through determination of the residual levels of AFM1 using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The results showed gradual and incubation time dependent reduction of AFM1 level in the raw milk samples being fermented to ergo. The maximum reductions of 57.33 and 54.04% were recorded in AFM1 in natural and LAB inoculums initiated fermentations, respectively, in 5 days of incubation. Although a significant difference (P=0.05 in the AFM1 decrease in the two types of fermentations was recorded, such findings could vary with milk samples depending on initial load of the microorganisms as determined by hygienic conditions. However, the level of AFM1 in control (sterilized samples showed only a 5.5% decrease during the entire period of incubation. Microbiological investigation showed increasing LAB counts with incubation time. A gradual decrease in pH of the milk samples was observed during fermentation. Considering the fact that both viable and dead bacterial cells could remove AFM1 during ergo production, the mechanism is proposed as predominantly involving noncovalent binding of the toxin with the chemical components of the bacterial cell wall.

  10. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  11. Medical students who decompress during the M-1 year outperform those who fail and repeat it: A study of M-1 students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Gregory G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All medical schools must counsel poor-performing students, address their problems and assist them in developing into competent physicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether students with academic deficiencies in their M-1 year graduate more often, spend less time to complete the curriculum, and need fewer attempts at passing USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 by entering the Decompressed Program prior to failure of the M-1 year than those students who fail the M-1 year and then repeat it. Method The authors reviewed the performance of M-1 students in the Decompressed Program and compared their outcomes to M-1 students who failed and fully repeated the M-1 year. To compare the groups upon admission, t-Tests comparing the Cognitive Index of students and MCAT scores from both groups were performed. Performance of the two groups after matriculation was also analyzed. Results Decompressed students were 2.1 times more likely to graduate. Decompressed students were 2.5 times more likely to pass USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt than the repeat students. In addition, 46% of those in the decompressed group completed the program in five years compared to 18% of the repeat group. Conclusion Medical students who decompress their M-1 year prior to M-1 year failure outperform those who fail their first year and then repeat it. These findings indicate the need for careful monitoring of M-1 student performance and early intervention and counseling of struggling students.

  12. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  13. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugee...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635...

  15. Carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in Bering Sea settling particles. Extremely high remineralization of organic carbon derived from diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Saki; Akagi, Tasuku; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Fumio; Takahashi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratios of organic carbon in settling particles collected in the highly-diatom-productive Bering Sea were determined. Wet decomposition was employed to oxidize relatively fresh organic matter. The amount of unoxidised organic carbon in the residue following wet decomposition was negligible. The δ 13 C of organic carbon in the settling particles showed a clear relationship against SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of settling particles: approximately -26‰ and -19‰ at lower and higher SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratios, respectively. The δ 13 C values were largely interpreted in terms of mixing of two major plankton sources. Both δ 13 C and compositional data can be explained consistently only by assuming that more than 98% of diatomaceous organic matter decays and that organic matter derived from carbonate-shelled plankton may remain much less remineralized. A greater amount of diatom-derived organic matter is discovered to be trapped with the increase of SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of the settling particles. The ratio of organic carbon to inorganic carbon, known as the rain ratio, therefore, tends to increase proportionally with the SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio under an extremely diatom-productive condition. (author)

  16. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  17. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  18. Particle size: a missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Gang; Chen, Yong-Shan; Cao, Qi-Ming; Fiedler, Heidelore; Deng, Shu-Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2012-11-15

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 μm should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 μm is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  20. 29 CFR 1471.635 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service settle a...) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1471.635 May the Federal Mediation and...

  1. 31 CFR 19.635 - May the Department of the Treasury settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Department of the Treasury settle a debarment or suspension action? 19.635 Section 19.635 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles...

  2. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  3. On The Settling And Response Times Of Underdamped Second-Order Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Fattah Mohamed Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The normalized settling time (ts/t values of oscillatory second order systems, when subjected to a step-change forcing function (SCFF, depend on the sensitivity of the measuring instrument employed to indicate the response (± x%. An attempt is made to mathematically relate ts/t to ± x% utilizing the exact, and a simplified, expression for the lower boundary of the decay envelope (LBDE. The two obtained relationships were tested against the actual ts/t values for a settling bands range of ±1% = ±x% = ±6%, covering a damping coefficient range of 0.1 = ? = 0.65. Although the relationships are not exact, their general trend is a marginal overestimation of ts/t. The relationship based on the simplified LBDE was chosen for being simpler and slightly more accurate of the two. This led to a suggested distinction between ts/t and the normalized response time (tR/t, with the latter assigned the value 5/ ? . The ratio ts/tR can thus be readily established for any ± x% value.ABSTRAK: Masa enapan ternormal (ts/t  nilai ayunan system terbit kedua, apabila fungsi memaksa ubah berperingkat (step-change forcing function (SCFF dijalankan ke atasnya, bergantung kepada kepekaan alat pengukur yang digunakan untuk mengukur respons (± x%. Satu percubaan dijalankan secara matematik untuk mengaitkan ts/t to ± x% dengan mempergunakan ekspresi yang tepat dan mudah, pada sempadan bawah sampul reputan (lower boundary of the decay envelope (LBDE. Dua hubungan yang diperolehi dikaji terhadap nilai ts/t sebenar untuk julat jalur enapan ±1% = ±x% = ±6%, melingkungi julat pekali redaman 0.1 = ? = 0.65. Walaupun hubungannya tidak tepat, trend umum merupakan penganggaran marginal ts/t. Hubungan berdasarkan LBDE adalah berdasarkan  LBDE yang telah dipermudahkan, ia dipilih kerana ianya senang dan agak tepat antara keduanya. Ini mendorong kepada perbezaan yang disarankan antara ts/t  dan waktu respons ternormal (tR/t, dengan nilai 5/ ? yang ditetapkan kemudiannya

  4. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  5. Cytosolic Pellino-1-Mediated K63-Linked Ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 Macrophages Regulates Glucose Intolerance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IRF5 is a signature transcription factor that induces M1 macrophage polarization. However, little is known regarding cytosolic proteins that induce IRF5 activation for M1 polarization. Here, we report the interaction between ubiquitin E3 ligase Pellino-1 and IRF5 in the cytoplasm, which increased nuclear translocation of IRF5 by K63-linked ubiquitination in human and mouse M1 macrophages. LPS and/or IFN-γ increased Pellino-1 expression, and M1 polarization was attenuated in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Defective M1 polarization in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages improved glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, macrophages in adipose tissues from obese humans exhibited increased Pellino-1 expression and IRF5 nuclear translocation compared with nonobese subjects, and these changes are associated with insulin resistance index. This study demonstrates that cytosolic Pellino-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 macrophages regulates glucose intolerance in obesity, suggesting a cytosolic mediator function of Pellino-1 in TLR4/IFN-γ receptor-IRF5 axis during M1 polarization.

  6. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Wingspan stent for symptomatic M1 stenosis of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinbin; Ma Nan; Hu Xiaobo; Guan Sheng; Fan Yimu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Stent placement for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis has become an alternative treatment technique; however, stent placement for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis remains a technical and clinical challenge. Our purpose was to assess the safety and feasibility of Wingspan stent for patients with symptomatic M1 stenosis, and its initial effect on prevention of ischemic events. Methods: Fifty-three cases with recurrent symptomatic MCA stenosis resistant to medical therapy treated by self-expanding stent were reviewed retrospectively (average 58 ± 18.5 years old, 19 women). All patients underwent angioplasty and stenting with the Gateway balloon–Wingspan stent system, and advised follow-up with DSA or TCD at 6th month. Results: Patients had an average stenosis ratio of 76.5 ± 15.4% prior to the treatment. Of the 53 patients, the technical success rate was 98.1% as a whole (52/53). The mean degree of stenosis reduced from (76.5 ± 15.4)% to (18.2 ± 11.3)%. Complications associated with the procedure include subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.89%) and occlusion (3.78%) occurred. During a follow-up of 6 months, there was no recurrence of transient ischemic attack or stroke in 52 cases with successful stenting. Cerebral hemodynamics of MCA using transcranial Doppler monitoring were at normal level (<120 cm/s) in 41 follow-up patients. The follow up angiography at 6 month post-procedure was conducted in 32 patients and showed good patency in stented vessels. Conclusions: Wingspan stent for symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery is a safe and feasible procedure. It improves clinical outcome in the intermediate follow up, but its long-term effect remains to be further evaluated.

  8. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y P; Hsiao, P J; Hong, W S; Dai, T Y; Chen, M J

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Interaction via FoxM1 Signaling Mediates Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Zhu, Maggie M; Peng, Yi; Jin, Hua; Machireddy, Narsa; Qian, Zhijian; Zhang, Xianming; Zhao, You-Yang

    2018-04-17

    Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH. Lung tissues and cells from PAH patients were employed to validate clinical relevance. FoxM1 inhibitor Thiostrepton was used in Sugen 5416/hypoxia- and monocrotaline-challenged rats. FoxM1 expression was markedly upregulated in lungs and pulmonary arterial SMCs of idiopathic PAH patients and 4 discrete PH rodent models. Mice with SMC- (but not EC-) specific deletion of Foxm1 were protected from hypoxia- or Sugen 5416/hypoxia-induced PH. The upregulation of FoxM1 in SMCs induced by multiple EC-derived factors (PDGF-B, CXCL12, ET-1 and MIF) mediated SMC proliferation. Genetic deletion of endothelial Cxcl12 in Egln1Tie2Cre mice or loss of its cognate receptor Cxcr4 in SMCs in hypoxia-treated mice inhibited FoxM1 expression, SMC proliferation and PH. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of FoxM1 inhibited severe PH in both Sugen 5416/hypoxia and monocrotaline-challenged rats. Multiple factors derived from dysfunctional ECs induced FoxM1 expression in SMCs and activated FoxM1-dependent SMC proliferation which contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Thus, targeting FoxM1 signaling represents a novel strategy for treatment of IPAH.

  10. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  11. Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Ashraf Bukhari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria is the most dangerous threat for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli among patients and environment of intensive care units (ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 samples from ICU’s patients and inanimate environment (injection trays, wash basins, door handles, hand swabs of professionals, and ICU fridges were screened for ESBL by culturing on CHROMagar-ESBL. ESBL and carbapenemases production were confirmed by double disc synergy test and modified Hodge’s test, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ESBL encoding genes bla cefotaxime (CTX-M, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaTEM, blaSHV and carbapenemase genes blaKPC, bla New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM. Results: Overall, ESBL production was found high 30/82 (36.5% among isolates of which 15.8% K. pneumoniae and 20.7% E. coli were identified. All the K. pneumoniae and majority of E. coli isolates were MDR, i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial categories. Molecular characterization showed the blaCTX-M-1 as the predominant genotype found in 17/21 (80% of the isolates. None of the strains was found positive for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the emergence of MDR ESBL producing strains among ICU patients and hospital environment, posing a serious threat for the control of nosocomial infections.

  12. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  14. PARTITIONING TUNGSTEN BETWEEN MATRIX PRECURSORS AND CHONDRULE PRECURSORS THROUGH RELATIVE SETTLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Alexander, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of chondrites have found a tungsten isotopic anomaly between chondrules and matrix. Given the refractory nature of tungsten, this implies that W was carried into the solar nebula by at least two distinct families of pre-solar grains. The observed chondrule/matrix split requires that the distinct families were kept separate during the dust coagulation process, and that the two families of grain interacted with the chondrule formation mechanism differently. We take the co-existence of different families of solids in the same general orbital region at the chondrule-precursor size as given, and explore the requirements for them to have interacted with the chondrule formation process at significantly different rates. We show that this sorting of families of solids into chondrule- and matrix-destined dust had to have been at least as powerful a sorting mechanism as the relative settling of aerodynamically distinct grains at least two scale heights above the midplane. The requirement that the chondrule formation mechanism was correlated in some fashion with a dust-grain sorting mechanism argues strongly for spatially localized chondrule formation mechanisms such as turbulent dissipation in non-thermally ionized disk surface layers, and argues against volume-filling mechanisms such as planetesimal bow shocks.

  15. PARTITIONING TUNGSTEN BETWEEN MATRIX PRECURSORS AND CHONDRULE PRECURSORS THROUGH RELATIVE SETTLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of chondrites have found a tungsten isotopic anomaly between chondrules and matrix. Given the refractory nature of tungsten, this implies that W was carried into the solar nebula by at least two distinct families of pre-solar grains. The observed chondrule/matrix split requires that the distinct families were kept separate during the dust coagulation process, and that the two families of grain interacted with the chondrule formation mechanism differently. We take the co-existence of different families of solids in the same general orbital region at the chondrule-precursor size as given, and explore the requirements for them to have interacted with the chondrule formation process at significantly different rates. We show that this sorting of families of solids into chondrule- and matrix-destined dust had to have been at least as powerful a sorting mechanism as the relative settling of aerodynamically distinct grains at least two scale heights above the midplane. The requirement that the chondrule formation mechanism was correlated in some fashion with a dust-grain sorting mechanism argues strongly for spatially localized chondrule formation mechanisms such as turbulent dissipation in non-thermally ionized disk surface layers, and argues against volume-filling mechanisms such as planetesimal bow shocks.

  16. Means to be settled on in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The emergency plan must be based on a study of radiological consequences of radioactive releases in case of a reference accident. This plan must be flexible and adaptable to the real situations that often difer from the reference accident. The optimal method of the intervention in case of accidents depends on the comparison between the loss caused by the intervention and the advantage offered by the dose reduction. The emergency plans include three levels: The first one concerns the classical accidents, the second concerns the radiological accidents limited inside the nuclear installations site and the third concerns the events that can create a radiological risk outside the site. These emergency plans have been discussed in this paper. The protection population measures are various and numerous. The selection of the most appropriate measures depends on several parameters (demographic, ecological, geographical, socio-economical, meteorological...). So, it is necessary to consider all types of accident and to settle protection measures adaptable to each accidental situation. The essential protection measures have been defined and discussed. A radiological surveillance plan has also to be established. The international and inter-regional cooperation plays a large part in the reduction of the accident consequences. So, it is to be hoped that countries,in a same region, would establish mutual assistance conventions. 3 tabs., 11 refs.(author)

  17. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Performance of Africanized honeybee colonies settled by queens selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated varroa infestation and the performance of Africanized honeybee colonies with queens selected for honey and royal jelly production, and also unselected queens, correlating with climatic variables. In Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment I used 10 Langstroth hives and in Mafra, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment II was performed with 15 Schenk hives. A mapping in areas of sealed and unsealed brood, honey and pollen was carried out on days zero, 45 and 90 days after the introduction of the queen. In the experiment I, there was interaction between the type of queen selection and the evaluation period for areas of sealed brood, honey, and total stored food. The group selected for royal jelly production presented larger sealed brood area and smaller honey area at 90 days. Varroa infestation was lower (p < 0.05 at 90 days. The type of queen selection and the evaluation period influenced the sealed brood area, the total brood and the total area occupied in the colony. The high relative humidity caused greater honey storage for the local group. The different groups of queens presented different behavior according to the environment in which they are settled.

  19. Photovoltaic System Regulation Based on a PID Fuzzy Controller to Ensure a Fixed Settling Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the controllers in photovoltaic systems (PV is to ensure the maximum extraction of the available power. Those controllers usually combine the action of a maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT with a voltage regulator, which has the function of rejecting disturbances at the panel terminals. Such controllers are commonly based on PI and PID structures, it requiring linearized models at an operating point. But, due to disturbances generated by the environment and the load, the operating point of the system changes drastically, which hinder to obtain the desired system performance. This paper proposes to regulate the PV system using a Fuzzy PID controller, which adapts to changes in solar irradiance and load oscillations. This characteristic guarantees a constant settling time, which is required to precisely define the period of the MPPT algorithm. In the case of classical linear controllers, the period of the MPPT algorithm is set to the worst case (longest period which generates additional power losses by slowing down the tracking of the optimal operating point. Therefore, the solution proposed in this paper improves the overall system efficiency. Finally, such a solution is validated through simulations in Matlab®.

  20. Settling of Spinel in A High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors call melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 degree C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel ( a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occurred in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  2. The hyperturbid state of the water column in estuaries and rivers: the importance of hindered settling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Yoeri M.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Winterwerp, Johan C.

    2018-03-01

    Over the last few decades, some estuaries have undergone a transition to a hyperturbid state, characterised by suspended sediment concentrations of several grammes per litre averaged over the water column. To improve our understanding of this transition and of naturally hyperturbid estuaries, we systematically identify the processes allowing for high suspended sediment concentrations using a water column (1DV) model. Under a range of realistic forcing conditions, the state of the water column can be characterised by one of two equilibrium states. The first is an erosion-limited state, in which there still is sediment available for erosion at the bed. We find that this state only occurs with relatively low concentrations. The second is a supply-limited state, in which all erodable sediment is in suspension. The concentration in this state depends entirely on the amount of sediment in the system and can potentially be very high. We identify the conditions under which the state of the water column can jump from a low to a high concentration and identify hysteresis in the transition between the two states. The mechanism responsible for this hysteresis is hindered settling. It thus follows that hyperturbidity is only possible in a supply-limited state. From this observation we derive a necessary condition for an estuarine system to make the transition from low turbidity to hyperturbidity in a 1DV context. This is an important step towards understanding why some estuaries are hyperturbid and assessing the risk that particular estuaries may become hyperturbid in the future.

  3. Model of the hydrodynamic loads applied on a rotating halfbridge belonging to a circular settling tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalescu, A. E.; Lazaroiu, G.; Scupi, A. A.; Oanta, E.

    2016-08-01

    The rotating half-bridge of a settling tank is employed to sweep the sludge from the wastewater and to vacuum and sent it to the central collector. It has a complex geometry but the main beam may be considered a slender bar loaded by the following category of forces: concentrated forces produced by the weight of the scrapping system of blades, suction pipes, local sludge collecting chamber, plus the sludge in the horizontal sludge transporting pipes; forces produced by the access bridge; buoyant forces produced by the floating barrels according to Archimedes’ principle; distributed forces produced by the weight of the main bridge; hydrodynamic forces. In order to evaluate the hydrodynamic loads we have conceived a numerical model based on the finite volume method, using the ANSYS-Fluent software. To model the flow we used the equations of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) for liquids together with Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for multiphase flows. For turbulent model k-epsilon we used the equation for turbulent kinetic energy k and dissipation epsilon. These results will be used to increase the accuracy of the loads’ sub-model in the theoretical models, e. the finite element model and the analytical model.

  4. Dynamic one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks and design impacts of sizing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    As one of the most significant components in the activated sludge process (ASP), secondary settling tanks (SSTs) can be investigated with mathematical models to optimize design and operation. This paper takes a new look at the one-dimensional (1-D) SST model by analyzing and considering the impacts of numerical problems, especially the process robustness. An improved SST model with Yee-Roe-Davis technique as the PDE solver is proposed and compared with the widely used Takács model to show its improvement in numerical solution quality. The improved and Takács models are coupled with a bioreactor model to reevaluate ASP design basis and several popular control strategies for economic plausibility, contaminant removal efficiency and system robustness. The time-to-failure due to rising sludge blanket during overloading, as a key robustness indicator, is analyzed to demonstrate the differences caused by numerical issues in SST models. The calculated results indicate that the Takács model significantly underestimates time to failure, thus leading to a conservative design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial communities in riparian soils of a settling pond for mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miaochun; Lin, Yanbing; Huo, Haibo; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Entao; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2016-06-01

    Mine drainage leads to serious contamination of soil. To assess the effects of mine drainage on microbial communities in riparian soils, we used an Illumina MiSeq platform to explore the soil microbial composition and diversity along a settling pond used for mine drainage treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the microbial communities differed significantly among the four sampling zones (influent, upstream, downstream and effluent), but not seasonally. Constrained analysis of principal coordinates indicated heavy metals (zinc, lead and copper), total sulphur, pH and available potassium significantly influenced the microbial community compositions. Heavy metals were the key determinants separating the influent zone from the other three zones. Lower diversity indices were observed in the influent zone. However, more potential indicator species, related to sulphur and organic matter metabolism were found there, such as the sulphur-oxidizing genera Acidiferrobacter, Thermithiobacillus, Limnobacter, Thioprofundum and Thiovirga, and the sulphur-reducing genera Desulfotomaculum and Desulfobulbus; the organic matter degrading genera, Porphyrobacter and Paucimonas, were also identified. The results indicated that more microorganisms related to sulphur- and carbon-cycles may exist in soils heavily contaminated by mine drainage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation. Part 2: The global collapse of settling erythrocyte network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2010-01-01

    Results reported in the companion paper showed that erythrocytes in quiescent blood are combined into a network followed by the formation of plasma channels within it. This study is focused on structural changes in the settling dispersed phase subsequent to the channeling and the effect of the structural organization on the sedimentation rate. It is suggested that the initial, slow stage of erythrocyte sedimentation is mainly controlled by the gravitational compactness of the collapsed network. The lifetime of RBC network and hence the duration of the slow regime of erythrocyte sedimentation decrease with an increase in the intercellular pair potential and with a decrease in Hct. The gravitational compactness of the collapsed network causes its rupture into individual fragments. The catastrophic collapse of the network transforms erythrocyte sedimentation from slow to fast regime. The size of RBC network fragment is insignificantly affected by Hct and is mainly determined by the intensity of intercellular attractive interactions. When cells were suspended in the weak aggregating medium, the Stokes radius of fragments does not differ measurably from that of individual RBCs. The proposed mechanism provides a reasonable explanation of the effects of RBC aggregation, Hct and the initial height of the blood column on the delayed erythrocyte sedimentation.

  7. Individual consistency in the behaviors of newly-settled reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in behavior is advantageous for organisms that transition between stages of a complex life history. However, various constraints can set limits on plasticity, giving rise to the existence of personalities that have associated costs and benefits. Here, we document a field and laboratory experiment that examines the consistency of measures of boldness, activity, and aggressive behavior in the young of a tropical reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae) immediately following their transition between pelagic larval and benthic juvenile habitats. Newly-settled fish were observed in aquaria and in the field on replicated patches of natural habitat cleared of resident fishes. Seven behavioral traits representing aspects of boldness, activity and aggression were monitored directly and via video camera over short (minutes), medium (hours), and long (3 days) time scales. With the exception of aggression, these behaviors were found to be moderately or highly consistent over all time scales in both laboratory and field settings, implying that these fish show stable personalities within various settings. Our study is the first to examine the temporal constancy of behaviors in both field and laboratory settings in over various time scales at a critically important phase during the life cycle of a reef fish.

  8. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  10. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  11. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Bepler, Gerold, E-mail: beplerg@karmanos.org [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. {yields} C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1

  12. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao; Bepler, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. → The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. → The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. → C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. → The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1 conformation has the potential to serve as a specific

  13. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  14. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  15. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the performance of two soybean varieties in M1 and M2 generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.; Rahman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Seed of two soybean varieties Bragg and Improved Pelican were treated with gamma-rays at 0, 11, 29, 47 and 65 Kr doses. Percentage of seedling emergence in both varieties in M 1 generation was not so seriously affected as in M 1 generation. The plant height of Bragg after one month of sowing was less influenced than Improved Pelican. Plant height of both the varieties decreased with increase in radiation doses; except 11 Kr in Bragg in both generations. Similar results were also obtained in plant height at harvest except that Improved Pelican in M 1 generation produced taller plants at 29 Kr than at 11 Kr level. Days required to harvest increased at higher doses in comparison to control, except 11 Kr for Improved Pelican and 29 Kr for Bragg in M 1 generation. (author)

  16. Bed turbulent kinetic energy boundary conditions for trapping efficiency and spatial distribution of sediments in basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenmann, Gilles; Dufresne, Matthieu; Vazquez, José; Mose, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a numerical tool for evaluating the performance of a settling basin regarding the trapping of suspended matter. The Euler-Lagrange approach was chosen to model the flow and sediment transport. The numerical model developed relies on the open source library OpenFOAM ® , enhanced with new particle/wall interaction conditions to limit sediment deposition in zones with favourable hydrodynamic conditions (shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy). In particular, a new relation is proposed for calculating the turbulent kinetic energy threshold as a function of the properties of each particle (diameter and density). The numerical model is compared to three experimental datasets taken from the literature and collected for scale models of basins. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results permits concluding on the model's capacity to predict the trapping of particles in a settling basin with an absolute error in the region of 5% when the sediment depositions occur over the entire bed. In the case of sediment depositions localised in preferential zones, their distribution is reproduced well by the model and trapping efficiency is evaluated with an absolute error in the region of 10% (excluding cases of particles with very low density).

  17. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  18. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  19. Effect of heat-inactivated kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 on preventing an allergic airway response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Po; Dai, Ting-Yeu; Huang, I-Nung; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2011-08-24

    In this study, we assessed the anti-asthmatic effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (HI-M1) and its fermented milk using different feeding procedures and at various dosage levels. The possible mechanisms whereby HI-M1 has anti-allergic asthmatic effects were also evaluated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated the HI-M1 samples showed strong inhibition of production of T helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Th17 cytokines in splenocytes and bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in regulatory T cell population in splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of H1-M1 was also observed. In addition, all of the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including specific IgE production, airway inflammation, and development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were depressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment. These findings support the possibility that oral feeding of H1-M1 may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  20. Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Tan, Yaqian; Cavenee, Webster K; Yan, Guangmei

    2017-06-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic compounds (SMCs), which antagonize the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and induce apoptosis, sensitize tumor cells to multiple cytokines. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SMCs sensitize tumor cells to cytokines induced by the oncolytic M1 virus, thus enhancing a bystander killing effect. Here, we report that SMCs potentiate the oncolytic effect of M1 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This strengthened oncolytic efficacy resulted from the enhanced bystander killing effect caused by the M1 virus via cytokine induction. Through a microarray analysis and subsequent validation using recombinant cytokines, we identified IL-8, IL-1A, and TRAIL as the key cytokines in the bystander killing effect. Furthermore, SMCs increased the replication of M1, and the accumulation of virus protein induced irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, the combined treatment with M1 and SMCs had little effect on normal and human primary cells. Because SMCs selectively and significantly enhance the bystander killing effect and the replication of oncolytic virus M1 specifically in cancer cells, this combined treatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.