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Sample records for m-1 bams secreted

  1. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  2. NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-li; Wu, Yuan-bo; Fang, Chuan-qin; Qu, Ping; Gao, Zong-liang

    2016-01-15

    Microglia microvesicles (MVs) has shown to have significant biological functions under normal conditions. A diversity of miRNAs is involved in neuronal development, survival, function, and plasticity, but the exact functional role of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs in neuron damage is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia on neuron damage. Expression of Nos2, Arg-1, miR-375, syntaxin-1A, NDRG2 and Pdk 1 were evaluated using RT-PCR or western blotting. Cell viability of N2A neuron was quantified by a MTT assay. Microglia can be polarized into different functional phenotypes. Expression of NDRG2 and Nos2 were significantly increased by LPS treatment on N9 cells, whereas treatment with IL-4 dramatically suppressed the expression of NDRG2 and remarkably elevated expression of Arg-1. Besides, MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 microglia significantly inhibited cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A, and NDRG2 interference reversed the up-regulated miR-375 in LPS-treated N9 microglia and MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 cells. Furthermore, NDRG2 could modulate miR-375 expression in N9 microglia and MVs. And miR-375 inhibitor remarkably elevated Pdk1 expression in N2A neurons. Finally, miR-375 inhibitor could reverse suppression effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A. Our results demonstrated that NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage. The suppression of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia may be potential targets for alleviation of neuron damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Yersinia enterocolitica type three secretion chaperone SycO is integrated into the Yop regulatory network and binds to the Yop secretion protein YscM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesemann Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic yersiniae (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica share a virulence plasmid encoding a type three secretion system (T3SS. This T3SS comprises more than 40 constituents. Among these are the transport substrates called Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, the specific Yop chaperones (Sycs, and the Ysc (Yop secretion proteins which form the transport machinery. The effectors YopO and YopP are encoded on an operon together with SycO, the chaperone of YopO. The characterization of SycO is the focus of this study. Results We have established the large-scale production of recombinant SycO in its outright form. We confirm that Y. enterocolitica SycO forms homodimers which is typical for Syc chaperones. SycO overproduction in Y. enterocolitica decreases secretion of Yops into the culture supernatant suggesting a regulatory role of SycO in type III secretion. We demonstrate that in vitro SycO interacts with YscM1, a negative regulator of Yop expression in Y. enterocolitica. However, the SycO overproduction phenotype was not mediated by YscM1, YscM2, YopO or YopP as revealed by analysis of isogenic deletion mutants. Conclusion We present evidence that SycO is integrated into the regulatory network of the Yersinia T3SS. Our picture of the Yersinia T3SS interactome is supplemented by identification of the SycO/YscM1 interaction. Further, our results suggest that at least one additional interaction partner of SycO has to be identified.

  4. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  5. Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia T. Soderholm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS commonly causes pharyngitis in children and adults, with severe invasive disease and immune sequelae being an infrequent consequence. The ability of GAS to invade the host and establish infection likely involves subversion of host immune defenses. However, the signaling pathways and innate immune responses of epithelial cells to GAS are not well-understood. In this study, we utilized RNAseq to characterize the inflammatory responses of primary human tonsil epithelial (TEpi cells to infection with the laboratory-adapted M6 strain JRS4 and the M1T1 clinical isolate 5448. Both strains induced the expression of genes encoding a wide range of inflammatory mediators, including IL-8. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed genes between mock and JRS4- or 5448-infected TEpi cells were enriched in transcription factor networks that regulate IL-8 expression, such as AP-1, ATF-2, and NFAT. While JRS4 infection resulted in high levels of secreted IL-8, 5448 infection did not, suggesting that 5448 may post-transcriptionally dampen IL-8 production. Infection with 5448ΔcepA, an isogenic mutant lacking the IL-8 protease SpyCEP, resulted in IL-8 secretion levels comparable to JRS4 infection. Complementation of 5448ΔcepA and JRS4 with a plasmid encoding 5448-derived SpyCEP significantly reduced IL-8 secretion by TEpi cells. Our results suggest that intracellular infection with the pathogenic GAS M1T1 clone induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in primary tonsil epithelial cells, but modulates this host response by selectively degrading the neutrophil-recruiting chemokine IL-8 to benefit infection.

  6. BAM annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The volume reports on the activities of the Federal Institute of Materials Reseaerch and Testing (BAM) and its departments of metals and metal constructions, building, organic materials, chemical safety technology, special fields of materials testing and techniques which are not dependent on the type of material. Research activities of a more general nature are described, and the work of the project groups for computerized tomography, high-quality ceramics, and the database on hazardous materials (DGG) is described. (orig./MM) With 116 figs., 12 tabs., statistical annex [de

  7. In vivo roles of BamA, BamB and BamD in the biogenesis of BamA, a core protein of the β-barrel assembly machine of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev; Stikeleather, Ryan; Gabriele, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is an essential cellular process in Gram negative bacteria and in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes—two organelles of bacterial origin. Central to this process is the conserved β-barrel OMP that belongs to the Omp85 superfamily. In Escherichia coli, BamA is the core β-barrel OMP, and together with four outer membrane lipoproteins, BamBCDE, constitute the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM). In this paper, we investigated the roles of BamD, an essential lipoprotein, and BamB in BamA biogenesis. Depletion of BamD caused impairment in BamA biogenesis and cessation of cell growth. These defects of BamD depletion were partly reversed by single amino acid substitutions mapping within the β-barrel domain of BamA. However, in the absence of BamB, the positive effects of the β-barrel substitutions on BamA biogenesis under BamD depletion conditions were nullified. By employing a BamA protein bearing one such substitution, F494L, it was demonstrated that the mutant BamA protein could not only assemble without BamD, but it could also facilitate the assembly of wild-type BamA expressed in trans. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the Bam lipoproteins, which are localized to the outer membrane by the BAM-independent Lol pathway, aid in the creation of new BAM complexes by serving as outer membrane receptors and folding factors for nascent BamA molecules. The newly assembled BAM holocomplex then catalyzes the assembly of substrate OMPs and BamA. These in vivo findings are corroborated by recently published in vitro data. PMID:24792419

  8. In vivo roles of BamA, BamB and BamD in the biogenesis of BamA, a core protein of the β-barrel assembly machine of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev; Stikeleather, Ryan; Gabriele, Rebecca

    2015-03-13

    Assembly of the β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is an essential cellular process in Gram-negative bacteria and in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes--two organelles of bacterial origin. Central to this process is the conserved β-barrel OMP that belongs to the Omp85 superfamily. In Escherichia coli, BamA is the core β-barrel OMP and, together with four outer membrane lipoproteins, BamBCDE, constitutes the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM). In this paper, we investigated the roles of BamD, an essential lipoprotein, and BamB in BamA biogenesis. Depletion of BamD caused impairment in BamA biogenesis and cessation of cell growth. These defects of BamD depletion were partly reversed by single-amino-acid substitutions mapping within the β-barrel domain of BamA. However, in the absence of BamB, the positive effects of the β-barrel substitutions on BamA biogenesis under BamD depletion conditions were nullified. By employing a BamA protein bearing one such substitution, F474L, it was demonstrated that the mutant BamA protein could not only assemble without BamD but also facilitate the assembly of wild-type BamA expressed in trans. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the Bam lipoproteins, which are localized to the outer membrane by the BAM-independent Lol pathway, aid in the creation of new BAM complexes by serving as outer membrane receptors and folding factors for nascent BamA molecules. The newly assembled BAM holocomplex then catalyzes the assembly of substrate OMPs and BamA. These in vivo findings are corroborated by recently published in vitro data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection of the Escherichia coli lipoproteins BamC, BamD and BamE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-01-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the E. coli lipoproteins BamC, BamD and BamE is reported. X-ray diffraction data at high resolution were obtained for each of the proteins or protein domains. In Escherichia coli, the β-barrel assembly machinery (or BAM complex) mediates the recognition, insertion and assembly of outer membrane proteins. The complex consists of the integral membrane protein BamA (an Omp85-family member) and the lipoproteins BamB, BamC, BamD and BamE. The purification and crystallization of BamC, BamD and BamE, each lacking the N-terminal membrane anchor, is described. While the smallest protein BamE yielded crystals under conventional conditions, BamD only crystallized after stabilization with urea. Full-length BamC did not crystallize, but was cleaved by subtilisin into two domains which were subsequently crystallized independently. High-resolution data were acquired from all proteins

  10. Outer membrane targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins shows variable dependence on the components of Bam and Lol machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hanh H; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Lee, Vincent T; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    , but the severity (and therefore, Lol and Bam dependence), varies with individual proteins. XcpQ, the secretin component of the type II secretion apparatus, is translocated into the OM without the assistance of Bam or Lol machineries. The hypothesis that XcpQ, after secretion across the cytoplasmic membrane, does not utilize the OM targeting machineries was supported by demonstrating that in vitro-synthesized XcpQ (but not the other P. aeruginosa secretins) can spontaneously incorporate into lipid vesicles. Therefore, the requirement for ancillary factors appears to be, in certain instances, dictated by the intrinsic properties of individual OM proteins, conceivably reflecting their propensities to misfold during periplasmic transit.

  11. Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pete

    2012-01-01

    "Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook" is a practical best practices tutorial focused entirely on Oracle Business Activity Monitoring. An intermediate-to-advanced guide, step-by-step instructions and an accompanying demo project will help SOA report developers through application development and producing dashboards and reports. If you are a developer/report developer or SOA Architect who wants to learn valuable Oracle BAM best practices for monitoring your operations in real time, then "Oracle BAM 11gR1 Handbook" is for you. Administrators will also find the book useful. You should already be comfortabl

  12. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ge; Tang, Mei-Lan; Martin, Ralph; Liu, Xin-Bi

    2007-07-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  13. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinge; Tang Meilan; Martin, Ralph; Liu Xinbi

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development

  14. Dichlobenil and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Styrishave, Bjarne; Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt

    2011-01-01

    Dichlobenil is a herbicide widely used for weed control, mainly in non-agricultural areas and in the aquatic environment. When released into the environment, dichlobenil can undergo many processes such as vaporization to air, binding to soil and sediment, as well as degradation to a number of new...... compounds. The main metabolite is 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) which is water soluble and causes ground water contamination. It is frequently found in levels exceeding maximum allowed concentrations of pesticides and metabolites in ground water (0.1 μg/L) set by the European Commission. The environmental...... distribution of both dichlobenil and BAM was outlined and the risk quotients were calculated for biota and for humans. For organisms living in aquatic habitats, risk quotients were low for both dichlobenil and BAM, approximately 0.02 for dichlobenil and 2.4·10(-4) to 1.3·10(-3) for BAM. For humans, a margin...

  15. TL dosimetric properties BAM:EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bellam N.; Murthy, K.V.R.; Subba Rao, B.; Saiprasad, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In phosphor area today top priority is the replacement of the high performance but very expensive rare earth activated phosphors with cheaper materials. This essentially means replacing the rare earth ions with transition metal ions or post transition ions. Now a day's phosphors are used in various fields. After World War II, the advances in the optical spectroscopy of solids, especially those of transition metals ions help to evolve research on phosphor and solid state luminescence. In 1960 efficient rare earth activated phosphors were developed for use in color TV (Tb 3+ green, Eu 3+ red, and Dy 3+ yellow). In 1970 tricolor lamp was introduced blue emission from Ce 3+ + Tb 3+ pair was used in tricolor lamps. At present combination of halo phosphor and tri-band phosphor blend is used in many lamp as a compromise between performance, phosphor cost and the lamp making Cost. Thermo luminescence of 0.5 Gy X-ray irradiated BAM.Eu has been studied. The irradiated phosphor has been studied for its TL dosimetric properties one week after irradiation and after 100 weeks of storage. Interesting TL results are reported in the present paper. Heating rate used in the present experiment is 6.6 deg C/Sec. The following two figures are on TL recorded 100 weeks after irradiation and TL recorded after 235 weeks of storage. Before storage for 100 weeks the TL glow curve with a hump around 180 deg C followed by a peak at 273 deg C. After storage for 100 weeks the TL pattern changes entirely. i.e. the composite TL peak structure emerged as two well resolved peaks and with slightly higher TL peak temperatures at 215 deg C and 300 deg C. Normally after storage for 100 weeks the peak at 190 deg C reduces in its intensity or disappears in some cases, instead of that the peak appears at 215 deg C as well resolved peak and its intensity is almost comparable to that of 300 deg C peak. Since the TL phenomenon observed is interesting the two well resolved, isolated, high intensity peaks

  16. Mineralisation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in dichlobenil-exposed soils and isolation of a BAM-mineralising Aminobacter sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A.; Holtze, M.S.; Sørensen, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    dichlobenil being mineralised within 50 days. By inoculating soil showing the fastest mineralisation of BAM into a mineral medium with BAM as the only carbon and nitrogen source an enrichment culture was established. Community analysis based on extracted DNA revealed a change of the bacterial community...... but without any clear indication of key members within the BAM-mineralising culture. Parallel cultivation resulted for the first time in the isolation of a BAM-mineralising bacterium, identified as an Aminobacter sp. Rapid bacterial mineralisation of BAM in dichlobenil-exposed soils....

  17. Sliding Intermittent Control for BAM Neural Networks with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential stability problem for a class of delayed bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with delays. A sliding intermittent controller which takes the advantages of the periodically intermittent control idea and the impulsive control scheme is proposed and employed to the delayed BAM system. With the adjustable parameter taking different particular values, such a sliding intermittent control method can comprise several kinds of control schemes as special cases, such as the continuous feedback control, the impulsive control, the periodically intermittent control, and the semi-impulsive control. By using analysis techniques and the Lyapunov function methods, some sufficient criteria are derived for the closed-loop delayed BAM neural networks to be globally exponentially stable. Finally, two illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the obtained theoretical results.

  18. Crisis management aspects of bam catastrophic earthquake: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  19. BaM bentonite and some of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, Oldřich; Vávra Michal; Kachlík, Martin; Maca, Karel; Kotnour, Petr; Pospíšková, Ilona

    2018-01-01

    BaM bentonite is lime-magnesium bentonite of domestic origin. Its properties were measured experimentally with focus on the following parameters: composition, morphology and particle size distribution, powder bulk density, powder pressing parameters, shear strength, and water saturation. The findings will find use in nuclear safety assessments of engineered bentonite barriers in underground nuclear waste disposal facilities. (orig.)

  20. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2010; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, Gideon

    2011-01-15

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2010. It contains the following topics: Analytical Chemistry; Safe handling of dangerous materials and dangerous goods; Safe and environmentally compatible use of materials; Safe operation of technical systems and processes; Damage mechanisms and damage analysis.

  1. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2011; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, Gideon

    2012-03-15

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2011. It contains the following topics: Analytical Chemistry; Safe handling of dangerous materials and dangerous goods; Safe and environmentally compatible use of materials; Safe operation of technical systems and processes; Damage mechanisms and damage analysis.

  2. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2009; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-20

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2009. It contains the following topics: Analytical Chemistry; Safe handling of dangerous materials and dangerous goods; Safe and environmentally compatible use of materials; Safe operation of technical systems and processes; Damage mechanisms and damage analysis.

  3. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2012; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, Gideon

    2012-03-15

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2012. It contains the following topics: Analytical Chemistry; Safe handling of dangerous materials and dangerous goods; Safe and environmentally compatible use of materials; Safe operation of technical systems and processes; Damage mechanisms and damage analysis.

  4. Optimization of an immunoassay of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and development of regenerative surfaces by immunosorbent modification with newly synthesised BAM hapten library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthuppu, Basil; Aamand, Jens; Jørgensen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Dichlobenil is an extensively used herbicide worldwide which is transformed to the mobile 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in soil. BAM has been found in many European groundwater resources that are exploited for drinking water. Currently, immunoassay based monitoring technique (plate based ELISA) is ...

  5. Groundwater contamination with 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and perspectives for its microbial removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Horemans, Benjamin; Raes, Bart

    2017-01-01

    (DWTP); therefore, if concentrations exceed the legal threshold limit, it represents a sizeable problem for the stability and quality of drinking water production, especially in places that depend on groundwater for drinking water. Bioremediation is suggested as a valuable strategy for removing BAM from...... groundwater by deploying dedicated BAM-degrading bacteria in DWTP sand filters. Only a few bacterial strains with the capability to degrade BAM have been isolated, and of these, only three isolates belonging to the Aminobacter genus are able to mineralise BAM. Considerable effort has been made to elucidate...... status and knowledge with regard to the application of microorganisms for purification of BAM-contaminated water resources. This paper discusses the prospects and challenges for bioaugmentation of DWTP sand filters with specific BAM-degrading bacteria and identifies relevant perspectives for future...

  6. Anti-synchronization control of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Yuan, Manman; Luo, Xiong; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Proportional delay is a class of unbounded time-varying delay. A class of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays is concerned in this paper. First, we propose the model of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations. Furthermore, by choosing suitable nonlinear variable transformations, the BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays can be transformed into the BAM memristive neural networks with constant delays. Based on the drive-response system concept, differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some anti-synchronization criteria are obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed criteria are demonstrated through numerical examples.

  7. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockland, Ulrike

    2016-06-01

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2015. It contains the following main focus areas: Energy (e.g. Predicting material failure using mathematics; Standing firm on the seabed), Infrastructure (Composites in fire; Alternative fuels; Geopolymer concrete), Environment, Materials (Functional ceramics for safe circuits boards; Optimized heat control in welding), Analytical Sciences (Improved comparability of measurement in chemistry; TOMOWELD; Calibration usin boelling:LIBS). Two papers were separately analyzed for this database.

  8. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, Gideon; Hoffmann, Ulf; Rockland, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2013. It contains the following main topics: Infrastructure (Protective cream for concretes; Wireless monitoring of bridges by sensors); Energy (The car as battery); Material (Testing welds under heavy test loads; Reactive fire protection systems; New glass facades on tall buildings); Environment (Reliable cost-efficient and green method for pollutant detection in water; Living veils); and Analytical Sciences (Tracing down corrosion in 15 minutes; Nanomaterials scrutinised by the microscope; Measuring light efficiency).

  9. Bundesanstalt fuer Martialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2001; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM, (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing), and its departments for Analytical Chemistry/Reference Materials, Chemical Safety Engineering, Hazardous Materials Containment, Environmental Compatibility of Materials, Technology of Structural Materials, Polymers, Structural Stability and Safety, Materials Protection/Nondestructive Testing, and for Scientific-Technical Interdisciplinary Activities. (MM) [German] Der vorliegende Band berichtet ueber die Aktivitaeten der Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung und ihrer Abteilungen Analytische Chemie/Referenzmaterialien, Chemische Sicherheitstechnik, Gefahrgutumschliessungen, Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Materialien, Werkstofftechnik der Konstruktionswerkstoffe, Funktion von Polymeren, Bauwerkssicherheit, Materialschutz/Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung und Technisch-wissenschaftliche Querschnittsfunktionen. (MM)

  10. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2015; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockland, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2015. It contains the following main focus areas: Energy (e.g. Predicting material failure using mathematics; Standing firm on the seabed), Infrastructure (Composites in fire; Alternative fuels; Geopolymer concrete), Environment, Materials (Functional ceramics for safe circuits boards; Optimized heat control in welding), Analytical Sciences (Improved comparability of measurement in chemistry; TOMOWELD; Calibration usin boelling:LIBS). Two papers were separately analyzed for this database.

  11. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2013; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Jahresbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, Gideon; Hoffmann, Ulf; Rockland, Ulrike

    2014-11-15

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2013. It contains the following main topics: Infrastructure (Protective cream for concretes; Wireless monitoring of bridges by sensors); Energy (The car as battery); Material (Testing welds under heavy test loads; Reactive fire protection systems; New glass facades on tall buildings); Environment (Reliable cost-efficient and green method for pollutant detection in water; Living veils); and Analytical Sciences (Tracing down corrosion in 15 minutes; Nanomaterials scrutinised by the microscope; Measuring light efficiency).

  12. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  13. Quality assurance in production and use of special form radioactive material - focal points in BAM approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, A.; Buhlemann, L.

    2004-01-01

    BAM as the competent authority for approval of special form radioactive material attaches great importance to a detailed audit of the required quality assurance programs for design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection. Applicants have to submit, together with application documentation information on general arrangements for quality assurance, as well as on quality assurance in production and in operation. Fields where BAM has often found deficiencies are leak test methods, weld seam quality and the safety level after use

  14. Global exponential stability of uncertain fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Ali, M.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model representation is extended to the stability analysis for uncertain Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays using linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory. A novel LMI-based stability criterion is obtained by LMI optimization algorithms to guarantee the exponential stability of uncertain BAM neural networks with time-varying delays which are represented by TS fuzzy models. Finally, the proposed stability conditions are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  15. Stability analysis of delayed Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks with impulses via nonsmooth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhen; Sun Jitao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point for delayed Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with impulses, based on nonsmooth analysis method. And we give the criteria of global exponential stability of the unique equilibrium point for the delayed BAM neural networks with impulses using Lyapunov method. The new sufficient condition generalizes and improves the previously known results. Finally, we present examples to illustrate that our results are effective.

  16. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal–bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal–bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. -- Highlights: •Presence of fungi increased the rate of BAM mineralization by Aminobacter sp. MSH1. •Fungal–bacterial consortium enhanced BAM degradation at low moisture contents. •Mortierella hyphae facilitated transport of the BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1. -- This study brings new knowledge to the benefits of applying bacterial–fungal consortia for bioremediation

  17. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  18. Inherent mineralization of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in unsaturated zone and aquifers – Effect of initial concentrations and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Clausen, Liselotte; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    cores with known dichlobenil application were collected from topsoil to 8.5 m below surface resulting in 57 samples hereof 4 aquifer samples. Mineralization was only substantial (>10%) in the uppermost meter of the unsaturated zone. Microbial adaptation, observed as faster mineralization in pre......, in pre-exposed clay mineralization was stimulated at high concentrations. Furthermore BAM was for the first time mineralized in aerobic aquifer sediments from different BAM-contaminated groundwater locations. BAM mineralization in subsurface and groundwater was demonstrated....

  19. m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    For neutrons the critical angle of Ni is defined as m=1. If one needs a coating with reflectivity above m=1, people have traditionally used Ni58 or Ni-based multilayers. The reason to use Ni is the high neutron scattering density and the fact that it is easy to coat Ni using magnetron sputtering....... For a neutron guide the cost of shielding around the guide is a substantial part of the total cost of the guide. We are therefore looking at other materials than Ni for m=1 coatings. Both Be and diamond have the same or higher neutron scattering density than Ni, and have a much smaller absorption cross section....... Because of the lower absorption cross section, and because of fewer emitted gamma ray photons when a neutron is absorbed, these coatings are producing much less gamma radiation and therefore reduce the shielding costs. Be is frequently used in a wide range of science and technology applications. The only...

  20. Measuring recovery: An adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) compared to biochemical and power output alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cunningham, Daniel J; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match. Match activity data for each participant was also collected using GPS monitors on players. BAM+, CK and PPO had significant (pathletes. Future research is needed to confirm both the scales reliability and validity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM). Annual report 2016/2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlemann, Rainer; Berger, Christoph; Beste, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    The volume reports the activities of the BAM (Federal Office for Materials Research and Testing) in the year of 2016/2017. It contains the following main focus areas: Energy (e.g. Supplying electricity, even during a storm; Researching fuels of the future), Infrastructure (Sensors report structurally deficient bridges; Stress test for dangerous good tanks), Environment (Tracing microplastics, Learning from the cockroaches), Materials (Ceramics from the 3D printer; The road towards new plastics; EU ruling on the notification for pyrotechnics in Germany - what was illegal, remains illegal), Analytical Sciences (Chemistry start-up using BAM know-how; Connecting sensors intelligently - on land, in the water and in the air). The appendix provides BAM in figures, maps, organigram and contacts.

  2. Predicting Trainability of M1 Crewmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Load Main Gun Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON M1 TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Launcher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION...Clear Main Gun LOAD/UNLOAD M250 GRENADE LAUNCHER ON Ml TANK* Load Grenade Launcher Unload Grenade Lauacher PREPARE GUNNER’S STATION FOR OPERATION ON Ml

  3. Inherent mineralization of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in unsaturated zone and aquifers - Effect of initial concentrations and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janniche, Gry Sander, E-mail: gsja@env.dtu.dk [DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clausen, Liselotte; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jorgen [DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    The dichlobenil metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide) is frequently detected in aquifers e.g. in Denmark despite the mother compound dichlobenil was banned here since 1997. BAM mineralization was investigated at environmentally relevant concentrations in sediment samples. Undisturbed sediment cores with known dichlobenil application were collected from topsoil to 8.5 m below surface resulting in 57 samples hereof 4 aquifer samples. Mineralization was only substantial (>10%) in the uppermost meter of the unsaturated zone. Microbial adaptation, observed as faster mineralization in pre-exposed than in pristine sediments from the same location, was only evident in sandy sediment where dichlobenil was still present, but not in clayey sediments. Higher initial concentrations (1-5000 {mu}g/kg) did not stimulate mineralization in pristine clayey or sandy sediments, or in pre-exposed sand. However, in pre-exposed clay mineralization was stimulated at high concentrations. Furthermore BAM was for the first time mineralized in aerobic aquifer sediments from different BAM-contaminated groundwater locations. - Highlights: > BAM mineralized in BAM-contaminated aerobic aquifer sediments. > In subsurface, fastest BAM mineralization in pre-exposed sandy sediments. > Increased mineralization (adaptation) only observed in contaminated sandy sediment. > In pristine sediments mineralization ratio increased with decreasing concentrations. - BAM mineralization in subsurface and groundwater was demonstrated.

  4. Global Exponential Stability of Delayed Cohen-Grossberg BAM Neural Networks with Impulses on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of calculus on time scales, the homeomorphism theory, Lyapunov functional method, and some analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. This is the first time applying the time-scale calculus theory to unify the discrete-time and continuous-time Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural network with impulses under the same framework.

  5. Exponential p-stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg-type BAM neural networks with impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yonghui; Huang Zhenkun; Han Maoan

    2008-01-01

    An impulsive Cohen-Grossberg-type bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed delays is studied. Some new sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of a unique equilibrium without strict conditions imposed on self regulation functions. The approaches are based on Laypunov-Kravsovskii functional and homeomorphism theory. When our results are applied to the BAM neural networks, our results generalize some previously known results. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of Cohen-Grossberg-type bidirectional associative memory networks

  6. Robust stability for uncertain stochastic fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Ali, M.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2008-07-01

    In this Letter, by utilizing the Lyapunov functional and combining with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we analyze the global asymptotic stability of uncertain stochastic fuzzy Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays which are represented by the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models. A new class of uncertain stochastic fuzzy BAM neural networks with time varying delays has been studied and sufficient conditions have been derived to obtain conservative result in stochastic settings. The developed results are more general than those reported in the earlier literatures. In addition, the numerical examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the result using LMI toolbox in MATLAB.

  7. Robust stability for uncertain stochastic fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Ali, M.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, by utilizing the Lyapunov functional and combining with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we analyze the global asymptotic stability of uncertain stochastic fuzzy Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays which are represented by the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models. A new class of uncertain stochastic fuzzy BAM neural networks with time varying delays has been studied and sufficient conditions have been derived to obtain conservative result in stochastic settings. The developed results are more general than those reported in the earlier literatures. In addition, the numerical examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of the result using LMI toolbox in MATLAB

  8. Investigations on antibody binding to a micro-cantilever coated with a BAM pesticide residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Michael; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Schmid, Silvan

    2011-01-01

    -BAM antibody is measured using the CantiLab4© system from Cantion A/S with four gold-coated cantilevers and piezo resistive readout. The detection mechanism is in principle label-free, but fluorescent-marked antibodies have been used to subsequently verify the binding on the cantilever surface. The bending...

  9. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Zhou Qinghua

    2007-01-01

    The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established

  10. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Zhou, Qinghua

    2007-11-01

    The stability property of bidirectional associate memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion terms are considered. By using the method of variation parameter and inequality technique, the delay-independent sufficient conditions to guarantee the uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium solution of such networks are established.

  11. Global Hopf bifurcation analysis on a BAM neural network with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengjun; Han, Maoan; Pang, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    A delayed differential equation that models a bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural network with four neurons is considered. By using a global Hopf bifurcation theorem for FDE and a Bendixon's criterion for high-dimensional ODE, a group of sufficient conditions for the system to have multiple periodic solutions are obtained when the sum of delays is sufficiently large.

  12. Global Hopf bifurcation analysis on a BAM neural network with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengjun; Han Maoan; Pang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    A delayed differential equation that models a bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural network with four neurons is considered. By using a global Hopf bifurcation theorem for FDE and a Bendixon's criterion for high-dimensional ODE, a group of sufficient conditions for the system to have multiple periodic solutions are obtained when the sum of delays is sufficiently large

  13. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut

    2000-01-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 -Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  14. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  15. E-ELT M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, P.; Sedghi, B.; Mueller, M.

    2012-09-01

    During the advanced design phase of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) several critical components have been prototyped. During the last year some of them have been tested in dedicated test stands. In particular, a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror has been assembled with 2 active and 2 passive segments. This test stand is equipped with complete prototype segment subunits, i.e. including support mechanisms, glass segments, edge sensors, position actuators as well as additional metrology for monitoring. The purpose is to test various procedures such as calibration, alignment and handling and to study control strategies. In addition the achievable component and subsystem performances are evaluated, and interface issues are identified. In this paper an overview of the activities related to the E-ELT M1 Test Facility will be given. Experiences and test results are presented.

  16. The impact of targeting repetitive BamHI-W sequences on the sensitivity and precision of EBV DNA quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Sanosyan

    Full Text Available Viral load monitoring and early Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA detection are essential in routine laboratory testing, especially in preemptive management of Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder. Targeting the repetitive BamHI-W sequence was shown to increase the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification, but the variability of BamHI-W reiterations was suggested to be a source of quantification bias. We aimed to assess the extent of variability associated with BamHI-W PCR and its impact on the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification using the 1st WHO international standard, EBV strains and clinical samples.Repetitive BamHI-W- and LMP2 single- sequences were amplified by in-house qPCRs and BXLF-1 sequence by a commercial assay (EBV R-gene™, BioMerieux. Linearity and limits of detection of in-house methods were assessed. The impact of repeated versus single target sequences on EBV DNA quantification precision was tested on B95.8 and Raji cell lines, possessing 11 and 7 copies of the BamHI-W sequence, respectively, and on clinical samples.BamHI-W qPCR demonstrated a lower limit of detection compared to LMP2 qPCR (2.33 log10 versus 3.08 log10 IU/mL; P = 0.0002. BamHI-W qPCR underestimated the EBV DNA load on Raji strain which contained fewer BamHI-W copies than the WHO standard derived from the B95.8 EBV strain (mean bias: - 0.21 log10; 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.12. Comparison of BamHI-W qPCR versus LMP2 and BXLF-1 qPCR showed an acceptable variability between EBV DNA levels in clinical samples with the mean bias being within 0.5 log10 IU/mL EBV DNA, whereas a better quantitative concordance was observed between LMP2 and BXLF-1 assays.Targeting BamHI-W resulted to a higher sensitivity compared to LMP2 but the variable reiterations of BamHI-W segment are associated with higher quantification variability. BamHI-W can be considered for clinical and therapeutic monitoring to detect an early EBV DNA and a dynamic change in viral load.

  17. The impact of targeting repetitive BamHI-W sequences on the sensitivity and precision of EBV DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Fayd'herbe de Maudave, Alexis; Bollore, Karine; Zimmermann, Valérie; Foulongne, Vincent; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Viral load monitoring and early Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA detection are essential in routine laboratory testing, especially in preemptive management of Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder. Targeting the repetitive BamHI-W sequence was shown to increase the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification, but the variability of BamHI-W reiterations was suggested to be a source of quantification bias. We aimed to assess the extent of variability associated with BamHI-W PCR and its impact on the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification using the 1st WHO international standard, EBV strains and clinical samples. Repetitive BamHI-W- and LMP2 single- sequences were amplified by in-house qPCRs and BXLF-1 sequence by a commercial assay (EBV R-gene™, BioMerieux). Linearity and limits of detection of in-house methods were assessed. The impact of repeated versus single target sequences on EBV DNA quantification precision was tested on B95.8 and Raji cell lines, possessing 11 and 7 copies of the BamHI-W sequence, respectively, and on clinical samples. BamHI-W qPCR demonstrated a lower limit of detection compared to LMP2 qPCR (2.33 log10 versus 3.08 log10 IU/mL; P = 0.0002). BamHI-W qPCR underestimated the EBV DNA load on Raji strain which contained fewer BamHI-W copies than the WHO standard derived from the B95.8 EBV strain (mean bias: - 0.21 log10; 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.12). Comparison of BamHI-W qPCR versus LMP2 and BXLF-1 qPCR showed an acceptable variability between EBV DNA levels in clinical samples with the mean bias being within 0.5 log10 IU/mL EBV DNA, whereas a better quantitative concordance was observed between LMP2 and BXLF-1 assays. Targeting BamHI-W resulted to a higher sensitivity compared to LMP2 but the variable reiterations of BamHI-W segment are associated with higher quantification variability. BamHI-W can be considered for clinical and therapeutic monitoring to detect an early EBV DNA and a dynamic change in viral load.

  18. Impulsive effect on global exponential stability of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelin

    2010-02-01

    In this article, a class of impulsive bidirectional associative memory (BAM) fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) with time-varying delays is formulated and investigated. By employing delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM FCNNs with time-varying delays are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM FCNNs. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  19. Bam35 tectivirus intraviral interaction map unveils new function and localization of phage ORFan proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Lechuga, Ana; Mehla, Jitender; Uetz, Peter; Salas, Margarita; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto

    2017-07-26

    Tectiviridae comprises a group of tail-less, icosahedral, membrane-containing bacteriophages that can be divided into two groups by their hosts, either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. While the first group is composed of PRD1 and nearly identical well characterized lytic viruses, the second one includes more variable temperate phages, like GIL16 or Bam35, whose hosts are Bacillus cereus and related Gram-positive bacteria.In the genome of Bam35, nearly half of the 32 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) have no homologs in databases (ORFans), being putative proteins of unknown function, which hinders the understanding of their biology. With the aim of increasing the knowledge of the viral proteome, we carried out a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis among all the putative proteins encoded by the Bam35 genome. The resulting protein interactome comprises 76 unique interactions among 24 proteins, of which 12 have an unknown function. These results suggested that the P17 protein is the minor capsid protein of Bam35 and P24 is the penton protein, being the latter also supported by iterative threading protein modeling. Moreover, the inner membrane transglycosylase protein P26 could have an additional structural role. We also detected interactions involving non-structural proteins, such as the DNA binding protein P1 and the genome terminal protein (P4), which was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of recombinant proteins. Altogether, our results provide a functional view of the Bam35 viral proteome, with a focus on the composition and organization of the viral particle. IMPORTANCE Tail-less viruses of the family Tectiviridae can infect commensal and pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, they have been proposed to be at the evolutionary origin of several groups of large eukaryotic DNA viruses and self-replicating plasmids. However, due to their ancient origin and complex diversity, many tectiviral proteins are ORFans of unknown

  20. Introduction to the m = 1 helicity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The m = 1 Helicity Source, formerly called the Kinked Z-pinch, was developed as part of the Electrode Studies program at Los Alamos. The Electrode Studies program was initiated to study the control of electrode erosion in long discharge duration spheromak sources. Erosion control is necessary to reduce plasma impurities and to obtain adequate electrode lifetimes. The first task of the Electrode Studies program is to determine, from among a variety of configurations including the coaxial one, a helicity source geometry with good prospects for erosion control. The more efficient the helicity source the easier it will be to control erosion, but the source most also be easy to diagnose and modify if it is to be a useful test bed. The various erosion control techniques which have been proposed will require extensive experimentation to evaluate and optimize. Proposed techniques include, using refractory metals, profiling of the electrodes and magnetic fields, and various gas injection schemes including porous electrodes. It is considered necessary to do these experiments on an optimized helicity source so that the electrode geometries and plasma properties will be relevant. Therefore the present Electrode Studies program is aimed at developing an improved helicity source design

  1. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays: The discrete-time case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, R.; Marshal Anthoni, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of stability analysis for a class of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays. By employing the Lyapunov functional and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, a new sufficient conditions is proposed for the global exponential stability of discrete-time BAM neural networks. The proposed LMI based results can be easily checked by LMI control toolbox. Moreover, an example is also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Global asymptotic stability to a generalized Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks of neutral type delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the existence of a unique equilibrium point of a generalized Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks of neutral type delays by means of the Homeomorphism theory and inequality technique. Then, by applying the existence result of an equilibrium point and constructing a Lyapunov functional, we study the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium solution to the above Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks of neutral type. In our results, the hypothesis for boundedness in the existing paper, which discussed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks of neutral type on the activation functions, are removed. Finally, we give an example to demonstrate the validity of our global asymptotic stability result for the above neural networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixed-time stabilization of impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Zhang, Wanli

    2018-02-01

    This article is concerned with the fixed-time stabilization for impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks via two different controllers. By using a novel constructive approach based on some comparison techniques for differential inequalities, an improvement theorem of fixed-time stability for impulsive dynamical systems is established. In addition, based on the fixed-time stability theorem of impulsive dynamical systems, two different control protocols are designed to ensure the fixed-time stabilization of impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks, which include and extend the earlier works. Finally, two simulations examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations on antibody binding to a micro-cantilever coated with a BAM pesticide residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamand Jens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attachment of an antibody to an antigen-coated cantilever has been investigated by repeated experiments, using a cantilever-based detection system by Cantion A/S. The stress induced by the binding of a pesticide residue BAM (2,6 dichlorobenzamide immobilized on a cantilever surface to anti-BAM antibody is measured using the CantiLab4© system from Cantion A/S with four gold-coated cantilevers and piezo resistive readout. The detection mechanism is in principle label-free, but fluorescent-marked antibodies have been used to subsequently verify the binding on the cantilever surface. The bending and increase in mass of each cantilever has also been investigated using a light interferometer and a Doppler Vibrometer. The system has been analyzed during repeated measurements to investigate whether the CantiLab4© system is a suited platform for a pesticide assay system.

  6. proBAMconvert: A Conversion Tool for proBAM/proBed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexiouk, Volodimir; Menschaert, Gerben

    2017-07-07

    The introduction of new standard formats, proBAM and proBed, improves the integration of genomics and proteomics information, thus aiding proteogenomics applications. These novel formats enable peptide spectrum matches (PSM) to be stored, inspected, and analyzed within the context of the genome. However, an easy-to-use and transparent tool to convert mass spectrometry identification files to these new formats is indispensable. proBAMconvert enables the conversion of common identification file formats (mzIdentML, mzTab, and pepXML) to proBAM/proBed using an intuitive interface. Furthermore, ProBAMconvert enables information to be output both at the PSM and peptide levels and has a command line interface next to the graphical user interface. Detailed documentation and a completely worked-out tutorial is available at http://probam.biobix.be .

  7. Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid; Omidvari, Sepideh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Ebadi, Mehdi; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad

    2005-01-11

    An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who

  8. Fault Mechanics and Post-seismic Deformation at Bam, SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, S. E.; Copley, A.

    2017-12-01

    The extent to which aseismic deformation relaxes co-seismic stress changes on a fault zone is fundamental to assessing the future seismic hazard following any earthquake, and in understanding the mechanical behaviour of faults. We used models of stress-driven afterslip and visco-elastic relaxation, in conjunction with a dense time series of post-seismic InSAR measurements, to show that there has been minimal release of co-seismic stress changes through post-seismic deformation following the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam earthquake. Our modelling indicates that the faults at Bam may remain predominantly locked, and that the co- plus inter-seismically accumulated elastic strain stored down-dip of the 2003 rupture patch may be released in a future Mw 6 earthquake. Modelling also suggests parts of the fault that experienced post-seismic creep between 2003-2009 overlapped with areas that also slipped co-seismically. Our observations and models also provide an opportunity to probe how aseismic fault slip leads to the growth of topography at Bam. We find that, for our modelled afterslip distribution to be consistent with forming the sharp step in the local topography at Bam over repeated earthquake cycles, and also to be consistent with the geodetic observations, requires either (1) far-field tectonic loading equivalent to a 2-10 MPa deviatoric stress acting across the fault system, which suggests it supports stresses 60-100 times less than classical views of static fault strength, or (2) that the fault surface has some form of mechanical anisotropy, potentially related to corrugations on the fault plane, that controls the sense of slip.

  9. Global exponential stability of fuzzy BAM neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qianhong; Luo Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a class of fuzzy bidirectional associated memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays are studied. Employing fixed point theorem, matrix theory and inequality analysis, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point. The sufficient conditions are easy to verify at pattern recognition and automatic control. Finally, an example is given to show feasibility and effectiveness of our results.

  10. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with delays and impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongkun

    2005-01-01

    Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global exponential stability of a unique equilibrium of a class of two-layer heteroassociative networks called bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks with Lipschitzian activation functions without assuming their boundedness, monotonicity or differentiability and subjected to impulsive state displacements at fixed instants of time. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  11. Passivity analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with time delays and reaction-diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Xu, Shengyuan; Shen, Hao; Zhang, Baoyong

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with the problem of passivity analysis for delayed reaction-diffusion bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with weight uncertainties. By using a new integral inequality, we first present a passivity condition for the nominal networks, and then extend the result to the case with linear fractional weight uncertainties. The proposed conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and thus can be checked easily. Examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  12. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake. This qualitative study was of phenomenological type. Using the purposive sampling method, 10 people who had experienced nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake (Iran; 2003) were interviewed. Colaizzi's method of analysis was used to analyze interview data. The findings of this study identified four main categories and 19 sub-categories concerning challenges in the nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake. The main topics included managerial, aiding, infrastructural, and administrative problems. The major problems in nutritional aiding include lack of prediction and development of a specific program of suitable nutritional pattern and nutritional assessment of the victims in critical conditions. Forming specialized teams, educating team members about nutrition, and making use of experts' knowledge are the most important steps to resolve these problems in the critical conditions; these measures are the duties of the relevant authorities. Nekouie Moghadam M , Amiresmaieli M , Hassibi M , Doostan F , Khosravi S . Toward a better nutritional aiding in disasters: relying on lessons learned during the Bam Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):382-386.

  13. BAMS: A Tool for Supervised Burned Area Mapping Using Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Bastarrika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new supervised burned area mapping software named BAMS (Burned Area Mapping Software is presented in this paper. The tool was built from standard ArcGISTM libraries. It computes several of the spectral indexes most commonly used in burned area detection and implements a two-phase supervised strategy to map areas burned between two Landsat multitemporal images. The only input required from the user is the visual delimitation of a few burned areas, from which burned perimeters are extracted. After the discrimination of burned patches, the user can visually assess the results, and iteratively select additional sampling burned areas to improve the extent of the burned patches. The final result of the BAMS program is a polygon vector layer containing three categories: (a burned perimeters, (b unburned areas, and (c non-observed areas. The latter refer to clouds or sensor observation errors. Outputs of the BAMS code meet the requirements of file formats and structure of standard validation protocols. This paper presents the tool’s structure and technical basis. The program has been tested in six areas located in the United States, for various ecosystems and land covers, and then compared against the National Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS Burned Area Boundaries Dataset.

  14. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal-bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal-bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperglycemia induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moganti, Kondaiah; Li, Feng; Schmuttermaier, Christina; Riemann, Sarah; Klüter, Harald; Gratchev, Alexei; Harmsen, Martin C; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in diabetic pathology. Macrophages are essential regulators of inflammation which can be classified into two major vectors of polarisation: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Both types of macrophages play a role in diabetes, where M1 and M2-produced cytokines can have detrimental effects in development of diabetes-associated inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on differentiation and programming of primary human macrophages was not systematically studied. We established a unique model to assess the influence of hyperglycaemia on M1 and M2 differentiation based on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. The effects of hyperglycaemia on the gene expression and secretion of prototype M1 cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and prototype M2 cytokines IL-1Ra and CCL18 were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Hyperglycaemia stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra during macrophage differentiation. The effect of hyperglycaemia on TNF-alpha was acute, while the stimulating effect on IL-1beta and IL-1Ra was constitutive. Expression of CCL18 was supressed in M2 macrophages by hyperglycaemia. However the secreted levels remained to be biologically significant. Our data indicate that hyperglycaemia itself, without additional metabolic factors induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile that can support of diabetes-associated inflammation and development of vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  17. [Recombinant human gapM1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its anti-diabetic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiang; Du, Renqian; Li, Xi; Huang, Haiyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Qiqun

    2009-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue, and it can lower the blood glucose level and increase free fatty acid oxidation. In the current study, we developed the globular domain of adiponectin (gapM1) to treat type II diabetes. In both flask and fermentor, we cultivated Pichia pastoris expressing recombinant gapM1 and established the purification procedure by using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. To evaluate the biological activity of recombinant gapM1, we used rat type II diabetes model fed high-fat diet in combination with low-dose STZ (Streptozocin) induction. We purified 200 mg gapM1 with purity of 96% from 10 liters of supernatant. The recombinant gapM1 significantly lowered blood glucose (34.2%), serum triglyceride (79.6%) and total cholesterol (62.1%) in type II diabetes induced rat. Therefore, the recombinant human gapM1 is successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and effectively treated type II diabetes in rat models.

  18. SAMMate: a GUI tool for processing short read alignments in SAM/BAM format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemington Erik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM or Binary SAM (BAM format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. Results We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. Conclusions With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.

  19. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is notenough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changesin sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospectivecross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society ofNephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ionschanges in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of25.6 § 6.9 yearswere studied (57.3 male. On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3 of the patientshad hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3 on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemicon admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. Theprevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5 and on the 10th day of hospitalization66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8 of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy shows the 52.5%prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia amongcrush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trendshows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3%hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic.

  20. Collating and Curating Neuroanatomical Nomenclatures: Principles and Use of the Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System (BAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bota, Mihail; Swanson, Larry W

    2010-01-01

    Terms used to describe nervous system parts and their interconnections are rife with synonyms, partial correspondences, and even homonyms, making effective scientific communication unnecessarily difficult. To address this problem a new Topological Relations schema for the Relations module of BAMS (Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) was created. It includes a representation of the qualitative spatial relations between nervous system parts defined in different neuroanatomical nomenclatures or atlases and is general enough to record data and metadata from the literature, regardless of description level or species. Based on this foundation a Projections Translations inference engine was developed for the BAMS interface that automatically translates neuroanatomical projection (axonal inputs and outputs) reports across nomenclatures from translated information. To make BAMS more useful to the neuroscience community three things were done. First, we implemented a simple schema for validation of the translated neuroanatomical projections. Second, more than 1,000 topological relations between brain gray matter regions for the rat were inserted, along with associated details. Finally, a case study was performed to enter all historical or legacy published information about terminology related to one relatively complex gray matter region of the rat. The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) were chosen and 21 different nomenclatures from 1923 to present were collated, along with 284 terms for parts (gray matter differentiations), 360 qualitative topological relations between parts, and more than 7,000 details about spatial relations between parts, all of which was annotated with appropriate metadata. This information was used to construct a graphical "knowledge map" of relations used in the literature to describe subdivisions of the rat BST.

  1. BAM Austria: Arbeitskreis Bibliotheken, Archive, Museen Österreichs – Aktivitäten 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BAM Austria: Arbeitskreis Bibliotheken, Archive, Museen Österreichs trat 2017 mit zwei Aktivitäten an die Öffentlichkeit. Am 11. Mai 2017 fand in Wien ein Seminar zum Thema „Open Access und Linked Open Data“ (LOD statt, zu dem 25 Vertreterinnen und Vertreter von Bibliotheken, Archiven und Museen eingeladen wurden. Am 13. September 2017 wurde im Rahmen des 33. Österreichischen Bibliothekartages in Linz ein Panel zum Thema „Digitalisierung an Bibliotheken, Archiven und Museen“ organisiert, an dem ca. 90 Personen teilgenommen haben.

  2. Global existence of periodic solutions on a simplified BAM neural network model with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Baodong; Zhang Yazhuo; Zhang Chunrui

    2008-01-01

    A simplified n-dimensional BAM neural network model with delays is considered. Some results of Hopf bifurcations occurring at the zero equilibrium as the delay increases are exhibited. Global existence of periodic solutions are established using a global Hopf bifurcation result of Wu [Wu J. Symmetric functional-differential equations and neural networks with memory. Trans Am Math Soc 1998;350:4799-838], and a Bendixson criterion for higher dimensional ordinary differential equations due to Li and Muldowney [Li MY, Muldowney J. On Bendixson's criterion. J Differ Equations 1994;106:27-39]. Finally, computer simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results found

  3. Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmaroudi Gholamreza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake

  4. Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with transmission delays and nonlinear impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenkun; Xia Yonghui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a class of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks with transmission delays and nonlinear impulses are studied. Some new sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of a unique equilibrium, which generalize and improve the previously known results. The sufficient conditions are easy to verify and when the impulsive jumps are linear or absent the results reduce to those of common impulsive or non-impulsive systems. Finally, an example is given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our results

  5. Global Exponential Stability of Periodic Oscillation for Nonautonomous BAM Neural Networks with Distributed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive a new criterion for checking the global stability of periodic oscillation of bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and distributed delay, and find that the criterion relies on the Lipschitz constants of the signal transmission functions, weights of the neural network, and delay kernels. The proposed model transforms the original interacting network into matrix analysis problem which is easy to check, thereby significantly reducing the computational complexity and making analysis of periodic oscillation for even large-scale networks.

  6. Existence and globally exponential stability of equilibrium for BAM neural networks with impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yonghui; Huang Zhenkun; Han Maoan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a class of two-layer heteroassociative networks called bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks with impulses is studied. Some new sufficient conditions are established for the existence and globally exponential stability of a unique equilibrium, which generalize and improve the previously known results. The sufficient conditions are easy to verify and when the impulsive jumps are absent the results reduce to those of the non-impulsive systems. The approaches are based on employing Banach's fixed point theorem, matrix theory and its spectral theory. Our results generalize and significantly improve the previous known results due to this method. Examples are given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our results

  7. Global exponential stability analysis on impulsive BAM neural networks with distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao-Tang; Yang, Chang-Bo

    2006-12-01

    Using M-matrix and topological degree tool, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with distributed delays and subjected to impulsive state displacements at fixed instants of time by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. The results remove the usual assumptions that the boundedness, monotonicity, and differentiability of the activation functions. It is shown that in some cases, the stability criteria can be easily checked. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the effectiveness of the presented criteria.

  8. Infinitely many N=1 dualities from m+1m=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Prarit; Intriligator, Kenneth; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California,San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We discuss two infinite classes of 4d supersymmetric theories, T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)}, labelled by an arbitrary non-negative integer, m. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} theory arises from the 6d, A{sub N−1} type N=(2,0) theory reduced on a 3-punctured sphere, with normal bundle given by line bundles of degree (m+1,−m); the m=0 case is the N=2 supersymmetric T{sub N} theory. The novelty is the negative-degree line bundle. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories likewise arise from the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a 4-punctured sphere, and can be regarded as gluing together two (partially Higgsed) T{sub N}{sup (m)} theories. The T{sub N}{sup (m)} and U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can be represented, in various duality frames, as quiver gauge theories, built from T{sub N} components via gauging and nilpotent Higgsing. We analyze the RG flow of the U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories, and find that, for all integer m>0, they end up at the same IR SCFT as SU(N) SQCD with 2N flavors and quartic superpotential. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} theories can thus be regarded as an infinite set of UV completions, dual to SQCD with N{sub f}=2N{sub c}. The U{sub N}{sup (m)} duals have different duality frame quiver representations, with 2m+1 gauge nodes.

  9. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Morrison, I.

    1988-01-01

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for β → g, γ → g and γ → γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character. (orig.)

  10. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-03

    Using the 1/N expansion technique we derive expressions for ..beta.. -> g, ..gamma.. -> g and ..gamma.. -> ..gamma.. M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  11. Stochasticity and the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Stodiek, W.; Park, W.

    1986-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that stochasticity resulting from toroidal coupling could lead to a saturation of the m = 1 internal mode in tokamaks. We present results from the nonlinear evolution of the m = 1 mode with toroidal coupling that show that stochasticity is not enough to cause saturation of the m = 1 mode

  12. A new criterion to global exponential periodicity for discrete-time BAM neural network with infinite delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tiejun; Liu Yuehua; Li Xiaoping; Liu Yirong

    2009-01-01

    The discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural network with periodic coefficients and infinite delays is studied. And not by employing the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory as other literatures, but by constructing suitable Liapunov function, using fixed point theorem and some analysis techniques, a sufficient criterion is obtained which ensures the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution for the type of discrete-time BAM neural network. The obtained result is less restrictive to the BAM neural networks than previously known criteria. Furthermore, it can be applied to the BAM neural network which signal transfer functions are neither bounded nor differentiable. In addition, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained result

  13. New Passivity Criteria for Fuzzy Bam Neural Networks with Markovian Jumping Parameters and Time-Varying Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, P.; Sakthivel, R.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Thangaraj, P.

    2013-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of passivity analysis issue for a class of fuzzy bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and time varying delays. A set of sufficient conditions for the passiveness of the considered fuzzy BAM neural network model is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities by using the delay fractioning technique together with the Lyapunov function approach. In addition, the uncertainties are inevitable in neural networks because of the existence of modeling errors and external disturbance. Further, this result is extended to study the robust passivity criteria for uncertain fuzzy BAM neural networks with time varying delays and uncertainties. These criteria are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  14. Overexpression of the polycystin-1 (PC-1) C-tail enhances sensitivity of M-1 cells to ouabain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Kyle; Magenheimer, Brenda S.; Maser, Robin L.; Calvet, James P.; Blanco, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are abnormally sensitive to ouabain, responding to physiological ouabain concentrations with enhanced proliferation and increased forskolin-induced transepithelial fluid secretion. This requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src kinase, and the extracellular regulated kinases MEK and ERK. Here, we have determined if the ADPKD phenotype obtained in mouse cortical collecting duct cells by stable overexpression of the C-terminal domain of polycystin-1 (PC-1 C-tail) also elicits the ADPKD-like response to ouabain in the cells. M-1 C20 cells expressing the PC-1 C-tail, and M-1 C17 cells, lacking expression of this construct, were treated with physiological concentrations of ouabain, and cell proliferation, activation of the EGFR-Src-MEK-ERK pathway, forskolin-induced transepithelial Cl− secretion, and the sensitivity of the Na,K-ATPase to ouabain were explored. M-1 C20 cells responded to ouabain with increased cell proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. Ouabain also augmented forskolin-induced and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated apical secretion of Cl− in M-1 C20 cells. These effects required activation of EGFR, Src and MEK. In contrast, ouabain had no significant effects on M-1 C17 cells. Interestingly, approximately 20 % of the Na,K-ATPase from M-1 C20 cells presented an abnormally increased sensitivity to ouabain. Overexpression of PC-1 C-tail in M-1 C20 cells is associated with a ouabain sensitive phenotype and an increased ability of the cells to proliferate and secrete anions upon ouabain stimulation. This phenotype mimics the ouabain sensitivity of ADPKD cells and may help promote their cystogenic potential. PMID:23784065

  15. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) herbicide mineralisation by Aminobacter sp. MSH1 during starvation depends on a subpopulation of intact cells maintaining vital membrane functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoholm, Ole R.; Nybroe, Ole [Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Section of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Aamand, Jens [Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Section of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Oster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sorensen, Jan, E-mail: jan@life.ku.d [Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Section of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    Mineralisation capability was studied in the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 under growth-arrested conditions. Cells were starved in mineral salts (MS) solution or groundwater before {sup 14}C-labelled BAM (0.1 mM) was added. Cell physiology was monitored with a panel of vitality stains combined with flow cytometry to differentiate intact, depolarised and dead cells. Cells starved for up to 3 weeks in MS solution showed immediate growth-linked mineralisation after BAM amendment while a lag-phase was seen after 8 weeks of starvation. In contrast, cells amended with BAM in natural groundwater showed BAM mineralisation but no growth. The cell-specific mineralisation rate was always comparable (10{sup -16} mol C intact cell{sup -1} day{sup -1}) independent of media, growth, or starvation period after BAM amendment; lower rates were only observed as BAM concentration decreased. MSH1 seems useful for bioremediation and should be optimised to maintain an intact cell subpopulation as this seems to be the key parameter for successful mineralisation. - The intact cell population of Aminobacter MSH1 mineralises BAM at a constant rate independent of growth or extended starvation in mineral solution and natural groundwater.

  16. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM) herbicide mineralisation by Aminobacter sp. MSH1 during starvation depends on a subpopulation of intact cells maintaining vital membrane functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoholm, Ole R.; Nybroe, Ole; Aamand, Jens; Sorensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mineralisation capability was studied in the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 under growth-arrested conditions. Cells were starved in mineral salts (MS) solution or groundwater before 14 C-labelled BAM (0.1 mM) was added. Cell physiology was monitored with a panel of vitality stains combined with flow cytometry to differentiate intact, depolarised and dead cells. Cells starved for up to 3 weeks in MS solution showed immediate growth-linked mineralisation after BAM amendment while a lag-phase was seen after 8 weeks of starvation. In contrast, cells amended with BAM in natural groundwater showed BAM mineralisation but no growth. The cell-specific mineralisation rate was always comparable (10 -16 mol C intact cell -1 day -1 ) independent of media, growth, or starvation period after BAM amendment; lower rates were only observed as BAM concentration decreased. MSH1 seems useful for bioremediation and should be optimised to maintain an intact cell subpopulation as this seems to be the key parameter for successful mineralisation. - The intact cell population of Aminobacter MSH1 mineralises BAM at a constant rate independent of growth or extended starvation in mineral solution and natural groundwater.

  17. MitoBamAnnotator: A web-based tool for detecting and annotating heteroplasmy in human mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, Ilia; Nagar, Tal; Mishmar, Dan; Rubin, Eitan

    2011-11-01

    The use of Next-Generation Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA is becoming widespread in biological and clinical research. This, in turn, creates a need for a convenient tool that detects and analyzes heteroplasmy. Here we present MitoBamAnnotator, a user friendly web-based tool that allows maximum flexibility and control in heteroplasmy research. MitoBamAnnotator provides the user with a comprehensively annotated overview of mitochondrial genetic variation, allowing for an in-depth analysis with no prior knowledge in programming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn doped BaM nanocomposite via citrate precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Kush; Thakur, Preeti; Thakur, Atul, E-mail: atulphysics@gmail.com [School of Physics and Materials Science, Shoolini University, Solan, India 173212 (India); Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India 110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ni-Zn substituted M-type barium ferrite nanocomposite has been prepared via citrate precursor method. Nanocomposite having composition BaNi{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19} was sintered at 900°C for 3hrs and characterized by using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of double phase with most prominent peak at (114). Average crystallite size for pure BaM and BNZFO were found to be 36 nm & 45 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of hexagonal platelets with a layered structure. Magnetic properties of these samples were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters like saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), coericivity (H{sub c}) and squareness ratio (SQR) of nanocomposite were found to be 60 emu/g, 3663 Oe and 0.6163 respectively. These values were noticed to be higher as compared to pure BaM. Enhanced magnetic properties of nanocomposite were strongly dependent on exchange coupling. Therefore these properties make this nanocomposite a suitable candidate for magnetic recording and high frequency applications.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn doped BaM nanocomposite via citrate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Kush; Thakur, Preeti; Thakur, Atul; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Ni-Zn substituted M-type barium ferrite nanocomposite has been prepared via citrate precursor method. Nanocomposite having composition BaNi_0_._5Zn_0_._5Fe_1_1O_1_9 was sintered at 900°C for 3hrs and characterized by using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of double phase with most prominent peak at (114). Average crystallite size for pure BaM and BNZFO were found to be 36 nm & 45 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of hexagonal platelets with a layered structure. Magnetic properties of these samples were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters like saturation magnetization (M_s), coericivity (H_c) and squareness ratio (SQR) of nanocomposite were found to be 60 emu/g, 3663 Oe and 0.6163 respectively. These values were noticed to be higher as compared to pure BaM. Enhanced magnetic properties of nanocomposite were strongly dependent on exchange coupling. Therefore these properties make this nanocomposite a suitable candidate for magnetic recording and high frequency applications.

  20. BAM: Bayesian AMHG-Manning Inference of Discharge Using Remotely Sensed Stream Width, Slope, and Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, M. W.; Gleason, C. J.; Durand, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) NASA satellite mission will measure water surface width, height, and slope of major rivers worldwide. The resulting data could provide an unprecedented account of river discharge at continental scales, but reliable methods need to be identified prior to launch. Here we present a novel algorithm for discharge estimation from only remotely sensed stream width, slope, and height at multiple locations along a mass-conserved river segment. The algorithm, termed the Bayesian AMHG-Manning (BAM) algorithm, implements a Bayesian formulation of streamflow uncertainty using a combination of Manning's equation and at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG). Bayesian methods provide a statistically defensible approach to generating discharge estimates in a physically underconstrained system but rely on prior distributions that quantify the a priori uncertainty of unknown quantities including discharge and hydraulic equation parameters. These were obtained from literature-reported values and from a USGS data set of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements at USGS stream gauges. A data set of simulated widths, slopes, and heights from 19 rivers was used to evaluate the algorithms using a set of performance metrics. Results across the 19 rivers indicate an improvement in performance of BAM over previously tested methods and highlight a path forward in solving discharge estimation using solely satellite remote sensing.

  1. Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde

    2018-02-01

    The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment. SeqLib is available on Linux and OSX for the C ++98 standard and later at github.com/walaj/SeqLib. SeqLib is released under the Apache2 license. Additional capabilities for BLAT alignment are available under the BLAT license. jwala@broadinstitue.org ; rameen@broadinstitute.org. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Laboratory and Field Studies of Poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylaminophenylene vinylene (BAM-PPV: A Potential Wash Primer Replacement for Army Military Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zarras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP, poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N- hexylaminophenylene vinylene (BAM-PPV, was tested as an alternative to current hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI-based Army wash primers. BAM-PPV was tested in both laboratory and field studies to determine its adhesive and corrosion-inhibiting properties when applied to steel and aluminum alloys. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL tests showed that BAM-PPV combined with an epoxy primer and the Army chemical agent-resistant coating (CARC topcoat met Army performance requirements for military coatings. After successful laboratory testing, the BAM-PPV was then field tested for one year at the Aberdeen Test Center (ATC. This field testing showed that BAM-PPV incorporated into the Army military coating survived with no delamination of the coating and only minor corrosion on the chip sites.

  4. M1 transitions in the (sdg) boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1988-03-01

    Using the {1}/{N} expansion technique we derive expressions for β→g, γ→g and γ→γ M1 transitions in a general boson model. The M1 matrix elements in the sdg-boson model are similar in form to those in the neutron-proton IBM. Comparisons are made to some selected M1 data exhibiting collective character.

  5. Evaluation of BAM (butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine) in captive African lion (Panthera leo) immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semjonov, Aleksandr; Andrianov, Vladimir; Raath, Jacobus P; Orro, Toomas; Venter, Derik; Laubscher, Liesel; Pfitzer, Silke

    2017-07-01

    The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). Prospective, clinical trial. Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0.005-0.008 mL kg -1 (0.6 mL 100 kg -1 ). Physiologic variables were recorded every 5 minutes. Four arterial blood samples were collected from all animals at 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after immobilization for analysis of blood-gases and acid-base status. The actual doses administered were as follows: butorphanol, 0.18±0.03 mg kg -1 ; azaperone, 0.07±0.01 mg kg -1 ; and medetomidine, 0.07±0.01 mg kg -1 . The inductions were calm and smooth, and induction time ranged from 4 to 10 minutes (7±2 minutes). The amount of time needed to work with each lion was 70 minutes, and no additional drug doses were needed. Heart rate (40±8 beats minute -1 ) and respiratory frequency (15±4 breaths minute -1 ) were stable throughout immobilization. The mean arterial blood pressure of all animals was stable but elevated (142±16 mmHg). The rectal temperature slightly increased over time but remained within acceptable range. The recovery time was significantly shorter when using naltrexone and atipamezole (9±1 minutes) compared to using naltrexone and yohimbine (22±7 minutes). The BAM combination proved to be reliable for general veterinary anaesthesia in lions. During anaesthesia, minor veterinary procedures such a blood collection, intubation, vaccination and collaring could safely be performed with no additional dosing required. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Evolutionary History of MAPL (Mitochondria-Associated Protein Ligase and Other Eukaryotic BAM/GIDE Domain Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy G Wideman

    Full Text Available MAPL (mitochondria-associated protein ligase, also called MULAN/GIDE/MUL1 is a multifunctional mitochondrial outer membrane protein found in human cells that contains a unique BAM (beside a membrane domain and a C-terminal RING-finger domain. MAPL has been implicated in several processes that occur in animal cells such as NF-kB activation, innate immunity and antiviral signaling, suppression of PINK1/parkin defects, mitophagy in skeletal muscle, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that the BAM domain is present in diverse organisms in which most of these processes do not occur, including plants, archaea, and bacteria. Thus the conserved function of MAPL and its BAM domain remains an open question. In order to gain insight into its conserved function, we investigated the evolutionary origins of MAPL by searching for homologues in predicted proteomes of diverse eukaryotes. We show that MAPL proteins with a conserved BAM-RING architecture are present in most animals, protists closely related to animals, a single species of fungus, and several multicellular plants and related green algae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that eukaryotic MAPL proteins originate from a common ancestor and not from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We also determined that two independent duplications of MAPL occurred, one at the base of multicellular plants and another at the base of vertebrates. Although no other eukaryote genome examined contained a verifiable MAPL orthologue, BAM domain-containing proteins were identified in the protists Bigelowiella natans and Ectocarpus siliculosis. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these proteins are more closely related to prokaryotic BAM proteins and therefore likely arose from independent horizontal gene transfers from bacteria. We conclude that MAPL proteins with BAM-RING architectures have been present in the holozoan and viridiplantae lineages since their very beginnings

  7. BAM/DASS: Data Analysis Software for Sub-Microarcsecond Astrometry Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiol, D.; Bonino, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Riva, A.; Russo, F.

    2010-12-01

    The INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino is part of the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) for Gaia, a cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency. Gaia will perform global astrometry by means of two telescopes looking at the sky along two different lines of sight oriented at a fixed angle, also called basic angle. Knowledge of the basic angle fluctuations at the sub-microarcsecond level over periods of the order of the minute is crucial to reach the mission goals. A specific device, the Basic Angle Monitoring, will be dedicated to this purpose. We present here the software system we are developing to analyze the BAM data and recover the basic angle variations. This tool is integrated into the whole DPAC data analysis software.

  8. New exponential stability criteria for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthivel, R; Samidurai, R; Anthoni, S M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the global exponential stability of time-delayed stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses and Markovian jumping parameters. A generalized activation function is considered, and traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of activation functions are removed. We obtain a new set of sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensures the global exponential stability of the unique equilibrium point for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses. The Lyapunov function method with the Ito differential rule is employed for achieving the required result. Moreover, a numerical example is provided to show that the proposed result improves the allowable upper bound of delays over some existing results in the literature.

  9. Stability and bifurcation in a simplified four-neuron BAM neural network with multiple delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We first study the distribution of the zeros of a fourth-degree exponential polynomial. Then we apply the obtained results to a simplified bidirectional associated memory (BAM neural network with four neurons and multiple time delays. By taking the sum of the delays as the bifurcation parameter, it is shown that under certain assumptions the steady state is absolutely stable. Under another set of conditions, there are some critical values of the delay, when the delay crosses these critical values, the Hopf bifurcation occurs. Furthermore, some explicit formulae determining the stability and the direction of periodic solutions bifurcating from Hopf bifurcations are obtained by applying the normal form theory and center manifold reduction. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical analysis are also included.

  10. New exponential stability criteria for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, R.; Samidurai, R.; Anthoni, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the global exponential stability of time-delayed stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses and Markovian jumping parameters. A generalized activation function is considered, and traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of activation functions are removed. We obtain a new set of sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensures the global exponential stability of the unique equilibrium point for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses. The Lyapunov function method with the Itô differential rule is employed for achieving the required result. Moreover, a numerical example is provided to show that the proposed result improves the allowable upper bound of delays over some existing results in the literature.

  11. Global existence of periodic solutions of BAM neural networks with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shangjiang; Huang Lihong; Dai Binxiang; Zhang Zhongzhi

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we study BAM (bidirectional associative memory) networks with variable coefficients. By some spectral theorems and a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree, we not only obtain some new sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the periodic solution but also estimate the exponentially convergent rate. Our results are less restrictive than previously known criteria and can be applied to neural networks with a broad range of activation functions assuming neither differentiability nor strict monotonicity. Moreover, these conclusions are presented in terms of system parameters and can be easily verified for the globally Lipschitz and the spectral radius being less than 1. Therefore, our results should be useful in the design and applications of periodic oscillatory neural circuits for neural networks with delays

  12. A Case Study of the Bam Earthquake to Establish a Pattern for Earthquake Management in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramatollah Ziari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of crisis management knowledge and expertise is associated with a wide range of fields. Knowledge-based crisis management is a combination of science, art and practice. Iran is an earthquake-prone country. Through years several earthquakes have happened in the country resulting in many human and financial losses. According to scientific standards, the first 24 hours following an earthquake is the most valuable time for saving victims. Yet in the case of Bam only 5% of the victims were rescued within the first 48 hours. The success of disaster management is evaluated in terms of programming, raising public participation, organizing and hiring manpower, and supervising the management process. In this study disaster management is divided into three stages in which different actions are required. The stages and actions are explained in detail. Moreover, features, effects, and losses of the earthquake are described.

  13. Effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Vaezi, Aliakbar; Mohammadinia, Neda

    2018-02-01

    Menarche is an independent puberty event in a girl's life, and is associated with physical growth, ability in marriage and fertility. Therefore, poor menstrual health can be a major determinant of morbidity, as well as physical, mental and social problems in this age group. The aim of this study was to explore the effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city. The qualitative study was conducted using content analysis approach in 2017. The participants were 32 individuals consisting of 13 students, 10 mothers of the same students, 9 school associates and health educators of 5 secondary schools in Bam city, who were selected based on an objective-oriented approach. The sampling was done until data saturation. Data collection methods were semi-structured and in-depth interview. Data analysis was performed using the steps suggested by Graneheim and Landman. There were two categories (easy interaction and inappropriate adaptation to changes in health behavior), 13 sub-categories and 52 initial codes. The positive factors included easy access to sanitary pads, appropriate school education, easy access to health and therapeutic services and school flexibility on menstrual issues, while the negative factors included inadequate facilities for sanitary pad disposal, lack of access to informed people about menstrual issues, insufficient attention to menstrual problems, feeling ashamed, the high cost of menstrual health, self-medication with traditional medicines, inadequate self-directed education, lack of awareness and trust in health center staff, and following family and teachers in menstrual problems. Overall, this study indicated that economic, social, cultural and educational factors affect menstrual health. Therefore, the identification of each of these factors helps planners to apply the most appropriate methods and strategies for menstrual health improvement.

  14. Effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Vaezi, Aliakbar

    2018-01-01

    Background Menarche is an independent puberty event in a girl’s life, and is associated with physical growth, ability in marriage and fertility. Therefore, poor menstrual health can be a major determinant of morbidity, as well as physical, mental and social problems in this age group. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the effective factors on menstrual health among female students in Bam city. Methods The qualitative study was conducted using content analysis approach in 2017. The participants were 32 individuals consisting of 13 students, 10 mothers of the same students, 9 school associates and health educators of 5 secondary schools in Bam city, who were selected based on an objective-oriented approach. The sampling was done until data saturation. Data collection methods were semi-structured and in-depth interview. Data analysis was performed using the steps suggested by Graneheim and Landman. Results There were two categories (easy interaction and inappropriate adaptation to changes in health behavior), 13 sub-categories and 52 initial codes. The positive factors included easy access to sanitary pads, appropriate school education, easy access to health and therapeutic services and school flexibility on menstrual issues, while the negative factors included inadequate facilities for sanitary pad disposal, lack of access to informed people about menstrual issues, insufficient attention to menstrual problems, feeling ashamed, the high cost of menstrual health, self-medication with traditional medicines, inadequate self-directed education, lack of awareness and trust in health center staff, and following family and teachers in menstrual problems. Conclusion Overall, this study indicated that economic, social, cultural and educational factors affect menstrual health. Therefore, the identification of each of these factors helps planners to apply the most appropriate methods and strategies for menstrual health improvement. PMID:29629053

  15. Extent and Durability of Contamination of Groundwater and Water Works With The Pesticide Metabolite Bam (2,6 -dichlorbenzamide) Evaluated For Representative Aquifers In Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter R.; Clausen, Liselotte; Larsen, Flemming

    The pesticide metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorbenzamide) is the most frequently found pesticide contaminant in Danish groundwater. In 1999 BAM was found in 26% of Danish water supply wells and the drinking water standard (0.1 µg/L) was exceeded in 11% of the wells. BAM is a metabolite from the active ingredient dichlobenil (DCB), which was used for non-agricultural total weed protection during 1966 ­ 1997. By using the numerical codes FRAC3Dvs and MODFLOW/MT3D it is the aim of the study to evaluate the extent and durability of the BAM pollution in Danish groundwater and to recommend planning strategies to avoid or minimize BAM in future water supply. The modeling was based on the total amount sold of the DCB (29.000 ton/year) combined with data for sorption and degradation of the DCB and BAM measured from comprehensive laboratory experiments with soil material representing root zone and main aquifer soil types in Denmark. As a main result the laboratory experiments revealed that BAM was only very slowly degraded in the root zone, while no degradation was observed in the sub-soil environments. Combining these model in-put data with representative data for the main aquifer types and overriding fractured clay aquitards, the modeling indicates that more than 99% of infiltrated dichlobenile has been transformed to its metabolite BAM (approximately 500 tons in total), and that currently (year 2001) approximately 100% of this compound appears widely in the groundwater and/or in the above aquitards. The modeling shows that the BAM pollution will appear in the groundwater with a high frequency in extensive parts of Denmark during the following 20 years to more than 100 years. The highest current BAM concentrations, but however also the shortest durability of the BAM pollution, will occur in contaminated aquifers, which are not covered with clay layers. Short durability in such areas is furthermore dependent on the lack of further up-stream BAM sources. The modeling moreover

  16. Symbiotic nature of the object M1-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrt'eva, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Many year spectral observations show, that the object M1-77 is the symbiotic system, which consists of a M-giant and a B-star. An emission spectra arises from an envelope, which was formed from a giant's extended atmosphere, and now is ionized by the hotter component. Some spectral changes were registered in M1-77: the forbidden lines intensities increase relatively to that of Hα. It is connected with the decrease of hydrogen emission. (author)

  17. Dissection of β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein Assembly Pathways through Characterizing BamA POTRA 1 Mutants of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Drew; Charlson, Emily S.; Coon, Eric; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary BamA of Escherichia coli is an essential component of the hetero-oligomeric machinery that mediates β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly. The C- and N-termini of BamA fold into trans-membrane β-barrel and five soluble POTRA domains, respectively. Detailed characterization of BamA POTRA 1 missense and deletion mutants revealed two competing OMP assembly pathways, one of which is followed by the archetypal trimeric β-barrel OMPs, OmpF and LamB, and is dependent on POTRA 1. Interestingly, our data suggest that BamA also requires its POTRA 1 domain for proper assembly. The second pathway is independent of POTRA 1 and is exemplified by TolC. Site-specific cross-linking analysis revealed that the POTRA 1 domain of BamA interacts with SurA, a periplasmic chaperone required for the assembly of OmpF and LamB, but not that of TolC and BamA. The data suggest that SurA and BamA POTRA 1 domain function in concert to assist folding and assembly of most β-barrel OMPs except for TolC, which folds into a unique soluble α-helical barrel and an OM-anchored β-barrel. The two assembly pathways finally merge at some step beyond POTRA 1 but presumably before membrane insertion, which is thought to be catalyzed by the trans-membrane β-barrel domain of Bam A. PMID:20598079

  18. pth moment exponential stability of stochastic memristor-based bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Chen, Yuanlong; Liu, Meichun

    2018-02-01

    Stochastic memristor-based bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time delays play an increasingly important role in the design and implementation of neural network systems. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, the issues of the pth moment exponential stability of stochastic memristor-based BAM neural networks are investigated. By using the stochastic stability theory, Itô's differential formula and Young inequality, the criteria are derived. Meanwhile, with Lyapunov approach and Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we derive some sufficient conditions for the mean square exponential stability of the above systems. The obtained results improve and extend previous works on memristor-based or usual neural networks dynamical systems. Four numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mei-p26 cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to promote early germline development in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila female germline, spatially and temporally specific translation of mRNAs governs both stem cell maintenance and the differentiation of their progeny. However, the mechanisms that control and coordinate different modes of translational repression within this lineage remain incompletely understood. Here we present data showing that Mei-P26 associates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl and nanos mRNA during early cyst development, suggesting that this protein helps to repress the translation of nanos mRNA. Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam.

  20. Mei-P26 Cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to Promote Early Germline Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Qiao; Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Maines, Jean Z.; McKearin, Dennis M.; Buszczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the Drosophila female germline, spatially and temporally specific translation of mRNAs governs both stem cell maintenance and the differentiation of their progeny. However, the mechanisms that control and coordinate different modes of translational repression within this lineage remain incompletely understood. Here we present data showing that Mei-P26 associates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl and nanos mRNA during early cyst development, suggesting that this protein helps to repress the translation of nanos mRNA. Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam. PMID:23526974

  1. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  2. New York State urban and rural measurements of continuous PM2.5 mass by FDMS, TEOM, and BAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, James J; Felton, Henry D; Rattigan, Oliver V; Demerjian, Kenneth L

    2006-04-01

    Field evaluations and comparisons of continuous fine particulate matter (PM2,5) mass measurement technologies at an urban and a rural site in New York state are performed. The continuous measurement technologies include the filter dynamics measurement system (FDMS) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor, the stand-alone TEOM monitor (without the FDMS), and the beta attenuation monitor (BAM). These continuous measurement methods are also compared with 24-hr integrated filters collected and analyzed under the Federal Reference Method (FRM) protocol. The measurement sites are New York City (the borough of Queens) and Addison, a rural area of southwestern New York state. New York City data comparisons between the FDMS TEOM, BAM, and FRM are examined for bias and seasonality during a 2-yr period. Data comparisons for the FDMS TEOM and FRM from the Addison location are examined for the same 2-yr period. The BAM and FDMS measurements at Queens are highly correlated with each other and the FRM. The BAM and FDMS are very similar to each other in magnitude, and both are approximately 25% higher than the FRM filter measurements at this site. The FDMS at Addison measures approximately 9% more mass than the FRM. Mass reconstructions using the speciation trends network filter data are examined to provide insight as to the contribution of volatile species of PM2.5 in the FDMS mass measurement and the fraction that is likely lost in the FRM mass measurement. The reconstructed mass at Queens is systematically lower than the FDMS by approximately 10%.

  3. Delay-Dependent Exponential Stability for Discrete-Time BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the delay-dependent exponential stability for discrete-time BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. By constructing the new Lyapunov functional, the improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Moreover, in order to reduce the conservativeness, some slack matrices are introduced in this paper. Two numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  4. Insight into the conformational stability of membrane-embedded BamA using a combined solution and solid-state NMR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnige, Tessa; Houben, Klaartje [Utrecht University, NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Pritisanac, Iva [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory (United Kingdom); Renault, Marie [Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (France); Boelens, Rolf; Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [Utrecht University, NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    The β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) is involved in folding and insertion of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, a process that is still poorly understood. With its 790 residues, BamA presents a challenge to current NMR methods. We utilized a “divide and conquer” approach in which we first obtained resonance assignments for BamA’s periplasmic POTRA domains 4 and 5 by solution NMR. Comparison of these assignments to solid-state NMR (ssNMR) data obtained on two BamA constructs including the transmembrane domain and one or two soluble POTRA domains suggested that the fold of POTRA domain 5 critically depends on the interface with POTRA 4. Using specific labeling schemes we furthermore obtained ssNMR resonance assignments for residues in the extracellular loop 6 that is known to be crucial for BamA-mediated substrate folding and insertion. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the conformational stability of membrane-embedded, non-crystalline BamA.

  5. A new and efficient culture method for porcine bone marrow-derived M1- and M2-polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiye; Scheenstra, Maaike R; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2018-06-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively. Surface receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry and ELISA was used to quantify cytokine secretion in response to LPS and PAM 3 CSK 4 stimulation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were used as control. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages were cultured best using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF, respectively. Cultures from bone marrow cells resulted in a higher yield M1- and M2-polarized macrophages which were better comparable to human monocyte-derived macrophages than cultures from porcine monocytes. Porcine M1-polarized macrophages displayed the characteristic fried egg shape morphology, lower CD163 expression and low IL-10 production. Porcine M2-polarized macrophages contained the spindle-like morphology, higher CD163 expression and high IL-10 production. Porcine M1- and M2-polarized macrophages can be most efficiently cultured from mononuclear bone marrow cells using porcine GM-CSF and murine M-CSF. The new culture method facilitates more refined studies of porcine macrophages in vitro, important for both porcine and human health since pigs are increasingly used as model for translational research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mean square stabilization and mean square exponential stabilization of stochastic BAM neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhiyong; Zhang, He; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Guichen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •This paper introduces a non-conservative Lyapunov functional. •The achieved results impose non-conservative and can be widely used. •The conditions are easily checked by the Matlab LMI Tool Box. The desired state feedback controller can be well represented by the conditions. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the mean square exponential stabilization problem of stochastic bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and time-varying delays. By establishing a proper Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and combining with LMIs technique, several sufficient conditions are derived for ensuring exponential stabilization in the mean square sense of such stochastic BAM neural networks. In addition, the achieved results are not difficult to verify for determining the mean square exponential stabilization of delayed BAM neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters and impose less restrictive and less conservative than the ones in previous papers. Finally, numerical results are given to show the effectiveness and applicability of the achieved results

  7. M1 transitions between superdeformed states in 195Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xing; Xingqu Chen; Xiaochun Wang

    1996-01-01

    Using a triaxial-particle-rotor model, the quadrupole and dipole transition energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, electromagnetic transition probabilities and the relative intensity of the E2 γ-transitions are calculated for superdeformed bands in 195 Tl. A strong perturbation effect of rotation on transition energies and M1 and E2 transitions of superdeformed states is investigated. The total M1 transitions, enhanced by internal conversion, are expected to compete strongly with the E2 γ-ray at low spins in the superdeformed 195 Tl nucleus. (author)

  8. M1-transitions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackman, R.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1977-03-01

    In the MIT bag model, the M1-transitions of low lying hadrons are investigated. The following calculations are performed: 32 hadron masses are recomputed with a choice of bag parameters designed to give the correct values for the proton magnetic moment, μ/sub p/, and several masses, M/sub rho/ M/sub ω/ M/sub Δ/ M/sub Ω/, and M/sub D/; (2) eta, eta', eta/sub c/ mixing is computed in an untrustworthy approximation; and the widths for 38 M1-transitions are computed

  9. Genetic analysis of rice semidwarf mutant Tad-M-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Yang Rencui

    1995-01-01

    This paper dealed with the inheritance of the rice semidwarf of Tad-M-,a mutant line bred from traditional indica rice Variety Tadukan by radiation. The results indicated that semidwarf of Tad-M-1 was controlled by one pair of recessive gene, which was nonallelic to sd-1 gene of variety Aijiaonante and sd-g gene of variety Xinguiai and allelic to the semidwarf gene of Yunnan japonica variety Xueheaizao and Sichuan indica variety Yizila.The possible uses of Tad-M-1 in rice breeding was also discussed

  10. CBrowse: a SAM/BAM-based contig browser for transcriptome assembly visualization and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Ji, Guoli; Dong, Min; Schmidt, Emily; Lenox, Douglas; Chen, Liangliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Chun

    2012-09-15

    To address the impending need for exploring rapidly increased transcriptomics data generated for non-model organisms, we developed CBrowse, an AJAX-based web browser for visualizing and analyzing transcriptome assemblies and contigs. Designed in a standard three-tier architecture with a data pre-processing pipeline, CBrowse is essentially a Rich Internet Application that offers many seamlessly integrated web interfaces and allows users to navigate, sort, filter, search and visualize data smoothly. The pre-processing pipeline takes the contig sequence file in FASTA format and its relevant SAM/BAM file as the input; detects putative polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and sequencing errors in contigs and generates image, JSON and database-compatible CSV text files that are directly utilized by different web interfaces. CBowse is a generic visualization and analysis tool that facilitates close examination of assembly quality, genetic polymorphisms, sequence repeats and/or sequencing errors in transcriptome sequencing projects. CBrowse is distributed under the GNU General Public License, available at http://bioinfolab.muohio.edu/CBrowse/ liangc@muohio.edu or liangc.mu@gmail.com; glji@xmu.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. assessing aflatoxin m1 levels among lactating mothers' in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    1Department of Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure in breast milk, a possible risk factor for infant early ..... Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and ...

  12. Analytic theory of the nonlinear M = 1 tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    Numerical studies show that the m = 1 tearing mode continues to grow exponentially well into the nonlinear regime, in contrast with the slow, ''Rutherford,'' growth of m > 1 modes. We present a single helicity calculation which generalizes that of Rutherford to the case when the constant-psi approximation is invalid. As in that theory, the parallel current becomes an approximate flux function when the island size, W, exceeds the linear tearing layer width. However for the m = 1 mode, W becomes proportional to deltaB, rather than (deltaB)/sup 1/2/ above this critical amplitude. This implies that the convective nonlinearity in Ohm's law, which couples the m = 0 component to the m = 1 component, dominates the resistive diffusion term. The balance between the inductive electric field and this convective nonlinearity results in exponential growth. Assuming the form of the perturbed fields to be like that of the linear mode, we find that the growth occurs at 71% of the linear rate

  13. Theory of the m=1 kink mode in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.H. de.

    1990-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the stability problems arising in tokamak experiments. In part I of this thesis the internal m=1 kink instability in tokamak plasmas is considered within the confines of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD), in which model the pressure is considered to be isotropic, while state is assumed. Because irreversible processes are disregarded, there is an energy principle. By extremizing the energy associated with infinitesimal perturbations of the plasma, a normal mode is obtained. The m=n=1 mode is resonant at the q=1 surface, and therefore, equilibria with a broad region where q#approx = # 1 are expected to be particularly unstable. The m=1 instability is computed for these q profiles. In Part II of this thesis, the internal m=1 kink instability is considered in a stationary rotating tokamak plasma, in which the particle velocity distribution is allowed to be non-thermal. In a tokamak plasma that is intensely heated by neutron beams or radiofrequent waves, these features, which cannot be described with ideal MHD, may become important, especially in the cases with high m=1 growth rates found in Part I. The energy principle of a generalized fluid theory is applied in these cases, without specifying the equation of state of the plasma. Therefore the resulting energy functional for the m=1 mode is incomplete and not direct applicable, however, the result makes clear that a kinetic description of the plasma is required only to a first approximation, and can therefore be applied analytically. The guiding center approximation is applied, which neglects finite gyroradius effects and collisions. Application of the dispersion relation, that is obtained from kinetic theory, shows that compared to the ideal MHD case, growth rates are strongly reduced due to Landau damping while the stability boundaries are not changed. (author). 72 refs.; 11 figs

  14. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  15. Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, D.J.; Yanagishita, M.; Hascall, V.C.; Bickel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family

  16. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Derya, V.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Mertes, L.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1sc +→21+ transition of Gd was determined using results from high-statistics photon scattering. This provides a possibility for a new approach on the search of Jsc + members of the rotational band built on the scissors mode. By application of Alaga's rule, which is justifiable as 156Gd is a well-deformed rotor with good K quantum number, a transition strength of B (E 2 ;2sc +→01+)=0.034 (13 ) W.u. is estimated.

  17. Flavonoids with M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyyammai Swaminathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-active compounds have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic flavones and flavonols was assayed in vitro for their ability to inhibit radioligand binding at human cloned M1 muscarinic receptors. Several compounds were found to possess competitive binding affinity (Ki = 40–110 µM, comparable to that of acetylcholine (Ki = 59 µM. Despite the fact that these compounds lack a positively-charged ammonium group under physiological conditions, molecular modelling studies suggested that they bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor, mainly through non-polar interactions.

  18. PEMBUATAN PROGRAM INTERFACE UNTUK PENGONTROLAN RV-M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Endra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the making of interface of RV-M1 hand robot control that replaced the cosiprog program,a program that is able to help student in Mecatronica-1 Practice, and able to control the hand robot by localnetwork by two user or more. The used methods were literature study, and field study, that is design method. Theresearch result are control of hand robot on X,Y,Z axis and point to point, the use of local network to control thehand robot, save certain position, and use several user to control the robot.Keywords: interface program, robot, local network

  19. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dugo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  20. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tiejun; Chen Anping; Zhou Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible

  1. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, distributed delays [rapid communication] T.; Chen, A.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-08-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible.

  2. Global existence of periodic solutions in a simplified four-neuron BAM neural network model with multiple delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a simplified bidirectional associated memory (BAM neural network model with four neurons and multiple time delays. The global existence of periodic solutions bifurcating from Hopf bifurcations is investigated by applying the global Hopf bifurcation theorem due to Wu and Bendixson's criterion for high-dimensional ordinary differential equations due to Li and Muldowney. It is shown that the local Hopf bifurcation implies the global Hopf bifurcation after the second critical value of the sum of two delays. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical analysis are also included.

  3. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  4. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  5. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  6. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  7. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P 1-5 ) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods . Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results . All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P 1 . In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P 4 . The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion . The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  8. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  9. Interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of M1-transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregudov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study is the calculation of interference effects in Moessbauer spectra of the (γ, e) reaction. Two channels of the inelastic (γ, e) reaction are considered: resonance gamma radiation absorption by nucleus accompanied by internal conversion and photo absorption by atomic electrons. The case of M1 nuclear transition multipolarity is considered. The expression for angular dependence coefficients of interference member is obtained. General expression for (γ, e) reaction cross section is obtained in a long-wave approximation for the case when the specimen is placed in longitudinal magnetic field involving superfine nuclear level splitting. The results of disperse amplitudes calculation for 93 Kr, 119 Sn, 129 I, 149 Sm, 151 Eu, 169 Tm, 183 W, 193 Ir, 197 Au nuclei are verified. The calculations show that maximum interference effect in the (γ, e) reaction should be expected for 169 Tm isotope [ru

  10. Excitation of M1 resonances by medium energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, G.M.; Djalali, C.; Marty, N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of 201 MeV (p,p') studies of ΔL=0 spin-flip transitions at very forward angles are discussed. The reasons for making comparisons between (p,p'), (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements of M1 transitions are outlined. After presenting some of the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, a summary of the results on the Zr isotopes plus other nuclei to mass 140 is given. Results from 48 Ca, the N=28 nuclei 50 Ti, 51 V, 52 Cr and 54 Fe are discussed and compared with (p,n) and electromagnetic measurements. In the Ni isotopes, the T 0 and T 0 +1 components of the 1 + spin-flips transition were observed both in (p,p') and in (p,n) reactions

  11. Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Neutron Beam Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, Wichian

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Neutron beam tube of neutron radiography facility at Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (public organization) is a divergent beam. The rectangular open-end of the beam tube is 16 cm x 17 cm while the inner-end is closed to the reactor core. The neutron beam size was measured using 20 cm x 40 cm neutron imaging plate. The measurement at the position 100 cm from the end of the collimator has shown that the beam size was 18.2 cm x 19.0 cm. Gamma ray in neutron the beam was also measured by the identical position using industrial X ray film. The area of gamma ray was 27.8 cm x 31.1 cm with the highest intensity found to be along the neutron beam circumference

  12. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  13. The Emergence of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Following the Earthquake in Southern Villages of Bam District, Southeastern Iran, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010.Methods: A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15.Results: Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more signifi­cantly infected (1.7% than males (0.8%, (P= 0.003. All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent.Conclusion: The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages.

  14. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  15. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  16. Activation of M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in response to heparin-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    Full Text Available In the early stage of sepsis, M1 macrophages result in the production of inflammatory mediators and AKI. Heparin-binding protein (HBP have been shown to play important roles in sepsis-induced AKI. In this study, we investigate the association of HBP with M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced AKI.Male C57BL6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or sham surgery. Biochemical and histological renal damage was assessed. Macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR was used to investigate the expression of heparin-binding protein (HBP, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and arginase 1 (Arg-1 mRNAs. Western blots were performed to assay the tissue levels of HBP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6.High levels of HBP were obviously detected 24 h after sepsis-induced AKI. Heparin inhibited HBP expression during sepsis-induced AKI. The suppression of HBP expression by heparin injection after the establishment of sepsis-induced AKI resulted in a reduction in renal injury severity accompanied with a significant repression of M1 macrophage activation and expression of TNF-α and IL-6.HBP plays an important role in the initial inflammatory reaction associated with sepsis-induced AKI, presumably by activating M1 macrophages and suppressing TNF-α and IL-6 secretion.

  17. ADAM-17 is a poor prognostic indicator for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is regulated by FoxM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaodong; Yu, Wenlong; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Ying; Wei, Peilian; Fang, Wenzheng; Yu, Guanzhen

    2018-05-18

    A-disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. Specific ADAMs are upregulated in human cancers and correlated with tumor progression and poor outcome, but rarely studied in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). This study aimed to explore the expression profiles of ADAMs and their potential underlying mechanisms promoting cancer progression. mRNA expression of ADAM-9, - 10, - 11, - 12, - 15, - 17, - 28, and - 33 was analyzed in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of ADAM-10, - 17, - 28, and FoxM1 in HC. The regulation of ADAM-17 by FoxM1 and their functional study was investigated in vivo and in vitro. ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 were upregulated in tumors compared with matched non-cancerous tissues. IHC analysis revealed increased expression of ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 in HC cells, and ADAM17 seems to be an independent prognostic factor. ADAM-17 is regulated by FoxM1. A decrease in the expression of ADAM-17 by silencing FoxM1 led to an inhibition of cell proliferation, tumor growth, and the production of tumor necrosis factor α. IHC analysis showed co-expression of FoxM1 and ADAM-17 in HC specimens. The findings of the present study show an important role of the cross-talk among FoxM1, ADAM-17, and TNFa in HC development and progression.

  18. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  19. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  20. pBAM1: an all-synthetic genetic tool for analysis and construction of complex bacterial phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo-Rodríguez Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since publication in 1977 of plasmid pBR322, many breakthroughs in Biology have depended on increasingly sophisticated vector platforms for analysis and engineering of given bacterial strains. Although restriction sites impose a certain format in the procedures for assembling cloned genes, every attempt thus far to standardize vector architecture and nomenclature has ended up in failure. While this state of affairs may still be tolerable for traditional one-at-a-time studies of single genes, the onset of systems and synthetic biology calls for a simplification -along with an optimization- of the currently unwieldy pool of genetic tools. Results The functional DNA sequences present in the natural bacterial transposon Tn5 have been methodically edited and refactored for the production of a multi-purpose genetic tool named pBAM1, which allows a range of manipulations in the genome of Gram-negative bacteria. This all-synthetic construct enhances the power of mini-transposon vectors for either de-construction or re-construction of phenotypes á la carte by incorporating features inspired in systems engineering: modularity, re-usability, minimization, and compatibility with other genetic tools. pBAM1 bears an streamlined, restriction site-freed and narrow-host range replication frame bearing the sequences of R6K oriV, oriT and an ampicillin resistance marker. These go along with a business module that contains a host-independent and hyperactive transposition platform for in vivo or in vitro insertion of desired DNA into the genome of the target bacterium. All functional sequences were standardized for a straightforward replacement by equivalent counterparts, if required. pBAM1 can be delivered into recipient cells by either mating or electroporation, producing transposon insertion frequencies of 1.8 × 10-3 and 1.02 × 10-7, respectively in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Analyses of the resulting clones revealed a 100% of

  1. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  2. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  3. Fixed-time synchronization of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying discrete delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2017-12-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the fixed-time synchronization of memristor-based BAM neural networks (MBAMNNs) with discrete delay. Fixed-time synchronization means that synchronization can be achieved in a fixed time for any initial values of the considered systems. In the light of the double-layer structure of MBAMNNs, we design two similar feedback controllers. Based on Lyapunov stability theories, several criteria are established to guarantee that the drive and response MBAMNNs can realize synchronization in a fixed time. In particular, by changing the parameters of controllers, this fixed time can be adjusted to some desired value in advance, irrespective of the initial values of MBAMNNs. Numerical simulations are included to validate the derived results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Modflow in Groundwater Management and Evaluation of Artificial Recharge Project of Ab-barik Aquifer (Bam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Katibeh

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt in groundwater modeling of Ab-barik aquifer (Bam, Iran, in order to asses the artificial recharge project and the future situation of the aquifer. Studies show that the discharge of the aquifer has exceeded the recharge, especially during the 1980-1990. The water table in March 1985 has dropped about 10m as compared with March 1973. Studies indicate that the drawdown of the free surface will continue in the future so that in March 2004, the drawdown will be about 18m as compared with the March 1973. Also it was found that despite the artificial recharge of the aquifer (started in 1996, the drawdown has been continuing. Modeling has showed that artificial recharge project has caused 12.6 mm3 recharge into the aquifer annually, during 1996-1999.

  5. Global exponential stability and lag synchronization for delayed memristive fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks with impulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wengui; Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the stability and lag synchronization for memristor-based fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with mixed delays (asynchronous time delays and continuously distributed delays) and impulses. By applying the inequality analysis technique, homeomorphism theory and some suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point are established. Furthermore, we obtain several sufficient criteria concerning globally exponential lag synchronization for the proposed system based on the framework of Filippov solution, differential inclusion theory and control theory. In addition, some examples with numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of obtained results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NF-κB Signaling Regulates Epstein–Barr Virus BamHI-Q-Driven EBNA1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J. A. Verhoeven

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 is one of the few viral proteins expressed by EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, most likely because of its essential role in maintaining the viral genome in EBV-infected cells. In NPC, EBNA1 expression is driven by the BamHI-Q promoter (Qp, which is regulated by both cellular and viral factors. We previously determined that the expression of another group of EBV transcripts, BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs, is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling in NPC cells. Here, we show that, like the EBV BART promoter, the EBV Qp also responds to NF-κB signaling. NF-κB p65, but not p50, can activate Qp in vitro, and NF-κB signaling regulates Qp-EBNA1 expression in NPC cells, as well as in other EBV-infected epithelial cells. The introduction of mutations in the putative NF-κB site reduced Qp activation by the NF-κB p65 subunit. Binding of p65 to Qp was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs demonstrated that p50 can also bind to Qp. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by the IκB kinase inhibitor PS-1145 resulted in the downregulation of Qp-EBNA1 expression in C666-1 NPC cells. Since EBNA1 has been reported to block p65 activation by inhibiting IKKα/β through an unknown mechanism, we suggest that, in NPC, NF-κB signaling and EBNA1 may form a regulatory loop which supports EBV latent gene expression, while also limiting NF-κB activity. These findings emphasize the role of NF-κB signaling in the regulation of EBV latency in EBV-associated tumors.

  7. High-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation of the right M1 further facilitates left M1 excitability during crossed facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibel, Vincent; Muthalib, Makii; Teo, Wei-Peng; Perrey, Stephane

    2018-04-01

    The crossed-facilitation (CF) effect refers to when motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the relaxed muscles of one arm are facilitated by contraction of the opposite arm. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-definition transcranial direct-current stimulation (HD-tDCS) applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1) controlling the left contracting arm [50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] would further facilitate CF toward the relaxed right arm. Seventeen healthy right-handed subjects participated in an anodal and cathodal or sham HD-tDCS session of the right M1 (2 mA for 20 min) separated by at least 48 h. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit MEPs and cortical silent periods (CSPs) from the left M1 at baseline and 10 min into and after right M1 HD-tDCS. At baseline, compared with resting, CF (i.e., right arm resting, left arm 50% MVIC) increased left M1 MEP amplitudes (+97%) and decreased CSPs (-11%). The main novel finding was that right M1 HD-tDCS further increased left M1 excitability (+28.3%) and inhibition (+21%) from baseline levels during CF of the left M1, with no difference between anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS sessions. No modulation of CSP or MEP was observed during sham HD-tDCS sessions. Our findings suggest that CF of the left M1 combined with right M1 anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS further facilitated interhemispheric interactions during CF from the right M1 (contracting left arm) toward the left M1 (relaxed right arm), with effects on both excitatory and inhibitory processing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows modulation of the nonstimulated left M1 by right M1 HD-tDCS combined with crossed facilitation, which was probably achieved through modulation of interhemispheric interactions.

  8. Regional emergencies, Bam, Kerman province, Iran Foreign Bodies from the Palm Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Asgarzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  One of the most common causes of emergency department (ED visits in Pasteur Hospital, Bam, Iran, is a foreign body from palm tree fronds entering different parts of body. This town is located in southeast Iran and has many palm tree orchards. Most of its residents are farmers or orchardists and many children play in these orchards. When palm harvest season approaches (about the end of summer, a considerable number of patients are presented to emergency department of this town with complaint of foreign bodies. These foreign bodies called “date thorns” among the locals (figure1 are wooden and can easily penetrate various body parts due to their needle-like, pointy shape. Some patients manipulate the foreign bodies before going to the ED and cause it to move deeper. Another group, delay going to the hospital and only reach ED a few days after the initiation of inflammation, redness, and evidence of infection. History and physical examination aid in finding the place of the foreign body, but sometimes they are not perceptible and diagnostic imaging is needed. Radiolucent objects such as wood cannot be detected in graphy but are visible in sonograms (1, 2. Removal of these bodies is usually performed under sterile conditions, using local anesthesia or regional nerve blockade, by making an incision and searching the region, finding and removing the foreign body, and finally suturing and bandaging. The procedure gets more difficult in children and patients who do not cooperate and occasionally, procedural sedation and analgesia is required, which leads to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, lethargy, agitation, and respiratory depression. Depending on the site of injury, patients are usually unable to use the affected organ for a few days after the procedure and need daily washing and bandage, and sometimes taking antibiotics. If tendon, joint, nerve, or vascular injuries are present, it gets more complicated and need for operation and

  9. Puzzling with online games (BAM-COG): reliability, validity, and feasibility of an online self-monitor for cognitive performance in aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Teun; Baars, Maria A E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-12-03

    Online interventions are aiming increasingly at cognitive outcome measures but so far no easy and fast self-monitors for cognition have been validated or proven reliable and feasible. This study examines a new instrument called the Brain Aging Monitor-Cognitive Assessment Battery (BAM-COG) for its alternate forms reliability, face and content validity, and convergent and divergent validity. Also, reference values are provided. The BAM-COG consists of four easily accessible, short, yet challenging puzzle games that have been developed to measure working memory ("Conveyer Belt"), visuospatial short-term memory ("Sunshine"), episodic recognition memory ("Viewpoint"), and planning ("Papyrinth"). A total of 641 participants were recruited for this study. Of these, 397 adults, 40 years and older (mean 54.9, SD 9.6), were eligible for analysis. Study participants played all games three times with 14 days in between sets. Face and content validity were based on expert opinion. Alternate forms reliability (AFR) was measured by comparing scores on different versions of the BAM-COG and expressed with an intraclass correlation (ICC: two-way mixed; consistency at 95%). Convergent validity (CV) was provided by comparing BAM-COG scores to gold-standard paper-and-pencil and computer-assisted cognitive assessment. Divergent validity (DV) was measured by comparing BAM-COG scores to the National Adult Reading Test IQ (NART-IQ) estimate. Both CV and DV are expressed as Spearman rho correlation coefficients. Three out of four games showed adequate results on AFR, CV, and DV measures. The games Conveyer Belt, Sunshine, and Papyrinth have AFR ICCs of .420, .426, and .645 respectively. Also, these games had good to very good CV correlations: rho=.577 (P=.001), rho=.669 (Pgame Viewpoint provided less desirable results with an AFR ICC of .167, CV rho=.202 (P=.15), and DV rho=-.162 (P=.21). This study provides evidence for the use of the BAM-COG test battery as a feasible, reliable, and

  10. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  12. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  13. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  14. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  15. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  16. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  17. Considerations on the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Droste, Bernhard; Zencker, Uwe; Komann, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM. The test procedures are based on the recommendations of the IAEA and the respective national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. BAM is performing mechanical and thermal tests to investigate the safety of the containers in case of a severe accident. The radionuclide release has to be restricted to a defined limiting value, the radiation shielding and the nuclear safety have to be ensured. The component test is performed using prototypes of model containers combined with calculations or transferability considerations. The safety evaluation is usually based on experimental tests and numerical analyses.

  18. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  19. Determination of phylogenetic groups and antibiotic resistance pattern of Enterotoxigenic Escherishia coli isolates from diarrheoic cases in Bam City by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Alizade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Purposes of this study were to determine the phylogenetic groups, prevalence of enterotoxigenic pathotype and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates from diarrheic cases in Bam city. Materials and Methods: In this study 155 E. coli were isolated from diarrheic samples in Bam city. Phylogenetic groups of isolates and enterotoxigenic pathotype were determined by detection of chuA, yjaA, TspE4C2 and ST, LT genes respectively. Results: One hundred fifty five examined isolates were distributed in phylogenetic groups: A (71.60%, B1 (3.22%, B2 (9.67% and D (15.48%. The genes for enterotoxigenic pathotype were detected in 52 isolates (33.54%, which ST gene were found in 29 isolates, LT in 16 isolates and LT, ST genes in 7 isolates. Twenty nine ST gene positive isolates were distributed in three phylogenetic groups A (48.28%, D (41.38% and B2 (10.34%. According to the antibiotic susceptibility tests maximum and minimum antibiotic resistance rate was against to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.19% and ciprofloxacin and gentamycin (9.67%. Fifteen multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were detected in four phylogenetic groups. Conclusions: Escherichia coli isolates from enterotoxigenic pathotype have a considerable antibiotic resistance rate in Bam city and were distributed in different phylogenetic groups. Since a considerable number of isolates were negative for LT and ST genes, it is necessary to study the other virulence genes and their phylogenetic background in E. coli isolates from diarrheic cases in Bam city.

  20. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Several facts concerning health and questions about rehabilitative-restorative treatment of miners of the BAM zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, G N

    1985-06-01

    The Yuzhnaya-Yakutiya coal basin containing one of the largest deposits of coking coal (40 billion tons to a depth of 600 m, 60% of this to a depth of 300 m) in the USSR lies in the BAM zone. Average yearly temperature of the region is 7-10 C. Brittle enclosing rock, longterm frozen soil, concentration of coal deposits and machinery in small areas increase vibration, noise, dust and gas in working areas. Surveys revealed predominant illnesses are diseases of the nervous system: osteochondrosis, with secondary neuritis, and radiculitis. Eighty-two percent of miners with osteochondrosis work in occupations with high vibration risk. To prevent disease and rehabilitate miners with degenerative changes of motor apparatus and osteochondrosis, a network of rehabilitation rooms was created at health centers near the workplace. Miners with osteochondrosis, myositis and arthritis receive heat treatments, massage and curative physical culture. A course of treatment is given 2 or 3 times a year. The courses are given after work without interrupting employment. Miners are directed to take vacations every year. Preventive-rehabilitative treatment of miners of the Far North makes it possible to keep highly qualified workers actively employed which is important considering the shortage of miners in these regions. 2 references.

  2. c-Ha-ras BamHI RFLP in human urothelial tumors and point mutations in hot codons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weismanova, E; Skovraga, M.; Kaluz, S.

    1993-01-01

    High-molecular weights DNAs from 30 bladder and renal cell carcinomas (RCC) were isolated and the c-Ha-ras the c-Ha-ras gene BamHI RFLP was examined. Amplification of c-Ha-ras with normal localization with regard to the size of alleles was found only in the case. One of the normally localized c-Ha-ras allele termed RCC c-H-ras of a length of about 6.6 kbp was cloned and an oncogene-activating point mutation was identified using two restriction enzymes. After comparison of CfrI and Cfr10I cleavage maps of RCC c-Ha-ras to complete nucleotide sequences of EJ/T24 c-Ha-ras oncogene and its normal counterpart, a point mutation was identified within codon 11 or 12. The use of CfrI and Cfr10I is of value for clinical practice in identification of point mutations in c-Ha-ras PCR product in neoplasia accompanied by somatic mutation of c-Ha-ras. The correlation among c-Ha-ras allele, amplification/loss, presence of point mutation and progression of neoplasia is discussed. (author)

  3. Report on correlation between radon outgassing and aftershocks activity along the Bam Fault in Kerman province of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabipour, Jamshid Soltani [Bio-Nuclear and Medical Radiation Engineering Department, Parand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com [Cellular and Molecular Gerash Research Center, Gerash University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    After the Earthquake in Bam in December 26, 2003, a team was dispatched to this area to monitor the relationship between Variation in the Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration and the magnitude of aftershocks. Meteorological parameters such as air pressure, temperature and humidity were measured. Radon concentration at depth of 90 cm of soil was also measured using AlphaGuard (Model 2000PRO) in 10 minutes periods. The measurement site was near the fault location and the radon concentration was systemically measured for a period of three months. A correlation between radon concentration and the available aftershocks data is discussed. More than 150 small to moderate aftershocks with a magnitude ranging from M=2.1 to 6.5 in scale of Richter occurred in the region during the period of this study at the various distances (below 20 km of epicenter) from the radon monitoring sites. When the magnitude of aftershocks increased, variations of radon concentration could be observed more clearly. (author)

  4. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  5. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  6. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  7. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  8. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  9. M1 and M2 Monocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Contribution of Imbalance of M1/M2 Monocytes to Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Fukui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe investigated the relationships among M1 monocytes, M2 monocytes, osteoclast (OC differentiation ability, and clinical characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from RA patients and healthy donors, and we then investigated the number of M1 monocytes or M2 monocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also obtained and cultured CD14-positive cells from PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors to investigate OC differentiation in vitro.ResultsForty RA patients and 20 healthy donors were included. Twenty-two patients (55% were anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive. The median M1/M2 ratio was 0.59 (0.31–1.11, interquartile range. There were no significant differences between the RA patients and healthy donors. There was a positive correlation between the M1/M2 ratio and the differentiated OC number in vitro in RA patients (ρ = 0.81, p < 0.001. The ACPA-positive patients had significantly higher M1/M2 ratios in vivo (p = 0.028 and significantly greater numbers of OCs in vitro (p = 0.005 than the ACPA-negative patients. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the M1/M2 ratio was the sole significant contribution factor to in vitro osteoclastogenesis. RA patients with M1/M2 ratios >1 (having relatively more M1 monocytes had higher C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates than RA patients with M1/M2 ratios ≤1. M1-dominant monocytes in vitro produced higher concentrations of interleukin-6 upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide than M2 monocytes.ConclusionM1/M2 monocytes imbalance strongly contributes to osteoclastogenesis of RA patients. Our findings cast M1 and M2 monocyte subsets in a new light as a new target of treatments for RA to prevent progression of osteoclastic bone destruction.

  10. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  11. Modification of barley powdery mildew resistance controlled by the gene M1-a212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, J.; Joergensen, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The barley line Sultan 5 carries resistance gene M1-a12. Seeds were treated with EMS or NaN 3 . Among 10381 M 1 -spike progenies inoculated with M1-a12 a-virulent isolates of Erysiphe graminis, 25 segregated for less resistant infection type. Among 10 mutants analyzed, 9 had mutant allels of M1-a12 and one had a recessive mutant gene in a different locus acting as a ''suppressor'' of M1-a12. (author)

  12. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  13. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  14. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  15. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  16. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremy, J M; Roiland, J C; Gaymard, A

    1990-01-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  17. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  18. FoxM1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snai1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chun-Peng; Yu, Shui; Shi, Lei; Wang, Song; Li, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) is aberrantly expressed in several types of human malignancy, and serves an important role in tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells has been associated cancer metastasis; however, the implication of FoxM1 in EMT and its putative roles in the regulation of cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression of FoxM1, Snai1 and E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with various meta...

  19. Target-specific M1 inputs to infragranular S1 pyramidal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, Erika E.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of input from the primary motor cortex (M1) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is unclear; one key to understanding this pathway may lie in elucidating the cell-type specific microcircuits that connect S1 and M1. Recently, we discovered that a subset of pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of S1 receive especially strong input from M1 (Kinnischtzke AK, Simons DJ, Fanselow EE. Cereb Cortex 24: 2237–2248, 2014), suggesting that M1 may affect specific classes of pyramidal neurons differently. Here, using combined optogenetic and retrograde labeling approaches in the mouse, we examined the strengths of M1 inputs to five classes of infragranular S1 neurons categorized by their projections to particular cortical and subcortical targets. We found that the magnitude of M1 synaptic input to S1 pyramidal neurons varies greatly depending on the projection target of the postsynaptic neuron. Of the populations examined, M1-projecting corticocortical neurons in L6 received the strongest M1 inputs, whereas ventral posterior medial nucleus-projecting corticothalamic neurons, also located in L6, received the weakest. Each population also possessed distinct intrinsic properties. The results suggest that M1 differentially engages specific classes of S1 projection neurons, thereby regulating the motor-related influence S1 exerts over subcortical structures. PMID:27334960

  20. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  1. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  2. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-07-09

    The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  3. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano José

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  4. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  5. Properties of M1-M2-Si-Al-O-N glasses (M1 = La or Nd, M2 = Y or Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, M.J.; Nestor, E.; Hampshire, S. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials and Surface Science Inst.; Ramesh, R. [Littelfuse Ireland, Dundalk, Co. Louth (Ireland)

    2002-07-01

    Mixed lanthanide cation oxynitride glasses have been prepared in the M1 - M2 - Si-Al-O-N systems where M1 = La or Nd and M2 = Y or Er. The densities ({rho}), Young's moduli (E), microhardnesses (H{sub v}), glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}), dilatometric softening temperatures (T{sub dil}) and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of 13 glasses were determined. The molar volume values (MV) calculated from density data, E, H{sub v}, T{sub g}, T{sub dil} and CTE values were all found to vary linearly with the effective cation field strength arising from the M1 and M2 modifier cations. Least squares intercept and slope values are presented which correlate each property to effective cation field strength together with error values which arise from glass and specimen preparation and measurement inconsistencies. These linear correlations clearly indicate that the overall glass structure remains the same for each of the thirteen glasses with only the modifier cation(s) having any influence. This influence appears to be a cross-linking effect, the strength of which increases as the effective cation field strength of the M1, M2 modifiers increases. (orig.)

  6. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dtsz) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt sz hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt sz hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of clinicopathological parameters with FoxM1 expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Kocarslan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that FoxM1 have a progressive oncogenic role in ccRRC. Our results suggested that higher expression of FoxM1 in tumor tissues predicts a locally aggressive behavior and poor outcome of patients with ccRCC, but not in patient with non-ccRCC.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and...

  9. Nanometre-accurate form measurement machine for E-ELT M1 segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    To enable important scientific discoveries, ESO has defined a new ground-based telescope: the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The baseline design features a telescope with a 39-m-class primary mirror (M1), making it the largest and most powerful telescope in the world. The M1 consists of

  10. 78 FR 13897 - Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration RIN 1210-AB51 Final Revision and Publication of the 2012 Form M-1, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... revisions to the Form M-1, Report for Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements (MEWAs) and Certain Entities...

  11. [Appearance of aflatoxin M1 during the manufacture of Camembert cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémy, J M; Roiland, J C

    1979-01-01

    Several classic cheese making of camembert are made from raw milk spiked with Aflatoxin M1. Three Aflatoxin levels 7.5 microgram/l, 3 microgram/l are used. In respective curds 35.6, 47.1 and 57.7% of Aflatoxin M1 are recovered and 64.4, 52.9 and 42.3% in respective whey. During the first 15 days of storage the Aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decrease respectively 25, 55, 75%. A similar experience is made with a milk contamined in Aflatoxin M1 C14 labelled. Same results are recovered, except about behaviour of Aflatoxin M1 in cheese: a same C14 activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8) CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  14. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  15. Introduction of the Python script STRinNGS for analysis of STR regions in FASTQ or BAM files and expansion of the Danish STR sequence database to 11 STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne L; Buchard, Anders; Rockenbauer, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces the in-house developed Python application STRinNGS for analysis of STR sequence elements in BAM or FASTQ files. STRinNGS identifies sequence reads with STR loci by their flanking sequences, it analyses the STR sequence and the flanking regions, and generates a report with the......This work introduces the in-house developed Python application STRinNGS for analysis of STR sequence elements in BAM or FASTQ files. STRinNGS identifies sequence reads with STR loci by their flanking sequences, it analyses the STR sequence and the flanking regions, and generates a report...

  16. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  18. BAM! Body and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun safety too!! Check out our “Ask A Scientist” comic series to learn more! table captioned Ask ... Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file ...

  19. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  20. Bam et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Stress impacts negatively and positively depending on how effectively the individual experiencing the phenomenon ... education designed for students to acquire the ... practice gap, lack of teaching and interest in ..... manage workplace stress.

  1. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  2. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in ...

  3. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M(1) subtype (oxotremorine ...'s abuse-related effects, whereas non-M(1)/M(4) receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine effects of systemically applied, M(1) receptor agonists and suggest the possibility of a new approach to pharmacotherapy...

  4. Triaxiality and alternating M1 strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabor, S L; Johnson, T D; Holcombe, J W; Womble, P C; Doring, J; Nazarewicz, W [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of alternating patterns in B(M1) strengths in f-p-g shell nuclei is surveyed. The M1 alternations in a sequence of N= 41 isotones, in conjunction with particle-rotor model calculations, is shown to provide information about changing {gamma} deformation. In addition to other odd-A nuclei, several odd-odd nuclei are shown to exhibit alternating B(M1) values and signature inversion. alternations have also been reported in a 4 quasiparticle band in {sup 86}Zr, where they have been interpreted in terms of the interacting boson model. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  5. Fine structure of the giant M1 resonance in 90Zr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusev, G; Tsoneva, N; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Schwengner, R; Tonchev, A P; Adekola, A S; Hammond, S L; Kelley, J H; Kwan, E; Lenske, H; Tornow, W; Wagner, A

    2013-01-11

    The M1 excitations in the nuclide 90Zr have been studied in a photon-scattering experiment with monoenergetic and linearly polarized beams from 7 to 11 MeV. More than 40 J(π)=1+ states have been identified from observed ground-state transitions, revealing the fine structure of the giant M1 resonance with a centroid energy of 9 MeV and a sum strength of 4.17(56) μ(N)(2). The result for the total M1 strength and its fragmentation are discussed in the framework of the three-phonon quasiparticle-phonon model.

  6. DNase Sda1 allows invasive M1T1 Group A Streptococcus to prevent TLR9-dependent recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Uchiyama

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS has developed a broad arsenal of virulence factors that serve to circumvent host defense mechanisms. The virulence factor DNase Sda1 of the hyperinvasive M1T1 GAS clone degrades DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps allowing GAS to escape extracellular killing. TLR9 is activated by unmethylated CpG-rich bacterial DNA and enhances innate immune resistance. We hypothesized that Sda1 degradation of bacterial DNA could alter TLR9-mediated recognition of GAS by host innate immune cells. We tested this hypothesis using a dual approach: loss and gain of function of DNase in isogenic GAS strains and presence and absence of TLR9 in the host. Either DNA degradation by Sda1 or host deficiency of TLR9 prevented GAS induced IFN-α and TNF-α secretion from murine macrophages and contributed to bacterial survival. Similarly, in a murine necrotizing fasciitis model, IFN-α and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in wild type mice infected with GAS expressing Sda1, whereas no such Sda1-dependent effect was seen in a TLR9-deficient background. Thus GAS Sda1 suppressed both the TLR9-mediated innate immune response and macrophage bactericidal activity. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of bacterial innate immune evasion based on autodegradation of CpG-rich DNA by a bacterial DNase.

  7. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  8. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  9. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  10. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of lactating cows is a public health issue, and because of its importance several techniques are used for its detection and quantification. These techniques include the physical-chemical as thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and the biological techniques including immunoassays such as RIA and ELISA. This review aimed to present the techniques used to quantify aflatoxins M1 and M2 in milk and dairy products.

  11. Addendum to 'Half coalescence of the m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.

    1985-01-01

    As an addendum to our previous work concerning the half-coalescence instability of an m=1, n=1 magnetic island in tokamaks, the potential energy is given for an arbitrary shape of the separatrix. (orig.)

  12. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  13. Inelastic electron scattering, fine structure of M1 giant resonances and Gamow-Teller states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in obtaining detailed fine structure distributions of magnetic giant resonances in nuclei using high resolution inelastic electron scattering at low energy is discussed. Specific examples chosen are the medium heavy nuclei 40 42 44 48 Ca in which M1 excitations are due to neutron spin-flip transitions and the N=28 isotones 50 Ti, 52 Cr and 54 Fe where in addition also proton excitations contribute to the measured M1 strength. It is found that the M1 strength is very fragmented and considerably quenched in comparison to predictions of shell model calculations in a model space that includes up to 2p-2h excitations. Finally, the old problem of M1 strength in 208 Pb is revisited and the results of a form factor measurement of a recently discovered low lying Jsup(π)=1 + state by nuclear resonance fluorescence are presented. (Auth.)

  14. The mutual dependence of M1 fertility and M2 mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1982-01-01

    The mutual dependence of M 1 fertility and M 2 mutations in rice was studied after treatment with gamma rays and EMS. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with decrease in seed fertility when M 1 ears were selected at random. However, at the lowest fertility class the mutation frequency was low. This reduction is attributed to the elimination of mutants in the high sterility class. The mutation yield can therefore be significantly enhanced by selecting M 1 ears of low fertility. The segregation ratio of mutants increased as fertility decreased. Mutation spectrum was however not influenced by M 1 fertility. This makes selection for fertility quite ineffective in altering the mutation spectrum. (author)

  15. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes, R.; Berg, J. S.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Liu, A.; Pasternak, J.; Rogers, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  16. 76 FR 799 - Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Publication of Year 2010 Form M-1 With Electronic Filing Option, Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of... Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Entities Claiming Exception. It is generally identical to the...

  17. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  18. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  19. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  20. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Thiago Pereira Motta; Thamires Martins; Livia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, preg...

  1. Toroidal effects on the non-linearly saturated m = 1 island in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Haas, F.A.; Thyagaraja, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of toroidal effects (due to the coupling of various poloidal harmonics) on the non-linear saturation of the m=1 island. Bounds are obtained relating the aspect ratio, the shear at the q=1 surface and the saturated island width. Provided these bounds are satisfied, then we find that the cylindrical m=1 island theory is valid for toroidal geometry. (author)

  2. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  3. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  4. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  5. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  6. The effect of proton correlations in the M1 scattering strengths of even calcium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, L.; Poves, A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton correlations are evaluated in Ca isotopes using the wave functions obtained in an extended shell model calculation in the [1dsub(3/2), 1fsub(7/2), 1fsub(5/2)] valence space. The inclusion of 2p-2h correlations in M1 scattering strengths and magnetic moments improves the agrreement with the experimental data. The M1 strength in 40 Ca is correctly reproduced. (orig.)

  7. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  8. The improvement of M1 polarization in macrophages by glycopeptide derived from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Jie; Li, Wei-Dong; Niu, Yan-Dong; Sun, Yu; Hu, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Duan, Xin-Suo

    2017-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Ganodermataceae) is a medicinal mushroom that has been extensively used in China for centuries to promote longevity and improve vigor without significant adverse effects. There is continuous interest in the bioactive properties of G. lucidum in view of its newly developed popularity in other regions besides Asia, such as Europe. Glycopeptide derived from G. lucidum (Gl-PS) is one of the main effective components isolated from this mushroom. The Gl-PS has been demonstrated pleiotropic with many bioactivities including immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Macrophages are important cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2), with their different roles, display distinct cytokine profiles: M1 preferentially produces TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12; conversely, M2 generates more IL-10 and arginase. Gl-PS might have the potential to promote macrophage M1 polarization by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, LPS was used to induce the M1 polarization. It was shown that the level of the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 were increased and the IL-10 and arginase I were decreased in the polarized M1 macrophages after application of Gl-PS compared to the control. The results indicated the potential of Gl-PS to promote M1 polarization vs M2, with the health beneficial understanding of the bioactivities of Gl-PS.

  9. AP4M1 is abnormally expressed in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Cheng, X Y; Sheng, G Y

    2014-03-20

    AP4M1 mutations have been suggested to be associated with autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome. But the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how AP4M1 expression is changed in injured neurons. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared for this experiment. They were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leading to apoptosis, mimicking brain ischemia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was labeled immunofluorescently to confirm that the purity of neuron was higher than 90%. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the gene expression. AP4M1 was labeled with MAP2 or Tau-1 to observe the distribution. We found that the AP4M1 protein levels immediately after the procedure were similar between the OGD group and the sham group. However, down-regulation was observed 12h after the reperfusion, and became more notable at 24h. The real-time PCR showed similar results, except that the down-regulation of mRNA was able to be detected immediately after the OGD. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed AP4M1 distributed in the dendrites of normal neurons, but it redistributed to the axons after the OGD procedure. In conclusion, AP4M1 is not only down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, but also redistributed from dendrites to axons in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with inelastic proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, M.; Birkhan, J.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Tamii, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The quenching of spin-isospin modes in nuclei is an important field of research in nuclear structure. It has an impact on astrophysical reaction rates and on fundamental processes like neutrinoless double-β decay. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-flip M 1 strengths are quenched. Concerning the latter, the Jπ=1+ resonance in the doubly magic nucleus 48Ca, dominated by a single transition, serves as a reference case. Purpose: The aim of the present work is to search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with a high-resolution (p ,p') experiment at 295 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ and a comparison with results from a similar study using backward-angle electron scattering at low momentum transfers in order to estimate their contribution to the total B (M 1 ) strength in 48Ca. Methods: The spin-M 1 cross sections of individual peaks in the spectra are deduced with a multipole decomposition analysis (MDA) and converted to reduced spin-M 1 transition strengths by using the unit cross-section method. For a comparison with electron-scattering results, corresponding reduced B (M 1 ) transition strengths are extracted following the approach outlined in Birkhan et al. [Phys. Rev. C 93, 041302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041302]. Results: In total, 30 peaks containing a M 1 contribution are found in the excitation energy region 7-13 MeV. The resulting B (M 1 ) strength distribution compares well to the electron-scattering results considering different factors limiting the sensitivity in both experiments and the enhanced importance of mechanisms breaking the proportionality of nuclear cross sections and electromagnetic matrix elements for weak transitions as studied here. The total strength of 1.14(7) μN2 deduced assuming a nonquenched isoscalar part of the (p ,p') cross sections agrees with the (e ,e') result of 1.21(13) μN2. A bin-wise analysis above 10 MeV provides an upper limit of 1.51(17) μN2. Conclusions: The present results confirm the previous electron

  11. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  13. β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages: Comprehensive localization in the M1–M2 spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Ho, Hsin-Yun; Ong, Tiffany H.; Kawanishi, Carly K.; Stoffers, Victoria L.; Ahlawat, Nivedita; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2016-01-01

    β-adrenergic signaling can regulate macrophage involvement in several diseases and often produces anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages, which are similar to M2 properties in a dichotomous M1 vs. M2 macrophage taxonomy. However, it is not clear that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages may be classified strictly as M2. In this in vitro study, we utilized recently published criteria and transcriptome-wide bioinformatics methods to map the relative polarity of murine β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages within a wider M1–M2 spectrum. Results show that β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages did not fit entirely into any one predefined category of the M1–M2 spectrum but did express genes that are representative of some M2 side categories. Moreover, transcript origin analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiles located β-adrenergic-stimulated macrophages firmly on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum and found active suppression of M1 side gene transcripts. The signal transduction pathways involved were mapped through blocking experiments and bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor binding motifs. M2-promoting effects were mediated specifically through β2-adrenergic receptors and were associated with CREB, C/EBPβ, and ATF transcription factor pathways but not with established M1–M2 STAT pathways. Thus, β-adrenergic-signaling induces a macrophage transcriptome that locates on the M2 side of the M1–M2 spectrum but likely accomplishes this effect through a signaling pathway that is atypical for M2-spectrum macrophages. PMID:27485040

  14. Learning stage-dependent effect of M1 disruption on value-based motor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Demaret, Sophie; Zénon, Alexandre; Duque, Julie

    2017-11-15

    The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money. We investigated the functional contribution of M1 to the implementation of the implicit rule in subjects' motor decisions. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over M1 either on Day 1 or on Day 3, producing a temporary lesion either during reinforcement learning (cTBS Learning group) or after consolidation of the implicit rule, during decision-making (cTBS Decision group), respectively. Interestingly, disrupting M1 activity on Day 1 improved the reliance on the implicit rule, plausibly because M1 cTBS increased dopamine release in the putamen in an indirect way. This finding corroborates the view that cTBS may affect activity in unstimulated areas, such as the basal ganglia. Notably, this effect was short-lasting; it did not persist overnight, suggesting that the functional integrity of M1 during learning is a prerequisite for the consolidation of implicit value information to occur. Besides, cTBS over M1 did not impact the use of the implicit rule when applied on Day 3, although it did so when applied on Day 2 in a recent study where the reliance on the implicit rule declined following cTBS (Derosiere et al., 2017). Overall, these findings indicate that the human M1 is functionally involved in the consolidation and implementation of implicit value information underlying motor decisions. However, M1 contribution seems to vanish as subjects become more experienced in using

  15. Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

  16. First case report of M1 macrophage polarization in an untreated symptomatic patient with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Graziano; Di Lisio, Chiara; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Liberatore, Marcella; Aiello, Francesca Bianca

    2018-03-27

    In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease. Following laboratory, radiological, and pathological analyses, she was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on lymph node sections. More than 50% of the macrophages in the lymph node microgranulomas were M1 macrophages, defined by CD68 + /p-Stat1 + staining, and the presence of T helper 1 lymphocytes indicated an immune response known to induce M1 macrophage polarization. Activated endothelial cells were found only in inflamed areas. No therapy was administered before or after diagnosis, and the lymphadenopathy resolved after a follow-up of 5 months. This is the first report to demonstrate the presence of M1 macrophages in human toxoplasmosis. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and encourage further studies on the role of macrophage polarization in human toxoplasmosis.

  17. Dopaminergic mesocortical projections to M1: role in motor learning and motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aurel Hosp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the architecture of a dopaminergic (DA system within the primary motorcortex (M1 was well characterized anatomically, its functional significance remainedobscure for a long time. Recent studies in rats revealed that the integrity ofdopaminergic fibers in M1 is a prerequisite for successful acquisition of motor skills.This essential contribution of DA for motor learning is plausible as it modulates M1circuitry at multiple levels thereby promoting plastic changes that are required forinformation storage: at the network level, DA increases cortical excitability andenhances the stability of motor maps. At the cellular level, DA induces the expressionof learning related genes via the transcription factor c-fos. At the level of synapses,DA is required for the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP, a mechanism thatlikely is a fingerprint of a motor memory trace within M1. Dopaminergic fibersinnervating M1 originate within the midbrain, precisely the ventral tegmental area(VTA and the medial portion of substantia nigra (SN. Thus, they could be part of themeso-cortico-limibic pathway – a network that provides information about saliencyand motivational value of an external stimulus and is commonly referred as

  18. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  19. Nonlinear ω*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Zakharov, L.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies ω* i,e are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important

  20. Analysis of experimental air-detritiation data using TSOAK-M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Minkoff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer code (TSOAK-M1) has been developed which permits the determination of tritium reaction (T 2 to HTO)/adsorption/release and instrument correction parameters from enclosure (building) detritiation test data. The code is based on a simplified model which treats each parameter as a normalized time-independent constant throughout the data-unfolding steps. TSOAK-M1 was used to analyze existing small-cubicle test data with good success, and the resulting normalized parameters were employed to evaluate hypothetical reactor-building detritiation scenarios. It was concluded from the latter evaluation that the complications associated with moisture formation, adsorption, and release, particularly in terms of extended cleanup times, may not be as great as was previously thought. It is recommended that the validity of the TSOAK-M1 model be tested using data from detritiation tests conducted on large experimental enclosures (5 to 10 m 3 ) and, if possible, actual facility buildings

  1. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  2. Application of commercial RIA kit in investigating milk contamination with M1 aflatoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Measured were samples of commercially sold milk produced by two Czech dairies and samples of unprocessed cow's milk from three farms. The determination of aflatoxin M 1 in liquid milk was carried out with a RIA-test-aflatoxin M 1 B 1 kit. The range of the calibration curve of the kit is 0.06 to 2.0 μg/l. In samples of commercially sold milk a higher share of aflatoxin M 1 free samples was found (93%) and 7% samples contained 0.050 to 0.1 μg aflatoxin/l. The dilution effect was manifest in commercially sold milk. On the other hand in 7% samples of raw milk aflatoxin concentration exceeded the limits set by hygiene inspection bodies for consumption by infants. The detected aflatoxin concentrations are compared with data from abroad. (E.S.). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  3. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  4. Existence and Globally Asymptotic Stability of Equilibrium Solution for Fractional-Order Hybrid BAM Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence and globally asymptotic stability of equilibrium solution for Riemann-Liouville fractional-order hybrid BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses. The factors of such network systems including the distributed delays, impulsive effects, and two different fractional-order derivatives between the U-layer and V-layer are taken into account synchronously. Based on the contraction mapping principle, the sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium solution for such network systems. By constructing a novel Lyapunov functional composed of fractional integral and definite integral terms, the globally asymptotic stability criteria of the equilibrium solution are obtained, which are dependent on the order of fractional derivative and network parameters. The advantage of our constructed method is that one may directly calculate integer-order derivative of the Lyapunov functional. A numerical example is also presented to show the validity and feasibility of the theoretical results.

  5. Design and Development of a Microfluidic Amperometric Immunosensor for the Quantitative Detection of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) Herbicide Residue in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthuppu, Basil

    Access to clean and safe-drinking water is essential to health and it is a basic human right. These days, nearly a billion people of the world‘s population do not have access to this precious commodity. Along with many other causes, pollution of water sources by pesticides poses a real threat...... to the availability of clean water. Thus, the need of rapid, reliable and on-site early warning systems to monitor the quality of water becomes as important as its preservation. This work describes the design and development of an automated microfluidic biosensor based on immunological methods (immunosensor......-point analysis technique (ELISA) to a portable, onsite monitoring system. The optimization of this heterogeneous competitive immunoassay is achieved by a unique approach in which the immunosorbent is engineered by using a newly synthesised BAM hapten library. Additionally, the improvisations made to the existing...

  6. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  7. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  8. First evidence for spin-flip M1 strength in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.C.; Rainovski, G.; Pietralla, N.; Ahn, T.; Costin, A.; Tonchev, A.P.; Ahmed, M.W.; Blackston, M.A.; Parpottas, Y.; Perdue, B.A.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R.; Angell, C.; Keeter, K.J.; Li, J.; Mikhailov, S.; Wu, Y.K.; Lisetskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 40 Ar(γ→,γ ' ) photon scattering reaction was used to search for spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar. The nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam of HIγS, in an energy region from 7.7 to 11 MeV, was employed in this study. 28 dipole excitations were observed. The azimuthal intensity asymmetry indicated that all of these states were E1 except for the state at E x =9.757 MeV. Shell-model calculations were used to interpret this state as one fragment of the spin-flip M1 strength in 40 Ar

  9. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  10. Design of an E-ELT M1 segment measurement machine with nanometer accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; te Voert, M.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The baseline design of the European Extremely Large Telescope features a telescope with a 39-meter-class primary mirror (M1), consisting of 798 hexagonal segments. A measurement machine design is presented based on a non-contact single-point scanning technique, capable of measuring the form error of

  11. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Kalidass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1  queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme. The corresponding steady state probabilities have been obtained. We also obtain the time dependent performance measures of the systems

  12. Study the Effect of Processing of Commercial Kashk Making on Aflatoxin M1 Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a highly toxic compound which is stable during milk processing, and Storage. Hence, it may be found as contaminant in milk and dairy products with hazardous effects for human beings. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated the potential of process to remove Aflatoxin M1 from dairy product. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the ability commercial kashk making to reduce Aflatoxin M1 artificially contaminated milk using a natural process of kashk making. Methods: In this study the commercial cheese from cow's milk (skim milk which was contaminated artificially at a level of 0.25 micrograms per liter of aflatoxin M1 was produced at three replications, and the effects of kashk making process on the AFM1 contents were investigated. The HPLC method was used to determine the presence and levels of AFM1. Results: In the commercial kashk production in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk caused losses of AFM1 about 91%. These losses were found to be statistically significant (P <0.052 in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate that the processing of commercial kashk could help to reduce harmful effects of AFM1 humans through consumption of contaminated milk or dairy products.

  13. A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two

  14. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  15. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' = 0.

  16. Homocysteine elicits an M1 phenotype in murine macrophages through an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Lee J; Veeranki, Sudhakar; Givvimani, Srikanth; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with inflammatory diseases and is known to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and to decrease endothelial nitric oxide production. However, the impact of HHcy on macrophage phenotype differentiation is not well-established. It has been documented that macrophages have 2 distinct phenotypes: the "classically activated/destructive" (M1), and the "alternatively activated/constructive" (M2) subtypes. We hypothesize that HHcy increases M1 macrophage differentiation through extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a known inducer of matrix metalloproteinases. murine J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with 100 and 500 μmol/L Hcy, respectively, for 24 h. Samples were analyzed using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Homocysteine treatment increased cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40; M1 marker) in J774A.1 and Raw 264.7 macrophages. MMP-9 was induced in both cell lines. EMMPRIN protein expression was also increased in both cell lines. Blocking EMMPRIN function by pre-treating cells with anti-EMMPRIN antibody, with or without Hcy, resulted in significantly lower expression of CD40 in both cell lines by comparison with the controls. A DCFDA assay demonstrated increased ROS production in both cell lines with Hcy treatment when compared with the controls. Our results suggest that HHcy results in an increase of the M1 macrophage phenotype. This effect seems to be at least partially mediated by EMMPRIN induction.

  17. M1 and E2 transitions in the ground-state configuration of atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have calculated the forbidden transition (M1 and E2) parameters such as transition energies, log- arithmic weighted ... Keywords. Forbidden transitions; transition energies; logarithmic weighted oscillator strengths; .... optimizing the energy function based on the non-relativistic Hamiltonian of an atom,. HNR = N. ∑ j=1. (12∇ ...

  18. Advances in thermal control and performance of the MMT M1 mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.; Callahan, S.; Comisso, B.; Ortiz, R.; Williams, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Strategies for thermal control of the 6.5-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary (M1) mirror at the MMT Observatory have included: 1) direct control of ventilation system chiller setpoints by the telescope operator, 2) semiautomated control of chiller setpoints, using a fixed offset from the ambient temperature, and 3) most recently, an automated temperature controller for conditioned air. Details of this automated controller, including the integration of multiple chillers, heat exchangers, and temperature/dew point sensors, are presented here. Constraints and sanity checks for thermal control are also discussed, including: 1) mirror and hardware safety, 2) aluminum coating preservation, and 3) optimization of M1 thermal conditions for science acquisition by minimizing both air-to-glass temperature differences, which cause mirror seeing, and internal glass temperature gradients, which cause wavefront errors. Consideration is given to special operating conditions, such as high dew and frost points. Precise temperature control of conditioned ventilation air as delivered to the M1 mirror cell is also discussed. The performance of the new automated controller is assessed and compared to previous control strategies. Finally, suggestions are made for further refinement of the M1 mirror thermal control system and related algorithms.

  19. TSOAK-M1: an examination of its model and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgell, D.H.

    1983-05-01

    Fusion facilities will contain a sizable inventory of tritium fuel that will be vulnerable to release. Once released, molecular tritium begins converting into tritiated water which is 10000 times more hazardous and tends to adsorb onto surfaces. The rate of conversion and adsorption/desorption must be accurately known to estimate cleanup times and radiation hazards realistically. Argonne National Laboratory developed a computer code, TSOAK-M1, to determine the conversion/ adsorption/desorption parameters and to model cleanups. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project examined the program for reliability and potential applications. TSOAK-M1 assumes a pseudo second order radiolytic conversion where a first order surface reaction seems more appropriate. This difference in order should be investigated to accurately determine the reaction law. TSOAK-M1 determines the model parameters from experimental data using an optimization routine. However the data used is judged insufficient. More data is needed where the conversion of molecular tritium to tritiated water has a significant effect due to adsorption/desorption. SOAKER, an improved version of the TSOAK-M1 model, which combines first and second order reactions has been implemented in Wang BASIC. Once the reaction law and the parameters have been accurately determined the program could be a useful tool in the study and design of decontamination systems

  20. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  1. First Observation of the M1 Transition psi -> gamma eta(c)(2S)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, L.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium S-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited S-wave spin-singlet states: psi(3686) -> gamma

  2. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  3. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  4. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnov, O.P.; Manykin, A.A.; Rossman, J.S.; Klenk, H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  5. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, pregnant women and elderly. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of B1 aflatoxin in feed supplied to dairy cows and the presence of M1 aflatoxin in milk. Samples were collected from complete diet (corn silage and concentrate from a batch of 15 lactating cows from a dairy farm in the Campinas region. Two samples of diets were collected directly into the troughs in intervals of 24 hours at every 15 days, totalizing a period of 45 days. Milk samples of those cows were collected 24 hours after diet collection, directly from sample valves in the glass jars.. B1 and M1 aflatoxins were detected by the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after extraction and purification on immunoaffinity columns. From the 40 samples of diets evaluated, 40% were contaminated with B1 aflatoxin, and the levels found ranged from 1.93 to 43.78μg/Kg. One sample showed result higher than the maximum recommended for grain and animal feed in Brazil (20μg/Kg. From the 75 milk samples analyzed, the presence of M1 aflatoxin was detected in 13.3% with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.16μg/L, not exceeding the maximum permitted for marketing in the country of 0.5μg/L, however 80% of contaminated samples had values above the maximum permissible levels of 0.05μg/L, value found among countries with abundant milk production... The presence of aflatoxins highlights the importance of monitoring the production, the storage and the importance of handling food and

  6. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirnov, O.P., E-mail: zhirnov@inbox.ru [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Manykin, A.A. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Rossman, J.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT27NJ (United Kingdom); Klenk, H.D. [Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Marburg 35037 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. - Highlights: • The influenza A virus has a novel asymmetric internal structure. • The structure is largely maintained by M1-RNP cohesion within the virion. • This asymmetry plays an important role during viral entry, facilitating virus uncoating and the initiation of a productive

  7. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  8. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  9. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  10. Data on sulforaphane treatment mediated suppression of autoreactive, inflammatory M1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjima Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Any chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease (e.g. arthritis associated pathogenesis directs uncontrolled accumulation of both soluble forms of collagens in the synovial fluids and M1 macrophages around inflamed tissues. Despite of few studies demonstrating efficiency of Sulforaphane (SFN in suppressing arthritis associated collagen restricted T cells or fibroblasts, its effects on macrophage polarity and plasticity are less understood. Recently, we reported regulation of phenotypic and functional switching by SFN in induced and spontaneously differentiating human monocytes [1]. Here, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA derived data demonstrated that SFN inhibited in vitro inflammatory responses developed by soluble human collagens (I–IV induced auto-reactive M1 type monocyte/macrophage model.

  11. CD64: An Attractive Immunotherapeutic Target for M1-type Macrophage Mediated Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusiji A. Akinrinmade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, no curative therapy is available for the treatment of most chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or autoimmune disorders. Current treatments require a lifetime supply for patients to alleviate clinical symptoms and are unable to stop the course of disease. In contrast, a new series of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the Fc γ receptor I (CD64 have emerged and demonstrated significant clinical potential to actually resolving chronic inflammation driven by M1-type dysregulated macrophages. This subpopulation plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of a series of chronic diseases. The novel recombinant M1-specific immunotherapeutics offer the prospect of highly effective treatment strategies as they have been shown to selectively eliminate the disease-causing macrophage subpopulations. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of the data generated, together with the advantages and the clinical potential of CD64-based targeted therapies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. B(M1) values in the band-crossing of shears bands in 197Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.; Cooper, J. R.; Beausang, C. W.; Novak, J. R.; Dewald, A.; Klug, T.; Kemper, G.; von Brentano, P.; Carpenter, M.; Wiedenhöver, I.

    We present details of the band crossing mechanism of shears bands using the example of 197Pb. Absolute reduced matrix elements B(M1) were determined by means of a RDM lifetime measurement in one of the shears bands in 197Pb. The experiment was performed using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) in conjunction with the Gammasphere array. Band mixing calculations on the basis of the semi-classical model of the shears mechanism are used to describe the transition matrix elements B(M1) and energies throughout the band-crossing regions. Good agreement with the data was obtained and the detailed composition of the states in the shears band are discussed.

  13. Observation of the M1 giant resonance by resonance averaging in 106Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of capture of 2 keV and 24 keV neutrons in a 105 Pd target resulted in resonance-averaged intensities of primary gamma rays with energies between 5.2 and 9.5 MeV. From these intensities the gamma ray strength functions have been evaluated for E1, M1 and E2 radiation and compared with predictions of the giant resonance theory. The inclusion of an energy dependent spreading width for the E1 giant resonance is necessary. The energy distribution of M1 reduced strength is consistent with an interpretation of a broad resonance around 8.8 MeV. E2 data agrees satisfactorily with the giant extrapolation. (orig.)

  14. IKKα Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis by Limiting Recruitment of M1-like Polarized Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan I. Göktuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of immune cells into solid tumors is an essential prerequisite of tumor development. Depending on the prevailing polarization profile of these infiltrating leucocytes, tumorigenesis is either promoted or blocked. Here, we identify IκB kinase α (IKKα as a central regulator of a tumoricidal microenvironment during intestinal carcinogenesis. Mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity are largely protected from intestinal tumor development that is dependent on the enhanced recruitment of interferon γ (IFNγ-expressing M1-like myeloid cells. In IKKα mutant mice, M1-like polarization is not controlled in a cell-autonomous manner but, rather, depends on the interplay of both IKKα mutant tumor epithelia and immune cells. Because therapies aiming at the tumor microenvironment rather than directly at the mutated cancer cell may circumvent resistance development, we suggest IKKα as a promising target for colorectal cancer (CRC therapy.

  15. Prototyping the E-ELT M1 local control system communication infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Grudzien, T.; Dimmler, M.; Andolfato, L.; Barriga, P.

    2016-08-01

    The primary mirror of the E-ELT is composed of 798 hexagonal segments of about 1.45 meters across. Each segment can be moved in piston and tip-tilt using three position actuators. Inductive edge sensors are used to provide feedback for global reconstruction of the mirror shape. The E-ELT M1 Local Control System will provide a deterministic infrastructure for collecting edge sensor and actuators readings and distribute the new position actuators references while at the same time providing failure detection, isolation and notification, synchronization, monitoring and configuration management. The present paper describes the prototyping activities carried out to verify the feasibility of the E-ELT M1 local control system communication architecture design and assess its performance and potential limitations.

  16. Efficacy of magnetoacustoradiation treatment of experimental M-1, PC-1 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizh, D.V.; Krutilina, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The urgency of the struggle against malignant tumors is determined by a stable growth of cancer incidence, high level of disability and morbidity, the cost and difficulty of treatment. The influence of low-frequency ultrasound and alternating magnetic field on transplanted tumors of sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 together with radiation therapy at a SFD of 5 Gy and 20 Gy was investigated in the experiments on animals. It was established that the influence of the above physical factors inhibited sarcoma M-1 and alveolar liver cancer PC-1 growth, prolonged the life and survival of the animals of the investigated groups when compared to the intact controls, which definitely expanded the ideas about the capabilities of ultrasound and magnetic fields in cancer treatment.

  17. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of gamma and fast neutron irradiations on M1 seedling growth in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Mohammad, T.; Khan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of soybean, i.e. Bragg, Hodgson and Lee-74, having a moisture content of 11-13% were irradiated with doses of gamma, 100,200,300,400 and 500 Gray and fast neutron, 5,10,20,25 and 30 Gray, to study the effect on M1 seedling growth. The parameters studied were germination, seedling height and epicotyl length. Growth inhibition was found to increase with increasing radiation doses and the effect on germination was observed only at higher doses. Among early assessable M1 parameters for radio-sensitivity, epicotyl length has proved to be most sensitive, and hence most useful. The Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for the three varieties differed slightly for epicotyl length and the difference was more pronounced for seedling height. A dose range of 150-300 Gray of gamma rays and 10-15 Gray of fast neutron might prove useful for efficient induced mutation. (authors)

  19. Scissors and unique-parity modes of M1 excitation in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the possible modes of M1 excitation in deformed even-even nuclei are studied in terms of the particle-number-conserved Nilsson + BCS formalism with the standard parameters. The spurious motion with respect to the rotation is removed. In addition to the Scissors mode, the Unique-Parity Spin and Normal-Parity Spin modes are suggested, although the latter may be fragmented to a large extent. The Scissors mode carries most of the orbital strength, while the others the spin strength. The proton Unique-Parity (i.e. Oh 11/12 ) Spin mode for 164 Dy is obtained just below Ex = 3 MeV with B(M1) ∼ 0.2 μ 2 N ) in the sum rule limit. This is in a good agreement to the recent experimental data

  20. Forbidden Raman scattering processes. I. General considerations and E1--M1 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The generalized theory of forbidden Raman scattering processes is developed in terms of the multipole expansion of the electromagnetic interaction Hamiltonian. Using the general expressions, the theory of electric dipole--magnetic dipole (E1--M1) Raman scattering is derived in detail. The 1 S 0 → 3 P 1 E1--M1 Raman scattering cross section in atomic magnesium is calculated for two applicable laser wavelengths using published f-value data. Since resonantly enhanced cross sections larger than 10 -29 cm 2 /sr are predicted it should be possible to experimentally observe this scattering phenomenon. In addition, by measuring the frequency dependence of the cross section near resonance, it may be possible to directly determine the relative magnitudes of the Axp and AxA contributions to the scattering cross section. Finally, possible applications of the effect in atomic and molecular physics are discussed

  1. Theoretical expression of the internal conversion coefficient of a M1 transition between two atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Karpeshin, F.; Harston, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have established a general relation for the expression of the internal conversion of an M 1 transition a 1s electronic state to an empty ns electronic bound state. Under the hypothesis that the density of the electron level ρ n satisfies the condition ρ n Γ >> 1 (where Γ is the total width of the excited atomic state) a calculation in the first order gives a relation for the internal conversion coefficient.This relation shows that the internal conversion coefficient takes a resonant character when the nuclear energy transition is smaller than the binding energy of the 1s electron. An application of this relation to an M 1 transition in the case of the ion 125 T e with a charge state Q = 45 and an 1s electron binding energy E B 45 = 35.581 KeV gives the value for the internal conversion coefficient R = 5.7

  2. Status and perspectives of the M1 scissors mode in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1988-07-01

    The present status of the M1 scissors mode which is now known in deformed nuclei ranging from 46 Ti to 238 U is summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on a discussion of the structure, the excitation energy, the transition strength, the form factor and the spin to orbit ratio in the strength of the mode. Finally it is demonstrated how strongly this mode contributes to the magnetic dipole polarizability of nuclei. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb. [Sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, M; Lipparini, E; Orlandini, G; Stringari, S [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Trento, Italy

    1979-04-16

    M1 transitions in /sup 208/Pb are studied by evaluating energy-weighted and inverse energy-weighted sum-rules. The role of the nuclear interaction is widely discussed. It is shown that the nuclear potential increases the energy-weighted sum rule and lowers the inverse energy-weighted sum rule, with respect to the prediction of the pure shell model. Values of strengths and excitation energies are compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations.

  4. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  5. Presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptor modulates spontaneous release of acetylcholine from rat basal forearm slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujimoto, LK.; Oohata, H.; Kawashima, K.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous release of (ACh) from rat basal forebrain slices in the presence of cholinesterase inhibitor was directly determined using a specific radioimmunoassay for ACh. The release was calcium dependent. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed throughout the experiment. Atropine (10- 8 to 10- 5 M) and pirenzepine (10- 7 to 10- 5 M) enhanced spontaneous ACh release. These findings indicate the presence of an M 1 muscarenic autoreceptor that modulates spontaneous release of ACh in the rat forebrain

  6. Rac2 controls tumor growth, metastasis and M1-M2 macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Joshi

    Full Text Available Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis.

  7. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  8. Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable Resistance to Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulec, Emilia; Abdelwahed Bagga, Rym Ben; Chevallier, Lucie; O'Donnell, Hope; Guillas, Chloé; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2017-09-15

    Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined. SEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis-induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague. MPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Current status of the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Siripone; Julanan, Mongkol; Charncanchee, Decharchai

    2006-01-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1 went critical on 27 October 1962 at the maximum power of 1 MW. It was located at Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) in Bangkok. Since then, TRR-1 was continuously operated and eventually shut down in 1975. Plate type, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 A1 cladding were used as the reactor fuel. Light water was used as moderator and coolant as well. In 1975, because of the problem from fuel supplier and also to supporting the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon or NPT, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. A new core was a hexagonal core shape designed by General Atomics (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and ZrH alloy as fuel. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. At present, the reactor is operating with core No.14. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. (author)

  10. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  11. Assessment of airborne soy-hull allergen (Gly m 1) in the Port of Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicelli, L; Ruello, M L; Monsalve, R I; González, R; Fava, G; Bonifazi, F

    2010-10-01

    Epidemic asthma outbreaks are potentially a very high-risk medical situation in seaport towns where large volumes of soybean are loaded and unloaded Airborne allergen assessment plays a pivotal role in evaluating the resulting environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to measure the airborne Gly m 1 allergen level in the seaport of Ancona in order assess the soybean-specific allergenic risk for the city. Allergen and PM10 were evaluated at progressive distances from the port area. Allergen analysis was performed by monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay on the sampled filters. Daily meteorological data were obtained from the local meteorological station. For estimating the assimilative capacity of the atmosphere, an approach based on dispersive ventilation coefficient was tried. The allergen concentrations detected were low (range = 0.4-171 ng/m3). A decreasing gradient of the airborne allergen from the unloading area (22.1 +/- 41.2 ng/m3) to the control area (0.6 +/- 0.7 ng/m3) was detected. The concentration of the airborne Gly m 1 was not coupled with the presence of the soy-carrying ships in the port. A statistically significant relationship between airborne allergen, PM10 and local meteorological parameters quantifies the association with the atmospheric condition. Airborne Gly m 1 is part of the atmospheric dust of Ancona. The low level of this allergen seems consistent with the absence of asthma epidemic outbreak.

  12. Energetic M1 transitions as a probe of nuclear collectivity at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1987-01-01

    At ORNL, we have recently utilized the Spin Spectrometer setup to investigate the differential effects of increasing spin and excitation energy on nuclear shape and collectivity in 158 Yb. Along the yrast line of this and other N = 88 nuclei, weakly prolate shapes gradually give way to triaxial, and then finally to non-collective oblate shapes as the spin approaches 40 h-bar. However, above the yrast line, large deformation and collectivity once again sets in. This is evidenced by the emergence of a broad quadrupole structure (E/sub γ/ ≅ 1.2 MeV) in the continuum gamma-ray spectra that grows with increasing temperature. The short (sub ps) lifetimes of these transitions attest to the collective nature of these structures. The emergence and growth of the quadrupole structure at high excitation energies is closely correlated with the appearance of energetic (E/sub γ/ ≅ 2.5 MeV), fast M1 transitions which form another broad structure in the continuum spectra. From the centroid of the M1 bump, a quadrupole deformation parameter of 0.35 is inferred. Because of this sensitivity, these energetic M1 transitions provide a unique probe of nuclear shape in the excitation energy range of ≅ 3 to 10 MeV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  14. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  15. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results

  16. Comparative genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 isolates differing in virulence and propensity to cause systemic infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebig, A.; Loof, T.G.; Babbar, A.; Itzeg, A.; Koehorst, J.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Nitsche-Schmitz, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 is a frequent cause of severe infections in humans. Some M1 isolates are pathogenic in mice and used in studies on infection pathogenesis. We observed marked differences in murine infections caused by M1 strain SF370, 5448, 5448AP or AP1 which prompted us to

  17. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  18. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  19. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mário Henrique M; Hauck, Franziska; Dreyer, Johannes H; Kempkes, Bettina; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for

  20. M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NFκB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marielle; Shur, Anna; Tendler, Yvgeny

    2018-04-23

    Arterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. CRP mRNA and protein expression were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of NFκB was determined by nuclear translocation of p50 subunit and the use of NFκB inhibitor. Involvement of oxidative stress in macrophage phenotypes induction was studied using oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and antioxidants. M1 macrophages were characterized by elevated CRP mRNA expression (by 67%), CRP protein levels (by 108%), and upregulation of NFκB activation compared to control, but these features were not shared by M2 macrophages. Macrophages incubation with Ox-LDL led to a moderate M1 phenotype combined with a M2 phenotype, correlated with increased CRP mRNA expression. Antioxidants inhibited by up to 86% IL6 expression but did not significantly affect IL10 secretion. Antioxidants significantly inhibited CRP expression in M1 macrophages, but not in M2 macrophages. Elevated expression of CRP was characteristic of M1 macrophages rather than M2 through NFκB activation. Oxidative stress could be one of the endogenous triggers for macrophage activation to a mixed M1 and M2 phenotype, in association with increased expression of CRP.

  1. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  2. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  3. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  4. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of a...

  5. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in appropriate...

  6. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by...

  7. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  8. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved, or...

  9. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    David D. Friedman; William M. Landes; Richard A. Posner

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  10. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Weegee’s City Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTENBERG, Alan

    2011-01-01

    En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles e...

  12. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  13. Relationship between pattern of ischemic manifestation and hemodynamics in symptomatic M1 stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Naoki; Sako, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Shizuka; Shirai, Wakako

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism through which ischemic manifestations develop in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis is still uncertain. It may cause ischemic symptoms through both embolic and hemodynamic mechanisms. In this study, we compared the findings from cerebral angiograms with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with M1 stenosis to determine the pathogenesis of ischema. At our hospital from 1994 to 2000, 14 patients (12 males and 2 females; mean age, 60.9; range, 31 to 85 years) with angiographically demonstrated symptomatic M1 stenosis were enrolled in this study. In 10, their stenotic lesion was located at the proximal site of the perforating arteries and for the other 4, stenosis was found at the distal site. Nine presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 5 with completed stroke for an initial episode. The discrepancy in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in relation to the site and degree of stenosis, type of ischemic presentation, and frequency of ischemic events. There was no significant difference in CBF between the patients with stenosis involving the proximal site and those with distal stenosis; but the cortical CBF decreased significantly in those with severe stenosis compared with moderate stenosis. The cortical CBF of those who had a complete stroke is similar to that of the patients with TIA; but CBF of BGA decreased significantly in those with a complete stroke. The single ischemic event group showed a significant decrease in cortical CBF. On the other hand, the group with multiple ischemic events exhibited normal hemodynamics. We concluded that multiple ischemic events that occurred in M1 stenosis are caused by an embolic mechanism. (author)

  14. Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, L H S; Rodrigues, A P D; Coêlho, E C; Santos, M F; Sampaio, S C; Silva, E O

    2017-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL-1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

  15. Mice in Bion-M 1 Space Mission: Training and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Boyle, Richard; Alberts, Jeffrey; Shenkman, Boris; Vinogradova, Olga; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Darya; Soldatov, Pavel; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Sychev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    After a 16-year hiatus, Russia has resumed its program of biomedical research in space, with the successful 30-day flight of the Bion-M 1 biosatellite (April 19–May 19, 2013). The principal species for biomedical research in this project was the mouse. This paper presents an overview of the scientific goals, the experimental design and the mouse training/selection program. The aim of mice experiments in the Bion-M 1 project was to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms, underlying the adaptation of key physiological systems to long-term exposure in microgravity. The studies with mice combined in vivo measurements, both in flight and post-flight (including continuous blood pressure measurement), with extensive in vitro studies carried out shortly after return of the mice and in the end of recovery study. Male C57/BL6 mice group housed in space habitats were flown aboard the Bion-M 1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control groups were used to account for housing effects and possible seasonal differences. Mice training included the co-adaptation in housing groups and mice adaptation to paste food diet. The measures taken to co-adapt aggressive male mice in housing groups and the peculiarities of “space” paste food are described. The training program for mice designated for in vivo studies was broader and included behavioral/functional test battery and continuous behavioral measurements in the home-cage. The results of the preliminary tests were used for the selection of homogenous groups. After the flight, mice were in good condition for biomedical studies and displayed signs of pronounced disadaptation to Earth's gravity. The outcomes of the training program for the mice welfare are discussed. We conclude that our training program was effective and that male mice can be successfully employed in space biomedical research. PMID:25133741

  16. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  17. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  18. Observation of the m = 1 mode by microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Segui, J.L.; Pecquet, A.L.; Gil, C.

    1991-06-01

    Microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak exhibit low-frequency oscillations of the transmitted power, associated to the presence of a saturated m = 1, n = 1 mode, as observed by soft X-ray diagnostics. It is shown that these oscillations are related to refraction effects, and specifically to modulations of the electron density profile due to a rotating magnetic island. An analytical solution of the ray equations in the presence of a rotating density perturbation is found, explaining the frequency spectrum of the oscillations

  19. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm, Sweden. Dept. of Plasma Physics and Fusion Research)

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (r{SIGMA}B{sup 2})' {le} 0, where {SIGMA} = 1 - (P{sub parallel} - P{sub perpendicular} {sub to})/B/sup 2/. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition {SIGMA} {ge} 0.

  20. Effects of pressure anisotropy on the M=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1986-05-01

    A new model is used to investigate the effect of the pressure anisotropy on the internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collision- less and cylindrical plasma is performed. A comparison of the derived stability criterion with that of ideal MHD is made. The conclusion is that the stability criterion (rSigmaB/sp2/) ' 0, where Sigma=1-(P/sb/(parall)-P/sb/(perpend)/ B/sp/2. (author)

  1. Effect of pressure anisotropy on the m=1 small wavelength modes in Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m=1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB 2 )' ≤ 0, where Σ = 1 - (P parallel - P perpendicular to )/B 2 . It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ ≥ 0. (orig.)

  2. Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyan, Tatevik; Guider, Romain; Pasquardini, Laura; Zanetti, Manuela; Falke, Floris; Schreuder, Erik; Heideman, Rene G; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-06

    In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si₃N₄ Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab'). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 10⁴ rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10(-7) RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab', we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated.

  3. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  4. Nuclear critical opalescence and the M1 form factors of 12C and 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.; Figureau, A.; Guichon, P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that core polarization by the nuclear pion field has opposite effects on the M1 form factors of 12 C(15.11 MeV) and 13 C(g.s.). New data on 13 C are found to agree with this prediction and a common interpretation of the experiments is shown to be possible for the two nuclei in terms of critical opalescence. Discrimination from alternative explanations of the observed anomalies should await further experiments, especially photopion reactions. (orig.)

  5. Construction and expression of secreting type human TRAIL gene vector mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanming; Jia Xiaojing; Qu Yaqin; Li Yanbo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct secreting type human TRAIL (shTRAIL) gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter, and observe the effect of hypoxia and radiation on shTRAIL. Methods: HRE upper and lower strands were gotten by chemical synthesis, double strands HRE was gotten by PCR; pMD19T-Egr1 was digested by Sac I and Hind III, then Egr1 was obtained, pshuttle-shTRAIL was digested by Kpn I and BamH I, then shTRAIL was obtained; HRE/Egr1 double sensitive promoter mediated shTRAIL expression vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was constructed by gene recombination technique, it was identified correctly by enzyme digestion, PCR and sequencing. A549 cells were divided into normal, hypoxia (0.1%), irradiation (6 Gy) and hypoxia + irradiation groups. Results: After enzyme digestion by BamH I and Sma I, the fragments which lengths were 1284 bp and 4 998 bp, 2 292 bp and 3 990 bp were obtained; the vector was amplified by PCR with Egr1 and shTRAIL primer, the products which lengthens were 469 bp and 820 bp were obtained; pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL was sequenced, the result was same to designed, this demonstrated that the construction was right. The vectors were transfected into A549 cells of adenocarcinoma of lung, the expression levels of shTRAIL mRNA and protein were increased after treated with hypoxia and radiation, it had statistically significant differences compared with normal group (P<0.05), and when they were combinated, the effect was more obvious. Conclusion: Secreting type human TRAIL gene vector pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-shTRAIL mediated by hypoxia/radiation double sensitive promoter is constructed successfully, and hypoxia and radiation could increase the expression of TRAIL, and they have synergetic effect. (authors)

  6. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  7. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance framework includes a meta model and a customization process to fit the framework to the target organization. The IT governance framework consists of four different elements (1) organisational structures, (2) joint processes between in- and outsourcer, (3) responsibilities that link roles to processes and (4) a diverse set of control indicators to measure the success of the relationship. The IT governance framework is put in practice in Shell GFIT BAM, a part of Shell that concluded to have a lack of management control over at least one of their outsourcing relationships. In a workshop the governance framework was used to perform a gap analysis between the current and desired governance. Several gaps were identified in the way roles and responsibilities are assigned and joint processes are set-up. Moreover, this workshop also showed the usefulness and usability of the IT governance framework in structuring, providing input and managing stakeholders in the discussions around IT governance.

  8. Contamination levels of aflatoxin M1 in bulk raw milk of Chaloos and Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Barami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination rate of raw milk whit aflatoxin M1 in Chaloos and Ramsar raw milk collection centers. Two hundred bulk raw milk samples were collected during winter (January and February and summer (June and July seasons. The milk samples were analyzed by ELISA method for the presence of AFM1. During the winter, AFM1 was detected in 100% and 59/79% of the bulk raw milk samples in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively; however, during summer 83/52% and 50/1 of the samples was found as positive in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively. Furthermore, 45% of Ramsar and 30% of Chaloos bulk milk samples showed higher contamination level of AFM1 than maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by National Standard as well as European Union. Although, the difference between the contamination rate in samples obtained during summer and winter seasons was not statistically significantly, (p

  9. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M; Golding, Sarah J; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Trenholme, Katharine R; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Degori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M; Gardiner, Donald L; Whisstock, James C; Dalton, John P

    2009-02-24

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.

  10. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  11. E2 and M1 transition strengths in heavy deformed nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Popa, G.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vargas, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    An update on the status of pseudo-SU(3) shell-model calculations in strongly deformed nuclei in the rare earth region is presented. Representative results for energy levels as well as E2 (quadrupole) and M1 (scissors) transitions strengths in 162 Dy (even-even) and 163 Dy (odd-mass) are given. The calculations use realistic single-particle energies and quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing interaction strengths fixed from systematics. The strengths of rotor-like terms included in the Hamiltonian- all small relative to the other terms in the interaction were adjusted to give an overall best fit to the energy spectra. The results present a paradox: for even-even nuclei (integer angular momentum) non-zero pseudo-spin configurations seems to be unimportant while for the odd-mass systems (half-integer angular momentum) pseudo-spin mixing is essential as spin-flip couplings appear to dominate the M1 transition strengths. (Author)

  12. Microscopic description of low-lying M1 excitations in odd-mass actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Emre, E-mail: etabar@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Yakut, Hakan, E-mail: hyakut@sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Biomedical, Magnetic and Semiconductor Materials Research Center (BIMAS-RC), Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Kuliev, Ali Akbar [Azerbaijan National Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-01-15

    A restoration method of a broken symmetry which allows self-consistent determination of the separable effective restoration forces is now adapted to odd-mass nuclei in order to restore violated rotational invariance (RI-) of the Quasiparticle Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) Hamiltonian. Because of the self-consistency of the method, these effective forces contain no arbitrary parameters. Within RI-QPNM, the properties of the low-lying magnetic dipole excitations in odd-mass deformed {sup 229–233}Th and {sup 233–239}U nuclei have been investigated for the first time. It has been shown that computed fragmentation of the M1 strengths below 4 MeV in these nuclei is much stronger than that in neighboring doubly even {sup 228–232}Th and {sup 232–238}U nuclei. For {sup 235}U the summed M1 strength in the energy range 1.5–2.8 MeV is in agreement with the relevant experimental data where the missing strength was extracted by means of a fluctuation analysis.

  13. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  14. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran

    2007-11-15

    During the years 2005 and 2006, samples of raw and of pasteurized milk (72 samples each) were collected randomly from various parts of Urmia city in Iran for the detection of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 levels were assessed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a high incidence of AFM1 (100%), in both raw and pasteurized milk samples. The AFM1 levels in 6.25% of samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (50 ng L(-1)), while the observed mean ofAFM1 was lower than those proposed for European diets. Maximum level ofAFM1 in raw and pasteurized samples were 91.8 and 28.5 ng L(-1), while minimum levels were 4.3 and 5.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The levels ofAFM1 in total samples indicated that feeds for cows in this region were contaminated with AFB1 in such a level that appears to be a serious public health problem at the moment. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits.

  15. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw and pasteurized milk produced in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafakheri, Sh.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the levels of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk samples during different seasons by Enzyme- Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay in Sanandaj, Iran. In 257 (94.49% out of 272 milk samples the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.007 and 115.930 ng/l. AFM1 level in 12 (4.4% of positive samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by Iran and European Union countries. Statistical evaluations showed that the differences between raw and pasteurized samples were not significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between spring and summer but the differences between other seasons were statistically significant. Winter samples with 22.35 ng/l and summer samples with 5.14 ng/l had the highest and lowest concentration, respectively (p<0.05. Since contamination of milk with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health, milk and milk products should be controlled periodically for Aflatoxin contamination.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of the m=1 kink-tearing instability in a modified magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1995-01-01

    A theory is given for the nonlinear dynamical evolution of the collisionless m=1 kink-tearing instability, including the effects of electron inertia and electron pressure gradient in a generalized Ohm's law. It is demonstrated that electron pressure gradients can cause near-explosive growth in the nonlinear regime of a thin m=1 island. This near-explosive phase is followed by a rapid decay phase as the island width becomes comparable to the radius of the sawtooth region. An island equation is derived for the entire nonlinear evolution of the instability, extending recent work on the subject [X. Wang and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1627 (1993)] to include the effects of both electron inertia and electron pressure gradient. Comparisons are made with experimental data from present-day tokamaks. It is suggested that the present model not only accounts for fast sawtooth crashes, but also provides possible explanations for the problems of sudden onset and incomplete reconnection that have been, heretofore, unexplained features of observations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J.; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M.; Golding, Sarah J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; DeGori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH2]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite. PMID:19196988

  18. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  19. Compressional effects in nonneutral plasmas, a shallow water analogy and m=1 instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Barnes, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Diocotron instabilities form an important class of ExB shear flow instabilities which occur in nonneutral plasmas. The case of a single-species plasma confined in a cylindrical Penning trap, with an axisymmetric, hollow (nonmonotonic) density profile is studied. According to the standard linear theory, the m=1, k z =0 diocotron mode is always stable. On the other hand, experiments by Driscoll [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 645 (1990)] show a robust exponential growth of m=1 diocotron perturbations in hollow density profiles. The apparent contradiction between these experimental results and linear theory has been an outstanding problem in the theory of nonneutral plasmas. A new instability mechanism due to the radial variation of the equilibrium plasma length is proposed in this paper. This mechanism involves the compression of the plasma parallel to the magnetic field and implies the conservation of the line integrated density. The predicted growth rate, frequency, and mode structure are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The effect of a linear perturbation of the plasma length is also shown to give instability with a comparable growth rate. The conservation of the line integrated density in the plasma is analogous to the conservation of the potential vorticity in the shallow water equations used in geophysical fluid dynamics. In particular, there is an analog of Rossby waves in nonneutral plasmas. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Quadrupole decay strength of the M1 scissors mode of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.; Beller, J.; Gayer, U.; Mertes, L.; Pai, H.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Werner, V.; Zweidinger, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, V. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, J.; Loeher, B.; Savran, D. [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, M. [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K}=1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode of deformed nuclei has been studied extensively in (e,e{sup '}) and (γ,γ{sup '}) experiments over the last 30 years with the main focus on strong M1 transitions to the ground state band. In the framework of the semiclassical two-rotor-model it has its origin in quadrupole deformation. A considerable E2 matrix element between the rotational band of the scissors mode and the ground band is predicted which has not been addressed experimentally. A photon-scattering experiment with linearly-polarized quasi monoenergetic vector (γ)-rays has been performed at the High Intensity vector (γ)-ray Source (HIvector (γ)S) at Duke University, Durham, NC, exploiting the γ{sup 3} setup. We have measured an E2/M1-multipole mixing ratio for the 1{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition for the first time. The Alaga rule is applicable and delivers a first estimate of the transition strength B(E2:2{sup +}{sub sc}→0{sup +}{sub 1}). A candidate for a 2{sup +}{sub sc}→2{sup +}{sub 1} transition is discussed.

  1. Current status of muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors as drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Goldsmith, Paul J; Jackson, Kimberley; Sanger, Helen E; Evans, David A; Mogg, Adrian J; Broad, Lisa M

    2018-01-25

    The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects. More recent compound screening and medicinal chemistry optimization of orthosteric and allosteric agonists, and positive allosteric modulators binding to sites distinct from the highly homologous acetylcholine binding pocket have yielded a collection of highly selective tool compounds for preclinical validation studies. Several M1 selective ligands have progressed to early clinical development and in time will hopefully lead to useful therapeutics for treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  3. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  4. Cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells of mice exposed on the biosatellite "BION-M1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Ivanov, Alexander

    In studies of cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of astronauts, conducted in recent years, have shown an increase in the frequency of chromosomal damage bound, as believe, with influence on an organism of astronauts of space radiation (B.S. Fedorenko, G.P. Snigireva, 2004). However, in recent years published evidence that both acute and chronic stress induce chromosomal aberrations and modified genome sensitivity to mutagens of different nature, including to ionizing radiation (F.I. Ingel et al, 2005 ). This question is especially actual for space biology and medicine due to a number of specific features of space flights, when the interaction of factors more pronounced than in normal terrestrial conditions. In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out at intervals of 15-20 minutes by method of cervical dislocation after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite. Level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. Differences are not significant. The maintenance of animals in experiment with the onboard equipment (ground experiment) led to some increase in aberrant mitoses (2,3 ± 0,4%) and to decrease in a mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION - M1" statistically significant increase of level of chromosomal aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). Since the mouse is a suitable experimental model , also had several ground experiments on research of combined effect of irradiation and other stress factors specific to space flight, with marked tendency to increase the level of aberrant mitoses under the combined action of radiation and stress exposure group housing male mice. Statistically

  5. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  6. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  7. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  8. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  9. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  10. On the GI/M/1 Queue with Vacations and Multiple Service Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a GI/M/1 queue with vacations and multiple service phases. Whenever the system becomes empty, the server takes a vacation, causing the system to move to vacation phase 0. If the server returns from a vacation to find no customer waiting, another vacation begins. Otherwise, the system jumps from phase 0 to some service phase i with probability qi,  i=1,2,…,N. Using the matrix geometric solution method and semi-Markov process, we obtain the distributions of the stationary system size at both arrival and arbitrary epochs. The distribution of the stationary waiting time of an arbitrary customer is also derived. In addition, we present some performance measures such as mean waiting time of an arbitrary customer, mean length of the type-i cycle, and mean number of customers in the system at the end of phase 0. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  11. Optimization of an M/M/1/N Feedback Queue with Retention of Reneged Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has become a threat to the business world. Firms employ various customer retention strategies to retain their impatient (or reneged customers. Customer retention mechanisms may help to retain some or all impatient customers. Further, due to unsatisfactory service, customers may rejoin a queue immediately after departure. Such cases are referred to as feedback customers. Kumar and Sharma take this situation into account and study an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with retention of reneged customers. They obtain only a steady-state solution for this model. In this paper, we extend the work of Kumar and Sharma by performing an economic analysis of the model. We develop a model for the costs incurred and perform the appropriate optimization. The optimum system capacity and optimum service rate are obtained. (original abstract

  12. Atomic spectroscopy with twisted photons: Separation of M 1 -E 2 mixed multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Solyanik, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We analyze atomic photoexcitation into the discrete states by twisted photons, or photons carrying extra orbital angular momentum along their direction of propagation. From the angular momentum and parity considerations, we are able to relate twisted-photon photoexcitation amplitudes to their plane-wave analogs, independently of the details of the atomic wave functions. We analyze the photoabsorption cross sections of mixed-multipolarity E 2 -M 1 transitions in ionized atoms and found fundamental differences coming from the photon topology. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that it is possible to extract the relative transition rates of different multipolar contributions by measuring the photoexcitation rate as a function of the atom's position (or impact parameter) with respect to the optical vortex center. The proposed technique for separation of multipoles can be implemented if the target's atom position is resolved with subwavelength accuracy; for example, with Paul traps. Numerical examples are presented for Boron-like highly charged ions.

  13. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  14. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions in Fe X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energies of the 54 levels belonging to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d and 3s3p 5 3d configurations of Fe X have been calculated using the GRASP code of Dyall and colleagues (1989). Additionally, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among these levels. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 3%, whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20% . Additionally, the agreement between measured and calculated lifetimes is better than 10%. (authors)

  15. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V; Baecklin, A; Fogelberg, B; Malmskog, S G

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  17. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanso, E.N.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Ten thousand plants of M 1 V 3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  18. The MCNP Simulation of a PGNAA System at TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaroon, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Picha, R.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.

    2017-06-01

    The prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system (PGNAA) has been installed at Thai Research Reactor-1/Modified 1 (TRR-1/M1) since 1999. The purpose of the system is for elemental and isotopic analyses. The system mainly consists of a series of the moderator and collimator, neutron and gamma-ray shielding and the HPGe detector. In this work, the condition of the system is carried out based on the Monte Carlo method using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code and the experiment. The flux ratios (Φthermal/Φepithermal and Φthermal/Φfast) and thermal neutron flux have been obtained. The simulated prompt gamma rays of the Portland cement sample have been carried out. The simulation provides significant contribution in upgrading the PGNAA station to be available in various applications.

  19. M1 transitions between low-lying states in the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Robert; Werner, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei in the A=90 region have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. Collective symmetric structures appear when protons and neutrons are in phase, whereas mixed-symmetric structures occur when they are not. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetric state was identified from strong M1 transitions to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between higher-spin states, and are predicted by the shell model. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg Interacting Boson Model 2 in order to obtain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and results from first model calculations will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under grant number DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  20. An Automatic Detection Method of Nanocomposite Film Element Based on GLCM and Adaboost M1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic detection model adopting pattern recognition technology is proposed in this paper; it can realize the measurement to the element of nanocomposite film. The features of gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM can be extracted from different types of surface morphology images of film; after that, the dimension reduction of film can be handled by principal component analysis (PCA. So it is possible to identify the element of film according to the Adaboost M1 algorithm of a strong classifier with ten decision tree classifiers. The experimental result shows that this model is superior to the ones of SVM (support vector machine, NN and BayesNet. The method proposed can be widely applied to the automatic detection of not only nanocomposite film element but also other nanocomposite material elements.

  1. Low pressure injection sequence sensitivity study of the M1 module of MEDICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.; Norkus, J.K.; Welzbacker, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the consequences of a PWR containment failure and the ensuing radiological source term following a severe reactor accident, it is necessary to understand the ex-vessel behavior of the molten core. The M1 module of MEDICI models the dynamic fuel-coolant mixing, energetic interaction, and ejection of fuel and coolant from the reactor cavity following such an accident. A sensitivity study of the low pressure injection sequence was performed utilizing a Box-Behnken statistical design to treat five sets of input variables considered to be significant in the mixing and steam explosion processes. The low pressure injection sequence was studied in which the molten corium is modeled as a pour stream entering the cavity without entraining or sweeping out fuel or coolant

  2. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown

  3. The frequency of occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovinski-Horvatović Miroslava S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is one of the most common mycotoxins which can be found in milk. It represents a natural metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that occurs as a result of animal metabolism and the body's attempt to detoxificate it. It is excreted in milk, feces and urine of animals that consumed contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1. The carry-over from feed to milk depends on many factors, ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Aflatoxin M1 is in the first group of carcinogens according to the IRAC classification from 2002, but it is considered to have only 10% of carcinogenicity from its precursor aflatoxin B1. Legislation in member countries of European Union for this mycotoxin in milk intended for people is 0.05 μg/l, while the rest of the countries that also have legislation for this mycotoxin allow the concentration that is ten times higher, and that is 0.5 μg/l. In this paper, we have tried to provide on insight into the quality of milk, food often consumed by children, from the standpoint of mycotoxicology, and to compare the obtained data with data available from literature, from countries in the region that have similar climatic and agricultural conditions. From a total of 65 samples of processed milk, aflatoxin M1 was found in 18 samples and none of the samples exceeded the level of 0.05 μg/l, which is allowed by the legislation of the European Union.

  4. Effect of closed shells on the multipole mixing parameter δ(E2/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of the magnitude and sign of the mixing parameter δ(E2/M1) in even-even nuclei has been studied in a number of papers. The most extensive data has been given for transitions of the type 3 γ + , 2 γ + , 2 β + →2 g + . The data on δ are relatively scarce for mixed transitions in odd nuclei with magic or semimagic cores. However, certain conclusions can be drawn about the behavior of δ in transitions in odd nuclei near magic numbers, and also in transitions in even-even nuclei when passing through quasishells: (1) the absolute value of the reduced mixing parameter in transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational states in odd nuclei decreases as a closed shell is approached; (2) δ has the same sign for transitions between particle and cluster-vibrational levels in nuclei with Z=83 and 85 and N=83, 85, and 87; (3) in odd nuclei the sign of δ is positive for transitions between positive-parity states s 1/2 -d 3/2 in Cd, Sm, and Tl isotopes and is negative for transitions between negative-parity states f 7/2 π and h 9/2 π in Sm, Gd, Bi, and At isotopes, independently of whether these transitions are neutron or proton transitions; (4) the removal of ±2 nucleons in an even shell from a magic core (and in certain nuclei a larger number of pairs of nucleons) does not lead to a change in sign of δ in transitions producing an odd nucleus; (5) the closure of quasishells at N=96 and 104 in even-even nuclei is associated with an increase in the absolute value of δ(E2/M1)/E γ , but the sign of δ does not change

  5. Phenotype and molecular analysis of M1 generation of stylosanthes irradiated by 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weili; Liu Fengmin

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Stylosanthes guianensis SW. ‘Reyan No.13’ were irradiated by 60 Co at 0, 325, 487 and 974 Gy. Phenotype and molecular variations of Stylosanthes M 1 generations were studied. Germination percentage, plant height, leaf length and stem diameter of M 1 seedlings were determined using SRAP-PCR. Results showed that biological character indices of treatments were significantly lower than that of control (CK). Irradiation inhibited plant growth. Growth indices of 974 Gy treatment, except leaf length, were significantly lower than CK and other two treatments. Eight effective primers selected from 24 primers combination were used for SRAP-PCR. SRAP analysis revealed that the 57 of 88 DNA fragments were amplified showing polymorphisms. The average percentage of polymorphic bands was 64.77%. The effects of 60 Coγ irradiation on DNA variation of seedlings were varied from different treatments. Numbers of polymorphic bands changed after irradiation. Coefficient of variation was in direct proportion to irradiation doses. Variation rates of 325 Gy, 487 Gy and 974 Gy treatments were 22.0%, 38.1% and 41.5%, respectively. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of all treatments was ranged from 0.585 to 0.780 by software NTSYSpc 2.1 based on SRAP results and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.678. The Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient of 974 Gy treatment was 0.585 and variation degree was highest among all treatments, 487 Gy treatment was second and 325 Gy treatment was the lowest one. Based on present bands, four irradiated treatments were classified into two major groups by UPGMA cluster analysis. Group 1 included CK, 325 Gy and 487 Gy treatment and group 2 included 974 Gy. SRAP analysis determined variation of Stylosanthes after irradiation and the results of SRAP analysis were consistent with their biological indexes in some extent

  6. Single-channel ground airborne radio system (SINCGARS) based remote control for the M1 Abrahms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Joseph R.

    1995-04-01

    Remote control of the Ml Abrahms Main Battle Tank through a minefield breach operation will remove the vehicle crew from the inherent hazard. A successful remote control system will provide automotive control yet not impair normal operation. This requires a minimum of physical parts, and an unobtrusive installation. Most importantly, a system failure must not impair the regular operation as a manned system. The system itself need not be complex. A minefield breach only requires simple control of automotive function and a mine plow interface. Control hardware for the Ml-Al can be reduced to two linear actuators, an electrical interface for the engine control unit, an interface for the mine plow, and the associated cables. Communication between vehicle control and operator control takes place over the vehicles organic radio (typically SINCGARS). This helps reduce the number of special purpose components for the remote control device. The device is currently awaiting an automotive safety test to prepare for its safety release. Because of the specific nature of the MDL-STD 1553-B data bus the device will not control an M1-A2 Main Battle Tank. The architecture will allow control of the M1-A2 through the 1553-B data bus however the physical hardware has not been constructed. The control scheme will not change. The communication interface will provide greater flexibility when interfacing to the vehicle tactical radio. Operational utility will be determined by U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command personnel. The obvious benefit is that if a remote tank is lost during a minefield breach the crew is saved.

  7. In Vivo Measurements in Mice in the Bion-M 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Popova, Anfisa; Borovik, Anatoliy; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga

    The main aim of BION-M 1 mission was to reveal morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to prolonged exposure in microgravity. Besides that functional state and behavior were assessed in vivo using test battery, home cage observations and implantable telemetry in space-flown mice (SF), control mice from the ground replica of the flight experiment (GC) and in mice kept in vivarium (SFV and GCV). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously in a subgroup of mice using implantable telemetry throughout the flight as well as before and after it. After 30-days flight aboard BION-M 1 biosatellite SF mice have gained more weight than GC, SFV or GCV mice (11%). SF mice displayed pronounced motor impairment upon examination shortly after landing. 1 day after the flight mice were less active and more anxious in the open-field test, less coordinated in the Rotarod and aerial drop test and had less grip force compared to both control and pre-flight values. Exercise performance was greatly reduced after 30-days flight and recovered by day 7 post-flight. Before the flight mice were trained to perform a simple task using positively reinforced free operant conditioning approach. After the flight performance in the same task was preserved, however learning ability was impaired. Mice displayed drastic reduction of heart rate during launch and reentry acceleration periods. Heart rate (by 8-10%) and, to a lesser extent blood pressure (by 5%) were elevated during the 30-days flight. After return heart rate in SF mice remained elevated throughout the 7-days observation period with no apparent recovery. In summary, mice display pronounced disadaptation to 1g after 30-days exposure in microgravity with different physiological systems having different recovery dynamics. Of particular interest, hemodynamic reactions in mice closely resemble reactions in larger organisms, implying that factors that govern the cardiovascular system adaptation to

  8. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  9. Normal and abnormal secretion by haemopoietic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    STINCHCOMBE, JANE C; GRIFFITHS, GILLIAN M

    2001-01-01

    The secretory lysosomes found in haemopoietic cells provide a very efficient mechanism for delivering the effector proteins of many immune cells in response to antigen recognition. Although secretion shows some similarities to the secretion of specialized granules in other secretory cell types, some aspects of secretory lysosome release appear to be unique to melanocytes and cells of the haemopoietic lineage. Mast cells and platelets have provided excellent models for studying secretion, but recent advances in characterizing the immunological synapse allow a very fine dissection of the secretory process in T lymphocytes. These studies show that secretory lysosomes are secreted from the centre of the talin ring at the synapse. Proper secretion requires a series of Rab and cytoskeletal elements which play critical roles in the specialized secretion of lysosomes in haemopoietic cells. PMID:11380687

  10. The Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Qualitative and Quantitative Yield of Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L. at Irrigation Levels under Bam Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Modafe Behzadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Medicinal plants are valuable resources in a wide range that scientific identification, cultivation, development and proper utilization of them can have very important role in community health, employment and non-petrol exports. Quality of medicinal plants is more important than other crops. The impact of environmental factors is significant on quality and quantity of medicinal plants. Among the environmental effective factors, irrigation and manure can be managed. Drought is considered as one of the most important factors that limited plant production in arid and semi-arid areas, where such areas are subjected to a wide range of climate variations. Water deficit stresses, permanent or temporary, limits the growth and distribution of natural vegetation and yield of cultivated plants more than any other environmental factor. Under water limitation conditions, yield of plants depend on water available content and water use efficiency. Indigo carmine is considered as a highly toxic indigoid dye. Indigo blue dye’s main component is indigotine which is extracted from the leaves of indigo. Indigo carmine is also one of the oldest dyes and it is still one of the most used in textile industry. The aims of this study were evaluation of qualitative and quantitative criteria of indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L. under Bam climatic conditions. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted as strip plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bam, Iran, during growing seasons of 2012-2013. Four nutrient resources (such as NPK, cow manure vermicompost, Mycorrhiza and control and three drought stress levels based on %FC (including 100, 80 and 60 percent were considered as experimental factors. Plant height, canopy diameter, number of branches, dry weight of leaf, dry weight of, dry yield of shoots (above ground matter, indigocarmin content and indigocarmin yield of indigo were measured and calculated. Results

  11. HLA-B27M1M2 and high immune responsiveness to Shigella flexneri in post-dysenteric arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Nabbe, A. J.; Landheer, J. E.; Grumet, F. C.; Mazurkiewicz, E. S.; Dinant, H. J.; Lionarons, R. J.; van Bodegom, P. C.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The heterogeneous HLA-B27 antigen is closely associated with post-infectious or reactive arthritis (ReA) and is comprised of two serologically defined variants: B27M1+M2+ and B27M1+M2-. An outbreak of dysentery (n = 120) caused by a Shigella flexneri 2a strain, which possessed cell envelope antigens

  12. Barriers professional competence and its relationship with job satisfaction of nurses' moral distress and pre-hospital emergency city of Bam and Jiroft in 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadjavad Rahimzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to "protect the health of people" Several organizations have been founded and given its role in saving lives when seconds play, is formed Medical Center Emergency Management Whose duty is satisfactory service in the shortest possible time. Because one of the pre-hospital emergency center nurses work centers and first deal with critical diseases carried by nurses, so they are faced with numerous obstacles which could impact on their job satisfaction has less moral distress. In this study, efficient professional barriers and its relation to moral distress and job satisfaction are studied prehospital emergency nurses. This study is a descriptive - correlation of prehospital emergency personnel Bam on 82 Jiroft who were selected by census was conducted. Data gathering questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, barriers to efficient professional, moral distress, job satisfaction after obtaining the appropriate reliability and validity were used. Analysis of the data in this study using SPSS version 18, using measures of central tendency and dispersion, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and regression analysis were used. According to the non-normal distribution efficiency and moral distress two variables obstacles relationship between these two variables with Spearman nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test other variables and for other variables that were normally distributed parametric tests and ANOVA were used Pearson correlation coefficient. A total of 82 patients with mean age (31.54± 5.66 participated in th e study showed. Results are73.4% married, work experience, most people (% 91.5 were under 15 years old. Most people (52% with traffic and pedestrians as factors impeding efficient professional, fully agreed, the average score of moral distress (o.48 ± 2.13, the level of moral distress was most mid-level and job satisfaction 52. 4% of them were average. The results showed that between moral distress and job

  13. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  14. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  15. Thymidine secretion by hybridoma and myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Rise, Frode; Petersen, Dirk; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Secretion of thymidine appeared to be a common property of hybridoma and myeloma cells, but not of other cell types, which were tested. Of three hybridoma cell lines tested, all secreted thymidine in amounts resulting in the accumulation of thymidine to concentrations of 10-20 μM in the culture medium. Also three of five myeloma cell lines that were analyzed secrete thymidine, but none of the other cell types that were studied. Thymidine was purified to homogeneity (4 mg purified from 3 l of culture medium) and identified as such by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells that secreted thymidine showed high resistance to the growth inhibitory effect of thymidine

  16. Uncovering SUMOylation Dynamics during Cell-Cycle Progression Reveals FoxM1 as a Key Mitotic SUMO Target Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Joost; Eifler, Karolin; Sigurdsson, Jón Otti

    2014-01-01

    Loss of small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) in mice causes genomic instability due to the missegregation of chromosomes. Currently, little is known about the identity of relevant SUMO target proteins that are involved in this process and about global SUMOylation dynamics during cell......-cycle progression. We performed a large-scale quantitative proteomics screen to address this and identified 593 proteins to be SUMO-2 modified, including the Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1), a key regulator of cell-cycle progression and chromosome segregation. SUMOylation of FoxM1 peaks during G2 and M...... relieving FoxM1 autorepression. Cells deficient for FoxM1 SUMOylation showed increased levels of polyploidy. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of SUMOylation during cell-cycle progression....

  17. Identification of the yeast gene encoding the tRNA m1G methyltransferase responsible for modification at position 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jane E; Montange, Rebecca K; Malik, Harmit S; Phizicky, Eric M

    2003-05-01

    Methylation of tRNA at the N-1 position of guanosine to form m(1)G occurs widely in nature. It occurs at position 37 in tRNAs from all three kingdoms, and the methyltransferase that catalyzes this reaction is known from previous work of others to be critically important for cell growth in Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. m(1)G is also widely found at position 9 in eukaryotic tRNAs, but the corresponding methyltransferase was unknown. We have used a biochemical genomics approach with a collection of purified yeast GST-ORF fusion proteins to show that m(1)G(9) formation of yeast tRNA(Gly) is associated with ORF YOL093w, named TRM10. Extracts lacking Trm10p have undetectable levels of m(1)G(9) methyltransferase activity but retain normal m(1)G(37) methyltransferase activity. Yeast Trm10p purified from E. coli quantitatively modifies the G(9) position of tRNA(Gly) in an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent fashion. Trm10p is responsible in vivo for most if not all m(1)G(9) modification of tRNAs, based on two results: tRNA(Gly) purified from a trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strain is lacking detectable m(1)G; and a primer extension block occurring at m(1)G(9) is removed in trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta-derived tRNAs for all 9 m(1)G(9)-containing species that were testable by this method. There is no obvious growth defect of trm10-Delta/trm10-Delta strains. Trm10p bears no detectable resemblance to the yeast m(1)G(37) methyltransferase, Trm5p, or its orthologs. Trm10p homologs are found widely in eukaryotes and many archaea, with multiple homologs in several metazoans, including at least three in humans.

  18. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmskog, S.G.; Hoejeberg, M.

    1967-08-01

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in 233 U: T 1/2 (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 ± 0.15) x 10 -10 sec, T 1/2 (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 ± 1.0) x 10 -11 sec, T 1/2 (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 ± 2.0) x 10 -11 sec and T 1/2 (415.8 keV level) -11 sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters δ and (g K - g R ) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account

  19. Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.

  20. Pancreatic Resections for Advanced M1-Pancreatic Carcinoma: The Value of Synchronous Metastasectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Seelig

    2010-01-01

    Materials and Methods. From January 1, 2004 to December, 2007 a total of 20 patients with pancreatic malignancies were retrospectively evaluated who underwent pancreatic surgery with synchronous resection of hepatic, adjacent organ, or peritoneal metastases for proven UICC stage IV periampullary cancer of the pancreas. Perioperative as well as clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. Results. There were 20 patients (9 men, 11 women; mean age 58 years identified. The primary tumor was located in the pancreatic head (n=9, 45%, in pancreatic tail (n=9, 45%, and in the papilla Vateri (n=2, 10%. Metastases were located in the liver (n=14, 70%, peritoneum (n=5, 25%, and omentum majus (n=2, 10%. Lymphnode metastases were present in 16 patients (80%. All patients received resection of their tumors together with metastasectomy. Pylorus preserving duodenopancreatectomy was performed in 8 patients, distal pancreatectomy in 8, duodenopancreatectomy in 2, and total pancreatectomy in 2. Morbidity was 45% and there was no perioperative mortality. Median postoperative survival was 10.7 months (2.6–37.7 months which was not significantly different from a matched-pair group of patients who underwent pancreatic resection for UICC adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (median survival 15.6 months; P=.1. Conclusion. Pancreatic resection for M1 periampullary cancer of the pancreas can be performed safely in well-selected patients. However, indication for surgery has to be made on an individual basis.

  1. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  2. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  3. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: Biological Properties and Their Involvement in Cancer Development

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    Silvia Marchese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in feeds and foods. When the ruminants eat feedstuffs containing Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, this toxin is metabolized and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is excreted in milk. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified AFB1 and AFM1 as human carcinogens belonging to Group 1 and Group 2B, respectively, with the formation of DNA adducts. In the last years, some epidemiological studies were conducted on cancer patients aimed to evaluate the effects of AFB1 and AFM1 exposure on cancer cells in order to verify the correlation between toxin exposure and cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In this review, we summarize the activation pathways of AFB1 and AFM1 and the data already reported in literature about their correlation with cancer development and progression. Moreover, considering that few data are still reported about what genes/proteins/miRNAs can be used as damage markers due to AFB1 and AFM1 exposure, we performed a bioinformatic analysis based on interaction network and miRNA predictions to identify a panel of genes/proteins/miRNAs that can be used as targets in further studies for evaluating the effects of the damages induced by AFB1 and AFM1 and their capacity to induce cancer initiation.

  4. Absolute M1 and E2 Transition Probabilities in 2{sup 33}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G; Hoejeberg, M

    1967-08-15

    Using the delayed coincidence technique, the following half lives have been determined for different excited states in {sup 233}U: T{sub 1/2} (311.9 keV level) = (1.20 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup -10} sec, T{sub 1/2} (340.5 keV level) = (5.2 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -11} sec, T{sub 1/2} (398.6 keV level) = (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -11} sec and T{sub 1/2} (415.8 keV level) < 3 x 10{sup -11}sec. From these half life determinations, together with earlier known electron intensities and conversion coefficients, 22 reduced B(Ml) and B(E2) transition probabilities (including 9 limits) have been deduced. The rotational transitions give information on the parameters {delta} and (g{sub K} - g{sub R}) . The experimental M1 and E2 transition rates between members of different bands have been analysed in terms of the predictions of the Nilsson model, taking also pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling effects into account.

  5. Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015

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    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 548 raw milk samples were collected in the western, central and eastern regions of Croatia during February and March 2015. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 concentrations were quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. The method limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 22.2 and 34.2 ng/kg, respectively. The mean AFM1 levels measured in the three regions were (ng/kg as follows: western 3.69, central 3.11 and eastern 4.14. In total, the 548 samples analysed concentrations were below the LOD value and accordingly below the European Union maximum residue level (EU MRL of 50 ng/kg. The results suggest an absence of use of contaminated with aflatoxin B1 supplementary feedstuff for lactating cows in winter 2015. Such results might be related to the improved storage conditions for feed as well as to the enhanced and more stringent feed control system for mycotoxins in Croatia.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Milk in Babol city, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Saa; Mirzae, M; Assmar, M; Naddaf, Sr

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is the metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and is found in milk when lactating animals are fed with contaminated feedstuff. The presence of AFM(1) in milk, pose a major risk for humans especially kids as it can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The present study is aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM(1) in subsidized pasteurized milk in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Some 72 pasteurized milk packages were collected from supermarkets in various districts of city during January to March 2006. Milk samples were centrifuged and amounts of 100 μl of skimmed milk were tested for AFM(1) contamination by competitive ELISA. All the samples (100%) exhibited contamination with AFM(1). The contamination levels means in January, February, and March were 227.85, 229.64, and 233.1ng/l, respectively. The amount of AFM(1) in all the samples were above 50ng/l, the threshold set by the European community regulations. Monitoring of AFM(1) level should be part of quality control procedures in dairy factories, particularly the ones providing infant's milk. Production of safer and healthier milk and other dairy products with minimum AFM(1) level can be achieved by adopting prophylactic measures including control of humidity and water content of feedstuff, which favors mould production.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

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    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  8. A survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in Southern Iran

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    Majid Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk samples from farms was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that in samples from collection centers and pasteurized milk. The concentration of AFM1 was not influenced by season, location, or type of farm. The concentrations of AFM1 in all samples were lower than the Iranian national standard limit (100 ng/L, but in 30% of raw cow milk samples they were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/L; therefore, more effort is needed to control AFM1 levels in milk produced in Southern Iran.

  9. Development of an Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk

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    Jean-Louis Marty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of ultratrace amounts of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in food products. The sensor was based on a competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP as a tag. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody (anti-AFM1 were used to separate the bound and unbound fractions. The samples containing AFM1 were incubated with a fixed amount of antibody and tracer [AFM1 linked to HRP (conjugate] until the system reached equilibrium. Competition occurs between the antigen (AFM1 and the conjugate for the antibody. Then, the mixture was deposited on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes, and the mediator [5-methylphenazinium methyl sulphate (MPMS] was added. The enzymatic response was measured amperometrically. A standard range (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ppb of AFM1-contaminated milk from the ELISA kit was used to obtain a standard curve for AFM1. To test the detection sensitivity of our sensor, samples of commercial milk were supplemented at 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 ppb with AFM1. Our immunosensor has a low detection limit (0.01 ppb, which is under the recommended level of AFM1 [0.05 µg L-1 (ppb], and has good reproducibility.

  10. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  11. Distribution of radiative strength with excitation energy: the E1 and M1 giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Speth, J.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the giant dipole resonance in the particle-hole model, employing empirical values for the unperturbed particle and hole energies, have been unsuccessful in pushing the dipole state to a sufficiently high energy. it is argued that unperturbed levels correspondign to an effective mass of m*/m approx. 0.6 to 0.7 should be employed. The couplings of particles and holes to vibrations are the crucial ingredients in these considerations. More generally, it is argued that the effective mass relevant to excitations near the Fermi surface is that corresponding to empirical single-particle levels, m*/m greater than or equal to 1.0. For particle-hole excitations above the Fermi surface, it is a decreasing function of excitation energy, reaching the above values 0.6 to 0.7 for E greater than or equal to 2 dirac constant/b omega, dirac constant/sub omega/ being the shell spacing. This has the consequence of spreading out the M1 strength. A new interpretation of experimental strengths is proposed

  12. CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms: genetic susceptibility to lung cancer

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    Paula Mota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is considered an environment-related disease that develops as a consequence of exposure to mutagenic agents, namely those present in tobacco. The CYP1A1 gene codifies the phase I enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxilase (AHH belonging to the cytochrome P450 system that plays a major role in the bio-activation of tobacco procarcinogenes. Two CYP1A1 polymorphisms, m1 (T6235C transition and m2 (A4889G transition, are associated with greater enzymatic activity and have been described as genetic susceptibility factors for lung cancer.The aim of this study was to verify if this association holds true in blood samples of 175 lung cancer patients and 217 non-cancer patients from Portugal's midlands region. The samples were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay.The allelic frequencies of the mutant alleles were 0.12 for allele C and 1.14 for allele G in the control population. The results were not statistically different from those alleles in the patient population. There was also no statistically significant difference in genotype distribution in lung cancer patients and controls even when combining high risk genotypes. In our control sample, as in other populations of different ethnic origin, both polymorphisms also seem to be in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that in this sample of the Portuguese population, CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms are too rare to be of clinical relevance, and do not seem to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Resumo: O cancro do pulmão é considerado uma doença relacionada com o meio ambiente, consequência da exposição a agentes mutagénicos, nomeadamente os presentes no fumo do tabaco. O gene CYP1A1 codifica a enzima aril hidrocarboneto hidroxilase (AHH, da fase I, do sistema multienzimático do citocromo P450, que desempenha uma função preponderante na bioactivação dos procarcinogénios do tabaco. Dois polimorfismos do CYP1A1, m1 (transi

  13. Development of an impedimetric aptasensor for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamboulié, Georges; Paniel, Nathalie; Zara, Lorena; Reguillo Granados, Lucia; Barthelmebs, Lise; Noguer, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    An aptasensor was designed for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk based on DNA-aptamer recognition and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy detection. A hexaethyleneglycol-modified 21-mer oligonucleotide was immobilized on a carbon screen-printed electrode through carbodiimide immobilization, after diazonium activation of the sensing surface. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe were used to characterize each step of the aptasensor development. Aptamer-AFM1 interaction induced an increase in electron-transfer resistance, allowing the determination of AFM1 in buffer in the range 2-150 ng/L (LOD=1.15 ng/L). Application to milk analysis showed that a preliminary treatment was mandatory. A simple filtration through a 0.2 µm PTFE membrane allowed determination of AFM1 in milk for concentrations ranging from 20 to 1000 ng/kg. These performances are compatible with the AFM1 levels set in European Union for milk and dairy products for adults (50 ng/kg) and infants (25 ng/kg). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

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    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  15. Genomic Comparison among Lethal Invasive Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M1

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    Gabriel R. Fernandes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS, is a human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS. A GAS outbreak occurred in Brasilia, Brazil, during the second half of the year 2011, causing 26 deaths. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina platform. The sequences were assembled and genes were predicted for comparative analysis with emm type 1 strains: MGAS5005 and M1 GAS. Genomics comparison revealed one of the invasive strains that differ from others isolates and from emm 1 reference genomes. Also, the new invasive strain showed differences in the content of virulence factors compared to other isolated in the same outbreak. The evolution of contemporary GAS strains is strongly associated with horizontal gene transfer. This is the first genomic study of a Streptococcal emm 1 outbreak in Brazil, and revealed the rapid bacterial evolution leading to new clones. The emergence of new invasive strains can be a consequence of the injudicious use of antibiotics in Brazil during the past decades.

  16. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Levels during Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Milk (Ergo Production

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    Tsige Shigute

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reduction of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels during lab-scale ergo production was investigated through determination of the residual levels of AFM1 using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The results showed gradual and incubation time dependent reduction of AFM1 level in the raw milk samples being fermented to ergo. The maximum reductions of 57.33 and 54.04% were recorded in AFM1 in natural and LAB inoculums initiated fermentations, respectively, in 5 days of incubation. Although a significant difference (P=0.05 in the AFM1 decrease in the two types of fermentations was recorded, such findings could vary with milk samples depending on initial load of the microorganisms as determined by hygienic conditions. However, the level of AFM1 in control (sterilized samples showed only a 5.5% decrease during the entire period of incubation. Microbiological investigation showed increasing LAB counts with incubation time. A gradual decrease in pH of the milk samples was observed during fermentation. Considering the fact that both viable and dead bacterial cells could remove AFM1 during ergo production, the mechanism is proposed as predominantly involving noncovalent binding of the toxin with the chemical components of the bacterial cell wall.

  17. Medical students who decompress during the M-1 year outperform those who fail and repeat it: A study of M-1 students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Gregory G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All medical schools must counsel poor-performing students, address their problems and assist them in developing into competent physicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether students with academic deficiencies in their M-1 year graduate more often, spend less time to complete the curriculum, and need fewer attempts at passing USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 by entering the Decompressed Program prior to failure of the M-1 year than those students who fail the M-1 year and then repeat it. Method The authors reviewed the performance of M-1 students in the Decompressed Program and compared their outcomes to M-1 students who failed and fully repeated the M-1 year. To compare the groups upon admission, t-Tests comparing the Cognitive Index of students and MCAT scores from both groups were performed. Performance of the two groups after matriculation was also analyzed. Results Decompressed students were 2.1 times more likely to graduate. Decompressed students were 2.5 times more likely to pass USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt than the repeat students. In addition, 46% of those in the decompressed group completed the program in five years compared to 18% of the repeat group. Conclusion Medical students who decompress their M-1 year prior to M-1 year failure outperform those who fail their first year and then repeat it. These findings indicate the need for careful monitoring of M-1 student performance and early intervention and counseling of struggling students.

  18. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  19. Cytosolic Pellino-1-Mediated K63-Linked Ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 Macrophages Regulates Glucose Intolerance in Obesity

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    Donghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IRF5 is a signature transcription factor that induces M1 macrophage polarization. However, little is known regarding cytosolic proteins that induce IRF5 activation for M1 polarization. Here, we report the interaction between ubiquitin E3 ligase Pellino-1 and IRF5 in the cytoplasm, which increased nuclear translocation of IRF5 by K63-linked ubiquitination in human and mouse M1 macrophages. LPS and/or IFN-γ increased Pellino-1 expression, and M1 polarization was attenuated in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Defective M1 polarization in Pellino-1-deficient macrophages improved glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, macrophages in adipose tissues from obese humans exhibited increased Pellino-1 expression and IRF5 nuclear translocation compared with nonobese subjects, and these changes are associated with insulin resistance index. This study demonstrates that cytosolic Pellino-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRF5 in M1 macrophages regulates glucose intolerance in obesity, suggesting a cytosolic mediator function of Pellino-1 in TLR4/IFN-γ receptor-IRF5 axis during M1 polarization.

  20. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Wingspan stent for symptomatic M1 stenosis of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinbin; Ma Nan; Hu Xiaobo; Guan Sheng; Fan Yimu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Stent placement for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis has become an alternative treatment technique; however, stent placement for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis remains a technical and clinical challenge. Our purpose was to assess the safety and feasibility of Wingspan stent for patients with symptomatic M1 stenosis, and its initial effect on prevention of ischemic events. Methods: Fifty-three cases with recurrent symptomatic MCA stenosis resistant to medical therapy treated by self-expanding stent were reviewed retrospectively (average 58 ± 18.5 years old, 19 women). All patients underwent angioplasty and stenting with the Gateway balloon–Wingspan stent system, and advised follow-up with DSA or TCD at 6th month. Results: Patients had an average stenosis ratio of 76.5 ± 15.4% prior to the treatment. Of the 53 patients, the technical success rate was 98.1% as a whole (52/53). The mean degree of stenosis reduced from (76.5 ± 15.4)% to (18.2 ± 11.3)%. Complications associated with the procedure include subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.89%) and occlusion (3.78%) occurred. During a follow-up of 6 months, there was no recurrence of transient ischemic attack or stroke in 52 cases with successful stenting. Cerebral hemodynamics of MCA using transcranial Doppler monitoring were at normal level (<120 cm/s) in 41 follow-up patients. The follow up angiography at 6 month post-procedure was conducted in 32 patients and showed good patency in stented vessels. Conclusions: Wingspan stent for symptomatic stenosis of middle cerebral artery is a safe and feasible procedure. It improves clinical outcome in the intermediate follow up, but its long-term effect remains to be further evaluated.

  2. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y P; Hsiao, P J; Hong, W S; Dai, T Y; Chen, M J

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Interaction via FoxM1 Signaling Mediates Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Zhu, Maggie M; Peng, Yi; Jin, Hua; Machireddy, Narsa; Qian, Zhijian; Zhang, Xianming; Zhao, You-Yang

    2018-04-17

    Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH. Lung tissues and cells from PAH patients were employed to validate clinical relevance. FoxM1 inhibitor Thiostrepton was used in Sugen 5416/hypoxia- and monocrotaline-challenged rats. FoxM1 expression was markedly upregulated in lungs and pulmonary arterial SMCs of idiopathic PAH patients and 4 discrete PH rodent models. Mice with SMC- (but not EC-) specific deletion of Foxm1 were protected from hypoxia- or Sugen 5416/hypoxia-induced PH. The upregulation of FoxM1 in SMCs induced by multiple EC-derived factors (PDGF-B, CXCL12, ET-1 and MIF) mediated SMC proliferation. Genetic deletion of endothelial Cxcl12 in Egln1Tie2Cre mice or loss of its cognate receptor Cxcr4 in SMCs in hypoxia-treated mice inhibited FoxM1 expression, SMC proliferation and PH. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of FoxM1 inhibited severe PH in both Sugen 5416/hypoxia and monocrotaline-challenged rats. Multiple factors derived from dysfunctional ECs induced FoxM1 expression in SMCs and activated FoxM1-dependent SMC proliferation which contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Thus, targeting FoxM1 signaling represents a novel strategy for treatment of IPAH.

  4. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  5. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  6. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  7. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  8. Dig It! The Secrets of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! The Secrets of Soil Come and Explore! Discover the amazing world of soils with images and information from the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural and new web content will be added over the coming months including a new soil blog. New Interactives

  9. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  10. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Lotz, P.; Vogel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The death of Litvinenko has been reported by the media. It has raised the question whether this case had been unique. The fall of the wall has allowed a glimpse in the planning and comporting of a secret service. Material and method: Documents of the secret service of the former German democratic republic (GDR), books of defectors, and media reports about secret service actions with radiating substances have been analyzed. Results: Since decades, secret services have been using radioactive nuclides and radiation for their tasks. Several killings with radiation have been reported. A complicated logistic had been developed. Conclusion: Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance

  11. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. D. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation.

  12. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  13. Current Therapies That Modify Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Keating, Damien J.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-01-01

    and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. Recent Findings: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon...... may be involved in the drugs’ efficacy and safety profiles. Based on these findings, modulation of glucagon secretion seems to play a hitherto underestimated role in the efficacy and safety of several glucose-lowering drugs. Summary: Numerous drugs currently available to diabetologists are capable...... of altering glucagon secretion: metformin, sulfonylurea compounds, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and amylin mimetics. Their diverse effects on glucagon secretion are of importance for their individual efficacy...

  14. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  15. On Secret Sharing with Nonlinear Product Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiplicative linear secret sharing is a fundamental notion in the area of secure multiparty computation and, since recently, in the area of two-party cryptography as well. In a nutshell, this notion guarantees that the product of two secrets is obtained as a linear function of the vector......-necessarily-linear “product reconstruction function.” Is the resulting notion equivalent to multiplicative linear secret sharing? We show the (perhaps somewhat counterintuitive) result that this relaxed notion is strictly more general. Concretely, fix a finite field ${\\mathbb F}_q$ as the base field over which linear secret...... sharing is considered. Then we show there exists an (exotic) linear secret sharing scheme with an unbounded number of players $n$ such that it has $t$-privacy with $t = \\Omega(n)$ and such that it does admit a product reconstruction function, yet this function is necessarily nonlinear. In addition, we...

  16. Augmented macrophage differentiation and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages towards M1 subtype in listeria-administered tumor-bearing host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rakesh K; Vishvakarma, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Tribhuban M; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of Listeria administration on differentiation of macrophages from precursor bone marrow cells and functional status of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Listeria administration not only resulted in an augmented infiltration of tumor by F4/80 macrophages but also repolarized the functional status of TAM displaying features of some M1 macrophage subtype with upregulated phagocytosis and tumoricidal activity accompanied by altered expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1, toll-like receptor-2, surface markers: CD11c, interleukin-2 receptor, CD62L, and secreted molecules: nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Declined tumor cell survival and modulated repertoire of cytokines: interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β in tumor microenvironment indicated their role in polarization of TAM towards proinflammatory state. Bone marrow cell of Listeria-administered tumor-bearing mice showed augmented survival, declined expression of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis with an upregulated differentiation into activation responsive bone marrow-derived macrophages along with altered expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor. These findings indicate that Listeria infection is associated with an augmented differentiation of macrophages accompanied by tumoricidal activation of TAM.

  17. The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Yannick; Vliegen, Gwendolyn; Maes, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Declerck, Ken; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien; De Meester, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 expression seems relatively low in mouse monocytes and macrophages. Viability of primary mouse macrophages is unaffected by DPP4 or DPP8/9 inhibition. Importantly, DPP8/9 inhibition attenuates macrophage activation as IL-6 secretion is significantly decreased. Mouse macrophages respond similarly to DPP inhibition, compared to human macrophages. This shows that the mouse could become a valid model species for the study of DPPs as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

  18. NF-κB pathways are involved in M1 polarization of RAW 264.7 macrophage by polyporus polysaccharide in the tumor microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most malignant tumors closely associated with macrophages. Polyporus polysaccharide (PPS has shown excellent efficacy in treating bladder cancer with minimal side effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PPS in inhibiting bladder cancer remain unclear. In this study, we used macrophages cultured alone or with T24 human bladder cancer cell culture supernatant as study models. We found that PPS enhanced the activities of IFN-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, as shown by the release of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS, secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6, phagocytosis activity, as well as expression of M1 phenotype indicators, such as CD40, CD284 and CD86. PPS acted upstream in activation cascade of nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling pathways by interfering with IκB phosphorylation. In addition, PPS regulated NF-κB (P65 signaling by interfering with Toll-like receptor (TLR-4, INOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2. Our results indicate that PPS activates macrophages through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  19. Comparing autotransporter β-domain configurations for their capacity to secrete heterologous proteins to the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter S P Jong

    Full Text Available Monomeric autotransporters have been extensively used for export of recombinant proteins to the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. A bottleneck in the biosynthesis of such constructs is the passage of the outer membrane, which is facilitated by the β-domain at the C terminus of an autotransporter in conjunction with the Bam complex in the outer membrane. We have evaluated eight β-domain constructs for their capacity to secrete fused proteins to the cell surface. These constructs derive from the monomeric autotransporters Hbp, IgA protease, Ag43 and EstA and the trimeric autotransporter Hia, which all were selected because they have been previously used for secretion of recombinant proteins. We fused three different protein domains to the eight β-domain constructs, being a Myc-tag, the Hbp passenger and a nanobody or VHH domain, and assessed expression, membrane insertion and surface exposure. Our results show that expression levels differed considerably between the constructs tested. The constructs that included the β-domains of Hbp and IgA protease appeared the most efficient and resulted in expression levels that were detectable on Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gels. The VHH domain appeared the most difficult fusion partner to export, probably due to its complex immunoglobulin-like structure with a tertiary structure stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bond. Overall, the Hbp β-domain compared favorably in exporting the fused recombinant proteins, because it showed in every instance tested a good level of expression, stable membrane insertion and clear surface exposure.

  20. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  1. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Bepler, Gerold, E-mail: beplerg@karmanos.org [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. {yields} C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. {yields} The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1

  2. Modulation of the ribonucleotide reductase M1-gemcitabine interaction in vivo by N-ethylmaleimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yingtao; Bepler, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gemcitabine induces a RRM1 conformational change in tumor cell lines and xenografts. → The 110 kDa RRM1 is unique to gemcitabine interaction among 12 cytotoxic agents. → The 110 kDa RRM1 can be stabilized by the thiol alkylator N-ethylmaleimide. → C218A, C429A, and E431A mutations in RRM1 abolished the conformational change. → The 110 kDa RRM1 may be a specific biomarker of gemcitabine's therapeutic efficacy. -- Abstract: Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Its function is indispensible in cell proliferation and DNA repair. It also serves as a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy of the antimetabolite drug gemcitabine (2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) in various malignancies. However, a mechanistic explanation remains to be determined. This study investigated how the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) interacts with the inhibitory activity of gemcitabine on its target protein RRM1 in vivo. We found, when cells were treated with gemcitabine in the presence of NEM, a novel 110 kDa band, along with the 90 kDa native RRM1 band, appeared in immunoblots. This 110 kDa band was identified as RRM1 by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and represented a conformational change resulting from covalent labeling by gemcitabine. It is specific to gemcitabine/NEM, among 11 other chemotherapy drugs tested. It was also detectable in human tumor xenografts in mice treated with gemcitabine. Among mutations of seven residues essential for RRM1 function, C218A, C429A, and E431A abolished the conformational change, while N427A, C787A, and C790A diminished it. C444A was unique since it was able to alter the conformation even in absence of gemcitabine treatment. We conclude that the thiol alkylator NEM can stabilize the gemcitabine-induced conformational change of RRM1, and this stabilized RRM1 conformation has the potential to serve as a specific

  3. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  4. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  5. Effect of 60Co gamma radiation on the performance of two soybean varieties in M1 and M2 generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.; Rahman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Seed of two soybean varieties Bragg and Improved Pelican were treated with gamma-rays at 0, 11, 29, 47 and 65 Kr doses. Percentage of seedling emergence in both varieties in M 1 generation was not so seriously affected as in M 1 generation. The plant height of Bragg after one month of sowing was less influenced than Improved Pelican. Plant height of both the varieties decreased with increase in radiation doses; except 11 Kr in Bragg in both generations. Similar results were also obtained in plant height at harvest except that Improved Pelican in M 1 generation produced taller plants at 29 Kr than at 11 Kr level. Days required to harvest increased at higher doses in comparison to control, except 11 Kr for Improved Pelican and 29 Kr for Bragg in M 1 generation. (author)

  6. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  7. A novel M1 PAM VU0486846 exerts efficacy in cognition models without displaying agonist activity or cholinergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Bertron, Jeanette L; Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Moran, Sean P; Maksymetz, James T; Nance, Kellie D; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Chang, Sichen; Harp, Joel; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2018-04-27

    Selective activation of the M1 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, via positive allosteric modulation (PAM), is an exciting strategy to improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients. However, highly potent M1 ago-PAMs, such as MK-7622, PF-06764427, and PF-06827443, can engender excessive activation of M1, leading to agonist actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that impairs cognitive function, induces behavioral convulsions, and results in other classic cholinergic adverse events (AEs). Here, we report a fundamentally new and highly selective M1 PAM, VU0486846. VU0486846 possesses only weak agonist activity in M1-expressing cell lines with high receptor reserve and is devoid of agonist actions in the PFC, unlike previously reported ago-PAMs MK-7622, PF-06764427 and PF-06827443. Moreover, VU0486846 shows no interaction with antagonist binding at the orthosteric acetylcholine (ACh) site (e.g., neither bitopic nor displaying negative cooperativity with [3H]-NMS binding at theorthosteric site), no seizure liability at high brain exposures, and no cholinergic AEs. However, as opposed to ago-PAMs, VU0486846 produces robust efficacy in the novel object recognition model of cognitive function. Importantly, we show for the first time that an M1 PAM can reverse the cognitive deficits induced by atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone. These findings further strengthen the argument that compounds with modest in vitro M1 PAM activity (EC50s > 100 nM) and pure-PAM activity in native tissues display robust pro-cognitive efficacy without AEs mediated by excessive activation of M1. Overall, the combination of compound assessment with recombinant in vitro assays (mindful of receptor reserve), native tissue systems (PFC), and phenotypic screens (behavioral convulsions) is essential to fully understand and evaluate lead compounds and enhance success in clinical development.

  8. Effect of heat-inactivated kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 on preventing an allergic airway response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Po; Dai, Ting-Yeu; Huang, I-Nung; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2011-08-24

    In this study, we assessed the anti-asthmatic effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (HI-M1) and its fermented milk using different feeding procedures and at various dosage levels. The possible mechanisms whereby HI-M1 has anti-allergic asthmatic effects were also evaluated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated the HI-M1 samples showed strong inhibition of production of T helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Th17 cytokines in splenocytes and bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in regulatory T cell population in splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of H1-M1 was also observed. In addition, all of the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including specific IgE production, airway inflammation, and development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were depressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment. These findings support the possibility that oral feeding of H1-M1 may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  9. Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Tan, Yaqian; Cavenee, Webster K; Yan, Guangmei

    2017-06-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic compounds (SMCs), which antagonize the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and induce apoptosis, sensitize tumor cells to multiple cytokines. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SMCs sensitize tumor cells to cytokines induced by the oncolytic M1 virus, thus enhancing a bystander killing effect. Here, we report that SMCs potentiate the oncolytic effect of M1 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This strengthened oncolytic efficacy resulted from the enhanced bystander killing effect caused by the M1 virus via cytokine induction. Through a microarray analysis and subsequent validation using recombinant cytokines, we identified IL-8, IL-1A, and TRAIL as the key cytokines in the bystander killing effect. Furthermore, SMCs increased the replication of M1, and the accumulation of virus protein induced irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, the combined treatment with M1 and SMCs had little effect on normal and human primary cells. Because SMCs selectively and significantly enhance the bystander killing effect and the replication of oncolytic virus M1 specifically in cancer cells, this combined treatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

  10. Paeoniflorin inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle arrest through inhibition of FoxM1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Meng; Li, Shiquan; Yan, Guoqiang; Li, Chenyao; Kang, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) exhibits tumor suppressive functions in a variety of human cancers. However, the function of PF and molecular mechanism in colorectal cancer are elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether PF could exert its antiproliferative activity, anti-migration, and anti-invasive function in colorectal cancer cells. We found that PF inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, we found that PF suppressed cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. FoxM1 has been reported to play an important oncogenic role in human cancers. We also determine whether PF inhibited the expression of FoxM1, leading to its anti-cancer activity. We found that PF treatment in colorectal cancer cells resulted in down-regulation of FoxM1. The rescue experiments showed that overexpression of FoxM1 abrogated the tumor suppressive function induced by PF treatment. Notably, depletion of FoxM1 promoted the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of FoxM1 could participate in the anti-tumor activity of PF in colorectal cancer cells.

  11. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  12. Bioimaging of M1 cells using ceramic nanophosphors: Synthesis and toxicity assay of Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, N; Soga, K; Tsuji, T; Okumura, Y; Fukuda, R

    2009-01-01

    Er 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by enzymatic and polymer-assisted homogeneous co-precipitation methods. Resultant particle size is about 30-40 nm with narrow size distribution whereas the particle size is smaller than those acquired by conventional homogeneous and alkali precipitation methods. The particles shows bright green (550 nm) and red (660 nm) upconversion (UC) as well as near infrared (NIR) fluorescence (1550 nm) under 980 nm excitation. Bioimaging of M1 cells using the nanoparticles were successfully attempted. It is observed that 0.5 mg/ml of nanoparticles is the nominal concentration for bioimaging of M1 cells under the physiological conditions. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles is evidenced from bright field, UC and NIR fluorescence images of live M1 cells. Our studies suggest that lower concentration of nanoparticles is sufficient for imaging when the particles are taken in the M1 cells and also the concentration can keep the cells alive. Further it was demonstrated that under the physiological conditions, Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles emit UC and NIR fluorescence in M1 cells even after the surface modification with PEG-b-PAAc polymer. Moreover, surface modified nanoparticles shows lower toxic effect in M1 cells while compare to bare nanoparticles.

  13. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  14. Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Haynes, Paul A; Breci, Linda; Francisco, Wilson A

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS techniques in proteomics make possible the identification of proteins from organisms with little or no genome sequence information available. Peptide sequences are obtained from tandem mass spectra by matching peptide mass and fragmentation information to protein sequence information from related organisms, including unannotated genome sequence data. This peptide identification data can then be grouped and reconstructed into protein data. In this study, we have used this approach to study protein secretion by Aspergillus flavus, a filamentous fungus for which very little genome sequence information is available. A. flavus is capable of degrading the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-glycoside), as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this continuing study, a proteomic analysis was used to identify secreted proteins from A. flavus when grown on rutin. The growth media glucose and potato dextrose were used to identify differentially expressed secreted proteins. The secreted proteins were analyzed by 1- and 2-DE and MS/MS. A total of 51 unique A. flavus secreted proteins were identified from the three growth conditions. Ten proteins were unique to rutin-, five to glucose- and one to potato dextrose-grown A. flavus. Sixteen secreted proteins were common to all three media. Fourteen identifications were of hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown functions. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive proteomic study conducted to identify the secreted proteins from a filamentous fungus.

  15. Biliary and pancreatic secretions in abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Cionini, L.; Cappellini, M.; Atzeni, G.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary and pancreatic secretions have been determined in patients given pelvic or para-aortic irradiation, with a dose of 50 Gy in the former group and between 36 and 40 Gy in the latter. A test meal containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as reference substance was used. Each sample of the duodenal content was assayed for volume, PEG content, amylase and trypsin activity, pH and biliary secretion. No significant modifications of biliary and pancreatic secretions were demonstrated after irradiation, suggesting that these functions are not involved in the pathogenesis of the malabsorption radiation syndrome. (Auth.)

  16. [Secret drug tribulations and French legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Colette

    2002-01-01

    From an official Montpellier prefecture paper of 18th century, we are interested in a secret drug from Provence origin: the Irroë powder. This purgative will pass from "secret" drug status to "patent" drug. It's notoriety will come from its arrival to Paris. The law of 21th germinal year XI, the decret of 25 prairial year XIII and this of 18th 1810 imposed to give the drug composition to an official status; that examined and permit it's sale. This secret will be produce for half century.

  17. Air Force UAVs: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...opening phases of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. By Thomas P. Ehrhard a miTchEll insTiTuTE sTudy July 2010 Air Force UAVs The Secret History

  18. Increased Expression of FoxM1 Transcription Factor in Respiratory Epithelium Inhibits Lung Sacculation and Causes Clara Cell Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ching; Zhang, Yufang; Snyder, Jonathan; Sutherland, Mardi J.; Burhans, Michael S.; Shannon, John M.; Park, Hyun Jung; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Foxm1 is a member of the Forkhead Box (Fox) family of transcription factors. Foxm1 (previously called Foxm1b, HFH-11B, Trident, Win, or MPP2) is expressed in multiple cell types and plays important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of Foxm1 from mouse respiratory epithelium during initial stages of lung development inhibits lung maturation and causes respiratory failure after birth. However, the role of Foxm1 during postnatal lung morphogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, Foxm1 expression was detected in epithelial cells of conducting and peripheral airways and changing dynamically with lung maturation. To discern the biological role of Foxm1 in the prenatal and postnatal lung, a novel transgenic mouse line that expresses a constitutively active form of FoxM1 (FoxM1 N-terminal deletion mutant or FoxM1-ΔN) under the control of lung epithelial-specific SPC promoter was produced. Expression of the FoxM1-ΔN transgene during embryogenesis caused epithelial hyperplasia, inhibited lung sacculation and expression of the type II epithelial marker, pro-SPC. Expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant during the postnatal period did not influence alveologenesis but caused focal airway hyperplasia and increased proliferation of Clara cells. Likewise, expression of FoxM1-ΔN mutant in conducting airways with Scgb1a1 promoter was sufficient to induce Clara cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, FoxM1-ΔN cooperated with activated K-Ras to induce lung tumor growth in vivo. Increased activity of Foxm1 altered lung sacculation, induced proliferation in the respiratory epithelium and accelerated lung tumor growth, indicating that precise regulation of Foxm1 is critical for normal lung morphogenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:20816795

  19. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-01-01

    The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2 b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: -0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment.

  20. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. Methods All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Results Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: −0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Conclusion Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment. PMID:28243346

  1. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are present in high density in solid tumors. TAMs share many characteristics with alternatively activated macrophages, also called M2. They have been shown to favor tumor development and a role in chemoresistance has also been suggested. Here, we investigated the effects of M2 in comparison to M1 macrophages on cancer cell sensitivity to etoposide. We set up a model of macrophage polarization, starting from THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages using PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Once differentiated (M0 macrophages), they were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). To mimic the communication between cancer cells and TAMs, M0, M1 or M2 macrophages and HepG2 or A549 cancer cells were co-cultured during respectively 16 (HepG2) or 24 (A549) hours, before etoposide exposure for 24 (HepG2) or 16 (A549) hours. After the incubation, the impact of etoposide on macrophage polarization was studied and cancer cell apoptosis was assessed by western-blot for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 protein, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis of Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expression of M1 and M2 markers confirmed the polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages, which provide a new, easy and well-characterized model of polarized human macrophages. Etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis was markedly reduced in the presence of THP-1 M2 macrophages, while apoptosis was increased in cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages. On the other hand, etoposide did not influence M1 or M2 polarization. These results evidence for the first time a clear protective effect of M2 on the contrary to M1 macrophages on etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

  2. Three-fold increase of M1 strength in 40Ar at 10 MeV excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Werner; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, Anton

    2017-09-01

    We reexamined the excitation energy region of 40Ar around 9.8 MeV with the goal of determining the known M1 strength located at 9.76 MeV more accurately. The physics motivation was based on the fact that i) the neutrino-nucleus interaction cross section is proportional to the M1 strength of a nucleus, ii) DUNE, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at SURF will be using liquid argon as detector medium, iii) the energy spectrum of supernova neutrinos is peaked at approximately 10 MeV. Mono-energetic and linearly polarized photons of 9.88 MeV were produced via Compton backscattering of 548 nm FEL photons from 543 MeV electrons at the High-Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS) facility at TUNL. The 1.25 cm diameter photon beam with energy spread of 300 keV (FWHM) interacted with argon gas contained in a high-pressure cell. The cell was viewed with HPGe detectors placed at 90o relative to the incident photon beam in the horizontal and vertical planes to distinguish between E1 and M1 de-excitation γ-rays. Our re-measurement provided an increase in M1 strength by a factor of approximately 3, mostly due to the discovery that the known level in 40Ar at 9.84 MeV is of M1 character and not of E1 character, as previously thought. In addition to the already known M1 state at 9.76 MeV, we observed weaker M1 states at 9.70, 9.81, 9.87, and 9.89 MeV.

  3. BAM! Guide to Getting Along

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Snow, the First Epidemiologist Microbe Multiplication Magic Scientific Poster Session Poisoned Picnic The Energy Equation Flu Season- ... but they can help you to have a good discussion and you can work things out. Clearing ...

  4. Theoretical descriptions of novel triplet germylenes M1-Ge-M2-M3 (M1 = H, Li, Na, K; M2 = Be, Mg, Ca; M3 = H, F, Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaee, Mohamad Zaman; Ashenagar, Samaneh

    2018-02-06

    In a quest to identify new ground-state triplet germylenes, the stabilities (singlet-triplet energy differences, ΔE S-T ) of 96 singlet (s) and triplet (t) M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 species were compared and contrasted at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, QCISD(T)/6-311++G**, and CCSD(T)/6-311++G** levels of theory (M 1  = H, Li, Na, K; M 2  = Be, Mg, Ca; M 3  = H, F, Cl, Br). Interestingly, F-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = F) appear to be more stable and linear than the corresponding Cl- or Br-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = Cl or Br). Triplets with M 1  = K (i.e., the K-Ge-M 2 -M 3 series) seem to be more stable than the corresponding triplets with M 1  = H, Li, or Na. This can be attributed to the higher electropositivity of potassium. Triplet species with M 3  = Cl behave similarly to those with M 3  = Br. Conversely, triplets with M 3  = H show similar stabilities and linearities to those with M 3  = F. Singlet species of formulae K-Ge-Ca-Cl and K-Ge-Ca-Br form unexpected cyclic structures. Finally, the triplet germylenes M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 become more stable as the electropositivities of the α-substituents (M 1 and M 2 ) and the electronegativity of the β-substituent (M 3 ) increase.

  5. Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-on W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Waraporn Chan-on,1 Nguyen Thi Bich Huyen,2 Napat Songtawee,3 Wilasinee Suwanjang,1 Supaluk Prachayasittikul,3 Virapong Prachayasittikul2 1Center for Research and Innovation, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, 3Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Fork head box M1 (FoxM1 is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently elevated in numerous cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. A growing body of evidence documents its diverse functions contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As such, discovery of agents that can target FoxM1 would be valuable for the treatment of CCA. The quinoline-based compounds, namely clioquinol (CQ and nitroxoline (NQ, represent a new class of anticancer drug. However, their efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in CCA. In this study, anticancer activities and inhibitory effects of CQ and NQ on FoxM1 signaling were explored using CCA cells.Methods: The effects of CQ and NQ on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay. Colony formation and cell migration affected by CQ and NQ were investigated using a clonogenic and a wound healing assay, respectively. To demonstrate the agents’ effects on FoxM1 signaling, expression levels of the target genes were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: CQ and NQ significantly inhibited cell survival of HuCCT1 and Huh28 in a dose- and a time-dependent fashion. Further investigations using the rapidly proliferating HuCCT1 cells revealed significant suppression of cell proliferation and colony formation induced by low doses of the compounds. Treatment of CQ and NQ repressed expression of cyclin D1 but enhanced expression of p21. Most importantly, upon CQ and NQ treatment

  6. Divorcing the Late Upper Palaeolithic demographic histories of mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6 in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennarun Erwan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Southwest Asian origin and dispersal to North Africa in the Early Upper Palaeolithic era has been inferred in previous studies for mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6. Both haplogroups have been proposed to show similar geographic patterns and shared demographic histories. Results We report here 24 M1 and 33 U6 new complete mtDNA sequences that allow us to refine the existing phylogeny of these haplogroups. The resulting phylogenetic information was used to genotype a further 131 M1 and 91 U6 samples to determine the geographic spread of their sub-clades. No southwest Asian specific clades for M1 or U6 were discovered. U6 and M1 frequencies in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe do not follow similar patterns, and their sub-clade divisions do not appear to be compatible with their shared history reaching back to the Early Upper Palaeolithic. The Bayesian Skyline Plots testify to non-overlapping phases of expansion, and the haplogroups’ phylogenies suggest that there are U6 sub-clades that expanded earlier than those in M1. Some M1 and U6 sub-clades could be linked with certain events. For example, U6a1 and M1b, with their coalescent ages of ~20,000–22,000 years ago and earliest inferred expansion in northwest Africa, could coincide with the flourishing of the Iberomaurusian industry, whilst U6b and M1b1 appeared at the time of the Capsian culture. Conclusions Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of both haplogroups and coalescent time assessments suggest that the extant main branching pattern of both haplogroups arose and diversified in the mid-later Upper Palaeolithic, with some sub-clades concomitantly with the expansion of the Iberomaurusian industry. Carriers of these maternal lineages have been later absorbed into and diversified further during the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages in North and East Africa.

  7. Enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in human helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and in vaccinated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Quiding-Järbrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori triggers a chronic gastric inflammation that can progress to atrophy and gastric adenocarcinoma. Polarization of macrophages is a characteristic of both cancer and infection, and may promote progression or resolution of disease. However, the role of macrophages and their polarization during H. pylori infection has not been well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a mouse model of infection and gastric biopsies from 29 individuals, we have analyzed macrophage recruitment and polarization during H. pylori infection by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. We found a sequential recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages to the gastric mucosa of infected mice. Gene expression analysis of stomach tissue and sorted macrophages revealed that gastric macrophages were polarized to M1 after H. pylori infection, and this process was substantially accelerated by prior vaccination. Human H. pylori infection was characterized by a mixed M1/M2 polarization of macrophages. However, in H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly increased compared to uncomplicated gastritis, indicative of an enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in this pre-malignant lesion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that vaccination of mice against H. pylori amplifies M1 polarization of gastric macrophages, and that a similar enhanced M1 polarization is present in human H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis.

  8. The M1 muscarinic receptor and its second messenger coupling in human neuroblastoma cells and transfected murine fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Lin.

    1989-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that pirenzepine (PZ)-high affinity muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) are coupled to the hydrolysis of inositol lipids and not to the adenylate cyclase system in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The maximal carbachol(CCh)-stimulated [ 3 H]IP 1 accumulation in the SH-SY5Y cells was decreased in the presence of 1μg/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein may be involved in the coupling. Several cell clones which express only M 1 mAChR were generated by transfecting the murine fibroblast B82 cells with the cloned rat genomic m 1 gene. The transfected B82 cells (cTB10) showed specific [ 3 H](-)QNB binding activity. The mAChRs in these cells are of the M 1 type defined by their high affinity for PZ and low affinity for AF-DX 116 and coupled to hydrolysis of inositol lipids, possibly via a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein. The relationship between the M 1 mAChR density and the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol lipids was studied in 7 clones. The M 1 mAChR densities in these cells characterized by [ 3 H](-)MQNB binding ranged from 12 fmol/10 6 cells in LK3-1 cells to 260 fmol/10 6 cells in the LK3-8 cells

  9. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit pancreatic secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Tozzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    +/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar...... of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3-, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3- secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition...

  10. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  11. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  12. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  13. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  14. Regulation of glucagon secretion by incretins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Christensen, M; Lund, A

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent...... studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but preserved suppression after isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, pointing to factors from the gut. Gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to oral glucose include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that strongly inhibits glucagon secretion......, and GLP-2 and GIP, both of which stimulate secretion. When the three hormones are given together on top of isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, glucagon suppression is delayed in a manner similar to that observed after oral glucose. Studies with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39, suggest...

  15. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  16. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  17. Cholecystokinin inhibits gastrin secretion independently of paracrine somatostatin secretion in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hansen, L; Hilsted, L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin inhibits the secretion of gastrin from antral G cells, an effect that is speculated to be mediated by D cells secreting somatostatin. The aim of the study was to test directly whether cholecystokinin inhibition of antral gastrin secretion is mediated by somatostatin....... METHODS: The effects of CCK on gastrin and somatostatin secretion were studied in isolated vascularly perfused preparations of pig antrum before and after immunoneutralization brought about by infusion of large amounts of a high affinity monoclonal antibody against somatostatin. RESULTS: CCK infusion...... at 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M decreased gastrin output to 70.5% +/- 7.6% (n = 8) and 76.3% +/- 3.6% (n = 7) of basal output, respectively. CCK at 10(-10) M had no effect (n = 6). Somatostatin secretion was dose-dependently increased by CCK infusion and increased to 268 +/- 38.2% (n = 7) of basal secretion...

  18. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    25 4.7 Computational Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Side-Channel Effect on Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) 31...improvements, and to build upon them to discuss the side-channel effects on the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ). The following questions are asked...secret sharing scheme? • Can the improvements to the current secret sharing scheme prove to be beneficial in strengthening/weakening AES encryption

  19. Matryoshka: Hiding Secret Communication in Plain Sight

    OpenAIRE

    Safaka, Iris; Fragouli, Christina; Argyraki, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We want to enable a pair of communicating users to exchange secret messages while hiding the fact that secret communication is taking place. We propose a linguistic steganography approach, where each human message is hidden in another human-like message. A hard open question is how to keep the steganographic message small -- existing related tools tend to blow up its size, thereby revealing the use of steganography. We encrypt by compressing each message, mapping it to a plausible sequence of...

  20. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  1. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    OpenAIRE

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks, more precisely the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a...

  2. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States) and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  3. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  4. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  5. Systematics of the excitation of M1 resonances in medium heavy nuclei by 200 MeV proton inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali, C.; Marty, N.; Morlet, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a series of seventeen nuclei ranging from 51 V to 140 Ca, broad resonance structures are observed at energies between 8 and 10 MeV, nearly mass independent. These resonances have very forward peaked angular distributions which imply that they are populated by an angular momentum transfer of zero. This together with the observed excitation energies suggests an M1 character for these resonances. In 51 V, 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, a sharp peak located at an excitation energy above the threshold for neutron emission is interpreted as a part of the T 0+1 component of the M1 resonances. Cross-sections are given for all the M1 resonances. For 58 Ni, 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 120 Sn and 140 Ca, an ''attenuation'' factor for the cross-sections is extracted in a OWIA calculation assuming simple shell model structures for these resonances

  6. Roles of transmembrane segment M1 of Na(+),K (+)-ATPase and Ca (2+)-ATPase, the gatekeeper and the pivot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens Peter; Vilsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    In this review we summarize mutagenesis work on the structure-function relationship of transmembrane segment M1 in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The original hypothesis that charged residues in the N-terminal part of M1 interact with the transported...... cations can be rejected. On the other hand hydrophobic residues in the middle part of M1 turned out to play crucial roles in Ca(2+) interaction/occlusion in Ca(2+)-ATPase and K(+) interaction/occlusion in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Leu(65) of the Ca(2+)-ATPase and Leu(99) of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, located...... of the extracytoplasmic gate in both the Ca(2+)-ATPase and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  7. Internal (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) resistive modes in the toroidal Tokomak with circular cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    A linear analysis is presented of the toroidal coupling between the internal resistive modes (m=1, n=1) and (m=2, n=1) in the Tokomak with circular cross sections. One includes the resistive and diamagnetic effects in the singular layers where the safety factor q takes respectively the values one and two. By expanding the MHD equations in powers of epsilon, the local inverse of the aspect ratio, one obtains a system of two coupled equations for the harmonic amplitudes. When the shear is finite on q=1, the toroidal coupling is negligible. In the opposite limit, one can explain: the experimental behaviour of the (m=1, n=1) mode before the internal disruption; the simultaneous observation of the modes (m=1, n=1) and [de

  8. Effective Lagrangians, Watson's theorem and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the Delta resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The author investigates theoretical uncertainties and model dependence in the extraction of the nucleon-delta(1232) electromagnetic transition amplitudes from the multipole data base. The starting point is an effective Lagrangian incorporating chiral symmetry, which includes at the tree level the pseudovector Born terms, leading t-channel vector meson exchanges, and s and u channel delta exchanges. The nucleon-delta magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition amplitudes are expressed in terms of two independent gauge couplings at the γNΔ vertex. After unitarizing the tree level amplitude, the gauge couplings are fitted to various multipole data sets, thus determining E2 and M1. Although there is much sensitivity to the method used to unitarize the amplitude, the author extracts the E2/M1 ratio to be negative, with a magnitude around 1.5%. 11 refs., 3 figs

  9. Disturbed mitochondrial function restricts glutamate uptake in the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Gurubaran, Iswariyaraja Sridevi; Henriksen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Using the human Müller cell line, MIO-M1, the aim was to study the impact of mitochondrial inhibition in Müller glia through antimycin A treatment. MIO-M1 cell survival, levels of released lactate, mitochondrial function, and glutamate uptake were studied in response to mitochondrial inhibition...... and glucose restriction. Lactate release decreased in response to glucose restriction. Combined glucose restriction and blocked mitochondrial activity decreased survival and caused collapse of the respiratory chain measured by oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. Mitochondrial...... inhibition caused impaired glutamate uptake and decreased mRNA expression of the glutamate transporter, EAAT1. Over all, we show important roles of mitochondrial activity in MIO-M1 cell function and survival....

  10. Further optimization of the M1 PAM VU0453595: Discovery of novel heterobicyclic core motifs with improved CNS penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Joseph D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Adams, Jeffrey J; Nance, Kellie D; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Chang, Sichen; Morrison, Ryan D; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Stauffer, Shaun R; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    This Letter describes the continued chemical optimization of the VU0453595 series of M1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By surveying alternative 5,6- and 6,6-heterobicylic cores for the 6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-one core of VU453595, we found new cores that engendered not only comparable or improved M1 PAM potency, but significantly improved CNS distribution (Kps 0.3-3.1). Moreover, this campaign provided fundamentally distinct M1 PAM chemotypes, greatly expanding the available structural diversity for this valuable CNS target, devoid of hydrogen-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An unexpected knock on Corrigan's secret door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woywodt, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Corrigan's secret door describes a metaphorical escape route for busy physicians. The term was derived from the successful and exceptionally busy professional life of Irish physician Dominic John Corrigan (1802-80). It is claimed that Corrigan's outpatient clinic was so busy that he required a secret door in his consulting rooms to escape from the ever-growing queue of eager patients. The origins of this charming story are unknown, and the door may have never existed. However, at present, Corrigan's secret door is often quoted when busy physicians have their own little ways in surviving a stressful professional life. Generations of British-trained doctors have grown up with Corrigan's secret door, as it was featured in the introduction of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Accordingly, trainees as well as more senior doctors are often reminded that having a 'secret door' is vital in surviving in the medical profession. My own escape is through classical music and the violoncello, in particular. As the name implies, my own secret door is normally invisible to colleagues and patients. This little article is about a patient who found me out, and a reflection on the role of classical music and the cello in my professional life.

  12. Task-specificity of unilateral anodal and dual-M1 tDCS effects on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karok, Sophia; Fletcher, David; Witney, Alice G

    2017-01-08

    Task-specific effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning were investigated in 30 healthy participants. In a sham-controlled, mixed design, participants trained on 3 different motor tasks (Purdue Pegboard Test, Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task) over 3 consecutive days while receiving either unilateral anodal over the right primary motor cortex (M1), dual-M1 or sham stimulation. Retention sessions were administered 7 and 28 days after the end of training. In the Purdue Pegboard Test, both anodal and dual-M1 stimulation reduced average completion time approximately equally, an improvement driven by online learning effects and maintained for about 1 week. The Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and the Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task were associated with an advantage of dual-M1 tDCS in consolidation processes both between training sessions and when testing at long-term retention; both were maintained for at least 1 month. This study demonstrates that M1-tDCS enhances and sustains motor learning with different electrode montages. Stimulation-induced effects emerged at different learning phases across the tasks, which strongly suggests that the influence of tDCS on motor learning is dynamic with respect to the functional recruitment of the distributed motor system at the time of stimulation. Divergent findings regarding M1-tDCS effects on motor learning may partially be ascribed to task-specific consequences and the effects of offline consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GST M1-T1 null allele frequency patterns in geographically assorted human populations: a phylogenetic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.

  14. The Armys M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the Army John McHugh , urging instead the limited production of 70 M-1A2SEPv2 tanks per year from FY2013 to FY2017. 32 Congress subsequently decided...House Members sent a letter to Secretary of the Army McHugh expressing concern over the Army’s failure to fund production of the M-1A2. Congress...John McHugh by Rep. Sander Levin and Rep. Mike Rogers, May 6, 2011. 33 See CRS Reports: CRS Report R43323, Defense: FY2014 Authorization and

  15. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  16. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd-mass nuclei, 59< or =A< or =149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd-mass nuclei with 59< or =A< or =149. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to September 1976

  17. Achievements and Prospects in Electrochemical-Based Biosensing Platforms for Aflatoxin M1 Detection in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Gurban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus growing on plants and products stored under inappropriate conditions, represent the most studied group of mycotoxins. Contamination of human and animal milk with aflatoxin M1, the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is an important health risk factor due to its carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Due to the low concentration of this aflatoxin in milk and milk products, the analytical methods used for its quantification have to be highly sensitive, specific and simple. This paper presents an overview of the analytical methods, especially of the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors, used for determination of aflatoxin M1.

  18. Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Jan; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2009-01-19

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in three-and four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number micro?= 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for micro= 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number micro= 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for micro?= 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  19. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskoaho, H.; Toth, M.; Lang, R.E.; Unger, Th.; Garten, D.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium, protein kinase C and adenylate cyclase in the ANP secretion, the secretory responses from isolated perfused rat hearts to a calcium channel activator, Bay k8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluomethylphenyl)-2-pyridine-5-carboxylate), the calcium ionophore (A23187), the phorbol ester (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA), and to forskolin were studied. ANP in perfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay 10 min before and during the infusion (30 min) of various agents at 2 min intervals. A23187 (5.7 x 10 -7 ) induced a sharp increase, whereas TPA (0.15 - 1.6 x 10 -7 ) caused a slowly progressive increase in ANP secretion. 4a-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, a non-active phorbol ester, had no effect on ANP secretion. Bay k8644 (4 x 10 -7 ) and forskolin (1 x 10 -6 ) alone caused small but sustained increase in ANP secretion. The combination of TPA with Bay k8644, forskolin or A23187 stimulated ANP secretion higher than the calculated additive value for each agent. Dibuturyl-cAMP (1.6 x 10 -4 ) pretreatment also enhanced TPA-induced ANP release. 8-Bromo-cGMP (1.3 x 10 -4 ) and sodium nitroprusside (9 x 10 -5 ) alone had no effect, but both attenuated the TPA-induced ANP secretion. The results suggest that atrial cardiocytes possess at least two different secretory pathways for ANP secretion, which are probably dependent on protein kinase C and cyclic AMP

  20. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...