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Sample records for lytechinus variegatus lamarck

  1. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

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    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  2. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE'S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L; Lawrence, John M

    2012-08-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, different mathematical models representing a priori hypotheses were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score. The AIC is one of many information-theoretic approaches that allows for direct comparison of non-nested models with varying number of parameters. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of test diameter increase. Dietary protein level was the best model of test with spines wet weight gain and test with spines dry matter production. When the Aristotle's lantern was corrected for size of the test, there was an inverse relationship with dietary protein level. Log transformed lantern to test with spines index was also best associated with the dietary protein model. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for growth parameters. However, the protein × carbohydrate interaction model was the best model of organic content (% dry weight) of the test without spines. These data suggest that there is a differential allocation of resources when dietary protein is limiting and the test with spines, but not the Aristotle's lantern, is affected by availability of dietary nutrients.

  3. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE’S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L; Lawrence, John M

    2014-01-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, different mathematical models representing a priori hypotheses were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score. The AIC is one of many information-theoretic approaches that allows for direct comparison of non-nested models with varying number of parameters. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of test diameter increase. Dietary protein level was the best model of test with spines wet weight gain and test with spines dry matter production. When the Aristotle’s lantern was corrected for size of the test, there was an inverse relationship with dietary protein level. Log transformed lantern to test with spines index was also best associated with the dietary protein model. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for growth parameters. However, the protein × carbohydrate interaction model was the best model of organic content (% dry weight) of the test without spines. These data suggest that there is a differential allocation of resources when dietary protein is limiting and the test with spines, but not the Aristotle’s lantern, is affected by availability of dietary nutrients. PMID:25431520

  4. Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C R; Santana, M F M; Maluf, A; Cortez, F S; Cesar, A; Pereira, C D S; Turra, A

    2015-03-15

    Apart from the physiological impacts on marine organisms caused by ingesting microplastics, the toxicity caused by substances leaching from these particles into the environment requires investigation. To understand this potential risk, we evaluated the toxicity of virgin (raw) and beach-stranded plastic pellets to the development of embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, simulating transfers of chemical compounds to interstitial water and water column by assays of pellet-water interface and elutriate, respectively. Both assays showed that virgin pellets had toxic effects, increasing anomalous embryonic development by 58.1% and 66.5%, respectively. The toxicity of stranded pellets was lower than virgin pellets, and was observed only for pellet-water interface assay. These results show that (i) plastic pellets act as a vector of pollutants, especially for plastic additives found on virgin particles; and that (ii) the toxicity of leached chemicals from pellets depends on the exposure pathway and on the environmental compartment in which pellets accumulate.

  5. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

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    Joseph Antoine Hakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition in the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%. However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similar relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the ten samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities were evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment.

  6. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população = Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics

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    Alexandra Mara Cruz Lage

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foisignificativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferençassignificativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was aneffect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring

  7. Synchrotron X-ray studies of the keel of the short-spined sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus: absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D; Carlo, F

    2003-05-01

    In sea urchin teeth, the keel plays an important structural role, and this paper reports results of microstructural characterization of the keel of Lytechinus variegatus using two noninvasive synchrotron x-ray techniques: x-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and x-ray diffraction mapping. MicroCT with 14 keV x-rays mapped the spatial distribution of mineral at the 1.3 microm level in a millimeter-sized fragment of a mature portion of the keel. Two rows of low absorption channels (i.e., primary channels) slightly less than 10 microm in diameter were found running linearly from the flange to the base of the keel and parallel to its sides. The primary channels paralleled the oral edge of the keel, and the microCT slices revealed a planar secondary channel leading from each primary channel to the side of the keel. The primary and secondary channels were more or less coplanar and may correspond to the soft tissue between plates of the carinar process. Transmission x-ray diffraction with 80.8 keV x-rays and a 0.1 mm beam mapped the distribution of calcite crystal orientations and the composition Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3) of the calcite. Unlike the variable Mg concentration and highly curved prisms found in the keel of Paracentrotus lividus, a constant Mg content (x = 0.13) and relatively little prism curvature was found in the keel of Lytechinus variegatus.

  8. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

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    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  9. Expression of two different sulfated fucans by females of Lytechinus variegatus may regulate the seasonal variation in the fertilization of the sea urchin.

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    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Castro, Michelle O; Santos, Livia L; Garcia, Clarice R; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2007-08-01

    The egg jellies of sea urchins contain sulfated polysaccharides with unusual structures, composed of linear chains of l-fucose or l-galactose with well-defined repetitive units. The specific pattern of sulfation and the position of the glycosidic bond vary among sulfated polysaccharides from different species. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction, which is a critical event for fertilization. Females of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus spawn eggs containing a sulfated fucan with the repetitive sequence [3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2,4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1](n). We now observe that, close to winter, a period of decreased fertility for the sea urchin, the females synthesize a distinct sulfated fucan with a simple structure, composed of 4-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-fucose residues. This sulfated fucan is inactive when tested in vitro for the acrosome reaction using homologous sperm. The amount of egg jellies spawned by females (and their constituent sulfated polysaccharides) varied greatly throughout the year. Apparently, there is a correlation between the temperature of the sea water and the expression of the 4-sulfated, 3-linked sulfated fucan. Overall, we described the occurrence of two isotypes of sulfated fucan in the egg jelly of the sea urchin L. variegatus, which differ in their biological activity and may be involved in the periodicity of the reproductive cycle of the invertebrate.

  10. Ocean acidification affects parameters of immune response and extracellular pH in tropical sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra luccunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Figueiredo, Débora Alvares; Branco, Paola Cristina; Dos Santos, Douglas Amaral; Emerenciano, Andrews Krupinski; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Shimada Borges, João Carlos; Machado Cunha da Silva, José Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters. For this reason, the phagocytic capacity (PC), the phagocytic index (PI), the capacity of cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell spreading area of phagocytic amebocytes in vitro, and the coelomic fluid pH were analyzed in animals exposed to a pH of 8.0 (control group), 7.6 and 7.3. Experimental pH's were predicted by IPCC for the future of the two species. Furthermore, a recovery test was conducted to verify whether animals have the ability to restore these physiological parameters after being re-exposed to control conditions. Both species presented a significant decrease in PC, in the pH of coelomic fluid and in the cell spreading area. Besides that, Echinometra lucunter showed a significant decrease in cell spreading and significant differences in coelomocyte proportions. The recovery test showed that the PC of both species increased, also being below the control values. Even so, they were still significantly higher than those exposed to acidified seawater, indicating that with the re-establishment of the pH value the phagocytic capacity of cells tends to restore control conditions. These results demonstrate that the immune system and the coelomic fluid pH of these animals can be affected by ocean acidification. However, the effects of a short-term exposure can be reversible if the natural values ​​are re-established. Thus, the effects of

  11. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.5124 Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.5124

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    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foi significativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferenças significativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was an effect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in

  12. Characterization of two distinctly different mineral-related proteins from the teeth of the Camarodont sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus: Specificity of function with relation to mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.VEIS; K ALVARES; S.N.DIXIT; J.S.ROBACH; S.R.STOCK

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the mineral phase of the Lyteehinus variegatus tooth is comprised of magnesium containing calcite crystal elements, collectively arranged so that they appear as a single crystal under polarized light,as well as under X-ray or electron irradiation. However, the crystal elements are small, and in spite of the common alignment of their crystal axes, are not the same size or shape in different parts of the tooth. The toughness of the tooth structure arises from the fact that it is a composite in which the crystals are coated with surface layers of organic matter that probably act to inhibit crack furmation and elongation. In the growth region the organic components represent a greater part of the tooth structure. In the most heavily mineralized adoral region the primary plates fuse with inter-plate pillars. Using Scanning Electron Micro-scopy; TOF-SIMS mapping of the characteristic amino acids of the mineral related proteins; and isolation and characterization of the mineral-protected protein we report that the late-forming inter-plate pillars had more than athree-fold greater Mg content than the primary plates.Furthermore, the aspartic acid content of the mineral-related protein was highest in the high Mg pillars whereas the mineral-protected protein of the primary plates was richer in glutamic acid content.These results suggest that the Asp-rich protein(s) is- important for formation of the late developing inter-plate pillars that fuse the primary plates and increase the stiffness of the most mature tooth segment, Supported by NIDCR Grant DE R01-01374 to AV.

  13. A metodologia de Lamarck

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    Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o método científico de Jean-Baptiste Lamarck é estudado sob o ponto de vista de seu discurso metodológico, bem como sob o ponto de vista de sua prática científica. Essa metodologia é comparada à preconizada por Condillac, assim como à dos "ideólogos" (idéologues grupo no qual se costuma incluir o próprio Lamarck. Mostra-se que o discurso metodológico de Lamarck assemelha-se ao dos ideólogos; no entanto, sua prática científica não se coaduna com esse enfoque. Em vez de seguir uma abordagem empirista, a obra de Lamarck se fundamenta em princípios metafísicos gerais sobre a natureza. Sob o ponto de vista dos ideólogos, seu trabalho deveria ser rejeitado - o que de fato ocorreu - como um mero sistema (système metafísico - no sentido pejorativo utilizado pelos seguidores de Condillac. No entanto, o presente artigo argumenta que esse é justamente um importante e inovador aspecto da obra de Lamarck, que permitiu a eclosão do evolucionismo moderno.

  14. Epigenetics, Darwin, and Lamarck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, David

    2015-01-01

    It is not really helpful to consider modern environmental epigenetics as neo-Lamarckian; and there is no evidence that Lamarck considered the idea original to himself. We must all keep learning about inheritance, but attributing modern ideas to early researchers is not helpful, and can be misleading. PMID:26026157

  15. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  16. VARIEGATUS (L.) ON CASSAVA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metarhizium flavoviride, neem, olfactory traps, socio-economics, Zonocerus variegatus ... traitement insecticide des agrégats de jeunes stades perchés sur des plantes, comme C. odorata ..... are often diverted from other uses and taken from.

  17. Lamarck: taxonomy and theoretical biology

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    Barsanti, Giulio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    I will not deal with Lamarck's theory of evolution, nor with other aspects of his work that usually first spring to mind when one thinks of the heritage that he left us. Instead I will discuss less well-known aspects of his thinking, namely the theory of classifications and the holistic approach to the biosphere, which in my opinion have not been sufficiently appreciated.



    No trataremos de la teoría evolutiva de Lamarck, ni de otros aspectos de su trabajo que inmediatamente aparecen en nuestro pensamiento cuando reflexionamos sobre la herencia que nos legó. En su lugar discutiremos temas menos conocidos de su ideario, como su teoría de las clasificaciones y su aproximación holística a la biosfera, que en mi opinión no han sido suficientemente valorados.

  18. Neo-Lamarckism in Portugal

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    Almaça, Carlos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Darwinism was championed in Portugal by the University and progressionist political parties from the 1860's on. Neo-Darwinism was neglected in its proper time and so the acceptance of the inheritance of acquired characters continued over the first decades of the 20th century. Men of medical education who were professors of Biology at the University of Oporto supported neo-Lamarckian theories in early 20th century. The first one has been Américo Pires de Lima (1886-1966, professor of Botany, whose doctoral dissertation sustaining early Darwinism and neo-Lamarckism was presented in 1912. This thesis, as well as a few neo-Lamarckian publications with antropological significance, are commented and discussed in the present paper.



    El Darwinismo fue defendido en Portugal en la Universidad y por los partidos políticos progresistas durante la década de los años 60 del siglo XIX. El neo-darwinismo fue ignorado en su tiempo y así continuó la aceptación de la herencia de los caracteres adquiridos a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Los profesores de biolog

  19. Desarrollo postembrionario de Latrodectus variegatus (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Iife cicle of Latrodectus variegatus from cocoons collected in Bariloche, Argentina, is described. In stage IV (first free stage) 361 individually bred spiders were isolated and fed Drosophila melanogaster in the juvenile stage and Musca domestica after wards. "Stage 1" is the stage following eclosion. For the study of survival, and average Iife expectancy, a week wa The Iife cicle of Latrodectus variegatus from cocoons collected in Bariloche, Argentina, is described. In stage IV (firs...

  20. Greek Auditors in the Courses of Jean Lamarck

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    Spyros I. Asdrachas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the records of Lamarck's audiences, six students of Greek origin could be identified as attending his lectures between 1804-1827. In the catalogue published by Pietro Corsi four of them are listed as Greeks and two as Romanians. All have been properly identified. The Greeks were I. Kokkonis, S. Kanellos, D. Nitsos and D. Taillapierras, while the Romanians were two Greek physicians residing in Romania, I. K. Bouboukis and Th. Georgiades. It is worth noting that after their return to their home country none of them wrote on or advertised Lamarck's doctrines on species transformation.

  1. Greek Auditors in the Courses of Jean Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros I. Asdrachas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the records of Lamarck's audiences, six students of Greek origin could be identified as attending his lectures between 1804-1827. In the catalogue published by Pietro Corsi four of them are listed as Greeks and two as Romanians. All have been properly identified. The Greeks were I. Kokkonis, S. Kanellos, D. Nitsos and D. Taillapierras, while the Romanians were two Greek physicians residing in Romania, I. K. Bouboukis and Th. Georgiades. It is worth noting that after their return to their home country none of them wrote on or advertised Lamarck's doctrines on species transformation.

  2. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  3. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  4. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  5. Anatomia funcional de Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae Functional anatomy of Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae

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    Cordélia de Oliveira Castro Guerón

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck, 1818 lives from the West Indies to Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in soft muddy beaches in quiet waters of protected bays with little amounts of suspended material. A study of the functional anatomy of P. pectorina and its ecological aspects were undertaken. The anatomy and functioning of the stomach and the mechanisms for selection of particles were observed. The siphons, ctenidia, labial palps and stomach were analised and related to the animal's natural environment. The siphons belong to type B (Yonge 1948, the ctenidia to type C (1a (Atkins 1937. The ctenidia are homorhabdic (Ridewood 1903 and the stomach belongs to type V (Purchon 1960.

  6. As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin nos livros didáticos de Biologia no Brasil Lamarck's and Darwin's theories in text books of Biology in Brazil

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    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin são analisadas numa amostra de livros didáticos brasileiros de biologia, num período de sessenta anos. A de Darwin ocupa, nos livros didáticos, uma área maior do que a de Lamarck. Nestes é variável a extensão do conteúdo de Lamarck. Dentre os livros, destacam-se as edições do BSCS. Nestas, pela primeira vez, é apresentado o exemplo da figura do alongamento do pescoço da girafa, para ilustrar as diferenças de abordagem entre as teorias, e reproduzido desde então na maioria dos livros didáticos. Na teoria de Darwin, o principal conceito referenciado pelos autores é o da seleção natural, e, na de Lamarck, a herança dos caracteres adquiridos. As duas teorias são diferentemente apresentadas nos livros didáticos de biologia no Brasil. Darwin é apresentado como modelo de cientista e Lamarck como um teórico especulativo, tendo a sua teoria consideravelmente deformada, distante da formulação original.Theories formulated by Lamarck and Darwin are analyzed in a sample of Brazilian textbooks on biology published in a period of sixty years. Darwin's theory is covered more than Lamarck's theory. Among the analyzed books, an important mention must be addressed for BSCS editions, since the example of the elongation of the giraffes" necks for illustrating differences between both theories is presented in this series for the first time, and since then has been adopted by the majority of other textbooks on biology. The main concepts presented as representative of Darwin's and Lamarck's theories by all textbooks are natural selection and the inheritance of acquired characters, respectively. Not only theories but also the authors are differently presented in reviewed textbooks: while Darwin is presented as a model of scientist, Lamarck appears as a speculative theoretician, his theoretical propositions being remarkably deformed and changed from their original formulations.

  7. Efecto del aumento de salinidad en la fertilización de óvulos de erizos Strongylocentrotus franciscanus y Lytechinus anamesus Effect of increased salinity in the ovum fertilization of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Lytechinus anamesus

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    B. Estela López-Ortiz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efectos del incremento de salinidad sobre la fertilización de óvulos de erizos de mar de las especies Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz, 1863 y Lytechinus anamesus Clark, 1912, los cuales fueron colectados mediante buceo libre en la bahía de Todos Santos, Ensenada, B. C., México. La fertilización de los óvulos de cada especie de erizo se llevó a cabo en un intervalo de salinidad de 33.4 a 53.4‰, estimándose para cada caso su CL50. Los resultados indicaron que la capacidad de fertilización de los gametos disminuye conforme la salinidad se incrementa, alcanzando la CL50 en las 43.4‰ para Strongylocentrotus franciscanus y 48.4‰ para Lytechinus anamesus, confirmando estudios previos que recomiendan no exceder las 40‰ para evitar efectos adversos en los ciclos de vida de la fauna marina.The effects of increased salinity were evaluated on the ovum fertilization of the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz, 1863 and Lytechinus anamesus Clark, 1912, which were collected by means free-diving in the bay Todos Santos, Ensenada, B. C., Mexico. The ovum fertilization of each species of sea urchin was estimated using a range of salinity from 33.4 to 53.4‰, being considered for each case its LC50. The results indicated that the capacity of fertilization of gametes decrease as the salinity increases, reaching the LC50 at 43.4‰ for Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and 48.4‰ for Lytechinus anamesus, confirming previous research that recommended not exceed 40‰ to avoid adverse effects in life cycles of the marine fauna.

  8. Chekhovichia, a new generic replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus 1970 (Anthozoa: Heliolitoidea) non Lamarck 1801 (Protista: Foraminifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-10-29

    The genus Rotalites was established by Leleshus (1970: 97) for fossil Upper Silurian heliolitoids (Anthozoa) from Southern Tien Shan. However, the name is preoccupied by Rotalites Lamarck (1801: 401) of Foraminifera (Protista) (cf. Loeblich & Tappan, 1987). In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Chekhovichia nom. nov. is proposed here as a replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus non Lamarck.

  9. Retorno a Limoges. La Adaptación en Lamarck

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    Caponi, Gustavo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will be analyzing the Darwinist paradigm in the biological science, discussing its capacity to give satisfactory understanding of the new data from biochemistry, microbiology and genetics. The general aim of this analysis is to contribute for the debate about the statute of the scientific theories. Its specific aim is to reflect upon a possible crisis of the Darwinist paradigm, which could corroborate the conception of scientific theories as something historically transitory, and not as definitive discoveries.

    Contrariando las lecturas post-darwinianas de Lamarck, Camille Limoges nos dio algunas claves que, debidamente reconsideradas, nos permiten afirmar que, para el autor de la Filosofía Zoológica, las modificaciones de los perfiles orgánicos producidas por las circunstancias no eran nada semejante a lo que hoy caracterizaríamos como respuestas a las exigencias del medio. Las mismas eran simples trasformaciones producidas por procesos fisiológicos que modelaban lo viviente con total independencia del carácter favorable o desfavorable que pudiesen revestir las modificaciones producidas.

  10. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  11. Mechanisms of adaptive evolution. Darwinism and Lamarckism restated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, F

    1992-07-01

    This article discusses the conceptual basis of the different mechanisms of adaptive evolution. It is argued that only two such mechanisms may conceivably exist, Lamarckism and Darwinism. Darwinism is the fundamental process generating the diversity of species. Some aspects of the gene-centered approach to Darwinism are questioned, since they do not account for the generation of biological diversity. Diversity in biological design must be explained in relation to the diversity of interactions of organisms (or other higher-level units) with their environment. This aspect is usually overlooked in gene-centered views of evolution. A variant of the gene-selectionist approach has been proposed to account for the spread of cultural traits in human societies. Alternatively, I argue that social evolution is rather driven by what I call pseudo-Lamarckian inheritance. Finally, I argue that Lamarckian and pseudo-Lamarckian inheritance are just special cases of faithful replication which are found in the development of some higher-order units, such as multicellular organisms and human societies.

  12. Kropotkin between Lamarck and Darwin: the impossible synthesis

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    Girón, Álvaro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Prince P.A. Kropotkin (1842-1921 was the most important leader of revolutionary anarchism of his generation. He was also a respected explorer, geographer, and wrote a variety of books on the French Revolution, prison systems and Russian literature. However, he is better known for his contribution to the debate on Social Darwinism, exemplified by his book Mutual Aid. A Factor Evolution (1902. Actually, Kropotkin was trying to build his own brand of evolutionary Ethics: a complete socio-biology consistent with revolutionary goals. But there was a serious obstacle. The presence of the Malthusian population laws at the very core of Darwinism blocked any potential progress in this direction. Kropotkin tried to extirpate the Malthusian sting by making a critical analysis of natural selection and proposing a synthesis between Lamarck and Darwin in the 1910s.
    The aim of this article is to study the basics of the argument deployed by Kropotkin. It has been paid especial attention to the criticisms addressed to the hard heredity theory of August Weismann, and the reasons why Kropotkin’s contribution in this field has been ignored.

    El príncipe P.A. Kropotkin (1842-1921 fue el líder mas importante del anarquismo revolucionario de su generación. El fue también un respetado explorador y geógrafo, y escribió una variada serie de libros sobre la revolución francesa, el sistema de prisiones o la literatura rusa. Sin embargo, el es más conocido por su contribución al debate sobre el Darwinismo Social, ejemplificada por su libro El apoyo mutuo. Un factor de la evolución (1902. En realidad, Kropotkin estaba tratando de construir su particular versión de la ética evolucionista: una acabada sociobiología consistente con los objetivos revolucionarios. Pero existía un serio obstáculo. La presencia de las leyes de la población maltusianas en el mismo corazón del darwinismo bloqueaban cualquier tipo de progreso en esa dirección. Kropotkin

  13. Analytical psychology and the ghost of Lamarck: did Jung believe in the inheritance of acquired characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensma, Ritske

    2013-04-01

    Whether Jung was a Lamarckian or not has always been a hotly debated topic, both within the post-Jungian community and amongst scholars with an interest in Jung in the wider academic community. Yet surprisingly few substantial pieces of work have been dedicated to it and, to my mind, no one has yet managed to do justice to all the subtleties involved. The scholars who have claimed that Jung is a Lamarckian have, for the most part, oversimplified the debate by failing to discuss the passages in which Jung appears to be defending himself against Lamarckism; the scholars who have defended Jung against Lamarckism, however, have as a rule not adequately dealt with the question of whether these passages actually get Jung off the hook. This paper will attempt to correct this imbalance by putting forward four key passages spanning Jung's career that all represent conclusive evidence that Jung was indeed a Lamarckian. After discussing these, it will then deal in detail with the passages in which Jung appears to be defending himself against Lamarckism, making the case that they do not represent a defence against Lamarckism at all and have therefore generally been misinterpreted by many scholars.

  14. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  15. Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Monika Inés Hamann

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. from the intestine of the prosobranch mollusc Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801, is described. The host snail was collected from a lenitic biotope belonging to the Riachuelo basin (Corrientes province, Argentina during 1985-1986. So far the species of the genus Catadiscus Cohn, 1904 have been recorded in amphibians and reptiles. This is the first instance of a species of that genus parasitizing a mollusc.

  16. Astylus variegatus (Coleoptera, Melyridae): Cytogenetic study of a population exposed to agrochemical products

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle Cristina Schneider; Bianca Pierina Carraro; Doralice Maria Cella; Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello; Roberto Ferreira Artoni; Mara Cristina de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    In this work we describe the cytogenetic analyses performed in specimens of Astylus variegatus (Germar, 1824) collected in two localities: one area of natural vegetation and one of agricultural crops, where agrochemical products were used. Astylus variegatus had karyotypes with 2n(male) = 16+Xy p and 2n (female) = 16+XXp, with exclusively metacentric chromosomes. Pachytene spermatocytes showed synapsed autosomal bivalents and non-associated sex chromosomes. In diplotene, the autosomal bivalen...

  17. Parasitismo por Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 e Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 em Bradypus variegatus (preguiça Parasitism by Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 and Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 in Bradypus variegatus (sloth

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    J.B. Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin scrapings of three sloths Bradypus variegatus from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analysed after lactophenol clarification. The mites Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, 1778 and Lobalges trouessarti Fonseca, 1954 were identified. For the first time, S. scabiei and L. trouessarti are recorded as mange agents in B. variegatus.

  18. La difusión de la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck en la revista La Abeja (1862-1870 de Barcelona

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    Camós Cabeceran, Agustí

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1862 and 1864 Lamarck's works were diffused in Spain through a magazine called La Abeja which was edited by Antoni Bergnes de las Casas, and published in Barcelona. This may reveal a more important influence of Lamarck's theory on the introduction of evolutionary theories in Spain. La Abeja includes the translation of the Histoire naturelle des végétaux where Lamarck incorporated an early explanation of his theory of evolution; and a series of anonymous articles about the reproduction of living beings, where a more complete explanation about Lamarck's evolutionary theory is contained.

    La obra de Lamarck fue difundida, entre los años 1862 y 1865, por la revista La Abeja dirigida por Antoni Bergnes de las Casas y publicada en Barcelona. En dicha revista aparece explicada la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck tanto en la traducción de su obra. Histoire naturelle des végétaux, como en una serie de artículos anónimos sobre la reproducción de los seres vivos. Estos datos pueden revelar que, en la introducción del evolucionismo en España, la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck tuvo mayor influencia de la que generalmente se ha supuesto.

  19. Developmental expression of a cell surface protein involved in sea urchin skeleton formation. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus; Lytechinus pictus

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    Farach, M.C.; Valdizan, M.; Park, H.R.; Decker, G.L.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously used a monoclonal antibody (1223) to identify a 130 Kd cell surface protein involved in skeleton formation is sea urchin embryos. In the current study the authors have examined the expression of the 1223 antigen over the course of development of embryos of two species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus. The 130 Kd protein is detected in S. purp eggs on immunoblots. Labeling with (/sup 3/H) leucine and immunoaffinity chromatography show that it also is synthesized shortly after fertilization. Immunofluroescence reveals that at this early stage the 1223 antigen is uniformly distributed on all of the cells. Synthesis decreases to a minimum by the time of hatching (18 h), as does the total amount of antigen present in the embryo. A second period of synthesis commences at the mesenchyme blastula stage, when the spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) have appeared. During this later stage, synthesis and cell surface expression are restricted to the PMCs. In contrast to S. purp., in L. pictus the 130 Kd protein does not appear until the PMCs are formed. Hybrid embryos demonstrate a pattern of expression of the maternal species. These results suggest that early expression of 1223 antigen in S. purp. is due to utilization of maternal transcripts present in the egg. In both species later expression in PMCs appears to be the result of cell-type specific synthesis, perhaps encoded by embryonic transcripts.

  20. Phototoxicology. 1. Light-enhanced toxicity of TNT and some related compounds to Daphnia magna and Lytechinus variagatus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R; Johnson, L R; Schaeffer, D J; Balbach, H

    1994-02-01

    Many environmental pollutants interact with solar near-ultraviolet (nuv) light in a manner which greatly increases their toxic effects. The phenomenon of light-mediated toxicity (phototoxicity) is only now becoming generally recognized to any significant degree. Manufacture of, and loading munitions with, the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in past decades caused contamination of soils and sediments at levels exceeding 1000 ppm and of waters at levels near saturation (100 ppm). Manufacture of TNT produces numerous nitrated by-products, and most of these compounds, including TNT, can be metabolized by many species, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and mammals. This study investigated the phototoxicity of TNT, and 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 3,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and -diaminotoluene (DAT), and the major metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A), to Daphnia magna (acute toxicity) and Lytechinus variagatus (sea urchin) embryos (subacute, developmental toxicity). Most of the compounds were weakly toxic or nontoxic in the dark. All were phototoxic to sea urchins. In D. magna, 2,3- and 3,4-DNT/DAT and 4A were not toxic but were phototoxic, and 2A was toxic and phototoxic; the other isomers were not toxic or phototoxic to this species.

  1. DE LAMARCK A DARWIN: ¿CONTINUIDAD O RUPTURA? ¿LINEALIDAD O BIFURCACIÓN?

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Alejandro Castro Moreno

    2010-01-01

    En este escrito se hace una comparación entre las teorías de Lamarck y Darwin, para mirar hasta qué punto hay una continuidad entre ellas o, por el contrario, si existe una marcada discontinuidad. Dicha comparación se hace teniendo en cuenta algunos aspectos clave de las dos teorías, tales como las concepciones de especie, extinción, origen de la vida y naturaleza. Así mismo se analizan las formas de proceder de estos dos grandes naturalistas.

  2. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  3. Biomass measurement of living Lumbriculus variegatus with impedance spectroscopy

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    Martina Sammer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy is a useful tool for non-invasive and real time measurements of cell suspensions and a variety of biological tissues. The objective of this study was the investigation of the dielectric properties of living aquatic worms (Lumbriculus variegatus using impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. We demonstrate a linear relation between the worm biomass and the phase response of the signal thereby providing a quick and precise method to determine the biomass of aquatic worms in situ. Possible applications for non-destructive online biomass monitoring of aquatic worms and other aqueous organisms are discussed. Furthermore, we show that groups of worms fed different diets can be distinguished by the method presented. These results reveal a close relationship between the nutritional composition of the worms and the measured phase response. We also demonstrate that the phase response at 90 kHz does not depend on the worm size. In contrast, the response function for the signal at 440 Hz reveals a linear correlation of average individual worm size and phase. Therefore, we conclude that the measured phase response at 90 kHz qualifies as a measure of the total amount of worm biomass present in the measuring cell, whereas the phase measurement at 440 Hz can be used to estimate the average individual worm size. 

  4. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

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    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  5. Nuevo registro de Bufo variegatus Gunther para la República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Biolé, Fernando; Williams, Jorge Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Bufo variegatus es un anuro de tamaño mediano, descripto originalmente por Günther (1870) para Puerto Bueno, Chile, creando para ella el género Nannophryne. Posteriormente Boulenger (1882) lo considera perteneciente al género Bufo. Esta especie tiene una distribución restringida al sur de Argentina y de Chile.

  6. The Vindication of Lamarck? Epigenetics at the Intersection of Law and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Research on epigenetic mechanisms is gaining traction, yet is poorly understood by criminologists and behavioral scientists. The current objective is to review relevant studies of interest to behavioral scientists who study crime, and to translate admittedly challenging scientific information into text that is digestible to the average criminologist. Using systematic search procedures the authors identified and reviewed 41 studies of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric and behavioral phenotypes among humans. Findings revealed significant epigenetic effects in an assortment of genes that are implicated in the etiology of depression, suicidality, callous-unemotional traits, and chronic and intergenerational aggressive behavior. Several polymorphisms that mediate the HPA axis, neurotransmission, immune response, brain development, serotonin synthesis, and other processes were found. Although prescriptive knowledge based on epigenetic findings to date is premature, epigenetics is a new and exciting scientific frontier not too different in spirit from Lamarck's observations centuries ago. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and immediate responses to environmental challenges has offered a promise of protagonism of human beings and their fellow travellers, the other organisms, in the evolutionary process. Darwin's theory about evolution by natural selection does not offer this consolation and does not presuppose anything else other than gradual changes in the composition of natural populations. The study of ecology, ethology, neurobiology, animal culture, psychology and human history reveals that the lamarckian interpretations of change and character transmission processes always assume what they intend to explain, that is previous processes of darwinian evolution that guarantee the adaptive nature of the observed responses. The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materialistic explanations as those offered by Darwin's theory.

  8. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  9. EFFECTS OF P-NONYLPHENOL, METHOXYCHLOR AND ENDOSULFAN ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND EXPRESSION IN THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal and dose-response relationships of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA induction and subsequent plasma VTG accumulation were established for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol, an alkylphenol, and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endo...

  10. Metales traza en la franja costera del Algarve, II: bioacumulación en mejillones Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819)

    OpenAIRE

    MACHADO, L.M.; Bebianno, M.J.; Boski, T.; Moura, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in samples of soft tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819), collected from 19 sampling points on the Algarve Coast (southern Portugal). Of all the sampling points, Portimão showed the highest metal concentrations in mussel tissues. Metal concentrations increased near urban centres and sources of industrial effluents. Consequently, the areas influenced...

  11. Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history

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    Moreno, Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lamarck´s theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and immediate responses to environmental challenges has offered a promise of protagonism of human beings and their fellow trvellers, the other organisms, in the evolutionary process. Darwin’s theory about evolution by natural selection does not offer this consolation and does not presuppose anything else other than gradual cahnges in the composition of natural populations. The study of ecology, ethology, neurobiology, animal culture, psichology and human history reveals that the lamarckian interpretations of change and character transmission processes always assume what they intend to explain, that is previous processes of darwinian evolution that guarantee the adaptive nature of the observed responses. The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materilaistic explanations as those offered by Darwin’s theory.

    a teoría de Lamarck sobre herencia de caracteres adquiridos y sobre respuestas inmediatas a retos ambientales ha ofrecido una promesa de intencionalidad y protagonismo en el proceso evolutivo al ser humano y a los restantes organismos. La teoría de Darwin sobre evolución por selección natural no ofrece este consuelo y no presupone nada más que procesos de recambio gradual en poblaciones naturales. El estudio de la ecología, la etología, la neurobiología, la cultura animal, la psicología y la historia humana revela que las interpretaciones lamarckianas de los cambios y procesos de transmisión de caracteres presuponen siempre lo que pretenden explicar, es decir procesos previos de evolución darwiniana que garantizan la naturaleza adaptativa de las respuestas observadas. La búsqueda continua de dirección y de intención en los procesos evolutivos por muchos científicos sugiere la escasa aceptación de explicaciones materialistas como las que ofrece la teoría de

  12. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biardi, James E; Coss, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from two sites in south central New Mexico, where prairie (Crotalus viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes are common predators, were assayed for inhibition of rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic activities. At statistically significant levels rock squirrel blood sera reduced the metalloprotease and hemolytic activity of venoms from C. v. viridis and C. atrox more than venom from an allopatric snake species, the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In contrast, general proteolytic activity of venom from C. oreganus was inhibited more by S. variegatus serum defenses than activity of venom from sympatric snakes. For all three venoms, incubation with squirrel sera increased the level of fibrinolysis over venom-only treatments. These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter. However, there were statistically significant differences between general proteolytic activity and fibrinolytic activity of C. v. viridis and C. atrox venom, suggesting that rock squirrels might be differentially vulnerable to these two predators. The hypothesis that prey resistance influences snake venom evolution in a predator-prey arms race is given further support by the previously cryptic variation in venoms detected when assayed against prey defenses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Astylus variegatus (Coleoptera, Melyridae: Cytogenetic study of a population exposed to agrochemical products

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    Marielle Cristina Schneider

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the cytogenetic analyses performed in specimens of Astylus variegatus (Germar, 1824 collected in two localities: one area of natural vegetation and one of agricultural crops, where agrochemical products were used. Astylus variegatus had karyotypes with 2n(male = 16+Xy p and 2n (female = 16+XXp, with exclusively metacentric chromosomes. Pachytene spermatocytes showed synapsed autosomal bivalents and non-associated sex chromosomes. In diplotene, the autosomal bivalents exhibited one or two terminal chiasmata and the Xy p had a typical parachute configuration. In meiotic cells of some specimens, an extra chromosome, interpreted as a B chromosome, was observed. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes, with the exception of the y p. Silver nitrate staining revealed one nucleolus organizer region (NOR on the terminal region of the short arm of the second autosome pair. Silver staining of meiotic cells confirmed the NOR pattern detected in mitotic cells and revealed an argentophilous material on the Xy p. A cytogenetic comparison between the two populations of A. variegatus showed a statistically significant divergence (chi2 = 117.10; df = 1 in the number of aneuploid cells and a higher frequency of B chromosome in the population exposed to agrochemicals.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths.

  15. The next evolutionary synthesis: from Lamarck and Darwin to genomic variation and systems biology

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    Bard Jonathan BL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolutionary synthesis, the standard 20th century view of how evolutionary change occurs, is based on selection, heritable phenotypic variation and a very simple view of genes. It is therefore unable to incorporate two key aspects of modern molecular knowledge: first is the richness of genomic variation, so much more complicated than simple mutation, and second is the opaque relationship between the genotype and its resulting phenotype. Two new and important books shed some light on how we should view evolutionary change now. Evolution: a view from the 21st century by J.A. Shapiro (2011, FT Press Science, New Jersey, USA. pp. 246. $34.99. examines the richness of genomic variation and its implications. Transformations of Lamarckism: from Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology edited by S.B. Gissis & E. Jablonka (2011, MIT Press, Cambridge, USA. pp. 457 includes some 40 papers that anyone with an interest in the history of evolutionary thought and the relationship between the environment and the genome will want to read. This review discusses both books within the context of contemporary evolutionary thinking and points out that neither really comes to terms with today's key systems-biology question: how does mutation-induced variation in a molecular network generate variation in the resulting phenotype?

  16. Spicule size variation in Xestospongia testudinaria Lamarck, 1815 at Probolinggo-Situbondo coastal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagio, Iwenda Bella; Setiawan, Edwin; Hariyanto, Sucipto; Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    Xestospongia testudinaria Lamarck, 1815 is a marine sponge that become a main constituent in reef ecosystems at northern waters Probolinggo-Situbondo. This barrel sponge species possesses an oxea type of spicule that varies in dimensions (length and width) in concordance to condition and location of habitat. The experiment aimed to understand how spicules condition of this sponge reacted to environment variables. Sponges' specimen were taken by SCUBA equipment in 6-7 m, 10-11 m, and 14-15 m depths in addition to four different localities and three different part of sponges' body (upper, middle and basal parts). Environmental variables data were also retrieved (salinity, water clarity, temperature, dissolve silica, and depth) in each locations. Results confirmed that oxea spicule size either in length or width dimensions in four locations (Batu Lawang coral cluster [BL], Karang Mayit coral cluster [KM], Paiton coral cluster [PT], and Takat Palapa [TP]) relatively increased toward depth. Likewise, the size of spicules in the TP relatively longer than three other locations. In contrast, spicules oxea in PT relatively wider than three other locations. Salinity gave negative impact to spicules length, while depth gave positive impact. Depth, water clarity, dissolve silica, and temperature gave negative effect to spicules width while salinity gave positive impact.

  17. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  18. Identifying management units in non-endangered species: the example of the sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Barros, N; Miyaki, C Y; Morgante, J S

    2007-12-01

    In this study we propose the analysis of genetic diversity of the common three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus, in an attempt to understand population structure, identify divergent intraspecific units, and contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity in the neotropical forests. We analyzed a 387 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 28 individuals distributed in different localities of both Atlantic and Amazon forests. Our results demonstrated that the genetic diversity of B. variegatus is distributed in six management units, MUs. The observed MUs encompass six phylogenetic lineages and represent respectively north and south regions of Atlantic forest, three regions within the Amazon forest, and a transition region between these two biomes. Considering the fact that these MUs are concordant with phylogroups and endemism areas already described for other vertebrate species, we can say that the study of B. variegatus, a widely distributed and not endangered species, can help to identify areas for conservation biology purposes in neotropical rain forests.

  19. On the establishment of two more alien mollusca (Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846 and Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 in the eastern Mediterranean

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    P. OVALIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific bivalvia Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846 and Chama asperella Lamarck, 1819 are recorded for the first time in Greek waters. These findings represent a considerable expansion in the eastern Mediterranean. Ship fouling is assumed as the most probable transportation means. However, natural dispersal via the Suez Canal is feasible as well.

  20. Species of Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Polychaeta: Syllidae) living in corals in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Nogueira, de João Miguel; San Martin, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Syllis Lamarck, 1818 found in living coral heads of Mussismilia hispida (Verrill, 1868) in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) are reported and described, based on detailed analysis under stereo-, light, and scanning electron microscopes. Comments on the identity of each species are pr

  1. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

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    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  2. Tongue papillae morphology of brown-throated sloth Bradypus variegatus (SCHINZ, 1825

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    D.M. Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bradypus variegatus inhabits the forests of South America and feeds from leaves, branches and sprouts from different plants. Due to its diet and the lack of literature on the morphological aspect of Xenarthras, five Bradypus variegatus tongues from animals which died from natural causes were evaluated, and they came from Pará State Museum Emílio Goeldi and were donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphological Research (LaPMA from UFRA, for revealing the different types of papillae and epithelial-connective tissue. Macroscopically, the tongues presented elongated shape, rounded apex, body, root, median sulcus in the root's apex, and two vallate papillae. The mucous membrane of the tongue revealed a keratinized stratified pavement epithelium, while the ventral surface of the tongue was thin and smooth, not provided with any type of papillae. However, the dorsal surface of the tongue was irregular with the presence of three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The filiform papillae found were of a simple type, presenting a rounded base, irregularly distributed with a larger concentration and development on the tongue's apex and body. The fungiform papilla showed a practically smooth surface with irregular format, with the presence of gustatory pores; these were found all over the dorsal surface, with larger concentration at the rostral part of the apex. Only two vallate papillae were observed disposed in the root of the tongue, surrounded by a deep groove, and revealing several taste buds. The tongues from Bradypus variegatus presented gustatory papillae similar to the ones described for other Xenarthras species and wild mammals.

  3. The tracks of the megaterium. Anatomical comparision between Eremotherium Rusconii and Bradypus Variegatus Los rastros del megaterio comparación anatómica entre Eremotherium rusconii y Bradypus variegatus

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    Murcia Mario

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an anatomical comparison between Eremotherium rusconii and Bradypus variegatus and a literature review, similarities and differences between these species were established in an attempt to explain the extinction of E. rusconii. Proportions between femur and humerus, scall, hair, nails and metabolism were compared. Based on this, it appears that B. variegatus survival was related to its smaller size and feeding habits.Basados en una comparación anatómica, entre Eremotherium rusconii (Megaterio Colombiano y Bradypus variegatus (oso perezoso y una revisión de la literatura se buscaron diferencias y similitudes en un intento por explicar la extinción de E. rusconii. Se compararon las proporciones de los huesos fémur y húmero de ambos individuos, los modelos craneales, el pelo, las uñas y el metabolismo,  concluyendo que la supervivencia de B. variegatus se debió a su menor tamaño y a su habito arbóreo frente a la extinción de E. rusconii.

  4. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  5. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  6. The carbon to nitrogen ratio in isoenergetic wheat based diets controls the growth rate of the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Temmink, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv) contains high levels of proteins and can provide an excellent fish food. Large-scale production of Lv on low value organic substrates, such as by-products produced during wheat processing, therefore can be a promising and sustainable concept for the aquac

  7. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  8. Primer registro de melanismo en Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, 1833 (Perciformes, Cheilodactylidae

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    Héctor Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El melanismo en peces es poco frecuente, se expresa en una mayor cantidad de especies de aguas límnicas que marinas. Se reporta la captura de un ejemplar hembra de Cheilodactylus variegatus, con melanismo completo. El individuo fue capturado con arpón mediante buceo apnea, en la localidad de Caleta Piedra Azul, norte de Chile. Su longitud estándar es 33,6 cm y su peso total 960 g. Morfológicamente no hay diferencias con los ejemplares de coloración normal. La coloración general del cuerpo es gris oscura, con bandas verticales levemente más claras en el flanco. Las aletas no presentan en sus extremos la tonalidad anaranjada característica de la especie. Se discute la validez del efecto de una infección por tremátodos como agente causal del melanismo, debido a que es una mutación que ocurre en el receptor de melacortina (MC1R. La condición melánica en Ch. variegatus, es muy rara, es la primera vez que se reporta para esta especie, donde la expresión de un color oscuro, sería beneficiosa para ejemplares que habiten fondos con poca vegetación y entre grietas.

  9. Investigating arsenic bioavailability and bioaccumulation by the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Marcelo; Piol, María N; Di Risio, Cecilia; Guerrero, Noemí R Verrengia

    2011-10-01

    The complex and variable composition of natural sediments makes it difficult to predict the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound contaminants. Several approaches, including an experimental model using artificial particles as analogues for natural sediments, have been proposed to overcome this problem. For this work, we applied this experimental device to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of As(III) by the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Five different particle systems were selected, and particle-water partition coefficients for As(III) were calculated. The influence of different concentrations of commercial humic acids was also investigated, but this material had no effect on bioaccumulation. In the presence of particulate matter, the bioaccumulation of As(III) by the oligochaetes did not depend solely on the levels of chemical dissolved but also on the amount sorbed onto the particles and the strength of that binding. This study confirms that the use of artificial particles may be a suitable experimental model for understanding the possible interactions that may occur between contaminants and particulate matter. In addition, it was found that the most hydrophobic resin induced an increase in arsenic bioavailability, leading to the highest bioaccumulation to L. variegatus compared with animals that were exposed to water only. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  10. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

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    Mühlbauer M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  11. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, M; Duarte, D P F; Gilmore, D P; Costa, C P da

    2006-02-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P sloths (SL03 and SL04) whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  12. UV–VIS and HPLC studies on Amphiroa anceps (Lamarck Decaisne

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    Johnson Marimuthu (a Antonisamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore phytochemical constituents present in Amphiroa anceps (Lamarck Decaisne. The extracts of A. anceps were scanned in the wavelength ranging from 200 to 1100 nm by using Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. HPLC method was performed on a Shimadzu LC-10 AT VP HPLC system, which was equipped with a model LC-10AT pump, UV–VIS detector SPD-10AT, Rheodyne injector fitted with a 20 μl loop and auto injector SIL-10AT. Out of 156 (2 × 6 × 13 = 156 tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 42 tests gave positive results and the remaining 114 showed negative results. The 42 positive results showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic groups, saponins, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, proteins and sugars. The results of the ash analysis discovered the existence of sulphur, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorous and chlorine in all the extracts of A. anceps. The UV–VIS profile of A. anceps benzene extracts showed peaks at 670, 612, 536, 504, and 412 nm with the absorption 2.004, 0.333, 0.417, 0.608 and 3.311. The UV–VIS profile of A. anceps chloroform extracts showed the peaks at 666, 608, 538, 502 and 416 nm with the absorption 1.029, 0.39, 0.458, 0.552 and 2.648. The qualitative UV–VIS spectrum profile of A. anceps methanolic extracts showed peaks at 656 and 330 nm with the absorption 0.295 and 3.656. The HPLC profile of A. anceps aqueous extracts showed two prominent peaks at a retention time of 1.737 and 2.680 min and some moderate peaks were observed with the retention time 4.083, 6.387 and 1.490 min. The qualitative HPLC fingerprint profile of isopropanol extract of A. anceps showed one prominent peak at a retention time of 2.673 min. The HPLC profile of A. anceps methanolic extracts illustrated two prominent peaks at a retention time of 1.927 and 2.667 min and some moderate peaks were also observed with the retention time 2.347, 4.077 and 5.873 min, respectively.

  13. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

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    Meydia Meydia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally istraded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroidcompounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract thesteroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexaneand get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid ofgamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent duringthe first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids onlydissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable.Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf =0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  14. Toxicokinetics of sediment-associated polybrominated diphenylethers (flame retardants) in benthic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants showing rapid temporal increase in some sample types. The compounds are known to biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are assumed to archive into sediments and soils. Currently, no direct evidence indicates whether sediment-associated PBDEs are available for biota. The aim of the present study was to explore the uptake and elimination of two common congeners (47 and 99) in sediment-inhabiting invertebrates to shed light on possible bioavailability of sediment-associated PBDEs. Two clean lake sediments were spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of 14C-labeled tetra- and pentabromo diphenylether, and oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed for three or four weeks to allow kinetic accumulation calculations. Subsequent depuration tests were performed after three weeks of exposure to obtain depuration rates. Both congeners were clearly bioavailable, and only slight differences in steady-state tissue concentrations were found between the four sediment-ingesting oligochaete treatments (biota sediment accumulation factors [BSAFs], 3.0-3.7). The tetrabromo diphenylether-exposed oligochaetes that did not ingest sediment had clearly lower influx rates (0.1 vs 1-3 nmol h(-1)) than sediment-ingesting worms. Also, the estimated BSAF (1.8) was statistically different from that of the sediment-ingesting oligochaetes. These findings support the significance of feeding behavior in bioaccumulation of very hydrophobic organic contaminants. Depuration of both congeners was biphasic, indicating two kinetically different compartments in L. variegatus. Compartment A made up 73 to 92% of total radioactivity in tissues and had relatively fast depuration rates (half-lives, 10.5-47.5 h); the smaller compartment B had very slow depuration rates. No significant biotransformation of PBDEs was evident. The present study clearly demonstrates that the sediment-associated PBDEs, like other

  15. Floral biology of Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae and its relation with Astylus variegatus activity (Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Melyridae

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    Maria Emilia P.F. Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium is a culture popularly known by its medicinal, ornamental and culinary utility. This work aimed to evaluate the interaction between Astylus variegatus (Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Melyridae and the nasturtium flowers associated to the weeks of flourishing, in order to conceive the floral mechanims used by the species to attract A. variegatus. The insects collection was achieved with an entomologic net by the sweeping method, during the weekly flowering, at two hours, from 7am to 5pm. The studies of floral biology were carried out in twenty flowers by the analysis of measures and the arrangement of the floral parts. The nasturtium flower offers pollen and nectar to the insect as a compensation. However, it was observed that A. variegatus only collects pollen as a nutritious resource. Tropaeolum majus presents several flowers for each individual and, during the visits, A. variegatus walked throughout the interior of the flower, among the stamens and contacting the ventral region of its body, and while passing through the stigma it lodged the pollen. Sometimes, it uses the internal cavity for sheltering and mating. The visits occurred preferably on the second and fifth weeks of flourishing, with a populational fluctuation between 9am and 11am.Tropaeolum majus L. (capuchinha é uma cultura muito conhecida pelo seu valor medicinal, ornamental e culinário. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a interação entre Astylus variegatus (Germar 1824 (Melyridae com as flores de capuchinha, associado às semanas de florescimento, visando entender os mecanismos florais utilizados pela espécie na atração de A. variegatus. A coleta dos insetos foi realizada com rede entomológica pelo método varredura durante a floração, semanalmente, a cada duas horas, no período de 7 às 17 horas. Os estudos da biologia floral foram realizados em vinte flores, analisando as medidas e disposição das peças florais. A flor de capuchinha

  16. Triclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Frédérich, Bruno; Dussenne, Mélanie; Klaren, Peter H M; Silvestre, Frédéric; Das, Krishna

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Here, we investigate the in vivo effects of exposure to triclosan (20, 50, and 100μgL(-1)) on the thyroid system and the embryonic and larval development of C. variegatus. Triclosan exposure did not affect hatching success, but delayed hatching time by 6-13h compared to control embryos. Triclosan exposure affected the ontogenetic variations of whole body thyroid hormone concentrations during the larval phase. The T3 peak around 12-15 dph, described to be indicative for the metamorphosis climax in C. variegatus, was absent in triclosan-exposed larvae. Triclosan exposure did not produce any deformity or allometric repatterning, but a delayed development of 18-32h was observed. We conclude that the triclosan-induced disruption of the thyroid system delays in vivo the start of metamorphosis in our experimental model. We observed a global developmental delay of 24-45h, equivalent to 4-7% prolongation of the developmental time in C. variegatus. The costs of delayed metamorphosis can lead to reduction of juvenile fitness and could be a determining factor in the outcome of competitive interactions.

  17. Comparing the effects of nanosilver size and coating variations on bioavailability, internalization, and elimination, using Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jessica G; Kennedy, Alan J; Bednar, Anthony J; Ranville, James F; Laird, Jennifer G; Harmon, Ashley R; Hayes, Charolett A; Gray, Evan P; Higgins, Christopher P; Lotufo, Guilherme; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2013-09-01

    As the production and applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) increase, it is essential to characterize fate and effects in environmental systems. Nanosilver materials may settle from suspension; therefore, the authors' objective was to utilize environmentally relevant bioassays and study the impact, bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, uptake, and depuration of AgNPs on a sediment-dwelling invertebrate, Lumbriculus variegatus. Hydrodynamic diameters of uncoated 30-nm, 80-nm, and 1500-nm AgNP powders and a polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) AgNP suspension were measured utilizing dynamic light scattering in freshwater media (0-280 µS/cm). Aggregation for 30 nm, 80 nm, and 1500 nm silver increased with conductivity but was minimal for PVP silver. Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) spiked into sediment (nominally 100 mg/kg) and water (PVP 30 nm and 70 nm Ag, nominally 5 mg/L). Uptake was assessed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and hyperspectral imaging. Particle sizes were examined through field flow fractionation-ICP-MS (FFF-ICP-MS) and ICP-MS in single particle mode (SP-ICP-MS). Lumbriculus variegatus were also depurated for 6 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h to determine gut clearance. Bioaccumulation factors of sediment-exposed L. variegatus were similar regardless of particle size or coatings. The FFF-ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS detected AgNPs for up to 48 h post depuration. The present study provides information on bioaccumulation and interactions of AgNPs within biological systems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Description of the larva of Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cyclosomini) with notes on biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme Ide Marques Dos

    2015-06-16

    A late instar of the Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 larva is described for the first time, and is compared with its first instar, with the larva of another Tetragonoderus species, and with the larva of one Cyclicus species. Habitus and important structures of the larva are illustrated, as well the adult's membranous wings. Some aspects of the natural history of the larva and adult are also noted.

  19. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  20. Bioaccumulation of 14C-17alpha-ethinylestradiol by the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus in spiked artificial sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Markus; Egeler, Philipp; Oehlmann, Jörg; Knacker, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    A bioaccumulation study was performed with the endobenthic freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus MULLER exposed to the radiolabelled synthetic steroid 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (14C-EE2) in a spiked artificial sediment. Concentration of total radioactivity increased constantly and almost linearly during 35 days of exposure. The accumulation factor normalised to worm lipid content and sediment TOC (AFlipid/OC) was 75 at the end of the uptake period, but a steady state was not reached. Uptake kinetics were calculated fitting the measured AFs to a kinetic rate equation for constant uptake from sediment using iterative non-linear regression analysis. After 10 days of elimination in contaminant-free sediment 50% of the accumulated total radioactivity was excreted by the worms. Extracts from L. variegatus sampled at the end of the uptake phase were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The results showed that 6% of the total radioactivity incorporated by the worms was 14C-EE2. After treatment of extracts with beta-glucuronidase the amount of 14C-EE2 increased to 84%. These results suggest that L. variegatus has the potency to accumulate high amounts of conjugated EE2. Hence, a transfer of EE2 to benthivores and subsequent secondary poisoning of predators might be possible.

  1. Identifying management units in non-endangered species: the example of the sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moraes-Barros

    Full Text Available In this study we propose the analysis of genetic diversity of the common three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus, in an attempt to understand population structure, identify divergent intraspecific units, and contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity in the neotropical forests. We analyzed a 387 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 28 individuals distributed in different localities of both Atlantic and Amazon forests. Our results demonstrated that the genetic diversity of B. variegatus is distributed in six management units, MUs. The observed MUs encompass six phylogenetic lineages and represent respectively north and south regions of Atlantic forest, three regions within the Amazon forest, and a transition region between these two biomes. Considering the fact that these MUs are concordant with phylogroups and endemism areas already described for other vertebrate species, we can say that the study of B. variegatus, a widely distributed and not endangered species, can help to identify areas for conservation biology purposes in neotropical rain forests.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  3. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  4. Bad taxonomy can kill : molecular reevaluation of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Unionidae and its accepted subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prie V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation status of European unionid species rests on the scientific knowledge of the 1980s, before the current revival of taxonomic reappraisals based on molecular characters. The taxonomic status of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819, superficially similar to Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758 and often synonymized with it, is re-evaluated based on a random sample of major French drainages and a systematic sample of historical type localities. We confirm the validity of U. mancus as a distinct species occurring in France and Spain, where it is structured into three geographical units here ranked as subspecies: U. m. mancus [Atlantic drainages, eastern Pyrenees, Spanish Mediterranean drainages], U. m. turtonii Payraudeau, 1826 [coastal drainages East of the Rhône and Corsica] and U. m. requienii Michaud, 1831 [Seine, Saône-Rhône, and coastal drainages West of the Rhône]. Many populations of Unio mancus have been extirpated during the 20th century and the remaining populations continue to be under pressure; U. mancus satisfies the criteria to be listed as «Endangered» in the IUCN Red List.

  5. Comparative phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the widespread three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) (Bradypodidae, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Silva, Juliana A B; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Morgante, J S

    2006-01-01

    The comparative phylogeographic study of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) was performed using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. We examined 19 B. torquatus from two regions and 47 B. variegatus from three distant regions of Atlantic forest. This first characterization of molecular diversity indicates a great diversity (B. torquatus: h = 0.901 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.012 +/- 0.007; B. variegatus: h = 0.699 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.010 +/- 0.006) and very divergent mitochondrial lineages within each sloth species. The different sampled regions carry distinct and non-overlapping sets of mtDNA haplotypes and are genetically divergent. This phylogeographic pattern may be characteristic of sloth species. In addition, we infer that two main phylogeographic groups exist in the Atlantic forest representing a north and south distinct divergence.

  6. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as a surrogate species in assessing contaminant risk to two endangered cyprinodontids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecken-Folse, J.; Albrecht, B. [TRAC Labs., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Mayer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Ellersieck, M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Sappington, L. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were tested as a surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (C. bovinus) and desert pupfish (C. macularius). Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper sulfate, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accordance with ASTM guidelines. Sheepshead minnows were always more sensitive than pupfish, but the differences were small. 96-h LC50s for sheepshead minnows and Leon Springs pupfish were, respectively: carbaryl (4.2 and 4.6 mg/L), copper sulfate (2.5 and 4.6 mg/L), 4-nonylphenol (0.46 and 0.48 mg/L), pentachlorophenol (0.05 and 0.08 mg/L), permethrin (1 7 and 21 ug/L). Only one test could be conducted with desert pupfish and carbaryl, with the sheepshead minnow being more sensitive (7.3 vs 4.2 mg/L). These data, along with other data from the US NBS, Columbia, MO (two surrogate and six endangered freshwater fishes), indicate that toxicity test data for surrogate fishes can be used reliably to predict chemical toxicity to endangered fishes by interspecies correlations. However, the correlations were generally best within a family, particularly with the Cyprinodontids.

  7. Stomach lysozymes of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), an arboreal folivore from the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Concepción, Juan Luís; Rangel, José David Rosales; Ruiz, Marie Christine; Michelangeli, Fabián; Domínguez-Bello, María G

    2007-07-01

    Lysozymes are antimicrobial defences that act as digestive enzymes when expressed in the stomach of herbivores with pre-gastric fermentation. We studied this enzyme in the complex stomach of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus), a folivore with pre-gastric fermentation. Lysozymes were identified by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting in all portions: diverticulum, pouch, glandular and muscular prepyloric area with 14.3 kDa of molecular mass. Purified lysozymes from all areas but the diverticulum were characterized by MALDI-TOF, optimal pH, optimal ionic strength, and specific activity. The differences observed suggested at least three isoforms. The optimal pHs were similar to the pH of the stomach portion where the enzymes were isolated. The lysozyme from the pouch (fermentation chamber) exhibited higher specific activity and concentration than the others. The specific activity of the enzyme from the acid muscular prepyloric portion was comparable to that reported in the cow abomasums; however, its concentration was lower than that observed in cow. This distinctive pattern of secretion/specific activity and overall low concentration suggests different roles for the lysozymes in this herbivore compared to Artiodactyla. We postulate that sloth stomach lysozymes may still be antimicrobial defences by protecting the microbial flora of the fermentation chamber against foreign bacteria.

  8. Blood pressure regulation in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D P F; da Costa, C P; Cabral, A M S; Silva, E M; Gilmore, D P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the baroreflex in blood pressure control in sloths, Bradypus variegatus, since these animals show labile levels in this parameter. Unanesthetized cannulated sloths were positioned in an experimental chair and the arterial catheter was coupled to a strain gauge pressure transducer. Blood pressure was monitored before, during and after the administration of phenylephrine (0.0625 to 4 microg/kg) and sodium nitroprusside (0.0625 to 2 microg/kg), bringing about changes in mean blood pressure from +/-30 mmHg in relation to control values. The relation between heart rate changes due to blood pressure variation was estimated by linear regression analysis. The slope was considered the reflex baroreceptor gain. The results (means+/-SD) showed that the reflex baroreceptor gain was -0.3+/-0.1 bpm/mmHg (r=0.88) to phenylephrine and -0.5+/-0.1 bpm/mmHg (r=0.92) to sodium nitroprusside, denoting a reduced reflex baroreceptor gain when compared with other mammals, suggesting that in sloths the baroreceptors are minimally involved in the buffering reflex response to these drugs. These findings suggest that the labile blood pressure could be influenced or be a result of this lowering in the reflex baroreceptor gain.

  9. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meydia Meydia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally is traded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroid compounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract the steroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid of gamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent during the first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids only dissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable. Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf = 0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  10. Secondary Metabolites of the Cuticular Abdominal Glands of Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. U. Igwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical compounds were extracted with petroleum ether from the cuticular abdominal glands of grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L. and eleven compounds were characterised using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS technique in combination with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. The compounds analysed were 2,7-dimethyloctane (3.21%, decane (5.33%, undecane (3.81%, tridecanoic acid methyl ester (4.76%, hexadecanoic acid (9.37%, 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (23.18%, pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-methyl ester (4.43%, (Z-13-docosenoic acid (10.71%, dodecyl pentafluoropropionate (9.52%, 2-dodecyl-1,3-propanediol (6.38%, and 1,12-tridecadiene (19.30%. FT-IR analysis of the extract showed peaks at 1270.17 (C–O and C–F, 1641.48 (C=C, 2937.68 (C–H, and 3430.51 (O–H cm−1 indicating the presence of ether, alkene, alkane, alcohol, carboxylic acid, and fluoric compounds. These compounds consisted of 32.37% ester, 31.65% hydrocarbons, 20.08% fatty acid, 9.52% halogenated ester, and 6.38% alcohol. The highest component was 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester followed by 1,12-tridecadiene. Since behavioural bioassays were not carried out, the consideration of these compounds to be pheromone semiochemicals remains a hypothesis.

  11. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S. [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Brouwer, M., E-mail: marius.brouwer@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC{sub 10} for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic {alpha} and {beta} globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant

  12. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL Y ETOLOGÍA DE Bradypus variegatus EN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL, CÓRDOBA - COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la composición poblacional y etología del oso perezoso (Bradypus variegatus) en la reserva natural viento solar, un fragmento de bosque seco tropical (bs-T) del municipio de Moñitos, departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Durante octubre 2004 a mayo 2005, se realizaron conteos directos con observación visual en el sendero principal de la reserva, haciendo transectos de un kilómetro de largo x 100 m de ancho. Se registró el número de animales obs...

  13. The potential of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Nanna B., E-mail: Nanna.Hartmann@ec.europa.eu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Legros, Samuel; Von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo [Department of Environmental Geosciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (e.g. in industrial applications and consumer products) is increasing. Consequently, these particles will be released into the aquatic environment. Through aggregation/agglomeration and sedimentation, sediments are expected ultimately to be sinks for nanoparticles. Both in the water phase and in the sediments engineered nanoparticles will mix and interact with other environmental pollutants, including metals. In this study the toxicity of cadmium to two freshwater organisms, water column crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (P25 Evonic Degussa, d: 30 nm). The uptake of cadmium in sub-lethal concentrations was also studied in the absence and presence of 2 mg/L TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Formation of larger nanoparticles aggregates/agglomerates was observed and sizes varied depending on media composition (358 {+-} 13 nm in US EPA moderately hard synthetic freshwater and 1218 {+-} 7 nm in Elendt M7). TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are potential carriers for cadmium and it was found that 25% and 6% of the total cadmium mass in the test system for L. variegatus and D. magna tests were associated to suspended TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively. {mu}XRF (micro X-ray fluorescence) analysis confirmed the uptake of TiO{sub 2} in the gut of D. magna. For L. variegatus {mu}XRF analysis indicated attachment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to the organism surface as well as a discrete distribution within the organisms. Though exact localisation in this organism was more difficult to assess, the uptake seems to be within the coelomic cavity. Results show that the overall body burden and toxicity of cadmium to L. variegatus was unchanged by addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, showing that cadmium adsorption to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not affect overall bioavailability. Despite facilitated uptake of cadmium by Ti

  14. Caracterització de la població de Bradypus variegatus i Choloepus hoffmanni a INBioparque, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Clota Palau, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Estudi centrat en la caracterització de la població de peresosos (Choloepus Hoffmanni i Bradypus variegatus) d'INBioparque (Costa Rica) per tal de donar continuïtat al projecte de Casalé i Delclòs, 2010. S'ha determinat en 15 el nombre d'individus amb els que compta el parc i que les seves estructures poblacionals s'han vist alterades degut a la disminució d'individus respecte al 2010. S'han definit diferències significatives en la localització dels individus, essent els més freqüentats els h...

  15. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte D.P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24ºC with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean ± SD were obtained for SBP (121 ± 22 mmHg, DBP (86 ± 17 mmHg, mean BP (MBP, 98 ± 18 mmHg and heart rate (73 ± 16 bpm. The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test during the light period (125 ± 21, 88 ± 15 and 100 ± 17 mmHg, respectively than during the dark period (120 ± 21, 85 ± 17 and 97 ± 17 mmHg, respectively and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 ± 19 to 90 ± 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h. Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively. The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  16. The genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida, Syllidae) from Australia. Molecular analysis and re-description of some poorly-known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Riesgo, Ana; Hutchings, Pat; San Martín, Guillermo

    2015-12-03

    The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, the type genus of the family Syllidae, are still a matter of debate because the group does not show clear synapomorphies and because of the lack of molecular data for many of the species. In order to help understand some of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Syllis, we have performed a morphological revision of part of the material collected during decades by the Australian Museum staff, and provide molecular data for species not sequenced before. In particular, seven poorly known Australian species of the genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 have been re-described in detail and sequenced to analyze their phylogenetic position: Syllis broomensis n. comb., S. crassicirrata (Treadwell, 1925) n. comb., Syllis cruzi Núñez & San Martín, 1991, S. edensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1989), Syllis gracilis Grube, 1840, Syllis picta (Kinberg, 1866) n. comb., and S. setoensis (Imajima, 1966). The results obtained indicate the paraphyly of Typosyllis and a possible new organization of Syllis, which contains at least four well-supported clades.

  17. The potential of TiO2 nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Legros, Samuel; Von der Kammer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (P25 Evonic Degussa, d: 30nm). The uptake of cadmium in sub-lethal concentrations was also studied in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles. Formation of larger nanoparticles aggregates...

  18. ULCERATIVE AND NECROTIZING GASTRITIS IN A CAPTIVE SLOTH (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS, XENARTHRA, BRADYPODIDAE) DUE TO SEVERE PARASITISM WITH PARALEIURIS LOCCHII (NEMATODA, SPIROCERCIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ana Flávia Ribeiro Machado; Silva, Fabiana Lessa; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; de Carvalho, Tatiane Furtado; Pinto, Jaqueline Maria Silva; Santos, Renato Lima

    2017-03-01

    This is the first reported case of lethal gastric parasitism by the nematode Paraleiuris locchii in a captive sloth ( Bradypus variegatus ). There were more than 600 parasites in the stomach of the sloth, associated with extensive areas of ulceration and necrosis. The animal developed emaciation, dehydration, and anemia that progressed to death.

  19. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.de; Klingelmann, Eva [Technische Universitaet Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: eva.klingelmann@TU-Berlin.de; Wiegand, Claudia [Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de

    2009-01-15

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L{sup -1} pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using {sup 14}C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log P{sub ow}. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself. - Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.

  20. Endocrine modulation and toxic effects of two commonly used UV screens on the aquatic invertebrates Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Claudia [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: claudia.schmitt@ua.ac.be; Oetken, Matthias; Dittberner, Olaf; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The two UV screens 3-benzylidene-camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) were tested regarding their toxicity and estrogenic activity. The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and two sediment assays with the freshwater invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Potamopyrgus antipodarum were performed. In the YES, both substances activated the human estrogen receptor {alpha} with EC{sub 50} values of 44.2 {mu}M for 3-BC and 44.3 {mu}M for 4-MBC, whereby 4-MBC attained only 8% of the maximal response of 17{beta}-estradiol. For P. antipodarum embryo production increased after exposure to both substances (EC{sub 50} of 4.60 {mu}M 4-MBC = 1.17 mg kg{sup -1} dw) while mortality increased at high concentrations. The reproduction of L. variegatus was decreased by 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 5.95 {mu}M (=1.43 mg kg{sup -1} dw) and also by 4-MBC, where no EC{sub 50} could be calculated. While reproduction decreased, the worms' weight increased after exposure to 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 26.9 {mu}M (= 6.46 mg kg{sup -1} dw), hence the total biomass remained unaffected. - UV screens can have a significant impact on reproduction and development of aquatic invertebrates.

  1. Brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus Shinz, 1825 as a new host for Leiuris leptocephalus (Rud., 1819 Leuckard, 1850 Preguiça comum (Bradypus variegatus Shinz, 1825 como novo hospedeiro de Leiuris leptocephalus (Rud., 1819 Leuckard, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e três espécimes de Leiuris leptocephalus (Rud., 1819 Leuckard 1850 (Spirocercidae foram recuperados do intestino delgado de uma fêmea de preguiça comum, Bradypus variegatus Shinz 1825 (Bradipodidae, em Ubatuba, estado de São Paulo. Os dados demonstram maior variabilidade morfométrica em relação aos dados da literatura, o que contribui para a caracterização morfológica desse nematódeo. Essa comunicação corresponde ao primeiro relato de B. variegatus como hospedeiro de L. leptocephalus.

  2. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck, at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient, 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the

  3. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., Avicularia lynnae sp. n., and Avicularia caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected

  5. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyraporagen. n., Caribenagen. n., and Antillenagen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianaesp. n., Avicularia lynnaesp. n., and Avicularia caeisp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate

  6. Sexual differences in destructive capability and midgut enzyme activities in adult variegated grasshoppers Zonocerus variegatus (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademolu Kehinde O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus is a polyphagous insect, feeding on numerous food and cash crops. The present study aimed to investigate the sexual variations in the destructive capability of the adult insects and the composition of leaves damaged by them, as well as in the levels of midgut microbial flora and digestive enzymes (cellulase, amylase and α-glucosidase. The results showed that females consumed and caused more damage to cassava leaves than their male congeners. The leaves damaged by males contained more nutrients than those damaged by females. The gut microbial flora and enzyme assay showed that females had significantly larger colony forming units and a non-significant difference in enzyme activities. It can thus be concluded that adult females are more destructive than males.

  7. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species.

  8. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  9. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  10. El cuento como estrategia didáctica para la enseñanza de las teorías de la evolución de Lamarck y Darwin-Wallace a nivel medio superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lorena Yoloxochitl Karla Quintino Salazar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar el cuento como una estrategia didáctica en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje para la comprensión de las teorías de la evolución de Lamarck y Darwin- Wallace. La naturaleza de la investigación fue del tipo cuantitativo. El tratamiento de resultados fue realizado mediante un Análisis de X2 (chi cuadrado en la frecuencia de las respuestas del pretest y del postest, en función de discriminar entre los grupos estudiados. Con base en la hipótesis alternativa se estableció que la narrativa como estrategia didáctica promueve el aprendizaje de las teorías de Lamarck y Darwin-Wallace

  11. Ampliación de la distribución geográfica de Liolaemus variegatus Laurent 1984 (Iguania: Liolaemidae en Bolivia

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    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La revisión rigurosa de especímenes del género Liolaemus, depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna, permite ampliar la distribución de la especie endémica Liolaemus variegatus a más de 500 km al sur del país en el departamento de Tarija.

  12. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

    OpenAIRE

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Robert B Tesh; Pia Martin, Maria; Scott C. Weaver; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, P...

  13. A construção da oposição entre Lamarck e Darwin e a vinculação de Nietzsche ao eugenismo

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    Wilson Antonio Frezzatti Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A construção da oposição total entre as teorias evolucionistas de Jean-Baptiste Lamarck e de Charles Darwin foi utilizada, em fins do século xix e início do século xx, para classificar autores que escreviam sobre a evolução, mesmo aqueles que não eram cientistas. Claire Richter, em Nietzsche e as teorias biológicas contemporâneas, afirma que o lamarckismo de Nietzsche é muito pronunciado, e, para isso, distingue o que é propriamente darwiniano e propriamente lamarckiano. Em nosso trabalho, pretendemos entender por que essa distinção foi aplicada a um filósofo como Nietzsche. A chave da questão está, para nós, na diferença que a autora faz entre a seleção natural e a herança dos caracteres adquiridos e na relação que ela estabelece entre essas noções e o eugenismo. O objetivo de Richter é transformar Nietzsche em um dos principais e primeiros defensores do eugenismo. O seu esforço em mostrar que o pensamento nietzschiano é lamarckista está a serviço da divulgação de ideias eugenistas. A herança dos caracteres adquiridos, por sua relativa rapidez em alterar os seres vivos, pode embasar e justificar ações educativas e sociais para melhoria da raça.The construction of the total opposition between the Lamarckian and the Darwinian evolutionary theories was employed to classify authors scientists or not _ who wrote about evolution in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Claire Richter, in Nietzsche et les theories biologiques contemporaines (1911, argues that Nietzsche's Lamarckism is very pronounced, and, for this, she distinguishes what is properly Darwinian or Lamarckian. In our article, we want to understand why this distinction was applied to a philosopher like Nietzsche. The key issue is the difference made by Richter between the natural selection and the inheritance of acquired characteristics and the relationship that she establishes between these notions and the eugenics. Her goal is to show

  14. Aspectos bioecológicos de Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Decapoda, Portunidae da Praia da Barra da Lagoa, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Bioecological aspects of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Decapoda, Portunidae from Praia da Barra da Lagoa, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Marcelo Gentil Avila

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The specimens of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818 used in this study were collected in the locality of Barra da Lagoa beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in the period of April/1991 to March/1992. In this area temperature and salinity values were observed. A total of 341 samples, that 184 were male and 157 were female were collectted. The maturacion sexual stadium were measured (cm and weightied (g. Expression of relation among weight of body (wt and width of carapace (wid was Wt=0,0567 Wid3,0494 on males and wt=0,074 Wid2,8795 on females. The relation length (Lt width (wid of carapace was Lt=0,4322. wid on males and Lt=0,4578. wid on females.

  15. Perfluorinated chemicals in surface waters and sediments from northwest Georgia, USA, and their bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J.; Washington, John W.; Hassan, Sayed M.; Jenkins, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28-d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land-application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected homolog concentrations emanating from the LAS. Concentrations of PFCs in oligochaete tissues revealed patterns similar to those observed in the respective sediments. The tendency to bioaccumulate increased with PFCA chain length and the presence of the sulfonate moiety. Biota-sediment accumulation factors indicated that short-chain PFCAs with fewer than seven carbons may be environmentally benign alternatives in aquatic ecosystems; however, sulfonates with four to seven carbons may be as likely to bioaccumulate as PFOS.

  16. Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chongbo; Han, Jiabo; Ge, Longli; Zhou, Zunchun; Gao, Xianggang; Mu, Yunlei; Liu, Weidong; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the mitochondrial genomes for spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) were completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial genome sequences of the spotted halibut and barfin flounder were 17,273 and 17,588 bp in length, respectively. The organization of the two mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes) and two non-coding regions (control region (CR) and WANCY region). In the CR, the termination associated sequence (ETAS), six central conserved block (CSB-A,B,C,D,E,F), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) and a region of 61-bp tandem repeat cluster at the end of CSB-3 were identified by similarity comparison with fishes and other vertebrates. The tandem repeat sequences show polymorphism among the different individuals of the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut and barfin flounder should be useful for evolutionary studies of flatfishes and other vertebrate species.

  17. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Cliffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2. Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  18. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  19. Intraspecific variation in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in seven Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Mycology and Pathology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Nikolova, Ivanka; Johanson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Radioecology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in Sweden showed a large amount of individual variation in concentration of {sup 137}Cs activity. Our aim was to determine the degrees to which this variability in sporocarp {sup 137}Cs levels could be explained by differences between (i) local populations, (ii) fungal genets and (iii) locations within genets. Five populations in a 100-yr-old Scots pine forest, located within a 1 km{sup 2} area, and two populations in Scots pine/Norway spruce forest, located 40 km north-west of Uppsala, were investigated. In total, 154 sporocarps were analysed to determine their {sup 137}Cs content. Of these, the genetic affiliations of 86 were successfully characterized using somatic incompatibility reactions. Twenty-six genets were found which, on average, consisted of 6.5 sporocarps. The genets averaged 7.5 m in size, measured as the length between the most distant sporocarps. The mean sporocarp {sup 137}Cs level was 67.1 {+-} 2.8 kBq kgsup(-1) D.W. (range between 13.6 and 182). According to analyses of variance, within-population variation accounted for 60% of the total variation in {sup 137}Cs levels, while 40% was ascribed to variation among populations. Within a population, {sup 137}Cs levels did not generally differ significantly between genets. Plausible reasons for intraspecific variation in radiocaesium content in sporocarps are discussed. (author).

  20. 银合欢组织培养研究初报%Preliminary Report on In Vitro Culture of Leucaena leucocephla (Lamarck) de Wit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慕乔; 周爽; 白昌军; 唐军; 吴繁花; 蔡秀清; 刘进平

    2015-01-01

    以银合欢(Leucaena leucocephla(Lamarck) de Wit)无菌实生苗子叶和胚轴切段为外植体,以MS为基本培养基,研究不同BA和NAA浓度组合对银合欢组织培养效果的影响.结果表明:愈伤组织诱导培养中,以子叶的培养反应性最好,其愈伤组织诱导率在各种组合中都达到100%,其中以附加0.1mg/L NAA和2.5-7.0 mg/L BA效果最好;胚轴在添加0.1 mg/L NAA及3.0-4.5 mg/L BA的MS培养基上培养时愈伤组织诱导率较高.子叶愈伤组织在MS+3.0 mg/L BA+0.2 mg/L NAA的培养基中培养时芽分化率只有6.7%;胚轴愈伤组织则未能实现芽的分化.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Oku, Yuzaburo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2013-05-01

    The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species.

  2. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  3. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  6. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL Y ETOLOGÍA DE Bradypus variegatus EN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL, CÓRDOBA - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ballesteros C, M.Sc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la composición poblacional y etología del oso perezoso (Bradypus variegatus en la reserva natural viento solar, un fragmento de bosque seco tropical (bs-T del municipio de Moñitos, departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Durante octubre 2004 a mayo 2005, se realizaron conteos directos con observación visual en el sendero principal de la reserva, haciendo transectos de un kilómetro de largo x 100 m de ancho. Se registró el número de animales observados, hábitos alimenticios, estructura poblacional según sexo mediante marcado natural. Se realizaron observaciones sobre comportamiento animal y actividades de desplazamiento diurno, con anotaciones sobre su ecología, y aspectos importantes para la conservación. Resultados. En enero del 2005 se registraron 70 individuos, con una composición de 31% machos, 53% hembras y 16% crías. Durante la época seca del año, (enero-abril la mayoría de la vegetación arbórea es caducifolia, disminuyendo en forma importante el follaje de los árboles, lo cual facilitó el conteo de la población. La vegetación de bs-T está dominada por Pseudobombax septenatum, cuyo follaje es muy apetecido por el oso perezoso. Conclusiones. Los datos indican que la composición poblacional del oso perezoso en la reserva natural viento solar, está conformada principalmente por individuos adultos, encontrándose una baja proporción de crías; lo que podría estar reflejando problemas de crecimiento poblacional por efecto de baja disponibilidad y baja calidad del hábitat.

  7. Physiologic and serum biochemistry values in free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni) and brown-throated three-toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths immobilized using dexmedetomidine and ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Matthew E; Cole, Gretchen A; Vaughan, Christopher; Sladky, Kurt K

    2013-09-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist and dextrorotary enantiomer of medetomidine, was combined with ketamine and used to immobilize 14 free-ranging Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloths) and 11 Bradypus variegatus (brown-throated three-toed sloths) in Upala, Costa Rica. Following intramuscular injection of ketamine (2.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (11 microg/kg), heart rate, respiratory rate, and indirect systolic blood pressure were measured every 5 min for a total of 25 min. An iStat (CG8+) was used to evaluate serum biochemical and hematologic values during anesthesia. After 30 min of anesthesia, atipamezole (0.13 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, which resulted in rapid and smooth recoveries. Mean heart rate and respiratory rate remained unchanged in both C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus over time. Progressive decreases in mean indirect systolic blood pressure were documented in both species. Results of this study suggest a combination of dexmedetomidne and ketamine is a safe and effective anesthetic protocol for use in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus. Similar to other alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based immobilization protocols, close monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters are recommended. This study also provides serum biochemical and hematologic data in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus.

  8. Asociación entre la tasa de autofecundación y la frecuencia de larvas malformadas en poblaciones cultivadas del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Association between self-fertilization rates and the frequency of malformed larvae in farmed populations of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Concha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de la frecuencia de malformaciones y la reducción de la viabilidad y fecundidad suelen ser las primeras manifestaciones de la depresión por consanguinidad en animales. El ostión del norte, Argopectenpurpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, es una especie hermnafrodita funcional con autofecundación parcial y durante la reproducción artificial puede presentar altos grados de autofecundación. En este trabajo se analizó la asociación de la tasa de autofecundación con la frecuencia de larvas malformadas y la supervivencia larval. Se desovaron adultos maduros y se recogieron separadamente los gametos femeninos del 5° pulso de liberación en adelante y los masculinos. Los ovocitos fueron fecundados con espermatozoides de otro individuo, formando familias de hermanos completos. La tasa de autofecundación se verificó por la proporción de ovocitos que entra en división en una muestra de ellos sin fecundar. La tasa de autofecundación varió entre familias de 0 a 100%, con distribución de frecuencias normal. La proporción de larvas malformadas se distribuyó al azar entre las familias analizadas, pero se correlacionó negativamente, en forma moderada pero significativa, con la tasa de autofecundación y la temperatura media del cultivo. Los datos sugieren que la autofecundación en las familias de ostiones puede favorecer una mayor homeostasis del desarrollo larval.Increased frequencies of malformations and the reduction of viability and fecundity are some of the first manifestations of inbreeding depression in animals. The northern scallop, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, is a functional hermaphrodite species with partial self-fertilization. During artificial reproduction, this species may present high degrees of self-fertilization. In this work, the association between the selfing rate and the frequency of larval malformations and survival were analyzed. Mature adults were spawned, and female and male gametes were collected

  9. Morfologia e morfometria da traqueia da preguiça (Bradypus variegatus: conhecimentos para procedimentos de emergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamirys A.S. Faro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Por ser uma espécie pouco estudada, principalmente do ponto de vista morfológico, objetivou-se conhecer a anatomia da traqueia da preguiça (Bradypus variegatus a fim de fornecer informações para facilitar a eleição de tubo endotraqueal adequado, máscara laríngea ou cânula de traqueostomia para anestesia e procedimentos de emergência, uma vez que a mesma revelou-se possuidora de uma morfologia especial. Foram investigados 11animais jovens de idades diferentes, sendo quatro machos e sete fêmeas, provenientes do Museu Emilio Goeldi e doados a UFRA. Os exemplares foram perfundidos via intramuscular com solução aquosa de formol a 10% para fins de conservação e posteriormente foram dissecados em nível cervico-torácico, por meio de mesoscopia, expondo-se desde a laringe até os brônquios principais direito e esquerdo ao nível do hilo pulmonar. As traqueias foram divididas em cinco regiões (região cervical, região da primeira flexura, região da segunda flexura, região da terceira flexura e região da carina as quais foram mensuradas altura e largura, assim como o comprimento traqueal total e parte do material foi submetido à técnicas de rotina histológica. Macroscopicamente, destacou-se a presença de sinuosidades acentuadas em porção médio caudal, contemplando a carina. O comprimento médio traqueal foi de 14,6cm. Microscopicamente, a traqueia era constituída por placas separadas de cartilagem hialina constituindo cada anel, sendo revestido por epitélio estratificado ciliado. Apesar da traqueia da preguiça comum apresentar revestimento padrão encontrado na traqueia de outros animais, na literatura não há registros de outras espécies que tenham morfologia macroscópica nas condições descritas, o que nos leva a sugerir, quando necessário acesso para ventilação de emergência, a prática da IOT e não a de traqueostomia.

  10. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, M., E-mail: Mykhailo.Vinichuk@slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, K.; Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlberg, A. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 {+-} 6.79 g kg{sup -1} for K (mean {+-} SD, dwt), 0.40 {+-} 0.09 g kg{sup -1} for Rb, 8.7 {+-} 4.36 mg kg{sup -1} for {sup 133}Cs and 63.7 {+-} 24.2 kBq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The mass concentrations of {sup 133}Cs correlated with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both {sup 133}Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, {sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. - Highlights: {yields} We studied uptake of Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb by Suillus variegates sporocarps. {yields} Genotypic origin of fungus did not affect uptake of studied elements (isotopes). {yields} Genotypic origin did not affect correlation between Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb.

  11. Understanding trophic relationships among Caribbean sea urchins

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Barreras, Ruber; Cuevas, Elvira; Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Branoff, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The species Echinometra lucunter, Echinometra viridis, Lytechinus variegatus, Tripneustes ventricosus, and Diadema antillarum are the most common sea urchins of littoral habitats in the Caribbean. T. ventricosus and L. variegatus are associated with seagrass beds, while the other three species usually inhabit hardground substrates. Food preferences of these species are well documented and they are commonly accepted as being primarily herbivorous-omnivorous; nevertheless, few of them have prev...

  12. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  13. Produção de geléia de jambolão (Syzygium cumini Lamarck: processamento, parâmetros físico - químicos e avaliação sensorial Production of jambolan (Syzygium cumini Lamarck jelly: processing, physical-chemical properties and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Silva Lago

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A fruta jambolão (Syzygium cumini Lamarck é uma fruta de coloração roxa intensa e sabor agradável. Dado que não há na literatura nenhum relato de seu aproveitamento industrial, a produção de geléia de jambolão tornou-se uma interessante atividade de pesquisa. Este trabalho objetivou a elaboração e a avaliação das características físico-químicas e sensoriais da geléia obtida do jambolão. A fruta apresentou a seguinte composição química: cinzas, 0,34%; lipídeos, 0,30%; proteínas, 0,67%; carboidratos, 10,07%; fibras, 0,28%; umidade, 87,75%; frutose, 0,4%; glicose, 0,6%; antocianinas totais, 0,276%; substâncias pécticas, 0,245%; acidez titulável, 5,91%; sólidos solúveis, 9,00%; e pH, 3,9. A geléia obtida apresentou a seguinte composição: açúcares redutores, 20,99%; não-redutores, 18,01%; açúcares totais, 39,00%; pH, 3,42; sólidos solúveis, 67ºBrix; acidez titulável, 5,47%; e umidade, 29,63%. A análise sensorial foi realizada por uma equipe de 50 provadores não treinados que avaliaram os atributos cor, aparência, odor, textura, sabor e avaliação global, pelo método de escala hedônica com nove pontos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o atributo cor foi o que mais agradou aos provadores, o atributo odor foi o menos apreciado. Em conclusão, o estudo de análise sensorial revelou uma aceitação satisfatória da geléia de jambolão.Jambolan (Syzygium cumini Lamarck is a purple colored and very tasty fruit. Since there are no reports of its industrial use, the production of this jelly has become a matter of interest for research. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of the jelly made of jambolan. The fruit showed the following chemical composition: ash, 0.34%; lipids, 0.30%; proteins, 0.67%; carbohydrates, 10.07%; fibers, 0.28%; moisture, 87.75%; fructose, 0.4%; glucose, 0.6%; total anthocyanins, 0.276%; pectic substances, 0.245%; acidity

  14. Análise morfológica e morfométrica das gônadas de preguiça (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L.M. Barretto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A preguiça pode ser designada, zoologicamente, como um mamífero da classe Eutheria, ordem Edentata, subordem Xenarthra e família Bradypodidae. O gênero Bradypus é constituído de três espécies distintas: a preguiça-de-bentinho (B. tridactylus, restrita à região amazônica; a preguiça-comum (B. variegatus, de ampla distribuição, ocorrendo nas Américas Central e do Sul e a preguiça-de-coleira (B. torquatus, única seriamente ameaçada de extinção. Percebe-se a necessidade de uma investigação mais aprofundada sobre a espécie B. variegatus, a fim de contribuir de forma efetiva com a elaboração de tratados de anatomia da fauna silvestre, além de buscar mais informações sobre a anatomia do sistema reprodutor do bicho preguiça (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 e, desta forma, aplicar os novos conhecimentos na sua preservação. Utilizamos quatro indivíduos machos e três fêmeas, pertencentes ao banco de espécies da Área de Anatomia do Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (DMFA/UFRPE, as quais foram dissecados e evidenciamos a vascularização das gônadas, bem como suas localizações e aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos dos testículos e ovários. Como resultados, observou-se que o macho possui testículos localizados no interior do espaço intraabdominal, ligados às glândulas adrenais por um ligamento de peritônio. A vascularização não é feita por um plexo pampiniforme, mas por uma artéria e uma veia testicular. Os testículos possuem, em média, volume igual a 1,42cm³ e espessura, largura e comprimento, respectivamente iguais a 0,98, 1,23 e 1,45cm. Os ovários também estão no interior do espaço intra-abdominal, no fundo do útero, protegidos por uma bolsa ovariana, composta por mesovário e mesossalpinge. A vascularização é realizada por um plexo arteriovenoso que irriga e drena o útero, e suas ramificações na parede uterina atingem os ov

  15. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  16. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R; Hanley, Christopher S; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B; Martin, Maria Pia; Weaver, Scott C; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman's two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni ) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus ) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.

  17. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Pia Martin, Maria; Weaver, Scott C.; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths. PMID:27479900

  18. The study on spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) reared in cages%圆斑星鲽网箱养殖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦搏; 陈四清; 曹栋正; 刘长琳; 燕敬平; 胡建成; 王志军

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the growth performance, food conversion ratio and the changes in body color, spotted halibut (Verasper Variegatus) with body weight of 792.27±48.89 (large size), 513.49±39.19 (mid⁃size) and 185.59±25.51 g (small size) and stocking densities of 5.5 kg/m2 and 7.5 kg/m2 were respectively reared into 18 net cages at water temperature from 15 ℃ to 25 ℃for 60 days. The cage size was uniformly 5 m×5 m×3 m, and the fish were fed with frozen trash fish. The results showed that the daily body weight gain ranged from 1.77 g/d to 4.24 g/d during the rearing period, in which the maximum was that of the large size group (3.49 g/d) and it reached to 4.24 g/d at temperature of 15⁃20 ℃. The average food conversion ratio was 4.87, in which the minimum was that of large size group (4.16), and at water temperature of 15⁃20℃, it was 3.55. There was no significant effect of the stocking density on the growth and food conversion ratio for the spotted halibut reared in cages.There were better growth performance and lower food conversion ratio at water temperature of 15⁃20 ℃ compared with that at water temperature of 20⁃25 ℃. The body color of the spotted halibut reared in the cages was gradually turned to that of wild spotted halibut, and the color of blind side faded from black to white gradually. It considered that Verasper variegatus is a potential and suitable species for the cage aquaculture.%在水温15~25℃下,将平均体质量分别为792�27±48�89 g(大)、513�49±39�19 g(中)和185�59±25�51 g (小)的圆斑星鲽(Verasper variegatus),按5�5 kg/m2和7�5 kg/m2的密度,饲养在5 m×5 m×3 m网箱中,投喂冰冻玉筋鱼60 d,以研究不同规格和密度的圆斑星鲽在网箱中的生长、饲料系数和体色变化情况。整个饲养期间,圆斑星鲽日增重变化在1�77~4�24 g/d,其中大规格鱼的日增重最高(3�49 g/d),当水温为15~20

  19. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  20. Thermal stress in Larvae of the sand dollar (Dendraster excentricus) induces changes in hsp70 gen expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Bañuelos, T.; Garcia-Echauri, L.; Figueroa-Flores, S.; Carpizo-Ituarte, E.

    2010-03-01

    temperature where larvae development occurs. It seems that competent and metamorphic larvae are more sensitive to changes in sea water temperature, than 8 arms pluteus larval stage of Dendraster excentricus. References 1. Boidron-Metairon IF (1988) Morphological plasticity in laboratory-reared echinoplutei of Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz) and Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) in response to food conditions Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 119(1):31-41 2. Kregel KC (2002) Heat shock proteins: modifying factors in physiological stress responses and acquired thermotolerance. J Appl Physiol. 92(5):2177-2186

  1. Phytochemical studies on Ruta chalepensis (Lam.) Lamarck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Keriman; Savci, Sezer

    2005-04-01

    Ruta chalepensis is a rich source of important secondary metabolites such as furanocoumarins and alkaloids. Besides, it is a medicinal plant and still used in traditional medicine. For that reason, its chemical composition, medicinal properties, and uses were reviewed in this article.

  2. Lamarck and the adaptive conservation of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galera, Andrés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Lamarck’s evolutionary thought through four analytic elements. Firstly, Lamarckian construction of a founding evolutionary archetype. Secondly, the interpretation of nature as a material system where the organic change represents a continuous process aimed at the adaptative conservation of life. Thirdly, the definition of a genealogical process on the origin of species which identifies the natural method. Fourthly, the redefinition of the concept of species applying the arguments of temporary relativity and individual instability.

    En este artículo se estudia el ideario evolucionista lamarckiano desarrollando cuatro elementos analíticos. Primero, la elaboración de un arquetipo evolutivo fundacional. Segundo, la interpretación de la naturaleza como un sistema material donde el cambio orgánico da sentido a un proceso continuo dirigido a la conservación de la vida. Tercero, la definición de un principio genealógico sobre el origen de las especies que identifica el método natural. Cuarto, la reformulación del concepto de especie utilizando los argumentos de relatividad temporal e inestabilidad individual.

  3. 剑麻提取物对福寿螺的毒理效应%Toxicological effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 徐武兵; 钟秋华; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2012-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is an invasive alien species that is very harmful to the ecosystem and rice production in South China.To verify the toxicity and related mechanism of Agave sisalana Perrine to golden apple snail,the toxic effects of aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana were tested via the snail-immersed method.The effects of n-butanol (59 mg·L-1,96 mg·L-1) and ethanol (180 mg·L-1,325 mg·L-1) extracts on cholinesterase (ChE),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in hepatic tissue of golden apple snails were also investigated.Based on the results,aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana had toxic effects on golden apple snail.Their semi-lethal concentrations (LC50) on golden apple snail for 72 h toxicity exposure were 35.3 g·L-1,93.3 mg·L-1 and 298.6 mg·L-1,respectively.The corresponding 95%confidence interval ranges were 32.9~37.7 g·L~1,87.6~99.7 mg·L~1 and 272.9~318.7 mg·L-1,respectively.When treated with n-butanol and ethanol extracts for 12 h,SOD activity in snail hepatic tissues showed no obvious change at low concentrations.SOD activity,however,increased significantly at high concentrations.After treatment for 48 h,SOD activity at high concentrations of n-butanol extract was significantly higher than that of the control.However,SOD activity did not show any obvious change in both low and high concentrations of ethanol extract.All A.Sisalana extracts somehow increased ChE activity,with n-butanol extract exhibiting higher effect on ChE activity.When treated with 96 mg·L-1 n-butanol extract for 48 h,ChE activity significantly exceededthat of the control (P < 0.05).Overall,n-butanol extract treatment enhanced ATPase activity at low concentrations and suppressed it at high concentrations.Irrespectively,no obvious pattern change was noted under ethanol extract treatment.In conclusion,A.Sisalana was somehow toxic to golden apple snail.A better mode of application was

  4. Acute toxicity, critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, and ionoregulatory disturbance in response to waterborne nickel in four invertebrates: Chironomus riparius, Lymnaea stagnalis, Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin M; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the bioaccumulation and acute toxicity (48 h or 96 h) of Ni in four freshwater invertebrate species in two waters with hardness of 40 (soft water) and 140 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3) (hard water). Sensitivity order (most to least) was Lymnaea stagnalis > Daphnia pulex > Lumbriculus variegatus > Chironomus riparius. In all cases water hardness was protective against acute Ni toxicity with LC(50) values 3-3.5× higher in the hard water vs. soft water. In addition, higher water hardness significantly reduced Ni bioaccumulation in these organisms suggesting that competition by Ca and Mg for uptake at the biotic ligand may contribute to higher metal resistance. CBR50 values (Critical Body Residues) were less dependent on water chemistry (i.e. more consistent) than LC(50) values within and across species by ~2 fold. These data support one of the main advantages of the Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) where tissue concentrations are generally less variable than exposure concentrations with respect to toxicity. Whole body Ni bioaccumulation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in all organisms, with greater hardness tending to decrease B(max) with no consistent effect on K(d). Across species, acute Ni LC(50) values tended to increase with both K(d) and B(max) values - i.e. more sensitive species exhibited higher binding affinity and lower binding capacity for Ni, but there was no correlation with body size. With respect to biotic ligand modeling, log K(NiBL) values derived from Ni bioaccumulation correlated well with log K(NiBL) values derived from toxicity testing. Both whole body Na and Mg levels were disturbed, suggesting that disruption of ionoregulatory homeostasis is a mechanism of acute Ni toxicity. In L. stagnalis, Na depletion was a more sensitive endpoint than mortality, however, the opposite was true for the other organisms. This is the first study to show the relationship between Na and Ni. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested that as part of the remedial investigation for the Anniston, Alabama Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site (Anniston PCB Site), that Pharmacia Corporation and Solutia Inc. (P/S) perform long-term reproduction toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, using sediment samples collected from reference locations and from Operable Unit 4 of the Anniston PCB Site. The sediment toxicity testing and sediment bioaccumulation results will be used by ARCADIS U.S., Inc. (ARCADIS) as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and establish sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the Anniston PCB Site. The goal of this study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in samples of sediments collected from the Anniston PCB Site. A total of 32 samples were evaluated from six test sites and one reference site to provide a wide range in concentrations of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) including PCBs in samples of whole sediment. The goal of this study was not to determine the extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Hence, the test sites or samples collected from within a test site were not selected to represent the spatial extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Sediment chemistry, pore-water chemistry, and sediment toxicity data were generated for 26 sediment samples from the Anniston PCB Site. All of the samples were evaluated to determine if they qualified as reference sediment samples. Those samples that met the chemical selection criteria and biological selection criteria were identified as reference samples and used to develop the reference envelope for each toxicity test endpoint. Physical

  6. 4α-Acetoxyamijidictyol - A New Antifeeding Dolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel Bianco, Éverson; Martins Francisco, Thiago; Basílio Pinheiro, Carlos; Bagueira de Vasconcellos Azeredo, Rodrigo; Laneuville Teixeira, Valéria; Crespo Pereira, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Chemical investigation of the CH2 Cl2 crude extract from the brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Dictyotaceae) led to isolation of one new (1) and four previously reported dolastane diterpenes (2-5). Their structures were characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, including a full single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis for 1, 2, and 4. In addition, the new structure 1 was assayed as chemical defense inhibiting the feeding by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. This study constitutes an additional report broadening the known spectrum of action and defensive roles of secondary metabolites of the C. cervicornis and Dictyotales species.

  7. Morphological development and growth pattern of Verasper variegatus,Temminck et Schlegel in early life stages%圆斑星鲽的早期生长发育特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁鑫; 柳学周; 孙中之; 徐永江; 王妍妍

    2011-01-01

    Morphological and quantitative characteristics of Verasper variegatus in early life stages including embryonic development, yolk sac larva, pre-flexion larva, post-flexion larva, and juveniles were recorded. The eggs are 1.75mm 0. 08mm in diameter, without oil globule and spherical in shape when they are suspended in sea water. There is negative a relationship between the temperature and the hatching time, and the calculated lower threshold temperature for hatching of embryos is 5.14 ℃. The larvae hatched out 159h post fertilization at temperatures of 11±0.5 C, salinity of 31-32, and DO≥Smg/L. The newly hatched larvae is transparent and 4.95±0. 15mm in total length. Larval development and growth completely depended on the energy from the yolk sac and oil globe till 7 DAH (days after hatching). Meantime, mouth and anus opened, larvae entered the mixed feeding stage. Larvae entered the complete exogenous feeding stage after the yolk was completely absorbed at 11DAH. The first feeding food was L type rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. Larvae began to feed rotifers at 7 DAH. At 11 DAH, larvae were fed nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia salina at densities of 0.5 1.5 ind./mi till 46 DAH. Weaning to commercial diet started at 31 DAH and larvae fed mainly commercial diet after 40 DAH. There is no swim bladder present all through the early life history. The flexion of notochord started at 17 DAH at a total length of 7.32 0.23 mm (n=30), and finished at 33DAH when the total length reached 11.2 0.33 mm (n=30). Meanwhile, metamorphosis began at 33 DAH and completed at 50 DAH with the left eye moved completely to the right side, and the juveniles entered the bottom life stage. At 70 DAH, lateral line formed and the juveniles entered the young stage with the total length up to 25.3 3.23 mm (n=30), with similar appearance as the adults. The dorsal fin, pectoral fin, pelvic fin, caudal fin, and anal fin reached their full numbers at 70DAH. There were 4-5 black spots on the dorsal

  8. Biological control of fouling incrustation on the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758 cultured in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Stojanov Bueno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was developed at the marine farm of the São Paulo State Fisheries Institute in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, aiming to compare the efficiency of three organisms (the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter, Lytechinus variegatus and the gastropod Tegula viridula in controlling fouling incrustation in lantern net and on Nodipecten nodosus valves. Scallops measuring 32.6 + 4.9mm of initial height were cultivated in eight Japanese lanterns with five floors each, at a density of 25 scallops/floor, according to the following delineament: T1 – control (scallops alone; T2 – scallops with E. lucunter; T3 – scallops with L. variegatus; T4 – scallops with T. viridula. Densities of the bio-controllers were: four (E. lucunter, three (L. variegatus and 15 animals/floor (T. viridula. The experiment was finished 150 days later and the remaining fouling in the lanterns and on the scallops valves was removed and weighed (dry weights. The sea-urchin species E. lucunter and L. variegatus were significantly more efficient in removing the lantern fouling (86% and 59% relative to the control treatment respectively, but there were no significant differences among the biocontrollers in controlling the fouling on the scallop valves. These results suggest that biological control can be helpful as an auxiliary method in scallop culture fouling removal.

  9. Chemotaxonomic study of the demosponge Cinachyrella cavernosa (Lamarck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Naik, B.G.; Al-Fadhli, A.A

    previously been identified in Cinachyrella australiensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 4α-methyl gorgostanol from a sponge and DPA from a marine source. The probable origin and chemotaxonomic importance of some of the metabolites is discussed...

  10. Embriologia do siri Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae Embryology of the swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A.A. Pinheiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovigerous females of Arenaeus cribrarius were collected at Ubatuba, São Paulo, and maintaining in aquaria under controlled temperature (25±1ºC, salinity (35±1‰ and photoperiod (12:12. A small sample of eggs was collected for each 24h, for morphological description, chromatic changes and biometric analysis throughout the embryonic development. Eight egg stages were photographed and had their small and large diameters measured under a microscope provided with camera lucida. The egg's shape was low elliptical during all the embryogenesis and showed size increase (24.4% and volume (91.1 %, when the last stage were compared with the first one. According to mean egg diameter and volume, the eggs should be pooled in three different groups (1-3; 4-6; 7-8 corresponding to initial, intermediate and final stages. The attained results were compared with the literature which emphasizing the species of Portunidae's family.

  11. Distribution and abundance of Eledone cirrhosa (Lamarck, 1798 and Eledone moschata (Lamarck, 1798 (Cephalopoda: Octopoda in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Belcari

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on distribution, abundance and size composition of the two octopods Eledone cirrhosa and E. moschata was obtained from the MEDITS trawl surveys, carried out in a wide area of the Mediterranean basin from 1994 to 1999. Both species showed a wide geographic distribution, as they were collected in all the major areas investigated. E. cirrhosa showed a wide depth distribution, down to the 800 m isobath, while E. moschata was mostly restricted to within 200 m. Further analysis on spatio-temporal basis with a Generalised Linear Model, evidenced that differences among major areas, depth strata and their interaction were always significant. In the case of E. cirrhosa, differences among years and year-major area interaction were also significant. Two cohorts can be singled out in the size frequency distributions of E. cirrhosa, whereas only one mode can be clearly distinguished in most of the length distributions of E. moschata.

  12. 臭腹腺蝗(直翅目: 锥头蝗科)中肠内营养物-水分的流动和吸收%Nutrient-water fluxes and uptake along the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Circulation of water and nutrients in the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus was studied to determine the flux pattern and its possible implication in the adaptation of the insect to hydrogen cyanide. Histological sections of midgut cells were observed. Gradients of K+, Na+ and protein along midgut were determined. The permeability of midgut segments to K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and methyl blue was observed. The midgut (ventriculus and gastric caeca) was histologically similar, and made of columnar cells with striated borders. The nutrients varied in concentration in the different midgut segments. The substances tested for permeability passed through the midgut segments. It was concluded that the entire midgut was involved in food and water absorption. There was no counter flow of fluids from the posterior midgut as in most orthopterans. One-way movement of the gut contents prevents accumulation of toxic substances to injurious levels, enabling the insect to favourably tolerate hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves.%对臭腹腺蝗Zonocerus variegatus中肠内水分和营养物的流动和吸收进行了研究,以期确定其流动模式及在该虫对氰化氢适应方面的意义.对中肠细胞进行了组织切片观察;测定了K+, Na+和蛋白质沿中肠的浓度梯度,并观察了中肠对K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+和甲基蓝的通透性.结果表明,中肠(胃和胃盲囊)组织上结构相似,均由具有纹状边缘的柱状细胞构成.营养物质在中肠不同部分的浓度不同.测试物在整个中肠中流动,中肠各段均参与了食物和水分的吸收.臭腹腺蝗肠内没有像大多数直翅目昆虫那样自后肠的液流逆向流动.肠溶物的单向流动可以防止有毒物质的积累,使臭腹腺蝗成功耐受木薯叶中的氰化氢.

  13. Echinodermata in ecotoxicological tests: maintenance and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocássio Batista Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work investigates the sensitivity of four species of Echinodermata (Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter, Arbacia lixula and Encope emarginata, evaluating the effect of five reference toxicants (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and SDS on embryo-larval development, following the official protocols. It also evaluates techniques for the maintenance of L. variegatus in the laboratory, changes in its sensitivity, and the effects of chemical agents that induce the release of gametes, on the survival rates of the organisms. In terms of the maintenance of L. variegatus in the laboratory, the diet with vegetable content appears to be more favorable for maintenance and maturation in cultivation tanks. Chemical inducers such as KCl and the Anesthetic (lidocaine and epinephrine resulted in high adult mortality rates, discouraging its re-induction. The tests performed with different species of sea urchin and sand dollar, using different reference toxicants, showed no variations in sensitivity to the more toxic chemicals, indicating that different species can be used for evaluation and environmental impact assessment.

  14. Biomarkers of toxicological responses in aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus. Variegatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Gooneratne; Drewes C

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oligochaete worms are key, non-target,macroinvertebrates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.Aquatic and terrestrial pollution has attracted a great deal of public interest in the past 2 decades.

  15. Electrocardiographic studies of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E M; Duarte, D P F; da Costa, C P

    2005-12-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained with standard limb leads and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded from 17 unanesthetized adult sloths. The animals were held in their habitual position in an experimental chair. We determined heart rate and rhythm from the R-R intervals, the amplitude and duration of each wave, and the duration of the segments and intervals of the ECG. The mean electrical axes of P and T waves and QRS complex were calculated on the basis of the amplitude of these waves in leads I, II, III, aV R, aV L, and aV F. The P wave appeared positive in most tracings with low amplitude in lead II, the QRS complex was generally negative in leads aV R, III and aV F, and no arrhythmias were observed. With a mean +/- SD heart rate for all recordings of 81 +/- 18 bpm, the duration of P and T waves, QRS complex, and PR, QT and RR intervals averaged 0.05 +/- 0.02, 0.15 +/- 0.05, 0.07 +/- 0.02, 0.13 +/- 0.02, 0.38 +/- 0.04, and 0.74 +/- 0.17 s, respectively. The ECG shape had a definite configuration on each lead. The angles of the mean +/- SD electrical axes for atrial and ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization in the horizontal plane were +34 +/- 68 masculine, -35 +/- 63 masculine, and -23 +/- 68 masculine, respectively. All electrical axes showed great variations and their mean values suggest that, when the sloth is in a seated position, the heart could be displaced by the diaphragm to a semi-horizontal position.

  16. Electrocardiographic studies of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms (ECG obtained with standard limb leads and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded from 17 unanesthetized adult sloths. The animals were held in their habitual position in an experimental chair. We determined heart rate and rhythm from the R-R intervals, the amplitude and duration of each wave, and the duration of the segments and intervals of the ECG. The mean electrical axes of P and T waves and QRS complex were calculated on the basis of the amplitude of these waves in leads I, II, III, aV R, aV L, and aV F. The P wave appeared positive in most tracings with low amplitude in lead II, the QRS complex was generally negative in leads aV R, III and aV F, and no arrhythmias were observed. With a mean ± SD heart rate for all recordings of 81 ± 18 bpm, the duration of P and T waves, QRS complex, and PR, QT and RR intervals averaged 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.07 ± 0.02, 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.38 ± 0.04, and 0.74 ± 0.17 s, respectively. The ECG shape had a definite configuration on each lead. The angles of the mean ± SD electrical axes for atrial and ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization in the horizontal plane were +34 ± 68º, -35 ± 63º, and -23 ± 68º, respectively. All electrical axes showed great variations and their mean values suggest that, when the sloth is in a seated position, the heart could be displaced by the diaphragm to a semi-horizontal position.

  17. Isozyme Analysis of Spotted Halibut Verasper variegatus Temminck et Schlegel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Manhong; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei; CHEN Siqing

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the tissue-specificities of isozymes and the genetic structure of wild spotted halibut ( Verasper vari gatus) population, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was performed on 45 individuals collected in part of the Yellow Sea.The performances of 17 isozymes in 8 kinds of tissues or organs were screened preliminarily in a TC-7.0 buffer system. The results showed that the screened isozymes displayed remarkable tissue-specificities. Finally, 14 enzymes (AAT, ADH, EST,GPI, G3PDH, IDHP, LAP, LDH, MDH, MPI, PGDH, PGM, SDH and SOD) and 4 kinds of tissues (eye, skeleton mus cle, liver and heart) were selected for genetic analysis. Fourteen isozymes are encoded by 20 loci, and 9 of them are poly morphic. The polymorph ic loci are AAT-1*, GPI-2*, G3PDH*, IDHP-1*, LDH*, MPI*, PGM-1*, PGM-2* and SDH* , and the proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.4500 (P0.99). The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities are 0.027 8 and 0.026 5, respectively and the average effective number of alleles is 1.067 5.

  18. Chemical defense of Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera: halichondrida against tropical predators

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    Suzi Meneses Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various benthic organisms have chemical defenses which reduce their predators' consumption. Although their efficiency may be noticed in many organisms, many of their effects are not well- known yet. Multiple ecological roles of secondary metabolites are shown in some sponges, which may represent an adaptative advantage considering the high amount of energy used to produce these chemical compounds. The goal of this work was to investigate the defensive property of the extracts from the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila against the tropical predators: hermit crabs (Calcinus tibicens, sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus and generalist fishes. Extracts obtained with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone/methanol were used in assays and all of them were effective in reducing the consumption by C. tibicens; n-hexane extract reduced the consumption by L. variegatus; and medium polarity extracts reduced fish consumption. Either the variation in action or the multiple ecological roles of the extracts indicates that different types of compounds can be associated to the defensive system produced by H. heliophila.Diversos organismos bênticos possuem defesas químicas que ajudam a diminuir a predação. Embora sua eficácia seja comprovada, muitos de seus efeitos são ainda desconhecidos. Múltiplas funções dos metabolitos secundários foram evidenciadas em algumas esponjas e isso pode representar uma vantagem adaptativa, considerando o alto valor energético gasto pelas espécies para produzí-los. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar as propriedades defensivas de extratos da esponja Hymeniacidon heliophila contra predadores tropicais: paguros (Calcinus tibicens, ouriços-do-mar (Lytechinus variegatus e peixes generalistas. Extratos em n-hexano, acetato de etila e acetona/metanol foram usados nos ensaios e todos foram eficientes na redução do consumo por C. tibicen; extratos em n-hexano reduziram o consumo por L. variegatus; e extratos de m

  19. Mapping of magnesium and of different protein fragments in sea urchin teeth via secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, J S; Stock, S R; Veis, A

    2006-07-01

    Mature portions of sea urchin are comprised of a complex array of reinforcing elements yet are single crystals of high and very high Mg calcite. How a relatively poor structural material (calcite) can produce mechanically competent structures is of great interest. In teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we recorded high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) maps of Mg, Ca ,and specific amino acid fragments of mineral-related proteins including aspartic acid (Asp). SIMS revealed strong colocalization of Asp residues with very high Mg. Demineralized specimens showed serine localization on membranes between crystal elements and reduced Mg and aspartic acid signals, further emphasizing colocalization of very high Mg with ready soluble Asp-rich protein(s). The association of Asp with nonequilibrium, very high magnesium calcite provides insight to the makeup of the macromolecules involved in the growth of two different composition calcites and the fundamental process of biomineralization.

  20. Nuclear lamins during gametogenesis, fertilization and early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of lamins (described by Gerace, 1978, as major proteins of nuclear envelope) during gametogenesis, fertilization, and early development was investigated in germ cells of a mouse (Mus musculus), an echinoderm (Lytechinus variegatus), and the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) was investigated in order to determine whether the differences detected could be correlated with differences in the function of cells in these stages of the germ cells. In order to monitor the behavior of lamins, the gametes and embryos were labeled with antibodies to lamins A, C, and B extracted from autoimmune sera of patients with scleroderma and Lupus erythematosus. Results indicated that lamin B could be identified in nuclear envelopes on only those nuclei where chromatin is attached and where RNA synthesis takes place.

  1. Anodontites trapesialis (LAMARCK, 1819: a bivalve parasite of freshwater fishes / Anodontites trapesialis (LAMARCK, 1819: um bivalve parasito de peixes de água doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve mollusk Anodontites trapesialis has been indicated as an alternative source for aquaculture because it is considered a food of good nutritional value with a protein content close to that of fish. Its shells can be utilized as fertilizer and mixed to the food of domestic animals, and the nacre can be used to manufacture buttons and crafts. However, the larvae of A. trapesialis, which are the lasidium type, are obligatory parasites of freshwater fishes, and the introduction of this bivalve in fish farm tanks have caused trouble and losses for producers. Nothing is known, however, about their development in these environments. On the other hand, it should be pointed out that A. trapesialis is on Brazil’s list of species threatened with extinction. This article provides a compilation of information present in the literature, offering a detailed review, with the aim of presenting a general panorama of what is known about Anodontites trapesialis and its larval parasitism of fishes.O molusco bivalve, Anodontites trapesialis, tem sido indicado como fonte alternativa para a aqüicultura, por ser considerado um alimento de bom valor nutricional com um conteúdo protéico próximo ao do pescado. Suas conchas podem ser utilizadas como fertilizantes calcáreos e ser agregadas a alimentos de animais domésticos e o nácar pode ser utilizado para fabricar botões e artesanatos. No entanto, as larvas de A. trapesialis, que são do tipo lasidium, são parasitas obrigatórias de peixes de água doce e a introdução desse bivalve em tanques de piscicultura tem causado transtornos e prejuízos aos produtores. Nada se conhece, porém, sobre o seu desenvolvimento nesses ambientes. Por outro lado, ressalta-se que A. trapesialis consta da lista brasileira de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. No presente artigo são compiladas as informações presentes na literatura, em uma revisão detalhada, com o objetivo de apresentar o panorama geral do conhecimento acerca de Anodontites trapesialis e do parasitismo de peixes por suas larvas.

  2. Comparative evaluation of sea-urchin larval stage sensitivity to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, M C; Cesar, A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the marine carbonate system may affect various calcifying organisms. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of embryo-larval development of two species of sea urchins (Paracentrutos lividus and Lytechinus variegatus) collected and exposed to samples from different coastal zone (Spain and Brazil) to ocean acidification. The results showed that the larval stages are very sensitive to small changes in the seawater's pH. The larvae from P. lividus species showed to be more sensitive to acidified elutriate sediments than larvae from L. variegatus sea urchin. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that the CO2 enrichment in aquatic ecosystems cause changes on the mobility of the metals: Zn, Cu, Fe, Al and As, which was presented different behavior among them. Although an increase on the mobility of metals was found, the results using the principal component analysis showed that the pH reduction show the highest correlations with the toxicity and is the main cause of embryo-larval development inhibition. In this comparative study it is demonstrated that both species are able to assess potential effects of the ocean acidification related to CO2 enrichment by both near future scenarios and the risk associated with CO2 leakages in the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process, and the importance of comparative studies in different zones to improve the understanding of the impacts caused by ocean acidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical defense in the red seaweed Plocamium brasiliense: spatial variability and differential action on herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Pereira

    Full Text Available Species of Plocamium are known as prolific sources of halogenated secondary metabolites exhibiting few explored ecological roles. In this study the crude extracts from specimens of P. brasiliensecollected in two distinct places, Enseada do Forno and Praia Rasa, Búzios, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, were evaluated as defense against the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and the crab Acanthonyx scutiformis. These specimens produce a similar amount of crude extract and also halogenated monoterpene compound-types, but individuals of P. brasiliense from Praia Rasa exhibit a major compound representing about 59% of the total chemicals. Natural concentrations of the crude extracts obtained from both specimens of P. brasiliense significantly inhibited the herbivory by the sea urchin L. variegatus, but had no significant effect on the feeding by A. scutiformis, a crab commonly associated to chemically defended host. Crude extract from P. brasiliense collected at Praia Rasa was more efficient as defense against L. variegatusthan that crude extract from populations of this alga from Enseada do Forno, probably due to presence of a major secondary metabolite. These two studied population live under different environmental conditions, but they are only about 30 Km apart. However, it is impossible to affirm that environmental characteristics (abiotic or biotic would be responsible for the difference of defensive potential found in the two populations of P. brasiliense studied here. Further genetic studies will be necessary to clarify this question and to explain why populations of a single species living in different but close locations can exhibit distinct chemicals.

  4. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a large and long-lived invertebrate, provides a new perspective on animal immunity. Analysis of this genome uncovered a highly complex immune system in which the gene families that encode homologs of the pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR) sequences, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a 10-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic protein structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. A role for these receptors in immune defense is suggested by their similarity to TLRs in other organisms, sequence diversity, and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. The complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families is largely derived from expansions independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll can be traced to an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other echinoderm sequences are now available, including Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the mccTLR sequences are found in L. variegatus, although the L. variegatus TLR gene family is notably smaller (68 TLR sequences). The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel immune recognition functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may

  5. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  6. Epigenética, evolución y la sombra de Lamarck

    OpenAIRE

    Dressino, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Desde la formulación por Waddington del término epigenética este campo disciplinar ha manifestado un desarrollo lento pero sostenido. Sin embargo, en los últimos veinte años se produjo, debido al progreso tecnológico y conceptual experimentado por la biología, un gran crecimiento que está cambiando muchos conceptos en diversos campos de la biomedicina y de la biología evolutiva. La herencia epigenética describe la transmisión de la información sobre la base de la expresión genética, a diferen...

  7. "Days of future passed" - climate change and carbon cycle history (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    With the beginning of the fossil fuel age in the 19th century mankind has become an important geological agent on a global scale. For the first time in human history action of man has an impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing CO2 concentrations will result in a perturbation of global carbon cycling coupled with climate change. Investigations of past changes in carbon cycling and in climate will improve our predictions of future climate. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will drive climate into a mode of operation, which may resemble climate conditions in the deep geological past. Pliocene climate will give insight into 400ppm world with higher global sea level than today. Doubling of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 levels will shift the climate system into a state resembling greenhouse climate in the Early Cenozoic or even in the Cretaceous. Carbon isotope geochemistry serves as tool for tracing the pathway of the carbon cycle through geological time. Globally registered negative C-isotope anomalies in the C-isotope record are interpreted as signatures of rapid addition (103 to a few 104 years) of CO2 to the ocean-atmosphere system. Positive C-isotope excursions following negative spikes record the slow post-perturbation recovery of the biosphere at time scales of 105 to 106 years. Duration of C-cycle perturbations in earth history cannot be directly compared with rapid perturbation characterizing the Anthropocene. However, the investigation of greenhouse pulses in the geological past provides insight into different climate states, it allows to identify tipping points in past climate systems and it offers the opportunity to learn about response reactions of the biosphere to rapid changes in global carbon cycling. Sudden injection of massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is recorded in C-isotope record of the Early Cretaceous. The Aptian carbon cycle perturbation triggered changes in temperature and in global hydrological cycling. Changes in physical and chemical oceanography are reflected in widespread black shale deposition ("Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a"), in carbonate platform drowning and in biocalcification crises. "Days of future passed" (Moody Blues, 1967) reminds us that the past provides essential information needed for decisions to be made in the interest of mankind's future.

  8. Metabolomic investigation of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) caged in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasulo, Salvatore; Iacono, Francesco; Cappello, Tiziana; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; D'Agata, Alessia; Giannetto, Alessia; De Domenico, Elena; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Mauceri, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Environmental metabolomics was applied to assess the metabolic responses in transplanted mussels to environmental pollution. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). Chemical analysis revealed increased levels of PAHs in the digestive gland of mussels from the industrial area compared with control, and marked morphological changes were also observed. Digestive gland metabolic profiles, obtained by 1H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, showed changes in metabolites involved in energy metabolism. Specifically, changes in lactate and acetoacetate could indicate increased anaerobic fermentation and alteration in lipid metabolism, respectively, suggesting that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The NMR-based environmental metabolomics applied in this study results thus in it being a useful and effective tool for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms.

  9. Spawn and larval development of Pleuroploca aurantiaca (Lamarck, 1816 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae from Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. O. Meirelles

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spawn and larval development stages of Pleuroploca aurantiaca from northeast Brazil are described. The reproductive period lasted from August to December, with a peak in November. Spawn masses were composed of 29 ± 3 vase-shaped capsules which measured 9 ± 1 mm (n = 30 in length and 4.5 ± 0.5 mm (n = 30 in width. The exit plug was located on the apical area and measured 2.5 ± 0.5 mm (n = 30 in diameter. Each capsule had 353 ± 59 (n = 10 eggs that measured 240 ± 1 µm (n = 15 in diameter. On the tenth day, the intracapsular veliger stage was observed. The intracapsular pediveliger stage was observed on the twenty first day, when the individuals had a functional foot and a reduced velum. Hatching occurred on the thirtieth day, when the early juvenile measured 3 to 5 mm in length and there was no remaining velum. Only 1% of the eggs developed to the hatching stage. The rest were nurse eggs used by embryos as a food resource. Pleuroploca aurantiaca has an intracapsular metamorphosis development type.

  10. The influence of different microalgal diets on Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck, 1819 broodstock conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Anjos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata shows great potential in oyster farming. In Europe, pure populations of this species were observed only in the southern coasts of Portugal and Spain, namely in Rio Sado, Rio Mira and Guadalquivir. The conservation of C. angulata populations is important in the context of production diversification and biodiversity preservation. In this way the zootechnological development for seed hatchery production is extremely important. Broodstock conditioning is a key step in the process of rearing bivalve in hatchery. Many factors regulate the reproductive cycle, being food the most important. However the influence of the nutritional quality of different phytoplankton on sexual maturation has been poorly explored. To evaluate the effects of different diets on C. angulata sexual maturity, broodstock were conditioned with different food regimes: Diet 1: bi-specific combination of Pavlova lutheri and Isochrysis galbana clone T-ISO (1:1; Diet 2: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, I galbana clone T-ISO and Skeletonema constatum (1:1:1; Diet 3: bi-specific combination of S. constatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans (1:1 and Diet 4: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, S. constatum and C. calcitrans (1:1:1. During conditioning, condition index and gonad histological analysis were performed. Results showed heterogeneity between diets. At the beginning of conditioning 60% of individuals were in resting (stage 0, 30% were males in early gametogenesis (stage I and 10% were females in mature stage (stage III. At the end of the conditioning, the most effective diet was the Diet 3 (60 % of mature oysters with a mean condition index value of 2.83±0.95. Whereas those fed with Diet 1 have an unsuccessfully gonadic development, with 80% of individuals in resting stage. Indeed, the condition index, in Diet 1 decreased during the conditioning period. The results obtained in this study reinforce the idea that the diatom microalgae group is essential in the conditioning of C. angulata broodstock. This work constitute an important first step in the hatchery C. angulata broodstock nutrition and a prerequisite for future work on improvement of broodstock conditioning and the optimization of feeding practices that will maximize the conditioning phase and minimize cost in aquaculture hatcheries.

  11. Moringa oleifera Lamarck (drumstick Leaf Extract Modulates the Evidences of Hydroxyurea -Induced Testicular Derangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Saalu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hydroxyurea (HDU is an antineoplastic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of Sickle cell disease (SCD.However, the therapeutic value of HDU is limited by its organotoxicity including testicular toxity. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in HDU-induced toxicity. The Application of natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of many pathologic diseases has been reported. Herein, the ability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract (MOLE to protect rat testis against HDU-induced histomorphometric, spermatogenic, and oxidative status impairments were investigated. Three experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used; MOLE- alone group that received orally MOLE 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w daily for 90 consecutive days.  HDU-alone group that had 25 mg HDU/kg b.w/day/orally for 90 consecutive days. MOLE plus HDU-group that were Moringa oleifera  world’s most useful trees is also widely grown in the tropical regions.treated orally for 90 consecutive days with both  25 mg HDU/kg b.w/day and MOLE 50 mg/kg b.w/day.   There was also a corresponding control group which had distilled water 2.5 ml/kg b.w/day/orally for 90 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that co-treatment with MOLE protected the testis against the morphologic, spermatogenic and oxidative status changes induced by HDU. Industrial relevance: Hydroxyurea is commonly used in management of sickle cell disease. The use of this drug is however limited by its organotoxicity including testicular damage.  The present study therefore explores the ability of extract of Moringa oleifera. Leaves to prevent testicular damage during HDU therapy with a view of providing base line information on its possible use as an adjunct in future treatment regimes.

  12. Moringa oleifera Lamarck (drumstick) Leaf Extract Modulates the Evidences of Hydroxyurea -Induced Testicular Derangement

    OpenAIRE

    Saalu, L.C.; A.A. Osinubi; A A Akinbami; O E Yama; A.O. Oyewopo; B U Enaibe

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Hydroxyurea (HDU) is an antineoplastic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of Sickle cell disease (SCD).However, the therapeutic value of HDU is limited by its organotoxicity including testicular toxity. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in HDU-induced toxicity. The Application of natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of many pathologic diseases has been reported. Herein, the ability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract (MOLE) to protect ...

  13. Early detection of potentially invasive invertebrate species in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 dominated communities in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, Cristina; Memedemin, Daniyar; Skolka, Marius; Cogălniceanu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Constanţa harbour is a major port on the western coast of the semi-enclosed Black Sea. Its brackish waters and low species richness make it vulnerable to invasions. The intensive maritime traffic through Constanţa harbour facilitates the arrival of alien species. We investigated the species composition of the mussel beds on vertical artificial concrete substrate inside the harbour. We selected this habitat for study because it is frequently affected by fluctuating levels of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, and by accidental pollution episodes. The shallow communities inhabiting it are thus unstable and often restructured, prone to accept alien species. Monthly samples were collected from three locations from the upper layer of hard artificial substrata (maximum depth 2 m) during two consecutive years. Ten alien macro-invertebrate species were inventoried, representing 13.5% of the total number of species. Two of these alien species were sampled starting the end of summer 2010, following a period of high temperatures that triggered hypoxia, causing mass mortalities of benthic organisms. Based on the species accumulation curve, we estimated that we have detected all benthic alien species on artificial substrate from Constanţa harbour, but additional effort is required to detect all the native species. Our results suggest that monitoring of benthic communities at small depths in harbours is a simple and useful tool in early detection of potentially invasive alien species. The selected habitat is easily accessible, the method is low-cost, and the samples represent reliable indicators of alien species establishment.

  14. The chemical investigations on the ripe fruits of Ammi visnaga (Lam.) Lamarck growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Keriman; Beyazit, Neslihan

    2004-04-01

    Two furanochromones and one furanochromone glycoside were isolated from the fruits of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. They were identified as khellin, visnagin, and khellol glycoside by interpretation of spectral analyses. Quantitative determination of furanochromones in A. visnaga (L.) ripe fruits from Hatay region (Turkey) was carried out by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. In addition, photochemical properties of furanochromones and chemical composition of essential oil were determined.

  15. Introduction, spat-rearing and experimental culture of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians lamarck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusui; He, Yichao; Liu, Xiangsheng; Ma, Jianghu; Li, Shuying; Qi, Lingxin

    1991-06-01

    Bay scallops were introduced from the east coast of the U.S. into China to shorten the economic turn-over from 2 to 1 year. Parent scallops were carried to Qingdao on Dec. 20, 1982 and stocked in indoor tanks at controlled temperature and fed with a mixture of Phaeodictylum tricornutum, Pyramimonas sp. and Chlorella sp. They spawned on Jan. 26 of the next year. The larvae were reared at a temperature of 18 21°C and fed with Isochrysis galbana, Pyramimonas sp. and Chorella sp. In 4 weeks’ growing, the spats averaged 827 μm. They attained a height of 6.9 mm on May 9. In the middle of May, the seed scallops were transferred to Luoyuan Bay in Fujian Province, and Jiaozhou Bay, as well as the area off Taiping Jiao Cape, Qingdao, Shandong Province for experimental culture in plastic netcages suspended on a single line raft. Bay scallops cultured in Luoyuan Bay grew to an averaged shell height of 10.4 mm. In Jiaozhou Bay and the Taiping Jiao Cape culture area, they grew to 50 mm in average shell height (marketable size) and 26 g in average weight by late September; and attained 59 mm in average shell height (R. 39 75 mm) and 46 g in average weight in late December. The ovary and testis could be distinguished by color in August. In early September, eggs and sperms were collected for our laboratory where the second generation of seed scallops was successfully reared to suitable size for growing outdoor and breeding. This species can be harvested within a year after fertilization of the eggs, so we consider it suitable for culture in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. This is the first reported successful introduction of Atlantic mollusks to the China Seas.

  16. The first troglomorphic species of the genus Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Ali Abadallan; Joya, Daniel Chirivi; Francke, Oscar F

    2015-02-23

    A new troglomorphic species, Phrynus perrii sp. nov., is described from two adult females from Cueva del Naranjo, Municipio Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. This is the first continental record of a troglomorphic Phrynus species, and the second troglomorphic species of the genus. With the description of this species, in Mexico there are ten extant species, plus one fossil of the genus Phrynus, and it is the seventh species of troglobitic whip spiders from Mexico, making it the country with the highest richness of amblypygids species worldwide.

  17. Chemical defenses of the tropical marine seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis against herbivory by sea urchin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the defensive chemical properties of the marine tropical brown seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis against herbivory. A natural concentration of dichloromethane crude extract (DCE obtained from this seaweed significantly inhibited feeding by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. The major metabolite isolated from this active DCE extract was identified as the (4R,7R,14S-4α,7α-diacetoxy-14-hydroxydolast-1(15,8-diene that strongly inhibited feeding by the same sea urchin. This result suggests that the dolastane diterpenes class may constitute the defensive system of C. cervicornis against herbivory, and probably also of that of other brown seaweeds endowed with a biosynthetic pathway capable of producing compounds of the dolastane-type, a typical skeleton found in Dyctioteae species worldwide. This is the first report showing this compound-type (dolastane diterpenes as a chemical defense against herbivory in marine seaweeds. This study constitutes an additional report broadening the known spectrum of action and roles of secondary metabolites of the C. cervicornis and Dyctioteae species.Este artigo demonstra a química defensiva anti-herbivoria da macroalga parda marinha Canistrocarpus cervicornis. Em sua concentração natural, o extrato bruto em diclorometano (DCE inibiu significativamente o consumo alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus. Deste extrato em DCE foi isolado o metabólito majoritário identificado como o diterpeno (4R,7R,14S-4α,7α-diacetoxi-14-hidroxidolasta-1(15,8-dieno. Esses resultados comprovam que diterpenos da classe dolastano podem compor o sistema defensivo anti-herbivoria de C. cervircornis e, supostamente, o de outras algas pardas capazes de produzi-los, uma vez que são composto típicos encontrados em esqueletos de Dyctiotas em todo o mundo. Este é o primeiro estudo demonstrando a ação anti-herbivoria desta classe de metabolitos (diterpenos dolastanos em macroalgas marinhas. Tais

  18. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was the first to be sequenced from a long-lived large invertebrate. Analysis of this genome uncovered a surprisingly complex immune system in which the moderately sized sets of pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR genes, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a ten-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. An immune defense role for these receptors is suggested by their sequence diversity and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. This complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families largely derives from expansions that are independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll likely originated in an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other invertebrate deuterostome genomes have been sequenced, including the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma floridae and the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the protostome-like sequences are found in L. variegatus. The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may function similarly to those of vertebrates.

  19. Direct relationship between osmotic and ionic conforming behavior and tissue water regulatory capacity in echinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ivonete A; Castellano, Giovanna C; Freire, Carolina A

    2013-03-01

    Echinoderms are considered marine osmoconforming invertebrates. However, many are intertidal or live next to estuaries, tolerating salinity changes and showing extracellular gradients to dilute seawater. Three species of echinoids - Lytechinus variegatus, which can occur next to estuarine areas, the rocky intertidal Echinometra lucunter, and the mostly subtidal Arbacia lixula - were submitted to a protocol of stepwise (rate of 2-3 psu/h) dilution, down to 15 psu, or concentration, up to 45 psu, of control seawater (35 psu). Coelomic fluid samples were obtained every hour. The seawater dilution experiment lasted 8h, while the seawater concentration experiment lasted 6h. Significant gradients (40-90% above value in 15 psu seawater) for osmolality, sodium, magnesium, and potassium were shown by L. variegatus and E. lucunter. A. lixula showed the smallest gradients, displaying the strongest conforming behavior. The esophagus of the three species was challenged in vitro with 20 and 50% osmotic shocks (hypo- and hyperosmotic). A. lixula, the most "conforming" species, showed the highest capacity to avoid swelling of its tissues upon the -50% hyposmotic shock, and was also the species less affected by salinity changes concerning the observation of spines and ambulacral feet movement in the whole-animal experiments. Thus, the most conforming species (A. lixula) displayed the highest capacity to regulate tissue water/volume, and was also the most euryhaline among the three studied species. In addition, tissues from all three species swelled much more than they shrank under osmotic shocks of same magnitude. This distinct trend to gain water, despite the capacity to hold some gradients upon seawater dilution, helps to explain why echinoderms cannot be fully estuarine, or ever enter fresh water.

  20. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species.

  1. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  2. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  3. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  4. Generation, Analysis and Functional Annotation of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    22002418 3.00E-66 Oryzias latipes Embryonic beta-type globin 34 21694043 1.00E-106 Oreochromis mossambicus Muscle-type creatine kinase CKM2 32 62241082...CA) were cloned using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System (Promega, Madison, WI) and Electromax DH10B T1 Phage Resistant Cells (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA...Ampi- cillin resistant colonies were isolated by blue- white screening, cultured in 2X LB, and preserved by freezing at -80°C with glycerol. Plasmid

  5. ESTROGEN INDUCED VITELLOGENIN MRNA AND PROTEIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmentally persistent xenobiotic chemicals appear to disrupt normal endocrine function by acting as ligands for endogenous steroid receptors, including the estrogen receptor. Xenobiotics that bind to the estrogen receptor may elicit several effects, one of which is acti...

  6. Distribution of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Muhammad Dzulhelmi Muhammad; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin

    2010-01-01

    There is not much information available on the distribution of the Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegates) in Malaysia, despite it being one of only two known species in the order Dermoptera. Data on the presence of the Sunda colugo and the vernacular names used by various ethnic groups throughout Malaysia were collected and compiled from various primary and secondary sources. There were 27 locations from Peninsular, 11 locations from Sabah and 34 locations from Sarawak that reported the presen...

  7. The thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Joseph G; Klaren, Peter H M; Mariavelle, Emeline; Das, Krishna

    2016-04-01

    The sheepshead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies that only recently have begun to focus on disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine disrupting compounds. However, reference levels of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine (T4) and biologically active hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. This study set out to describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in sheepshead minnow, and to correlate these with whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Eggs were collected by natural spawning in our laboratory. T4 and T3 were extracted from embryos, larvae and juveniles and an enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure whole-body hormone levels. Length and body mass, hatching success, gross morphology, thyroid hormone levels and histology were measured. The onset of metamorphosis at 12-day post-hatching coincided with surges in whole-body T4 and T3 concentrations. Thyroid follicles were first observed in pre-metamorphic larvae at hatching and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Follicle size and thyrocyte epithelial cell heights varied during development, indicating fluctuations in thyroid hormone synthesis activity. The increase in the whole-body T3/T4 ratio was indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination activity. This study establishes a baseline for thyroid hormones in sheepshead minnows, which will be useful for the understanding of thyroid hormone functions and in future studies of thyroid toxicants in this species.

  8. Social behavior between mothers × young of sloths Bradypus variegatus SCHINZ, 1825 (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. SOARES

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the ex situ and in situ conservation and preservation of Sloths. The behavioral records of the social interaction between mothers and offspring allow the detection of important learning interactions and psychomotor development. The results provide valuable information that may assist in improving management conditions of captive orphan progeny. They also favor a more effective monitoring of released or transferred specimens. Age is of fundamental importance in deciding what is important during the release, transfer, or reintroduction of the species.

  9. Toxicity Testing of Silver Nanoparticles in Artificial and Natural Sediments Using the Benthic Organism Lumbriculus variegatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajala, Juho Elias; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka;

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in industrial and consumer products worldwide has resulted in their release to aquatic environments. Previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of AgNP on pelagic species, whereas few studies have assessed the risks to benthic invertebrate...

  10. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Chloe E; Reinardy, Helena C; Bates, Nicholas R; Bodnar, Andrea G

    2017-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) for eight weeks. The rate of regeneration was maintained in spines and tube feet throughout two periods of amputation and regrowth under conditions of elevated pCO2. Increased expression of several biomineralization-related genes indicated molecular compensatory mechanisms; however, the structural integrity of both regenerating and homeostatic spines was compromised in high pCO2 conditions. Indicators of physiological fitness (righting response, growth rate, coelomocyte concentration and composition) were not affected by increasing pCO2, but compromised spine integrity is likely to have negative consequences for defence capabilities and therefore survival of these ecologically and economically important organisms.

  11. NMR-based conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by different counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; Queiroz, Ismael N L; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-11-01

    The sulfated fucan from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is composed of the repetitive sequence [-3)-α-l-Fucp-4( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2,4-di( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-]n . Conformation (of rings and chains) and dynamics of this tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by Na(+) , Ca(2+) , and Li(+) as counterions have been examined through experiments of liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Scalar coupling and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)-based data have confirmed that all composing units occur as (1) C4 chair conformer regardless of the cation type, unit position within the repeating sequence, and sulfation type. Chain conformation determined by NOE signal pattern assisted by molecular modeling for a theoretical octasaccharide has shown a similar linear 3D structure for the three differently substituted forms. Data derived from spin-relaxation measurements have indicated a contribution of counterion type to dynamics. The calcium-based preparation has shown the highest mobility while the sodiated one showed the lowest mobility. The set of results from this work suggests that counterion type can affect the physicochemical properties of the structurally well-defined sulfated fucan. The counterion effect seems to impact more on the structural mobility than on average conformation of the studied sulfated glycan in solution.

  12. Environmental Induction of Polyembryony in Echinoid Echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jonathan D; Armstrong, Anne Frances; Ziegler, Shelby L

    2015-12-01

    Polyembryony, or the production of multiple offspring from a single zygote, is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Various types of polyembryony have been described in arthropods, bryozoans, chordates, cnidarians, echinoderms, and platyhelminthes. We describe the induction of polyembryony in embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma and the pencil urchin Eucidaris tribuloides in response to elevated temperature and reduced salinity. Data on the environmental variation in temperature and salinity that normally occurs during the spawning season, combined with the range of laboratory conditions over which polyembryony was induced, suggest that polyembryony may occur frequently in these species under natural conditions. We tested an additional two species of echinoids for similar responses, but found little evidence for polyembryony in the green urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis or the variegated urchin Lytechinus variegatus, suggesting that polyembryony is not a universal response of echinoids to fluctuations in temperature and salinity. The unexpected developmental changes that we observed in response to present-day fluctuations in temperature and salinity suggest that ongoing and future environmental shifts may drive substantial changes in marine invertebrate developmental patterns, and that these changes will be different across taxa.

  13. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, A.J. [Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nipper, M.G. [NIWA, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  14. Paleobiogeography and taxonomy of the genus Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: a review and new evidences Paleobiogeografía y taxonomía del género Concholepas (Lamarck, 1801: una revisión y nuevas evidencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEYLA CÁRDENAS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The muricid gastropod Concholepas concholepas, known in Chile as 'loco', is an important component of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities, and is one of the main invertebrates targeted by small-scale fishers (divers in Chile. Because of its ecological importance and economical value, numerous studies have been conducted to describe its life history, ecology and to understand population dynamics, fishery and management. However, little effort has been done to address the causal factor (s behind its current geographic distribution and moreover little is known about the past distribution of the different species in the genus. In this paper, first we review the paleobiogeography, historical relationships, taxonomy and geographical distribution of Concholepas species, so to contribute in the reconstruction on the past history of the genus. Second, we discuss the robustness of using shell traits when classifying specimens of the genus Concholepas. Third, we evaluate the taxonomic status of C. concholepas including samples from Peru, the continental coast of Chile and Juan Fernández Archipelago, using a molecular approach. Four main conclusions are reached: (1 the evolutionary history of the genus Concholepas has been characterized by successive phenotypically different forms where the fossils species appear to be distinguishable states in the same evolving lineage; (2 the historical biogeography of Concholepas was probably the result of a southward direction process of expansions and extinctions, with the ancestral species being located in south-central Peru; (3 C. concholepas corresponds to a single taxonomic unit along its continental geographical range of distribution; (4 the mtDNA variation present in C. concholepas does not support the existence of the subspecies C. concholepas fernandizianus in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. We suggest that these results should be considered in future ecological, fishery, management and conservation studies on C. concholepas along the Peruvian and Chilean coast and in the Juan Fernández Archipelago.El gastrópodo muricido Concholepas concholepas, conocido en Chile como 'loco', es un importante componente de comunidades marinas intermareales y submareales y es una de las principales especies de invertebrados en la pesquería artesanal chilena. Debido a su importancia y valor económico, se han realizado numerosos estudios para describir su historia de vida, ecología y entender las dinámicas poblacionales, pesquería y manejo. Sin embargo, menores esfuerzos han sido realizados para entender los factores causales detrás de su actual distribución geográfica y más aún poco es conocido acerca de la pasada distribución de las diferentes especies del género. En este trabajo, nosotros primero revisamos la paleobiogeografía, relaciones históricas y taxonomía, de las especies del género Concholepas para contribuir en la reconstrucción de la historia pasada del género. Segundo, discutimos la robustez de usar caracteres morfológicos en la taxonomía del género. Tercero, usando una aproximación molecular evaluamos el estatus taxonómico de C. concholepas incluyendo muestras desde Perú, la costa continental de Chile y del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones principales: (1 la historia evolutiva del género Concholepas ha sido caracterizada por sucesivas formas fenotípicamente diferentes, donde las especies fósiles parecen ser estados morfológicos distinguibles de un único linaje evolutivo; (2 la biogeografía histórica de Concholepas parece ser resultado de un proceso continuo de expansión y extinción con dirección sur, con las especies ancestrales localizadas en el centro-sur de Perú; (3 C. concholepas corresponde a una sola unidad taxonómica a lo lago de su rango de distribución continental; (4 la variación en el ADNmt detectada en C. concholepas no apoya la existencia de la subespecie C. concholepas fernandizianus en el Archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Sugerimos que estos resultados deberán ser considerados en futuros estudios de ecología, pesquería, conservación y manejo en C. concholepas a lo largo de la costa chileno-peruana y en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández.

  15. A new species of Entobdella Blainville in Lamarck, 1818 (Monogenea: Capsalidae: Entobdellinae) from the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, Graham; Karlsbakk, Egil; Evans-Gowing, Richard; Gerasev, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    A previously undescribed species of Entobdella is reported from the skin of the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae). Entobdella whittingtoni sp. nov. differs from other species of Entobdella, including skin parasites of the related pleuronectids Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Atlantic halibut) and H. stenolepis (Pacific halibut), in lacking papillae on the ventral surface of the haptor. Other characteristics of E. whittingtoni are as follows: the absence of vitelline follicles lateral to the pharynx thereby exposing gut caeca in this region of whole mounts; the presence of a circular feature of unknown function, resembling a rosette in sections, attached to the wall of the internal male accessory reservoir; the lack of eyes. Papillae are also absent from the ventral surface of the haptor of the gill-parasitic entobdelline Branchobdella pugetensis, a gill parasite of the pleuronectid Atheresthes stomias. This raises the question as to whether this gill parasite has evolved from a skin-parasitic ancestor similar to E. whittingtoni. An answer to this question requires a more detailed study of the male reproductive apparatus of B. pugetensis and the use of molecular techniques to explore the relationship between B. pugetensis and E. whittingtoni.

  16. Effect of increased pCO2 on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Harboe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic emission of CO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in the oceans has increased causing a drop in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects on embryo and larvae of great scallop (Pecten maximus L., using mean pCO2-levels of 477 (ambient, 821, 1184, and 1627 ppm. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Growth was reduced with 5–10% when pCO2 increased from ambient 477 ppm to 1627 ppm, and survival based on egg number was reduced from 40.4% in the ambient group to 10.7% in the highest pCO2-group. Larvae/embryos stained with calcein one day after fertilization, showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area indicating calcification of the shell already at the trochophore stage. Shell hinge deformities were observed at elevated pCO2-levels in trochophore larvae after two days. After seven days, deformities in both shell hinge and shell edge were observed in veliger larvae at elevated pCO2-levels. Although the growth showed a moderate reduction, survival rate and increased amount of deformed larvae indicates that P. Maximus larvae are affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected for the next century.

  17. Epigenetics as a source of variation in comparative animal physiology - or - Lamarck is lookin' pretty good these days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W

    2014-03-01

    Considerable variation is inherent both within and between comparative physiological data sets. Known sources for such variation include diet, gender, time of day and season of experiment, among many other factors, but a meta-analysis of physiological studies shows that surprisingly few studies report controlling for these factors. In fact, less than 3% of comparative physiological papers mention epigenetics. However, our understanding of epigenetic influences on physiological processes is growing rapidly, and it is highly likely that epigenetic phenomena are an additional 'hidden' source of variation, particularly in wild-caught specimens. Recent studies have shown epigenetic inheritance of commonly studied traits such as metabolic rate (water fleas Daphnia magna; emu, Dromaius novaellandiae), hypoxic tolerance, cardiac performance (zebrafish, Danio rerio), as well as numerous morphological effects. The ecological and evolutionary significance of such epigenetic inheritance is discussed in a comparative physiological context. Finally, against this context of epigenetic inheritance of phenotype, this essay also provides a number of caveats and warnings regarding the interpretation of transgenerational phenotype modification as a true epigenetic phenomenon. Parental effects, sperm storage, multiple paternity and direct gamete exposure can all be confounding factors. Epigenetic inheritance may best be studied in animal models that can be maintained in the laboratory over multiple generations, to yield parental stock that themselves are free of epigenetic effects from the historical experiences of their parents.

  18. Effect of increased pCO2 on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Harboe, T.

    2013-02-01

    As a result of high anthropogenic emission of CO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the oceans has increased causing a drop in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects on embryo and larvae of great scallop (Pecten maximus L.), using mean pCO2-levels of 477 (ambient), 821, 1184, and 1627 ppm. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Growth was reduced with 5-10% when pCO2 increased from ambient 477 ppm to 1627 ppm, and survival based on egg number was reduced from 40.4% in the ambient group to 10.7% in the highest pCO2-group. Larvae/embryos stained with calcein one day after fertilization, showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area indicating calcification of the shell already at the trochophore stage. Shell hinge deformities were observed at elevated pCO2-levels in trochophore larvae after two days. After seven days, deformities in both shell hinge and shell edge were observed in veliger larvae at elevated pCO2-levels. Although the growth showed a moderate reduction, survival rate and increased amount of deformed larvae indicates that P. Maximus larvae are affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected for the next century.

  19. Sensitivity towards elevated pCO2 in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) embryos and fed larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sissel; Grefsrud, Ellen S.; Harboe, Torstein

    2017-02-01

    The increasing amount of dissolved anthropogenic CO2 has caused a drop in pH values in the open ocean known as ocean acidification. This change in seawater carbonate chemistry has been shown to have a negative effect on a number of marine organisms. Early life stages are the most vulnerable, and especially the organisms that produce calcified structures in the phylum Mollusca. Few studies have looked at effects on scallops, and this is the first study presented including fed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus) followed until day 14 post-fertilization. Fertilized eggs from unexposed parents were exposed to three levels of pCO2 using four replicate units: 465 (ambient), 768 and 1294 µatm, corresponding to pHNIST of 7.94, 7.75 (-0.19 units) and 7.54 (-0.40 units), respectively. All of the observed parameters were negatively affected by elevated pCO2: survival, larval development, shell growth and normal shell development. The latter was observed to be affected only 2 days after fertilization. Negative effects on the fed larvae at day 7 were similar to what was shown earlier for unfed P. maximus larvae. Growth rate in the group at 768 µatm seemed to decline after day 7, indicating that the ability to overcome the environmental change at moderately elevated pCO2 was lost over time. The present study shows that food availability does not decrease the sensitivity to elevated pCO2 in P. maximus larvae. Unless genetic adaptation and acclimatization counteract the negative effects of long term elevated pCO2, recruitment in populations of P. maximus will most likely be negatively affected by the projected drop of 0.06-0.32 units in pH within year 2100.

  20. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  1. Disease prevalence and snail predation associated with swell-generated damage on the threatened coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck

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    Allan Joseph Bright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as tropical storms cause coral mortality and reduce coral cover as a direct result of physical damage. Storms can be one of the most important disturbances in coral reef ecosystems, and it is crucial to understand their long-term impacts on coral populations. The primary objective of this study was to determine trends in disease prevalence and snail predation on damaged and undamaged colonies of the threatened coral species, Acropora palmata, following an episode of heavy ocean swells in the US Virgin Islands (USVI. At three sites on St. Thomas and St. John, colonies of A. palmata were surveyed monthly over one year following a series of large swells in March 2008 that fragmented 30 to 93% of colonies on monitored reefs. Post-disturbance surveys conducted from April 2008 through March 2009 showed that swell-generated damage to A. palmata caused negative indirect effects that compounded the initial direct effects of physical disturbance. During the 12 months after the swell event, white pox disease prevalence was 41% higher for colonies that sustained damage from the swells than for undamaged colonies (df = 207, p = 0.01 with greatest differences in disease prevalence occurring during warm water months. In addition, the corallivorous snail, Coralliophila abbreviata, was 46% more abundant on damaged corals than undamaged corals during the 12 months after the swell event (df = 207, p = 0.006.

  2. Effects of Elevated Seawater pCO2 on Early Development of ScallopArgopecten irradias(Lamarck, 1819)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weimin; LIU Guangxing; ZHANG Tianwen; CHEN Hongju; TANG Liao; MAO Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated seawater pCO2 on the early developmental stages of marine benthic calcifying or-ganisms, we exposed the eggs and larvae ofArgopecten irradias, an important bivalve species in Chinese aquaculture, in seawater equilibrated with CO2-enriched (1000ppm) gas mixtures. We demonstrated that elevated seawater pCO2 significantly interfered with fertilization and larval development and resulted in an increased aberration rate. Fertilization in the treatment (pH 7.6) was 74.3%± 3.8%, which was 9.7% lower than that in the control (pH 8.3) (84.0%±3.0%). Hatching success decreased by 23.7%, and aberration rate increased by 30.3% under acidic condition. Larvae in acidified seawater still developed a shell during the post-embryonic phase. However, the shell length and height in the treatment were smaller than those in the control. The development of embryos differed significantly at 12h after fertilization between the two experimental groups. Embryos developed slower in acidified seawater. Nearly half of the embryos in the control developed into D-shaped larvae at 48h after fertilization, which were considerably more than those in the treatment (11.7%). Results suggest that future ocean acidification (OA) would cause detrimental effects on the early develop-ment ofA. irradias.

  3. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) using different systems to induce metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R C; Silva, F C; Gomes, C H M; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability--that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.

  4. Disease prevalence and snail predation associated with swell-generated damage on the threatened coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Allan J.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Brandt, Marilyn E.; Muller, Erinn; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances such as tropical storms cause coral mortality and reduce coral cover as a direct result of physical damage. Storms can be one of the most important disturbances in coral reef ecosystems, and it is crucial to understand their long-term impacts on coral populations. The primary objective of this study was to determine trends in disease prevalence and snail predation on damaged and undamaged colonies of the threatened coral species, Acropora palmata, following an episode of heavy ocean swells in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). At three sites on St. Thomas and St. John, colonies of A. palmata were surveyed monthly over 1 year following a series of large swells in March 2008 that fragmented 30–93% of colonies on monitored reefs. Post-disturbance surveys conducted from April 2008 through March 2009 showed that swell-generated damage to A. palmata caused negative indirect effects that compounded the initial direct effects of physical disturbance. During the 12 months after the swell event, white pox disease prevalence was 41% higher for colonies that sustained damage from the swells than for undamaged colonies (df = 207, p = 0.01) with greatest differences in disease prevalence occurring during warm water months. In addition, the corallivorous snail, Coralliophila abbreviata, was 46% more abundant on damaged corals than undamaged corals during the 12 months after the swell event (df = 207, p = 0.006).

  5. Histology and Cytochemistry of the Neurosecretory Cells (NSC of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar Kanapala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of neurosecretory (NS cells are noticed in the cerebral, pleural, buccal and pedal ganglion of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola. According to the size and staining properties they are classified as A, B, C and D type cells. These are giant cells, medium cells, small cells and smallest cells. Type ‘A’ cells are largest of the all cells and measures about 0.0600-0.0800 mm in diameter. The B cells are smaller than ‘A’ cells and are ranges from 0.035-0.040 mm in diameter. The ‘C’ and ‘D’ cells are smaller than the ‘A’ and ‘B ‘cells and more or less oval in shape. The histochemical observations reveal that the neurosecretory material is rich in carbohydrates, disulphides, sulfhydryl group, protein bound amino groups, glycoprotein and lipids.

  6. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa; Igor dos Santos Masson; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Juliana Pelegrini Roviero; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consi...

  7. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  8. Influence of upwelling and tropical environments on the breeding development of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cabo Frio, with its unique oceanographic conditions, is an important biogeographical transitional region between tropical and sub-tropical waters. This is due to the presence of upwelling from the Central Water of the South Atlantic (CWSA, and the presence of tropical waters from the Brazilian Current (BC and Coastal Water (CW. The intertidal barnacle, Tetraclita stalactifera, and its brooding stages were analyzed to correlate environmental conditions with reproductive development. Two thermal contrasting sites were chosen: Ponta da Cabeça (PC, which is under the influence of seasonal upwelling, and Ponta da Fortaleza (PF which experiences tropical influences. At each site, T. stalactifera specimens were collected monthly and their egg lamellae conditions classified into stages from 0 (empty to IV (ready to release. Our results show a seasonal effect on brooding at the PC site and a continuous development at the PF site. Nauplii larval availability also followed this trend. Differences between the sites could be due to ecological differences related to water temperature and the ecological-physiological response of the barnacles to these differences.Cabo Frio, devido suas características oceanográficas, causado pela é uma importante região biogeográfica transicional entre águas tropicais e sub-tropicais. Isto é ressurgência da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS e a presença de águas tropicais da Corrente do Brasil (CB e de Água Costeira (AC. A craca do mediolitoral Tetraclita stalactifera e seus estágios de maturação larval foram analisados a fim de serem correlacionados às condições ambientais. Dois locais com características termais contrastantes foram escolhidos: a Ponta da Cabeça (PC, que está sobre influência sazonal da ressurgência e a Ponta da Fortaleza (PF, sob influência da água tropical. Em cada local, indivíduos de T. stalactifera foram coletados mensalmente e a condição de suas lamellas ovígeras aferida e classificada desde o estágio 0 (vazio até o IV (prestes a liberar. Nossos resultados amostram um efeito sazonal na PC, enquanto no local PF foi identificado um desenvolvimento contínuo. A disponibilidade de larvas náuplios também segue esta tendência. As diferenças observadas entre os locais podem ser explicadas pelas diferenças na temperatura da água e as respostas eco-fisiológicas exibidas por T. stalactifera na região.

  9. Describing shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Cabuga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.

  10. The occurrence, bionomics and potential impacts of the invasive freshwater snail Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appleton, C.C.; Forbes, A.T.; Demetriades, N.T.

    2009-01-01

    The Asian prosobranch snail Tarebia granifera was reported from South Africa (and Africa) for the first time in 1999 in northern KwaZulu-Natal though it was probably introduced sometime prior to 1996. In the 10 years since its discovery it has spread rapidly, particularly northwards, into Mpumalanga

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ during the rainy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Maranho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity tests, using Tiburonella viscana, and porewater, elutriate and sediment-water interface chronic toxicity tests, using embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, were applied. Sediments were collected at 14 sampling stations, distributed across the bay. Chronic tests showed significant toxicity in most of the sediment samples. Sediments from stations 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 15 showed acute toxicity as well. The results of the different tests were well correlated, and their integration showed that the sediments analyzed were considered unsuitable for aquatic life, resulting in the environmental degradation of Guanabara Bay. In this context, the control of pollution sources and multi-purpose management are required to improve the environmental quality.A Baía de Guanabara é um ambiente marinho-estuarino de grande relevância ecológica e sócio-econômica, e sujeita a uma ampla gama de impactos ambientais. O sedimento é o principal destino para a maioria das substâncias introduzidas nos corpos d'água, podendo fornecer uma medida integrada da qualidade ambiental, a qual pode ser avaliada por várias abordagens. Neste projeto, a qualidade de sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara foi por uma abordagem ecotoxicológica, por meio de testes de toxicidade aguda de sedimento integral, utilizando Tiburonella viscana, e testes de toxicidade crônica de água intersticial, elutriato e interface sedimento-água, utilizando embriões de Lytechinus variegatus. Os sedimentos foram

  12. The Effects of Acidic and Hypoxic Conditions on the Estuarine Organisms Cyprinodon variegatus (Sheepshead Minnow) and Americamysis bahia (Mysid Shrimp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive and combined effects of coastal acidification and hypoxia on estuarine species is an increasing concern as these stressors change concomitantly. There is a need to understand how these environmental factors interact, as well as their effect on estuarine organisms....

  13. Sludge reduction by aquatic worms in wastewater treatment : with emphasis on the potential application of Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), large amounts of biological waste sludge are produced. In the Netherlands, the application of this sludge in agriculture or disposal in landfills is no longer allowed, mainly because of its high heavy metal content. The sludge therefore generally is incinerate

  14. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  15. Placentation in the colugos Cynocephalus volans and Galeopterus variegatus (Dermoptera) and the transition from labyrinthine to villous placentation in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A. M.; Mess, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phylogenetics and genomics place colugos as the sister group to primates. Therefore their placentation is of interest in an evolutionary perspective. Previous accounts are fragmentary, not readily accessible and sometimes contradictory. Methods We have examined archival material...... covering the early development of fetal membranes and placenta, the fate of the yolk sac and definitive placentation. Results Initially the trophoblast extended over a rather broad but shallow area, enclosing maternal blood spaces. After expansion of the exocoelom it became covered by somatic mesoderm...

  16. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence.

  17. Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jennifer W; Martik, Megan L; Byrne, Maria; Raff, Elizabeth C; Raff, Rudolf A; McClay, David R; Wray, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of the well-defined gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying sea urchin development. To address these questions, we used RNA-seq to measure expression dynamics across development in three species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph H. tuberculata, and an outgroup planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. Using well-established statistical methods, we developed a novel framework for identifying, quantifying, and polarizing evolutionary changes in gene expression profiles across the transcriptome and within the GRN. We found that major changes in gene expression profiles were more numerous during the evolution of lecithotrophy than during the persistence of planktotrophy, and that genes with derived expression profiles in the lecithotroph displayed specific characteristics as a group that are consistent with the dramatically altered developmental program in this species. Compared to the transcriptome, changes in gene expression profiles within the GRN were even more pronounced in the lecithotroph. We found evidence for conservation and likely divergence of particular GRN regulatory interactions in the lecithotroph, as well as significant changes in the expression of genes with known roles in larval skeletogenesis. We further use coexpression analysis to identify genes of unknown function that may contribute to both conserved and derived developmental traits between species. Collectively, our results

  18. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda); Bodnar, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bodnar@bios.edu [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda)

    2012-11-15

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD{sub 50} values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  19. Tissue regeneration and biomineralization in sea urchins: role of Notch signaling and presence of stem cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinardy, Helena C; Emerson, Chloe E; Manley, Jason M; Bodnar, Andrea G

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms represent a phylum with exceptional regenerative capabilities that can reconstruct both external appendages and internal organs. Mechanistic understanding of the cellular pathways involved in regeneration in these animals has been hampered by the limited genomic tools and limited ability to manipulate regenerative processes. We present a functional assay to investigate mechanisms of tissue regeneration and biomineralization by measuring the regrowth of amputated tube feet (sensory and motor appendages) and spines in the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus. The ability to manipulate regeneration was demonstrated by concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth of spines and tube feet by treatment with the mitotic inhibitor, vincristine. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth, indicating that both tube feet and spine regeneration require functional Notch signaling. Stem cell markers (Piwi and Vasa) were expressed in tube feet and spine tissue, and Vasa-positive cells were localized throughout the epidermis of tube feet by immunohistochemistry, suggesting the existence of multipotent progenitor cells in these highly regenerative appendages. The presence of Vasa protein in other somatic tissues (e.g. esophagus, radial nerve, and a sub-population of coelomocytes) suggests that multipotent cells are present throughout adult sea urchins and may contribute to normal homeostasis in addition to regeneration. Mechanistic insight into the cellular pathways governing the tremendous regenerative capacity of echinoderms may reveal processes that can be modulated for regenerative therapies, shed light on the evolution of regeneration, and enable the ability to predict how these processes will respond to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos.

  1. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  2. Dieta do ouriço-branco, Tripneustes ventricosus (Lamarck, 1816), no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, PE

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Augusto Muniz

    2007-01-01

    Os ouriços-do-mar são macroinvertebrados bentônicos que habitam águas rasas costeiras em zonas tropicais e temperadas. Os ouriços são geralmente classificados como generalistas ou onívoros por adaptarem sua dieta de acordo com a disponibilidade dos recursos alimentares disponíveis no ambiente. Devido à forte pressão de pastagem que exercem, os ouriços possuem importante papel em ecossistemas marinhos ocupando diversos níveis tróficos e estimulando a intensificação da dinâmica das comunidades ...

  3. Mixed effects of elevated pCO2 on fertilisation, larval and juvenile development and adult responses in the mobile subtidal scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck, 1819.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Scanes

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated environmental pCO2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of near future concentrations of elevated pCO2 on the larval and adult stages of the mobile doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima from a subtidal and stable physio-chemical environment. It was found that fertilisation and the shell length of early larval stages of M. asperrima decreased as pCO2 increased, however, there were less pronounced effects of elevated pCO2 on the shell length of later larval stages, with high pCO2 enhancing growth in some instances. Byssal attachment and condition index of adult M. asperrima decreased with elevated pCO2, while in contrast there was no effect on standard metabolic rate or pHe. The responses of larval and adult M. asperrima to elevated pCO2 measured in this study were more moderate than responses previously reported for intertidal oysters and mussels. Even this more moderate set of responses are still likely to reduce the abundance of M. asperrima and potentially other scallop species in the world's oceans at predicted future pCO2 levels.

  4. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  5. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  6. Sclerochronological records and daily microgrowth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus, Lamarck, 1819) related to environmental conditions in Paracas Bay, Pisco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Velarde, Arturo; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Mendo, Jaime; Jean, Fred

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the rhythm of micro-striae formation in the shell of Argopecten purpuratus and environmental influence on micro-growth increments by monitoring growth over a 98-day period between April and July 2007 under bottom and suspended culture (2m above the bottom) rearing conditions. The transfer of individuals to the study site induced the formation of a notable growth mark that allowed us to count the number of micro-striae formed between transfer and samplin...

  7. Sclerochronological records and daily microgrowth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus, Lamarck, 1819) related to environmental conditions in Paracas Bay, Pisco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Velarde, Arturo; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Mendo, Jaime; Jean, Fred

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the rhythm of micro-striae formation in the shell of Argopecten purpuratus and environmental influence on micro-growth increments by monitoring growth over a 98-day period between April and July 2007 under bottom and suspended culture (2 m above the bottom) rearing conditions. The transfer of individuals to the study site induced the formation of a notable growth mark that allowed us to count the number of micro-striae formed between transfer and sampling dates. Micro-striae counts showed a deposition rate of one stria per day independent of rearing condition. This result allowed us to analyse the relationships between growth increments and environmental conditions. We therefore examined the deviations between observed growth rates and growth rates predicted from a Von Bertalanffy growth function. Cross-correlation analysis revealed significant correlations, without time-lag, between these deviations and both particulate organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the bottom treatment. Additionally, we observed negative correlations with temperature and current speed at this depth with time-lags of 1 and 10 days respectively. In the suspended treatment, we observed a significant negative correlation with temperature, only with a 12-day lag-time. Our results show that growth response to environmental variability is not always instantaneous. This delay can be explained by the time delay over which metabolic processes need to be performed (e.g. digestion, use/movements of reserves, growth, reproduction). Further modeling studies could help to better understand these processes.

  8. A new species of Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Arachnida: Amblypygi),  from Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela, with a redescription of Phrynus pulchripes (Pocock, 1894).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Daniel Chirivi

    2017-04-18

    We present the description of Phrynus calypso sp. nov. from Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela This species is very similar to Phrynus pulchripes (Pocock), however after examining Colombian specimens of P. pulchripes (ca. type locality), many differences were found. Characters commonly used in diagnosis of Phrynus species are variable and make identification difficult. Differences in a few structures, like pedipalpal spines, could not be enough to provide a useful diagnosis.  It is necessary to account for variation of similar species in conjunction, and select non overlapping groups of characters. Observations in the variation in both species are presented, pointing out sources of confusion, and suggesting alternative characters to support diagnoses. At the moment, details about variation in many species in Phrynus, like that of P. pulchripes, are poorly known, and for this reason a redescription is provided.

  9. Experiencias en sistema controlado para la obtención de semillas de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) . Ilo, Moquegua

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    IMARPE Ilo obtuvo financiamiento del Gobierno Regional de Moquegua en base al proyecto "Mejoramiento de infraestructura e implementació n de laboratorio de investigació n de molusc"os, para construir un laboratorio experimental con el objetivo de desarrollar técnicas de reproducción artificial de moluscos nativos de la Región, para la obtención de semillas principalmente de macha Mesodesma donacium, chanque Concholepas concholepas y pulpo Octopus mimus. Este informe contiene el resultado ...

  10. Assessing the Continuous Impact of Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints in a Brazilian Mangrove Area Using Intersex in Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822 as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intersex is a sensitive biomarker of TBT exposure and effects in littorinid gastropods and described for the mangrove periwinkle Littoraria angulifera for the first time in this study. The objective was to describe the occurrence of intersex in L. angulifera, to propose the species as a sentinel organism to assess TBT contamination, and to characterize the contamination in mangroves. The study was carried out in 2009 by sampling at 20 stations near harbors and marinas and at a reference station on the coast of Espírito Santo Estate, Brazil. At the reference station, no intersex specimens were found, while at 20 sampling stations 51% of the females exhibited different degrees of intersex development, including the occurrence of functionally sterilized females. The highest incidence of intersex and greatest intersex intensities was found in areas close to marinas and shipyards indicating that vessel-related activities are still the main source of TBT contamination. L. angulifera collected from stations in areas with well-preserved mangroves was larger than specimens collected from other areas. These differences are attributed to environmental quality and not to occurrence of intersex. The results indicate that this region is still affected by TBT contamination and that L. angulifera has the required sensitivity to be used as a bioindicator.

  11. First record of the Indo-Pacific species Iphione muricata Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Polychaeta: Iphionidae from the Mediterranean Sea, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GOREN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific scaleworm Iphione muricata was observed and caught in the Mediterranean Sea along the coast of Israel. Morphological and molecular diagnostic characters of the species are discussed. This is the first record of this alien species in the Mediterranean Sea, and its previous reports in the Suez Canal suggest its introduction via Lessepsian migration.

  12. İzmir Körfezi'nde Karides Uzatma Ağları ile Kalamar (Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Avcılığı.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gökçe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada İzmir Körfezi’nde kalamar (Loligo vulgaris avcılığında kullanılan, yıpranmış çatılı karides uzatma ağlarının av verimin incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Ekim-Kasım 2003 arasında ticari balıkçılık koşulları altında 11 av operasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. Uzatma ağları ile 23 tür yakalanmış ve bu türlerin ağırlık olarak %66 sını kalamarın oluşturduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yakalanan 288 birey içerinde ortalama kalamar ağırlığı ve manto boyu sırasıyla, 166.7±6.834 gr ve18.2±0.307 cm olarak tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, 26 adet/gün ve 4.13 kg/gün CPUE ile eskiyen karides uzatma ağları kalamar avcılığında etkili bir av aracı olarak İzmir Körfezi’nde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır

  13. Shell fluctuating asymmetry in the sea-dwelling benthic bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) as morphological markers to detect environmental chemical contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Massimiliano; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Spani, Federica; Malafoglia, Valentina; Colamartino, Monica; Persichini, Tiziana; Cappello, Simone; Mancini, Giuseppe; Guerriero, Giulia; Colasanti, Marco

    2017-02-10

    Investigations on asymmetries showed that deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry are interpreted as environmental changes inducing developmental instability. Since morphological abnormalities increase with pollution, deformations may be considered indicators of the organism exposition to pollution. Therefore, the onset of asymmetry in otherwise normally symmetrical traits has been used as a measure of some stresses as well. In this context, we studied how marine pollution affects the valve morphological alterations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. We used 180 specimens (30 per site) from the aquaculture area of Goro (River Po delta, northern Adriatic Sea), translocated, and released within 50 × 50 × 50 cm cages in five sites: two disturbed and one undisturbed near Naples (eastern Tyrrhenian Sea), and one disturbed and one undisturbed near Siracusa (western Ionian Sea). Disturbed sites were stressed by heavy industrialization and heavy tankers traffic of crude and refined oil, and were defined basing on sediment contamination. In particular, by the cone-beam computed tomography we obtained 3D virtual valve surfaces to be analyzed by the geometric morphometric techniques. Specifically, we focused the levels of the shell shape fluctuating asymmetry in relation to the degrees of marine pollution in different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Mahalanobis distances (interpreted as proxy of the individual shape asymmetry deviation from the mean asymmetry) significantly regressed with the sediment contamination gradient. Indeed, although the left-right differences were normally distributed in each studied site, the individual asymmetry scores (IAS) significantly varied amongst the investigated sites. IAS showed higher values in disturbed areas than those of undisturbed ones in both Tyrrhenian and Ionian Sea. Our results are consistent with past studies on molluscans and other taxa, demonstrating some detrimental effects of chemicals on organisms, although the investigated morphological marker did not discriminate the real disturbance source. Our findings indicate that the mussels act as a prognostic tool for sea pollution levels driving detrimental effects on benthic community.

  14. The Mediterranean Plio-Pleistocene: A reference frame for astronomically paced low and high latitude climate changes (Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The astronomical theory of climate has revolutionized our understanding of past climate change and the development of highly accurate geologic time scales for the entire Cenozoic. Most of this understanding has started with the construction of high-resolution stable oxygen isotope (18O) records from planktonic and benthic foraminifera of open ocean deep marine sediments explored by the international drilling operations of DSDP, ODP and IODP. These efforts culminated into global ocean isotopic stacked records, which give a clear picture of the evolution of the climate state through time. Fundamental for these reconstructions are the assumptions made between the astronomical forcing and the tuned time series and the accuracy of the astronomical solution. In the past decades, an astronomically calibrated time scale for the Pliocene and Pleistocene of the Mediterranean has been developed, which has become the reference for the standard Geologic Time Scale. Characteristic of the studied marine sediments are the cyclic lithological alternations, reflecting the interference between obliquity and precession-paced low latitude climate variability. These interference patterns allowed to evaluate the accuracy of astronomical solutions and to constrain the dynamical ellipticity of the Earth and tidal dissipation by the Sun and the Moon, which in turn provided the backbone for the widely applied LR04 open ocean benthic isotope stack of the past 5 Myr. So far, the assumed time lags between orbital forcing and the global climate response as reflected in LR04 have not been tested, while these assumptions hark back to SPECMAP, using simple ice sheet models and a limited number of radiometric dates. In addition, LR04 adopted a shorter response time for the smaller ice caps during the Pliocene. Here I present the first benthic 18O record of the Mediterranean reference scale, which strikingly mirrors the LR04. I will use this record to discuss the assumed phase relations and its potential to constrain global sea level changes and their cause over the past 5.3 million years.

  15. Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in two impacted watersheds in Southeast Brazil, using the freshwater mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Mycetopodidae as a biological monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. Tomazelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the contamination of Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins (São Paulo State, Southeastern, Brazil for heavy metals (Cd and Pb, using the limnic bivalve Anodontites trapesialis as a biological monitor. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were higher than the control group in both basins, showing the bioavailability of this non-essential element in the basins. The concentrations were higher in the Mogi-Guaçu than in the Piracicaba basin, and in the slightly contaminated sites in both basins. There was no correlation between the degree of human impact and Cd and Pb concentrations, it was not possible to infer about concentrations of these heavy metals in the bivalves based only in a broad evaluation of human impact.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a contaminação pelos metais pesados Cd e Pb nas bacias dos rios Piracicaba e Mogi-Guaçu (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando o bivalve limnico Anodontites trapesialis como indicador biológico. As bacias estudadas apresentam diferentes graus de impacto, sendo a qualidade da água geralmente melhor na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. Os teores de Pb detectados nos bivalves não podem ser considerados críticos, contudo, houve acúmulo em relação ao grupo de controle em ambas as bacias, especialmente na bacia do rio Mogi-Guaçu. As maiores concentrações dos elementos, especialmente Pb, foram observadas nos locais menos poluídos e na bacia menos degradada. Este fato sugere que estas concentrações não estão sendo afetadas apenas pelas atividades antrópicas nas bacias, mas deve-se considerar também fatores que afetem a biodisponibilidade ou fontes específicas e não pontuais.

  16. Occurrence, population dynamics and habitat characterization of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Kioharu Nishida

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Mytellaguyanensis occurrence and population dynamics were performed in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary. The characterization and the influence of temperature, salinity and substrate, as well as the associated fauna and flora on the population were also examined. Mytella guyanensis lives buried in the substrate of the mangrove intertidal zone of the Paraíba do Norte river estuary, from the mouth to 24 km upriver. Average annual density of this bivalve species was 5.2 individuals per m², with a predominantly aggregated distribution. The most frequent size was between 4.5 and 5.5 cm in length. Analysis of the substrate demonstrated the presence of two types of substrates in relation to the percentage of silt and clay and the water content. Besides interfering in the population density, the substrate heterogeneity may be a decisive factor in aggregation. Eight species of crustacean decapods and one bivalve species were identified as associated fauna.A ocorrência de M, guyanensis no estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte foi mapeada, determinando-se sua presença ao longo dos afluentes e ilhas aí existentes. O estudo da dinâmica da população foi realizado em área protegida da Ilha da Restinga, coletando-se os animais ao longo de 37 transecções. A cada mês foram feitos 60 lançamentos com um delimitador de 0,1 m², sobre uma ou mais transecções. Todo o substrato foi retirado juntamente com os exemplares de M. guyanensis e a fauna associada, até a profundidade de 10 cm. A triagem dos exemplares menores foi feita por peneiramento do substrato. O tipo de substrato foi anotado a cada lançamento. Dois tipos de substrato estão presentes na área: um substrato de tipo consistente, constituido por 89.7% de silte e argila e 10.3% de areia fina e outro de tipo não consistente contendo 74.5% de silte e argila e 25.5% de areia fina. O substrato de tipo não consistente apresenta quantidade de água significativamente maior que o de tipo consistente. Mytella guyanensis vive enterrada no solo numa profundidade máxima de 1,0 cm, sempre envolvida pelos filamentos do bisso. A densidade média anual observada para a espécie foi de 5,2 indivíduos por m²; a distribuição espacial predominante foi do tipo agregado, sofrendo interferência do tipo de substrato presente. Houve preferência de fixação da espécie pelo substrato do tipo consistente. Animais entre 4,5 e 5,5 cm de comprimento ocorrem o ano todo, sendo mais numerosos aqueles com comprimento entre 4,5 e 5,0 cm. A presença de formas jovens foi assinalada em baixa frequência em alguns meses do ano. A salinidade da água estuarina variou de acordo com o regime pluviométrico da região, permanecendo dentro dos níveis de tolerância da espécie. A fauna associada está representada por oito espécies de crustáceos e por uma de molusco bivalve.

  17. Assessment of recent and chalcolithic period environmental pollution using Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 from Yarimburgaz Cave, the northern Marmara Sea and Bosphorus coasts

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    Ipek F. Barut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine or freshwater mussel species are found in large quantities around populated areas and accumulate metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, these organisms are used to monitor environmental pollution. Mytilus galloprovincialis is a generally accepted bioindicator of metal pollution and is used in this study. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the environmental conditions since antiquity. M. galloprovincialis shells were used to monitor Chalcolithic pollution levels in Yarimburgaz Cave, one of the oldest settlements in Europe. Recent samples were collected from 12 stations on the coasts of the Northern Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus between May–September 2004. The environmental pollution substantially changed over the last 7500 years. The comparison of the geochemical characteristics of the environmental pollution observed in the Chalcolithic period and today revealed that pollution from both household and industrial chemicals has increased in Istanbul.

  18. Relação entre diferentes espécies de formigas e a mirmecófita Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae em áreas de mata ripária na Amazônia mato-grossense Relationship among different plant-ants and its myrmecophite host Cordia nodosa Lamarck (Boraginaceae in a riparian Mato Grosso Amazonian forest

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    Thiago Junqueira Izzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios obtidos por um organismo em uma associação mutualística podem variar em função de fatores ambientais, bem como entre as diferentes espécies que podem estar associadas. Neste trabalho demonstramos que quatro espécies de formigas, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus e duas não identificadas do gênero Azteca podem ser encontradas associadas à mirmecófita Cordia nodosa em florestas ripárias sul-amazônicas. Essa composição de espécies de formigas é mais similar a encontrada na Amazônia Andina do que aquela da Amazônia Central brasileira. A colonização por formigas parece ser determinante, pois diminuiu a herbivoria e, consequentemente, aumentou a probabilidade de C. nodosa produzir frutos. Adicionalmente, mesmo não havendo diferença na herbivoria entre plantas colonizadas pelas diferentes espécies de formigas, a probabilidade de uma planta colonizada por formigas do gênero Allomerus produzir frutos é menor do que quando colonizadas pelas outras espécies de formigas. Esse estudo demonstra a dependência de C. nodosa pela colonização de formigas para sua reprodução. Contudo, conforme outros estudos realizados em outras áreas da Amazônia demonstram, nossos resultados também sugerem que Allomerus pode estar castrando as plantas hospedeiras, agindo como parasita em toda a sua distribuição geográfica.The benefits obtained by an organism when involved in a mutualistic interaction vary depending on environmental factors, as well as among the identity of the involved species. In this study, we showed that four ant species, Crematogaster brasiliensis, Allomerus octoarticulatus, and two unidentified Azteca species can be found associated to the myrmecophite Cordia nodosa in riparian forests in the South of Amazonia. This composition of ant-associated species is more similar in forests of Andean Amazon than in Central Amazonia. The colonization of an ant colony on C. nodosa seems to be vital in order to decrease herbivory, as increased the probability of a plant sets fruits. Moreover, even though we did not find significant differences in herbivory among plants colonized by different ant species, the probability of a plant produces fruits is much lower when it is colonized by Allomerus ants. Overall, this study shows that C. nodosa depends on ants to reproduce. However, based on other empirical studies across the Amazon, our results also suggest that Allomerus ants can act as flower castrator, acting as a parasite over its geographic range.

  19. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

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    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities presented similar thermal tolerances, snails from Taltal showed lower rates of water loss. Aggregations size were negatively related with the rate of water loss in individuals from both localities. Only, individuals from Taltal decreased their limit of thermal tolerance, and exhibited a positive relationship between aggregation size and the temperature of the group. Results demonstrated that the local environmental conditions are determinate thermoregulatory strategies.

  20. Asociación del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies Association between shell color of breeds (Lamarck, 1819 and the survival, growth and larval development of their progenies

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    Ricardo M García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Las conchas de moluscos bivalvos marinos son extremadamente diversas en sus patrones de pigmentación y riqueza de colores. Tal diversidad se debe a factores ambientales y genéticos. En bivalvos marinos adultos, individuos con coloraciones de concha poco comunes en las poblaciones silvestres suelen presentar tasas de crecimiento y supervivencia menores que aquellos con colores de concha más frecuentes. Conociendo que la variación del color de la concha en Argopecten purpuratus está bajo control genético, en este trabajo se pone a prueba la hipótesis de que los loci responsables de dicha variación pueden afectar el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la tasa de desarrollo de las larvas de esta especie. Se estimó la supervivencia y el crecimiento en progenies de cruzamientos dirigidos entre individuos de A. purpuratus con colores de concha blanco, naranja y marrón, y se verificó la existencia de diferencias en las tasas de desarrollo. El crecimiento de las larvas producidas en cruzamientos que incluyeron individuos marrones o blancos con naranja no mostraron diferencias entre sí. En cambio, las progenies producto de autofecundaciones de individuos naranja y blancos presentaron tasas de crecimiento significativamente menores que las anteriores y distintas entre sí. Las tasas de desarrollo y de supervivencia, en cambio, no mostraron diferencias entre las progenies de los distintos tipos de cruzamientos. Los resultados sugieren que los genes que controlan la variación del color en las conchas de juveniles y adultos de A. purpuratus afectarían la tasa de crecimiento de sus larvas, pero no la tasa de desarrollo ni su supervivencia.Marine bivalve mollusks are extremely diverse in shell color and pigmentation patterns. Such diversity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Some evidences in adult marine bivalves shows that individuals with low-frequency shell colors have lower growth rates and/or higher mortalities than those with the most frequent shell colors. Knowing that Argopecten purpuratus shell color variation is under genetic control, in this work we test the hypothesis that loci that control shell color variation also affect larvae's growth rate, survival and/or development rate. Survival, growth and development rates were estimated in larvae produced in different crosses between brooders of A. purpuratus having low frequency shell colors (white or orange and "normal" (brown color. Results showed no significant differences in growth rates between larvae produced by crosses that involved brown shell parents, or orange by white parents. However, progenies of self fertilized orange and white parents showed significant differences in growth among them, and a lower growth rate than the remaining crosses. Results suggest that genes that control shell color variation in juvenile and adult A. purpuratus could affect the growth rates of their larvae, but not the development rate or survival.

  1. A estrutura histórico-conceitual dos programas de pesquisa de Darwin e Lamarck e sua transposição para o ambiente escolar Darwin and Lamarck research programs hitoric-conceptual structure and its conversion to the school environment

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    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tenta estabelecer uma complementaridade teórica entre uma abordagem epistemológica - a metodologia dos programas de pesquisa de Lakatos - e uma psicológico-cognitivista - a teoria dos campos conceituais de Vergnaud - objetivando a compreensão dos programas de pesquisa lamarckiano e darwiniano em seus respectivos campos de validade. Através da análise da estrutura histórico-conceitual dos dois programas e sua transposição para o ambiente escolar, são constatados e discutidos problemas nos livros didáticos de Biologia e na pesquisa atual sobre o conceito de Evolução entre alunos de diversos níveis escolares. Como resultado destas reflexões é apontada a teoria dos campos conceituais como um instrumento analítico frutífero do processo de conceitualização dos sujeitos diante de situações envolvendo processos evolutivos.The present work tries to establish a theoretical similarities in complementary among an epistemological approaches between - the methodology of the programs of research of Lakatos - and (a psychological-cognitivist and - the theory of the conceptual fields of Vergnaud. It - aimsing at the understanding of the programs of research Llamarckian and Ddarwinian programmes of research in theirr respective validity fields. Through the analysis of the historical-conceptual structure of the two programs and itsyour conversion for the school environment, verified and discussed problems in the text books of Biology are identified and discussed as is and in the current research on the concept of Evolution among students atof several school levels. As a result of these reflections the theory of the conceptual fields is pointed out as a fruitful analytical instrument of the conceptualization process inof the subjects front to situations involving evolutionary processes.

  2. Sobrevivencia y crecimiento de post-larvas de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 en Bahía Inglesa, Chile: efectos del origen, distribución en la bahía y bacterioflora larval Postlarval survival and growth of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck,1819 in Bahia Inglesa, Chile: effects of origin, distribution in the bay and larval bacterioflora

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    RUBÉN E. AVENDAÑO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Argopecten purpuratus es uno de los recursos marinos de mayor importancia comercial en Chile. Una de las etapas críticas en el cultivo de esta especie, es el traspaso de las post-larvas al medio natural, ya que durante este período se produce un significativo descenso en el número de post-larvas. Los factores que provocan estas bajas sobrevivencias pueden ser diversos, pero aún son desconocidos. En el presente estudio se evaluó la incidencia en la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de las variables origen de las larvas, distribución de los colectores en diferentes estaciones de Bahía Inglesa, III región (27° 03' 24" S, 70° 51' 30" O y los cambios en la bacterioflora asociadas a las post-larvas. Los organismos utilizados en el estudio fueron obtenidas desde los "hatcheries" de Cultivos Marinos Internacionales (III región y Cultivos Guayacán (IV región. Los resultados del estudio indican claramente que la ubicación y origen de las post-larvas en la bahía incide en la sobrevivencia de éstas. Sin embargo, el crecimiento no es afectado por las variables estudiadas (P Argopecten purpuratus is one of the most commercially important marine resources in Chile. One of the most critical steps in the massive culture of this species is the transference of postlarvae from hatchery production to the sea where significant mortality regularly occurs. The factors behind this low survival rate are probably diverse, and are as yet unknown. In the present study, postlarval survival and growth was observed as a function of origin of postlarvae, distribution of postlarvae in the bay, and microbial loading of the postlarvae. Survival rates were measured for different sites in Bahia Inglesa, Chile (27° 03' 24" S, 70° 51' 30" W as well as changes in the bacterioflora of the postlarvae. Postlarvae utilized in the study were obtained from Cultivos Marinos Internacionales (III Región and Cultivos Guayacan (IV Región. Results of the study clearly indicated that survival in culture of the postlarvae was related to their location in the bay and the origin of the postlarvae. However, the growth of the post-larvae is not affected (P < 0.05. Microbiologically, it was observed that Vibrio spp. were the bacterial component most represented among strains isolated from the postlarvae (53.36 % from both populations studied. Principal component analysis revealed no differences between cultivable vibrios from both cultures. However, microflora from the Guayacan group were less susceptible to increases in bacteria originating in their surrounding environment

  3. Evaluación en ambiente natural, del uso de biopelículas marinas en el asentamiento larval de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Evaluation in natural environment of use of marine biofilms, in the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En una granja marina ubicada colindante con el área de reserva marina “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile, se evaluó el asentamiento larval del pectínido Argopecten purpuratus sobre colectores impregnados con películas multi-específicas, de las diatomeas Navicula sp. y Amphora sp., y de la cepa bacteriana NC1, aisladas desde colectores utilizados en captaciones comerciales de esta especie que presentaron altos índices de fijación, y que bajo condiciones controladas de criadero y laboratorio, han mostrando altos niveles de asentamiento larval. Los resultados obtenidos con el uso de estas biopelículas, sobre colectores instalados en forma paralela a los utilizados por la empresa para la captación de semilla con fines comerciales, no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes tratamientos probados y el control, respecto a las fijaciones ocurridas en un lapso de 30 días de inmersión. Se discute, debido a los tiempos que demandaron las larvas de la primera cohorte en asentarse sobre los colectores tratados, un posible reemplazo de las biopelículas utilizadas, por otra común en todos ellos y atractiva para el asentamiento de las larvas, como causa de la ausencia de efectos significativos de los tratamientos probados en el medio natural. Se recomienda la necesidad de establecer el tiempo de permanencia, en el ambiente natural, de las biopelículas impregnadas a los colectores en laboratorio.In a commercial farm located near the Marine Reserve “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus on artificial collectors impregnated with multiespecific films of marine diatoms Navicula sp. and Amphora sp. and, bacterial strain NC1 were evaluated, These biofilms were isolates from artificial collector used in commercial activities with highest index of settlement in hatchery and laboratory conditions. The results to use this biofilms in collectors installed in same condition of commercial collectors show not statistical differences between treatment uses and the control based on the number of larvae for collectors after about 30 days of immersion. This differences observed, in base to time necessary to settle of larvae to first cohort on collector, is product of possible replacement of this biofilms for a common type in all collectors and more attractive for larval settlement. We recommend to estimate the time to replace the biofilms on artificial collectors installed in natural environment.

  4. Contribuição ao estudo anatômico da dura-máter do Bradypus torquatus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Bradypus variegatus (Schinz, 1825

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurosciences research have contribution to elucidate the history of the animal on the earth, nevertheless many sylvan animals, in South America yet won't be studied. The Sloth's, in risk of extinction, because your high specificity and alimentary specialization can give us information about evolutive animal history. We use dead animals by natural process, freeze, fixed and injected by natural latex in Matinha´s reserve, Itabuna/Ilhéus, ceded for projects in association between the reserve, São Paulo University and other institutions. The dissections were realized by magnified glass succors, documented, descript and analyzed by the references. We don't have many references about the theme thus were utilized descriptions and systematizations in humans and other mammals as the base for discussions. In the dura-mater was found a similar structure in other mammals, with falx´s brain and cerebelar tent , over there venous sinus. This sinus show interests alterations in your formations, all adequate to your anatomic characteristics of your brain, among these a orbiculo-frontal sinus around the base of olfactory bulbs, a sinus para-sagital cerebelar in a place of a cerebelar vein like description for many authors, and a connection between transverse sinus and inter-transverse sinus. Finally a peculiarity in this system is a transposition of the sigmoid sinus in a caudo-rostral orientation draining the blood support of the rostral region of the brain, specially the olfactory set.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED VITELLOGENIN AND VITELLINE ENVELOPE PROTEIN MRNA IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) USING QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmentally persistent chemicals found in both European and U.S. waterways can act as estrogens by binding to estrogen receptors and modifying the expression of genes regulated by endogenous estrogens. Synthesis of female-specific proteins (Vitellogenin [VTG], vitelline ...

  6. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825): novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M; Clozato, C L; Moraes-Barros, N; Morgante, J S

    2013-08-01

    The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study.

  7. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825: novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil

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    SM. Silva

    Full Text Available The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study.

  8. Data used for Raimondo et al. 2016 "Effects of Louisiana Crude Oil on the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) During a Life-Cycle Exposure to Laboratory Oiled Sediment"

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data are provided describing reproduction, length, weight, liver weight, and ovary weight in fish exposed to sediment spiked with weathered oil. Data are also...

  9. Comparative DNA damage and repair in echinoderm coelomocytes exposed to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bibany, Ameena H; Bodnar, Andrea G; Reinardy, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to withstand and repair DNA damage differs among species and plays a role in determining an organism's resistance to genotoxicity, life history, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental stressors that affect organisms at the genetic level are of particular concern in ecotoxicology due to the potential for chronic effects and trans-generational impacts on populations. Echinoderms are valuable organisms to study the relationship between DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic stress due to their history and use as ecotoxicological models, little evidence of senescence, and few reported cases of neoplasia. Coelomocytes (immune cells) have been proposed to serve as sensitive bioindicators of environmental stress and are often used to assess genotoxicity; however, little is known about how coelomocytes from different echinoderm species respond to genotoxic stress. In this study, DNA damage was assessed (by Fast Micromethod) in coelomocytes of four echinoderm species (sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter lucunter, and Tripneustes ventricosus, and a sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus) after acute exposure to H2O2 (0-100 mM) and UV-C (0-9999 J/m2), and DNA repair was analyzed over a 24-hour period of recovery. Results show that coelomocytes from all four echinoderm species have the capacity to repair both UV-C and H2O2-induced DNA damage; however, there were differences in repair capacity between species. At 24 hours following exposure to the highest concentration of H2O2 (100 mM) and highest dose of UV-C (9999 J/m2) cell viability remained high (>94.6 ± 1.2%) but DNA repair ranged from 18.2 ± 9.2% to 70.8 ± 16.0% for H2O2 and 8.4 ± 3.2% to 79.8 ± 9.0% for UV-C exposure. Species-specific differences in genotoxic susceptibility and capacity for DNA repair are important to consider when evaluating ecogenotoxicological model organisms and assessing overall impacts of genotoxicants in the environment.

  10. Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum on the Caribbean coast of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Cubit, J. D.; Robertson, D. R.; Shulman, M. J.; Parker, M. R.; Garrity, S. D.; Levings, S. C.

    1984-12-01

    The ecologically important sea urchin Diadema antillarum suffered mass mortalities in 1983, first noted in Panama and then reported from the rest of the Caribbean. We documented the effects of this mortality at two localities on the Atlantic coast of Panama, Punta Galeta and the San Blas Archipelago. At Punta Galeta, affected by the mortality in January 1983, the numbers of D. antillarum changed from an estimated 14,000 per ha in June 1982 to 0.5 per ha in May 1983; by February 1984 they had increased to 38 per ha. In the San Blas, where mass mortality started in April 1983, the number of D. antillarum in permanent quadrats on 8 reefs was reduced by an average of 94.2%. The average reduction in population density measured in transects on nine reefs was 98.9%. Data taken in permanent quadrats on four reefs in 1978, 1979 and 1980 indicate that population fluctuations of D. antillarum are normally much smaller, justifying the labeling of the 1983 event as “mass mortality”. Size structure of the San Blas populations was also affected; mean test diameter of D. antillarum on four reefs was reduced from 48.6 mm to 25.0 mm. Other echinoids ( Echinometra viridis, E. lucunter, Lytechinus variegatus, L. williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus and Echinoneus cyclostomus) suffered no ill effects at either Galeta or the San Blas; their population densities remained stable or increased. Density determinations of Diadema mexicanum at the island of Taboguilla on the Pacific side of Panama indicate that Diadema mass mortality did not extend to the eastern Pacific. Sea surface temperatures, tidal levels, rainfall and salinity showed no abnormal fluctuations during the time of D. antillarum mass mortality at Galeta, suggesting that mortality was not due to physical stress. The wide geographical spread and species-specificity of the mortality suggest a water-borne pathogen as the most likely causative agent. Recovery of D. antillarum

  11. Comparative DNA damage and repair in echinoderm coelomocytes exposed to genotoxicants.

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    Ameena H El-Bibany

    Full Text Available The capacity to withstand and repair DNA damage differs among species and plays a role in determining an organism's resistance to genotoxicity, life history, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental stressors that affect organisms at the genetic level are of particular concern in ecotoxicology due to the potential for chronic effects and trans-generational impacts on populations. Echinoderms are valuable organisms to study the relationship between DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic stress due to their history and use as ecotoxicological models, little evidence of senescence, and few reported cases of neoplasia. Coelomocytes (immune cells have been proposed to serve as sensitive bioindicators of environmental stress and are often used to assess genotoxicity; however, little is known about how coelomocytes from different echinoderm species respond to genotoxic stress. In this study, DNA damage was assessed (by Fast Micromethod in coelomocytes of four echinoderm species (sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter lucunter, and Tripneustes ventricosus, and a sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus after acute exposure to H2O2 (0-100 mM and UV-C (0-9999 J/m2, and DNA repair was analyzed over a 24-hour period of recovery. Results show that coelomocytes from all four echinoderm species have the capacity to repair both UV-C and H2O2-induced DNA damage; however, there were differences in repair capacity between species. At 24 hours following exposure to the highest concentration of H2O2 (100 mM and highest dose of UV-C (9999 J/m2 cell viability remained high (>94.6 ± 1.2% but DNA repair ranged from 18.2 ± 9.2% to 70.8 ± 16.0% for H2O2 and 8.4 ± 3.2% to 79.8 ± 9.0% for UV-C exposure. Species-specific differences in genotoxic susceptibility and capacity for DNA repair are important to consider when evaluating ecogenotoxicological model organisms and assessing overall impacts of genotoxicants in the environment.

  12. X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D

    2002-07-01

    Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth's stone part and along the carinar process-central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase (calcite, Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3)) cannot account for all of the linear attenuation coefficient decrease in the two zones: this suggested that soft tissue is localized there. Transmission diffraction mapping (synchrotron X-radiation, 80.8 keV, 0.1 x 0.1mm(2) beam area, 0.1mm translation grid, image plate area detector) simultaneously probed variations in 3-D and showed that the crystal elements of the "T"-shaped tooth were very highly aligned. Diffraction patterns from the keel (adaxial web) and from the abaxial flange (containing primary plates and the stone part) differed markedly. The flange contained two populations of identically oriented crystal elements with lattice parameters corresponding to x=0.13 and x=0.32. The keel produced one set of diffraction spots corresponding to the lower x. The compositions were more or less equivalent to those determined by others for camarodont teeth, and the high Mg phase is expected to be disks of secondary mineral epitaxially related to the underlying primary mineral element. Lattice parameter gradients were not noted in the keel or flange. Taken together, the microCT and diffraction results indicated that there was a band of relatively high protein content, of up to approximately 0.25 volume fraction, in the central part of the flange and paralleling its adaxial and abaxial faces. X-ray microCT and microdiffraction data used in conjunction with protein distribution data will be crucial for understanding the properties of various biocomposites and their mechanical functions.

  13. A provisional regulatory gene network for specification of endomesoderm in the sea urchin embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric H.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Oliveri, Paola; Ransick, Andrew; Calestani, Cristina; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Minokawa, Takuya; Amore, Gabriele; Hinman, Veronica; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Otim, Ochan; Brown, C. Titus; Livi, Carolina B.; Lee, Pei Yun; Revilla, Roger; Schilstra, Maria J.; Clarke, Peter J C.; Rust, Alistair G.; Pan, Zhengjun; Arnone, Maria I.; Rowen, Lee; Cameron, R. Andrew; McClay, David R.; Hood, Leroy; Bolouri, Hamid

    2002-01-01

    We present the current form of a provisional DNA sequence-based regulatory gene network that explains in outline how endomesodermal specification in the sea urchin embryo is controlled. The model of the network is in a continuous process of revision and growth as new genes are added and new experimental results become available; see http://www.its.caltech.edu/mirsky/endomeso.htm (End-mes Gene Network Update) for the latest version. The network contains over 40 genes at present, many newly uncovered in the course of this work, and most encoding DNA-binding transcriptional regulatory factors. The architecture of the network was approached initially by construction of a logic model that integrated the extensive experimental evidence now available on endomesoderm specification. The internal linkages between genes in the network have been determined functionally, by measurement of the effects of regulatory perturbations on the expression of all relevant genes in the network. Five kinds of perturbation have been applied: (1) use of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeted to many of the key regulatory genes in the network; (2) transformation of other regulatory factors into dominant repressors by construction of Engrailed repressor domain fusions; (3) ectopic expression of given regulatory factors, from genetic expression constructs and from injected mRNAs; (4) blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the intracellular domain of cadherin; and (5) blockade of the Notch signaling pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor. The network model predicts the cis-regulatory inputs that link each gene into the network. Therefore, its architecture is testable by cis-regulatory analysis. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus genomic BAC recombinants that include a large number of the genes in the network have been sequenced and annotated. Tests of the cis-regulatory predictions of

  14. Macrobenthic Communities of the Lower Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    ECHINODERMATA :ECHINOIDEA Arbacij Runlctulata (Lamarck) Echinarachnius Parma (Larmack) ECHINODERMATA :HOLOTHURO-DEA Holothuroidea spp. Leptosynapta ... inhaerens (Ayres) ECHINODERMATA :OPHIUROIDEA Ophiuroidea spp. * HEMICHORDATA Saccoglossus kowalewskii (Agassiz) CHORDATA :CEPHALOCHORDATA Branchiostoma

  15. Descrição do ciclo gametogênico do ouriço-branco, Tripneustes ventricosus (Lamarck, 1816), no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha PE, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Arthur Antônio

    2007-01-01

    Os ouriços-do-mar são conhecidos organismos bentônicos dos ecossistemas costeiros de águas rasas das regiões tropicais e temperadas. O impacto das populações de ouriços em algumas comunidades é dependente da sua densidade e o conhecimento da história de vida destes animais é importante para compreender a ecologia destas interações. Entre 2000 a 2005 ocorreu uma expansão em algumas populações de Tripneustes ventricosus no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha. Em 2004 foi iniciado um programa de ...

  16. Descripción de la información existente sobre el lulo y/o naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lamarck y de las prácticas realizadas por los agricultores en diferentes zonas de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottocar Reina José

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the existent dispersed information on lulo and/or Naranjilla. (Solarium quitoense Lacmarck was recopiled to bibliographical and field level. First of all, an exhaustive literary revision was effected about the most important aspects concerning the species. This information was also analyzed from different points of view with the objective of recognizing its validness and practical usefulness. On second hand, diverse producer regions of this fruit were visited, localized at Valle, Cauca, Risaralda and Putumayo, interviewing a total of 45 farmers. For the validation of this information, several criterions of analysis were applied as their experience, experimentations as well as, the persistency or the evolution of their opinions. With this theorical-practical information, aglobal diagnostic was done on cultivation and the general situation of the farmers who are the most affected by lack of and adequate technical assistence, not only for lulo, but fur other cultivations. In general, there is an increasing espectation of many farmers for involving to lulo cultivation but not find a technological support adequately.Con el presente trabajo se recopiló la información existente sobre el lulo y/o naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam a nivel bibliográfico y de campo. En primer lugar, se efectuó una exhaustiva revisión literaria sobre los aspectos más importantes concernientes a esta especie. Esta información se analizó desde diferentes puntos de vista con el objeto de reconocer su validez y utilidad práctica. En segundo lugar, se visitaron diversas regiones productoras de esta fruta localizada en el Valle, Cauca, Risaralda y Putumayo, entrevistando un total de 45 agricultores. Para la validación de esta información se aplicaron varios criterios is como su experimentación, persistencia o evolución de las opiniones, etc. Con esta información teórico-práctica se hizo un diagnóstico global sobre el cultivo y la situación general de los agricultores que son los más afectados por la falta de asistencia técnica adecuada, no sólo para el lulo, sino para otros cultivos. Existe una expectativa creciente de muchos agricultores por involu cultivo, pero sin un apoyo tecnológico adecuado.

  17. Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Different Tissues of Chicoreus capucinus Lamarck (Mollusca: Muricidae Collected from Sungai Janggut, Kuala Langat, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Edward Berandah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on accumulation and distribution of metals in the soft tissues may help us to understand the processes involved in the uptake and excretion of metals in the different parts of molluscs such as Chicoreus capucinus. Chicoreus capucinus was collected from intertidal areas of Sungai Janggut mudflat, Kuala Langat, Selangor and analysed for heavy metals content in the tissues. The capability of the different parts to accumulate heavy metal from the environment was measured by calculating their Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF values. From this preliminary investigation, it was found that the highest concentrations of Cu were found in the caecum (194±24.4 µg/g dw, Cd in digestive gland (32.9±0.000 µg/g dw and Fe in operculum (971±2.50 µg/g dw. For Ni and Pb, high concentrations in shell were observed and Zinc high levels in most of the tissues studied except shell and operculum. On the other hand, highest BSAF values were obtained in caecum for Cu (101.2, Zn (27.4 and Cd (53.1, while highest BSAF values were obtained in shell for Pb (32.6 and Ni (8.88. However, in general, most of the different parts of the gastropod could be suggested as macro concentrator organs, since the BSAF values were greater than 2. More studies should be conducted in the future to determine the potential of C. capucinus as biomonitor.

  18. Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the Different Tissues of Chicoreus capucinus Lamarck (Mollusca: Muricidae) Collected from Sungai Janggut, Kuala Langat, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Edward Berandah

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on accumulation and distribution of metals in the soft tissues may help us to understand the processes involved in the uptake and excretion of metals in the different parts of molluscs such as Chicoreus capucinus. Chicoreus capucinus was collected from intertidal areas of Sungai Janggut mudflat, Kuala Langat, Selangor and analysed for heavy metals content in the tissues. The capability of the different parts to accumulate heavy metal from the environment was measured by calculating ...

  19. CaracterizaÃÃo do exsudato de sementes de Moringa oleÃfera Lamarck e investigaÃÃo de seu papel na defesa do vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    AntÃnio Juscelino SudÃrio Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa) à uma espÃcie pertencente à famÃlia Moringaceae que se caracteriza por ser muito resistente a insetos e fungos. Trabalhos prÃvios realizados por nosso grupo de pesquisa revelaram a presenÃa de proteÃnas ligantes à quitina em sementes de moringa, dentre elas a Mo-CBP3, sugerindo uma correlaÃÃo positiva entre essa proteÃna e a resistÃncia da planta. No inÃcio do desenvolvimento da planta, para que ocorra a germinaÃÃo, deve haver a embebiÃÃo da semente, um processo seg...

  20. IdentificaÃÃo de uma proteÃna ligante à quitina em sementes de Moringa oleifera Lamarck com atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatÃria

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Leite Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. à uma Ãrvore conhecida pelo seu valor medicinal, uma vez que extratos de todas as partes desta planta mostraram propriedades farmacolÃgicas reconhecidas pelo uso popular e corroboradas pela comunidade cientÃfica. Dentre as atividades farmacolÃgicas, destacam-se Ãquelas relacionadas a processos inflamatÃrios. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o isolamento e caracterizaÃÃo de uma proteÃna ligante à quitina de sementes de Moringa oleifera e avaliaÃÃo de suas atividades antin...

  1. Emprego do extrato de moringa (Moringa oleífera Lamarck) na clarificação do caldo de cana para produção de açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Devido a crescente demanda mundial e rigorosas especificações exigidas pelo mercado para o açúcar, as unidades produtoras investem em inovações e tecnologias de produção, afim de reduzir custos e aprimorar a qualidade deste produto. Entre as possíveis inovações industriais, destaca-se o tratamento do caldo. Tal processo visa remover ao máximo os compostos considerados impurezas para a fabricação de açúcar, como compostos fenólicos, proteínas, sais inorgânicos, aminoácidos, ácidos, entre outro...

  2. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  3. 有机磷农药对缢蛏[Sinonovacula constricta (Lamarck)]显微结构的影响%MICROSTRUCTUAL LESIONS OF SINONOVACULA CONSTRICTA EFFECTED BY DIMETHOATE AND TRIAZOPHOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秀玲; 袁东星

    2006-01-01

    在实验室模拟缢蛏的生长环境,研究乐果和三唑磷对缢蛏的毒性效应.以气相色谱法测定缢蛏体内有机磷农药的含量,并通过光镜观察有机磷农药对缢蛏鳃和消化腺显微结构的影响.结果表明:缢蛏体内乐果和三唑磷的含量随着水体中有机磷农药的增加而增加,有很好的剂量-效应关系,但是无线性相关性.乐果和三唑磷对缢蛏鳃显微结构的影响是:鳃丝变短,鳃丝间隔和基底膜结缔组织增生,鳃孔、血管腔堵塞;不同的是:在乐果胁迫下,上皮细胞纤毛脱落严重,而三唑磷胁迫下,上皮细胞纤毛增生.乐果和三唑磷对缢蛏消化腺显微结构的影响主要表现为腺细胞界限模糊,腺泡水肿变形、部分坏死;结缔组织增生,细胞间质疏松,出现许多空泡;有机磷农药的浓度高时消化腺细胞变性、坏死,细胞质囊泡化.

  4. Gametogênese e dinâmica da reprodução de Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck (Unionoida, Mycetopodidae no lago Baía do Poço, planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil Gametogenesis and dynamics of the reproduction of Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck (Unionoida, Mycetopodidae from Baia do Poço Lake at the Cuiabá River wetland, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia T. Callil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O ciclo reprodutivo de Anodontites trapesialis foi estudado entre os meses de maio de 1998 a abril de 1999. Análises quantitativas dos elementos celulares revelaram que a espécie é exclusivamente hermafrodita com folículos masculinos e femininos separados. A gametogênese é contínua com picos de maturação e eliminação de gametas durante a estação seca. A ovogênese tem seu período de maturação máxima em abril e maio, momento em que óvulos maduros são observados preenchendo os folículos e gonoductos. A espermatogênese foi reconhecida por uma fase proliferativa com células em desenvolvimento e apresentou seu período de maturação entre abril e julho. Estas células se diferenciaram dando origem às mórulas espermáticas e espermatozóides livres, organizando a série espermática radial. Durante o período de liberação dos gametas, a maioria dos folículos apresentou agregados de espematozóides formando esferas espermáticas as "spermballs", as quais caracterizam a espécie como espermatozeugmata.The reproductive cycle of Anodontites trapesialiswas studied from May 1998 to April 1999. Quantitative analysis of the sexual cycle revealed that the species is exclusively hermaphrodite with separate male and female follicles. Gametogenesis is continuous with peaks of maturation and elimination of gametes during dry season. The period of maximum maturation of the oogenesis was in April and May, when mature oocytes were observed filling the follicles and gonoducts. Spermatogenesis was recognized by a proliferation phase with developing cells with period of maturation since April to July. These cells started to differentiate giving origin to spermatic morulae and free spermatozoa organizing the radial spermatic series. During the period of discharge of the gamets, the majority of follicles presented aggregates of spermatozoa forming the spermballs, which characterize the species as spermatozeugmata.

  5. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David G

    2015-11-30

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised

  6. The Melithaeidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.; Goh, N.K.C.; Chou, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of Melithaeidae from Singapore waters are described and depicted: Melithaea ochracea (Linnaeus, 1758), Mopsella rubeola (Wright & Studer, 1889), M. retifera (Lamarck, 1816), and Acabaria robusta (Shann, 1912). Variation and synonymy are discussed.

  7. Radular marks produced by grazing gastropods of the rocky intertidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yván Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We had used artificial surfaces to examine the radular marks of four common grazing gastropods from Ancon Bay. In this work we show radular marks on dental wax surface of the trochid Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830, the fissurellid Fissurella peruviana Lamarck, 1822, the lottid Lottia ceciliana (Orbigny, 1841 and the littorinid Nodilittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822. In addition, the radular type is described to each species to relate it to the produced mark.

  8. Prévalence et abondance de Charletonia cameroonensis Haitlinger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Abondance, prévalence, C. cameroonensis, Z. variegatus, Zone côtière ... Kekeunou 2014 (Acari : Erythraeidae) in the coastal area of Cameroon. ... between the parasite abundance and the size of Z. variegatus population.

  9. Veranderingen in de lijst van Nederlandse snuitkevers: Simo hirticornis vervalt voor onze fauna en S. variegates wordt toegevoegd (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, T.

    2002-01-01

    Changes to the Dutch list of weevils: Simo hirticornis to be deleted and S. variegatus to be added (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Some years ago Palm (1995) discovered that the weevil ‘Simo hirticornis’ was a mixture of two species: S. hirticornis en S. variegatus. Dutch material from institutional co

  10. Final Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment for the Ravines and Beach Area Study of the Surplus Operable Unit, Fort Sheridan, Illinois. Volume 1: RI Text and RI Appendices A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    conducted on the invertebrates Hyalella azteca (H. azteca ) and Lumbriculus variegatus (L. variegatus). Groundwater acute toxicity tests were...control sediment tissue sample. Whole sediment chronic toxicity tests conducted with H. azteca in Janes Ravine sediment did not demonstrate any...Illinois the control sediment tissue sample. Whole sediment chronic toxicity tests conducted with H. azteca in Hutchinson Ravine sediment did not

  11. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidney, L.A.; Diepens, N.J.; Guo, X.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We us

  12. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  13. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidney, L.A.; Diepens, N.J.; Guo, X.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We

  14. 1436-IJBCS-Article-Rapaël Emuel Okonji

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    2 Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. ... Zonocerus variegatus could be for other functions rather than urea production in urea cycle. ..... mammary gland development in rat, ammonia.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00354-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 AY497776_1( AY497776 |pid:none) Cyprinodon variegatus isolate Cv_A... 57 2e-06 ... BAC OSJ... 56 3e-06 AY497783_1( AY497783 |pid:none) Cyprinodon variegatus isolate Cv_A... 56 3e-06 AM433325... AM463959 |pid:none) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X194909.... 55 5e-06 AY497777_1( AY497777 |pid:none) Cyprinodon

  16. 臭腹腺蝗肠道中共存的淀粉和纤维素消化酶的纯化、动力学和抑制研究%Purification, kinetics and inhibition studies on co-existing starch and cellulose-digesting enzymes from the gut of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolulope Felix ADEDIRAN; Isaac Olusanjo ADEWALE

    2015-01-01

    [目的]本研究旨在了解臭腹腺蝗Zonocerus variegatus中碳水化合物的消化.[方法]依次通过CM-Sepharose CL-6B阳离子交换、QAE Sephadex A-50阴离子交换以及Sephadex G-100凝胶过滤,对臭腹腺蝗中肠的酶粗提取液(其中α-淀粉酶和纤维素酶的比活性分别为283±1.72 U/mg和17 ±0.83 U/mg)进行了纯化.最后通过层析将共存的酶分离成α-淀粉酶和纤维素酶.[结果]这两种酶都是单体,α-淀粉酶分子量为38 kDa,纤维素酶分子量为21 kDa.α-淀粉酶对淀粉的Km值为13.8±1.29 mg/mL,Vmax为3 883 ±52.25 U/mg pro;而纤维素酶对羧甲基纤维素底物的Km值为5.03±0.57 mg/mL,Vmax为433.00±5.24 U/mg pro.臭腹腺蝗α-淀粉酶能以不同的效率水解原淀粉,纤维素酶也能不同程度水解各种纤维材料.α-淀粉酶的水解活性在pH 6和40℃下最高,而纤维素酶的水解高活性在pH 9和45℃下最高.[结论]从番木瓜Carica papaya种子中分离到蛋白类抑制剂,发现它们是这两种酶的有效抑制剂,说明这些蛋白抑制剂(CpAI和CpCI)如果在害虫取食的作物上过量表达,则可能有利于害虫防治.尽管纤维类和淀粉类物质可能都显著提供该害虫的能量需求,但是动力学分析表明臭腹腺蝗更偏向于淀粉类食物.

  17. Green light synergistically enhances male sweetpotato weevil sex pheromone response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is the 7th most important staple crop in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter...

  18. Revision of the Lauraceae III. The genera Aiouea, Systemonodaphne, Urbanodendron, Mezilaurus; additions and corrections to Licaria and Cryptocarya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1938-01-01

    Aiouea Aublet, Hist. Guian. I (1775), p. 310; III, t. 120; Scopoli, Introductio Hist. nat. (Pragae 1777), p. 107, n. 277; Lamarck, Encyclop. méthod. I (1783), p. 72 (Ajúvea); Poiret, Encycl., Suppl. I (1890), p. 274, III (1893), p. 317; Illustrat. Genr. II, p. 395 et 367, t. 360; Jussieu, Genera (17

  19. North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Cornulariidae Dana, 1846 (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) with the description of a new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-González, P.J.; Ocaña, O.; García-Gómez, J.C.; Núñez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species of the family Cornulariidae are re-examined and taxonomically revised. This family is mainly characterized by the absence of sclerites. Up to now, only one genus, Cornularia Lamarck, 1816, has been assigned to the family. Studies of the internal

  20. Coral growth rates revisited after 31 years: what is causing lower extension rates in Acropora palmata?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, R.P.M.; Nieuwland, G.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Linear extension of branches in the same Acropora palmata (Lamarck, 1816) population in Curaçao was measured, employing exactly the same methods, in 1971-1973 and in 2002-2004, and the resulting coral growth rates are compared. Linear growth shows the same pattern over seasons in both periods with g

  1. Theories of Evolution, Science (Experimental): 5315.42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joseph P.

    This is an in-depth course of study of the historical attempts to explain the evolutionary process and of recent developments pertinent to the study of biomedical evolution. Topics included in the module are: (1) ancient concepts of the evolutionary process; (2) various aspects of Lamarckism, Darwinism and neo-Darwinism, including substantiating…

  2. Revision of the Lauraceae III. The genera Aiouea, Systemonodaphne, Urbanodendron, Mezilaurus; additions and corrections to Licaria and Cryptocarya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1938-01-01

    Aiouea Aublet, Hist. Guian. I (1775), p. 310; III, t. 120; Scopoli, Introductio Hist. nat. (Pragae 1777), p. 107, n. 277; Lamarck, Encyclop. méthod. I (1783), p. 72 (Ajúvea); Poiret, Encycl., Suppl. I (1890), p. 274, III (1893), p. 317; Illustrat. Genr. II, p. 395 et 367, t. 360; Jussieu, Genera

  3. Revision of the Lauraceae III. The genera Aiouea, Systemonodaphne, Urbanodendron, Mezilaurus; additions and corrections to Licaria and Cryptocarya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1938-01-01

    Aiouea Aublet, Hist. Guian. I (1775), p. 310; III, t. 120; Scopoli, Introductio Hist. nat. (Pragae 1777), p. 107, n. 277; Lamarck, Encyclop. méthod. I (1783), p. 72 (Ajúvea); Poiret, Encycl., Suppl. I (1890), p. 274, III (1893), p. 317; Illustrat. Genr. II, p. 395 et 367, t. 360; Jussieu, Genera (17

  4. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  5. Weathering rate of male rubber septa impregnator sex pheromone of Sweetpotato Weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), in East Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, production in Hawaii has been increasing, reaching 190 harvested ha, with a total production of 3.78 million kg in 2009. Sweet potato production in Hawaii is hindered by three major quarantine pests, for which only one, the sweetpotato we...

  6. Mitogenomics phylogenetic relationships of the current sloth's genera and species (Bradypodidae and Megalonychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Chacón, Diego; Plese, Tinka; Schuler, Ingrid; Shostell, Joseph Mark

    2017-01-27

    We sequenced the complete mitogenome of 39 sloths (19 Bradypus variegatus, 4 B. tridactylus, 1 B. pygmaeus, 1 B. torquatus, 4 Choloepus didactylus, and 10 C. hoffmanni). A Bayesian tree (BI) indicated a temporal split between Bradypus and Choloepus around 31 million years ago (MYA, Oligocene) and the other major splits within each genera during the Miocene and Pliocene. A haplotype network (MJN) estimated a lower temporal split between the sloth genera (around 23.5 MYA). Both methods detected the ancestor of B. torquatus as the first to diverge within Bradypus (21 for BI and 19 MJN), followed by that of the ancestor of B. tridactylus. The split of B. pygmaeus from the common ancestor with B. variegatus was around 12 MYA (BI) or 4.3 MYA (MJN). The splits among the previous populations of B. variegatus began around 8 MYA (BI) or 3.6 MYA (MJN). The trans-Andean population was the first to diverge from the remaining cis-Andean populations of B. variegatus. The genetic differentiation of the trans-Andean B. variegatus population relative to the cis-Andean B. variegatus is similar to that found for different species of sloths. The mitogenomic analysis resolved the differentiation of C. hoffmanni from the C. didactylus individuals of the Guiana Shield. However, one C. didactylus from the Colombian Amazon specimen was inside the C. hoffmanni clade. This could be the first example of possible natural hybridization in the Amazon of both Choloepus taxa or the existence of un-differentiable phenotypes of these two species in some Amazonian areas.

  7. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  8. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  9. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  10. Weismann, Wittgenstein and the homunculus fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Harry

    2010-09-01

    A problem that has troubled both neo-Darwinists and neo-Lamarckians is whether instincts involve knowledge. This paper discusses the contributions to this problem of the evolutionary biologist August Weismann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Weismann discussed an empirical homunculus fallacy: Lamarck's theory mistakenly presupposes a homunculus in the germ cells. Wittgenstein discussed a conceptual homunculus fallacy which applies to Lamarck's theory: it is mistaken to suppose that knowledge is stored in the brain or DNA. The upshot of these two fallacies is that instincts arise through a neo-Darwinian process but are not cognitions in the sense that they involve (the recollection of stored) knowledge. Although neo-Lamarckians have rightly argued that learning processes may contribute to the development of instincts, their ideas about the role of knowledge in the evolution and development of instincts are mistaken.

  11. The status of the name Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, a red alga described from Brazil, and a depiction of the type specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wynne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The type specimen of the red alga Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, described from Brazil, is located in the Lund Herbarium, and it is depicted for the first time in a publication. It is taxonomically identical to Dichotomaria obtusata (J. Ellis and Solander Lamarck and thus can be treated as a later taxonomic synonym. Alysium is regarded as congeneric with Dichotomaria.O espécime tipo da alga vermelha Alysium holtingii C. Agardh, descrito para o Brasil, está localizado no Herbário Lund, e é aqui apresentado. Ele é taxonomicamente idêntico a Dichotomaria obtusata (J. Ellis e Solander Lamarck e portanto deve ser tratado como um sinônimo taxonômico posterior. Alysium é considerado como congenérico com Dichotomaria.

  12. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

  13. Nuevos registros de gasterópodos para el mar tropical del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco especies de gasterópodos: Northia pristis (Deshayes in Lamarck, 1844, Macron aethiops (Reeve, 1847, Latirus concentricus (Reeve, 1847, Terebra elata, Hinds, 1844 y Carinodrilla adonis Pilsbry & Lowe, 1932, se reportan por primera vez para aguas tropicales del mar peruano. Se da información sobre la distribución, el hábitat y comentarios relevantes sobre cada una de las especies.

  14. Etude des propriétés anti-oxydantes, anti-inflammatoires, anti-prolifératives et anti-migratoires des huiles essentielles de quelques plantes médicinales du Burkina Faso sur des lignées cellulaires du cancer de la prostate et de glioblastomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayala, Bagora

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils are natural complex of volatile and odorous molecules, synthesized by aromatic plants. They have anti-infective, antioxidant, anticancer properties... The present work concerned the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer propertiesof essential oils of Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov., Cymbopogon citratus [DC] Stapf, Ocimum basilicum Linnæus, Ocimum americanum Linnæus, Hyptis spicigera Lamarck, Lippia multiflora Moldenk, Ageratum conyzoides Linnæus, Eucal...

  15. A study of the chemical composition of Erythroxylum coca var. coca leaves collected in two ecological regions of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvain, M; Rerat, C; Moretti, C; Saravia, E; Arrazola, S; Gutierrez, E; Lema, A M; Muñoz, V

    1997-05-01

    Coca-Erythroxylum coca Lamarck var. coca-remains one of the most common plants of the folk medicine of Bolivia used as a general stimulant. Aymara and Quechua natives prefer to chew the sweeter coca leaves from the Yungas (tropical mountain forests of the eastern slopes of the Andes) rather than those from the Chapare lowlands. The contents in cocaine and minor constituents of leaf samples cultivated in these regions does not rationalize this choice.

  16. Moringa oleifera: Resource management and multiuse life tree

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Luz, Luciana A.; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Napoleão, Thiago H.; Paiva, Patrícia M.G.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae family) is a plant native from the Western and sub-Himalayan parts of Northwest India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. This species is widely cultivated across Africa, South-East Asia, Arabia, South America and Caribbean Islands. M. oleifera culture is also being distributed in the Semi-Arid Northeast of Brazil. It is a multiuse life tree with great environmental economic importance in industrial and medical areas. This review reports different purposes of M. o...

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyadist Vongsak; Pongtip Sithisarn; Wandee Gritsanapan

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. ...

  18. Reflexos da clarificação do caldo de cana com moringa sobre compostos inorgânicos do açúcar VHP

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Gustavo H. G. [UNESP; Masson,Igor S.; Lidyane A. de Freita; Roviero, Juliana P. [UNESP; Mutton,Márcia J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sugarcane juice clarification, using extract of leaves and seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) as auxiliary sedimentation, on the concentration of inorganic compounds of clarified juice and sugar VHP (Very High Purity - Export Type). The experimental design used was a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The performed main treatments included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte, the ...

  19. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  20. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  1. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  2. Dissolved organic matter enhances transport of PAHs to aquatic organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; ter Bekke, M.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the uptake of pyrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene by an aquatic worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) coated glass fiber was studied at different humic acid concentrations. The accumulation of pyrene was not affected by the presence of the humic matrix. However, the a

  3. Festlegung eines Lectotypus von Eumeta variegata (Snellen) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierl, W.

    1965-01-01

    Eumeta variegata (Snellen) Oiketicus variegatus Snellen, 1879, Tijdschr. Ent. 22: 114-117, pl. 9 fig. 6, 6a, b, c, d. Für die Erstbeschreibung dieser Art durch Snellen lagen zwei ♂ Exemplare aus dem südwestlichen Celebes vor. Eines davon ist voll entwickelt und gelangte in der Originalarbeit zur

  4. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  5. A PROTEOMIC (SELDI-TOF-MS) APPROACH TO ESTROGEN AGONIST SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small fish model and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI) were used to investigate plasma protein expression as a means to screen chemicals for estrogenic activity. Adult male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were place...

  6. Distribution patterns in British Chilopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-one nonmaritime species of chilopod are recorded from northern Britain and a further fourteen from the South. All the northern species are characteristic of northern Europe with the exception of Lithobius variegatus Leach but the remainder include both Lusitanian and central European species.

  7. Frequency of infection by Neospora caninum in wild rodents associated with dairy farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Esparza, L; Macías, L; Ramos-Parra, M; Morales-Salinas, E; Quezada, T; Cruz-Vázquez, C

    2013-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of Neospora caninum in tissues from wild rodents associated with dairy farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Individuals from Mus musculus, Rattus novergicus and Spermophilus variegatus were caught in dairy farms with history of positive status to N. caninum. A total of 33 rodents were caught from which samples were taken of brain, spinal cord, liver and heart and were tested with nested PCR and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results obtained with PCR showed that M. musculus had 77% (10/13) positive samples to N. caninum, S. variegatus had 71% (10/14) and R. novergicus had 50% (3/6). The results obtained with IHC showed that 15% (2/13) of M. musculus individuals were positive, while 43% (6/14) of S. variegatus and 33% (2/6) R. novergicus were also positive. This is the first report of the presence of N. caninum in S. variegatus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in Carcass and Viscera of Swim-up Rainbow Trout Exposed to Dietary and Waterborne Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout fry were exposed to arsenic in water only, diet only, or both diet and water in 28-d studies evaluating survival and growth. Diets consisted of Lumbriculus variegatus that were exposed to multiple concentrations of waterborne arsenate for 7d and then fed to test fi...

  9. THE EFFECT OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON SWIM-UP RAINBOW TROUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 30-day toxicity tests were conducted in which swim-up rainbow trout were fed live diets of oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) containing elevated arsenic. Arsenic was incorporated into the diet by exposing oligochaetes to waterborne arsenate (test one) and waterborne ars...

  10. Environmental Impact Statement, Auxiliary Airfield for Williams Air Force Base, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    INDIVIDUALS/LANDOWNERS Rudy & Judie Rowe (Cont’d) Rt. 2, Box 3 Florence, AZ 85232 Ruth K. Janzik Mr. & Mrs. Jack Schalberg Execo Wet P.O. Box 321 Realty...snake Callisaurus draconoides Zebra -tailed lizard Cnemidophorus tigris Western whiptail Coleonyx variegatus Banded gecko Crotaphytus wislizenii

  11. Radiocaesium in fruitbodies and mycorrhizae in ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolova, Ivanka [N. Pouskharov Inst. of Soil Sciences and Agroecology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Johanson, K.J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Radioecology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlberg, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Mycology and Pathology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Fruitbodies of Suillus variegatus and Lactarius rufus and, at a maximum distance of 50 cm, the corresponding mycorrhizae, were collected on a rocky area in a coniferous forest. The tuberculate mycorrhizae collected close to S. variegatus fruitbodies were identified by the RFLP pattern to be S. variegatus mycorrhizae. In contrast the smooth brown mycorrhizae collected close to fruitbodies of L. rufus were found to be of various species - L. rufus, but also Russula sp. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in fruitbodies and the fungal part of the tuburculate mycorrhizae of S. variegatus were about the same. A local enrichment of {sup 137}Cs within fruitbodies was studied by collecting fruitbodies growing in clusters. Between 13 and 64% of the mean ground {sup 137}Cs deposition of the cluster area (400 or 625 cm{sup 2}) was found in the fruitbodies. This indicates that there might be an important fungal redistribution of {sup 137}Cs in the forest floor during the production of fruitbodies. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the fruitbodies was heterogenous. For example in Cortinarious armillatus, the {sup 137}Cs level in the cap was 2.7 times higher compared to in the stripe. (Author).

  12. Synonymical remarks about certain Hymenoptera Aculeata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1884-01-01

    1. Odynerus basalis Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. V (1857). p. 58= Odynerus variegatus H.S. (nec Fabr.) = Odynerus (Epipona) Herrichii Sauss., Suppl. Mon. Guêpes solit. (1854). p. 309. 2. Prosopis scutata Lichtenst., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (5), VII (1877). Bull. p. CII = Prosopis picta Smith

  13. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to freshwater organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch

    with freshwater filter feeder Daphnia magna, sediment feeder Lumbriculus variegatus and green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The results made it possible to identify major scientific and methodological challenges in the testing of nanoparticles compared to ‘conventional’ chemicals. It has been highlighted...

  14. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  15. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete – Part I: Relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramskov, Tina, E-mail: tramskov@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Thit, Amalie, E-mail: athitj@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Croteau, Marie-Noële, E-mail: mcroteau@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Selck, Henriette, E-mail: selck@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Both aqueous and nanoparticulate Cu forms are available for uptake by L. variegatus. • Cu accumulation is driven by both water and sediment uptake. • Cu form weakly influences Cu biodynamics in L. variegatus. • Food ingestion rate is a sensitive endpoint for dietborne Cu exposure. • Stable isotope tracers allow detecting accumulation after environmentally relevant exposures. - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 μg L{sup −1}), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu

  16. Involvement of zinc in the regulation of pHi, motility, and acrosome reactions in sea urchin sperm

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    When sperm of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus or Lytechinus pictus are diluted into seawater, motility is initiated; and when exposed to egg jelly, an acrosome reaction is induced. In the presence of a variety of structurally different metal chelators (0.1-1 mM EDTA, EGTA, phenanthroline, dipyridyl, cysteine, or dithiothreitol), motility initiation is delayed and the acrosome reaction is inhibited. Of the metals detected in the sperm of these two species, very low levels of Zn+2 (0.1 microM fre...

  17. Analysis of cytokinesis by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, J; Borrego-Pinto, J; Streichert, D; Munzig, M; Lenart, P; Müller-Reichert, T

    2017-01-01

    Following up on a chapter on the Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos in Mitosis (MCB 79, 101-119), we present an adaptation of our established protocol for the ultrastructural analysis of either permeabilized or injected embryonic systems. We prepared both drug-treated early C. elegans embryos and fluorescently labeled sea urchin embryos of Lytechinus pictus for ultrastructural studies on animal cytokinesis. Here we focus on the initial preparation steps of postmitotic embryos for high-pressure freezing and subsequent electron microscopy with an emphasis on electron tomography. The advantages and limitations of our extended protocol will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and characterization of a T-antigen specific lectin from the coelomic fluid of a marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowda, N.M.; Goswami, U.; Khan, M.I.

    .5 gm, tri sodium citrate 8 gm, citric acid 0.55 gm and sodium chloride 4.2 g in 1000 mL water). The resulting solution was centrifuged (5000 x g, 15 min at 4 0 C) to remove coelomycetes and the clear supernatant was treated with serine proteinase..., a sialic acid binding lectin belongs to heat shock protein family [19], endogenous echinonectin from Lytechinus variegates [20], Lectin from Asterina pectinifera [21] and also shown the involvement of lectin in the complement homologous immune...

  19. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete: Part I: relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Thit, Amalie; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Selck, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO3)2) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305 µgL-1), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu via both water and sediment. However, sediment progressively becomes the predominant exposure route for Cu in L. variegatus as Cu partitioning to sediment increases.

  20. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete - Part I: Relative importance of water and sediment as exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Thit, Amalie; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Selck, Henriette

    2015-07-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used, and likely released into the aquatic environment. Both aqueous (i.e., dissolved Cu) and particulate Cu can be taken up by organisms. However, how exposure routes influence the bioavailability and subsequent toxicity of Cu remains largely unknown. Here, we assess the importance of exposure routes (water and sediment) and Cu forms (aqueous and nanoparticulate) on Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, a head-down deposit-feeder. We characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of Cu in L. variegatus across a range of exposure concentrations, covering both realistic and worst-case levels of Cu contamination in the environment. Both aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq; administered as Cu(NO3)2) and nanoparticulate Cu (CuO NPs), whether dispersed in artificial moderately hard freshwater or mixed into sediment, were weakly accumulated by L. variegatus. Once incorporated into tissues, Cu elimination was negligible, i.e., elimination rate constants were in general not different from zero for either exposure route or either Cu form. Toxicity was only observed after waterborne exposure to Cu-Aq at very high concentration (305μgL(-1)), where all worms died. There was no relationship between exposure route, Cu form or Cu exposure concentration on either worm survival or growth. Slow feeding rates and low Cu assimilation efficiency (approximately 30%) characterized the uptake of Cu from the sediment for both Cu forms. In nature, L. variegatus is potentially exposed to Cu via both water and sediment. However, sediment progressively becomes the predominant exposure route for Cu in L. variegatus as Cu partitioning to sediment increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Test Area D-84 Waterside Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    navigational canals, restoration projects (many to restore areas destroyed by hurricanes), artificial reef developments, off-shore breakwaters and...Cyprinodon variegatus Pocket Gopher Geomys pinetus Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias White- tailed Deer Odocoileus...relief rock or reef habitats (which do not occur in the project area). NMFS believes any habitat and food avai lability effects of the project on

  3. The first observations of oocyte diameters for the pipefish from the southern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRKAN, Şule; Taylan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syngnathid specimens sample between July 2001˗May 2002 was examined about measurements of oocyte diameter in the coastal waters of Sinop peninsula, southern Back Sea. The specimens of Syngnathid fishes (Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle, Syngnathus variegatus, Syngnathus tenuirostris, Nerophis ophidion) catched with using hand dredge from the vegetated coastal area. According to results, the mean of hydrated oocyte diameter was calculated as, respectively: Syngnathus acus: 1.96 mm, ...

  4. Military Housing Privatization Initiative (MHPI), Eglin AFB, Florida and Hurlburt Field, Florida. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Page B-146 Final Environmental Impact Statement Eglin AFB/Hurlburt Field, Florida wag ley ~~~~~o~~~~~~~a~e~!~1~;---- sent: saturday, January...smilis Seaside elder Iva imbricata Long-nosed killifish Fundulus similis Saltgrass Distichylis spicata Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus Wax...angustifolia Belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon Palmetto Serenoa repens Raccoon Procyon lotor Marsh elder Iva frutescens Salt marsh rabbit Sylvilagus

  5. De levenscyclus van

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höcker, A.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Reported is about the life-cycle ofCotylurus erraticus in Europe. In the northern part of the IJsselmeer Valvala piscinalis was infected for 1,5-3% in the summer of 1973 by the species Cotylurus erraticus, Cotylus variegatus and C. platycephalus. For the first

  6. Morphology of hair of two-and three-toed sloths (Edentata: Bradypodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wujek, Daniel E.; Cocuzza, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Micromorphological differences between hairs of the two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) and of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Hairs of the two-toed sloth had longitudinal grooves which exposed a uniform cortex when viewed in cross section. Hairs of the three-toed sloth have irregular transverse fissures and a cortex that contains scattered fusi. These morphological differences support the placement of the two sloth genera in...

  7. Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov. and new records of other species of Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Laccophilinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-08-18

    The genus Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 was recently erected for small drop-shape Dytiscidae beetles commonly found in Tropical South America associated with lentic waters. In the present paper a new species, Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov., is described and illustrated. New records from Brazil are presented for Laccomimus alvarengi Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Amazonas state, L. bordoni Toledo & Michat, 2015 from São Paulo state and L. variegatus Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Pará state.

  8. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  9. Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans.

  10. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  11. Relectura de las Disertaciones de Cavanilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderas, José María

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the historic relevance and botanical importance today of the Dissertationes of A. J. Cavanilles is offered.

    Este trabajo, dedicado al examen interno de una obra capital de la botánica del siglo XVIII. que incorpora buena parte del método de las familias sin dejar de abrazar el método linneano, aborda los conceptos sistemáticos fundamentales de Cavanilles y coteja, en análisis textual comparativo, su perspicuidad descriptiva frente a Lamarck y A. L. de Jussieu.

  12. Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: primeiro registro para o Brasil, redescrição da espécie e considerações sobre a ocorrência e distribuição de Isognomon na costa brasileira Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: first record to the Brazilian littoral, redescription of the species and comments on the occurrence and distribution of Isognomon in the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Domaneschi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve family Isognomonidae is represented in the Western Atlantic by the living genera Crenatula Lamarck, 1804 and Isognomon Solander, 1786. I. alatus (Gmelin, 1791 and I. radiatus (Anton, 1839 are the only Isognomonidae referred to the Brazilian malacofauna. The present work refers to the first record and geographic distribution of I. bicolor along the Brazilian littoral, and presents a re-description of the species based on shell characters, which include those of the prodissoconch. The occurrence of I. alatus and I. radiatus along the Brazilian littoral could not be confirmed, despite the intensive search for these Isognomonidae from Rio Grande do Norte through Rio Grande do Sul.

  13. ATUNA RAFIN. versus CYCLANDROPHORA HASSK. (Rosaceae— Chrysobalanoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Atuna Rafinesque (Sylva Tellur. 153. 1838 with a single speciesAtuna ra-cemosa Rafin. has priority over Cyclandrophora Hasskarl (inFlora 25(2, Beibl. 1: 47. 1842 and as it has been described properly ithas precedence over Cyclandrophora.I formerly (in Candollea 20: 118. 1965 preferred to reinstate Cyclan-drophora as there is a generic name Atunus [Rumph.] Lamarck 1797, asynonym of Heritiera Dryander (Sterculiaceae. After sounding out someexperts in this matter, it has become evident, that the chances to conserveCyclandrophora against Atuna are slight and hence I give here the newcombinations of the species of this genus.

  14. Origin of Life and Definition of Life, from Buffon to Oparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  15. The serpulid worm Rotularia spirulaea from Eocene beds near Gračišće in Istria, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Mikuž

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In paper several selected specimens of sedentary Polychaetes of species Rotularia spirulaea (Lamarck, 1818 are presented. They were found in Middel Eocene – Lutetian calcareous breccias and conglomerates, respectively olistostromes,below the village of Gračišće near Pazin in Istria (Croatia. The rare individuals are of various shapes and sizes, and they occur among numerous nummulitines, corals, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans, lithothamnias and other fossil remains. The mentioned rocks and their contents are constituting parts of the Istrian Paleogene basins, in this istance of the Pazin flysch basin.

  16. Origin of life and definition of life, from Buffon to Oparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  17. Bacterially induced stolon settlement in the scyphopolyp of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G.

    1985-03-01

    Unsettled stoloniferous scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita Lamarck were offered different substrates for settlement under defined conditions. On addition of different biogenic and abiotic substrates, a pure strain of bacteria, a species of Micrococcaceae, was observed to trigger the settlement of the stolon. The settlement reaction only takes place following direct contact with the bacteria; sterile filtrated culture medium of the same bacterial strain was not able to induce settlement. The bacteria were found to be effective on stolon settlement during the logarithmic growth phase, but not during the stationary phase.

  18. Occurrence of whale barnacles in Nerja Cave (Málaga, southern Spain): Indirect evidence of whale consumption by humans in the Upper Magdalenian

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban ÁLVAREZ FERNÁNDEZ; Carriol, René-pierre; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Aura Tortosa, J. Emili; Avezuela Aristu, Bárbara; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; García Guinea, Javier; Morales Pérez, Juan Vicente; Badal, Ernestina; Maestro González, Adolfo; Pérez Jordà, Guillem; Pérez Ripoll, Manuel; Rodrigo García, María José; Scarff, James E.; Villalba Currás, María Paz

    2013-01-01

    A total of 167 plates of two whale barnacle species (Tubicinella majorLamarck, 1802 and Cetopirus complanatusMörch, 1853) have been found in the Upper Magdalenian layers of Nerja Cave, Mina Chamber (Maro, Málaga, southern Spain). This is the first occurrence of these species in a prehistoric site. Both species are specific to the southern right whale Eubalena australis, today endemic in the Southern Hemisphere. Because of Antarctic sea-ice expansion during the Last Glacial Period, these whale...

  19. EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Castro, Daniel; Av. Nueva Toledo 242 B, Cieneguilla (Perú).; Mendo, Jaime; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú) durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con ...

  20. The Development of Evolutionary Ideology%生物进化思想的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王僧虎

    2001-01-01

    生物进化的思想经历了产生、确立及发展的过程,至今进化理论仍在完善之中.拉马克(Jean Baptiste Lamarck,1744-1829)是第一个提出生物进化观点的学者.查理士@达尔文(Charles Robert Darwin,1809~1882)提出了广为人们接受的自然选择学说.其他科学家不断地对生物进化的理论予以完善.

  1. Las comunidades de mitilidos del mediolitoral rocoso del departamento de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 34 muestras de los conglomerados de mitilidos de la zona medio litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima, (10°45'38"S a 12°57'39"S, tomadas periódicamente, entre junio y noviembre de 1972. Utilizando el método del índice biológico, se determinó la existencia de dos comunidades: Comunidad de Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, en el horizonte medio de la zona mediolitoral. Comunidad de Semimytilus algosus (Gould, 1850, en el horizonte inferior de la zona mediolitoral.

  2. Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales from southern Africa. 9. R. nigrella and the status of R. capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available R. nigrella DC. (Lamarck & De Candolle 1815, with which R. capensis auct. non Steph.: S. Amell (1952, 1963, is conspecific, is now also recognized from southern Africa. The thallus is brown marginally and dorsally and has shiny black scales with smooth margins at which coloured and hyaline cells alternate irregularly. Arnell's (1961 records of R. capensis Steph. from the Canary Islands are to be regarded as erroneous. R. capensis Steph. (Stephani in Brunnthaler 1913 is now placed in synonymy under R. limbata Bisch.

  3. Two new species of Syllidae (Polychaeta from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teresa Aguado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Japanese Syllidae (Polychaeta belonging to the genera Haplosyllis Langerhans, 1879 and Syllis Lamarck, 1818 are described. Haplosyllis crassicirrata n. sp. is characterized by its distinctly spindle-shaped thick dorsal cirri, with yellow granular inclusions, two unequal simple chaetae per parapodium, and the shape of the chaetae. Syllis marugani n. sp. is characterized by its distinct orange colour (in ethanol preserved specimens, long and broad dorsal cirri, compound chaetae having robust shafts in the posterior part of the body, and short blades strongly bidentate.

  4. Determination of radionuclides in Mytilus galloprovicialis by Alpha And Gamma-Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FLOROU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural radionuclides 238U ,234Th, 40K and the main man-made 137Cs, have been studied in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 sampled in the Thermaikos gulf – North Aegean Sea, considered as a bioindicator for radiological assessment in the Mediterranean. The ratio 234U/238U has also been determined. In terms of 137Cs, the activity concentrations in seawater from the studied area have been measured as well, and the concentration factors of 137Cs in Mytilus galloprovincialis are given as a parameter of the organism response to radioactive pollution.

  5. Primer registro del caracol manzano exótico Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) en México, con comentarios sobre su propagación en el bajo río Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Campos; Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos; José Delgadillo

    2013-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez para México el caracol manzano Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). La especie fue descubierta en varias localidades vecinas a la presa derivadora Matamoros-1950, Algodones, Baja California. La propagación de P. canaliculata en aguas mexicanas fue a través de los afluentes del río Colorado de la población inicialmente introducida en las vecindades de Yuma, Arizona, EUA en el 2005. Hasta el momento no han sido detectados efectos dañinos sobre los cultivos agrícolas...

  6. A soul of truth in things erroneous: Popper's "amateurish" evolutionary philosophy in light of contemporary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Davide; Baravalle, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will critically assess Popper's evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper's evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper's ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be appreciated in their full biological and philosophical value.

  7. Equinodermos de las Islas Lobos de Afuera (Lambayeque, Perú

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    Yuri Hooker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Del 19 al 24 de junio de 1999 se llevó a cabo una expedición para realizar el inventario rápido de los equinodermos de las Islas Lobos de Afuera (06°55,5 S - 80°42,5 W. Se colectó un total de 39 especies de equinodermos: 7 asteroideos (2 nuevos registros para el Perú: Luidia bellonae, Luidia brevispina; 8 ofiuroideos (1 nuevo registro para el Perú: Ophionereis sp.; 11 equinoideos (5 nuevos registros para el Perú: Astropyga pulvinata, Diadema mexicanum, Lytechinus sp., Toxopneustes roseus, Tripneustes depressus y 13 holoturoideos (6 nuevos registros: Psolidium dorsipes, Cucumaria flamma, Pseudocnus californicus, Holothuria sp., Chiridota sp. y Actinopyga sp..

  8. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry".

  9. Is Lamarckian evolution relevant to medicine?

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    Handel Adam E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 200 years have now passed since Darwin was born and scientists around the world are celebrating this important anniversary of the birth of an evolutionary visionary. However, the theories of his colleague Lamarck are treated with considerably less acclaim. These theories centre on the tendency for complexity to increase in organisms over time and the direct transmission of phenotypic traits from parents to offspring. Discussion Lamarckian concepts, long thought of no relevance to modern evolutionary theory, are enjoying a quiet resurgence with the increasing complexity of epigenetic theories of inheritance. There is evidence that epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are transmitted transgenerationally, thus providing a potential mechanism for environmental influences to be passed from parents to offspring: Lamarckian evolution. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that epigenetics plays an important role in many common medical conditions. Summary Epigenetics allows the peaceful co-existence of Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution. Further efforts should be exerted on studying the mechanisms by which this occurs so that public health measures can be undertaken to reverse or prevent epigenetic changes important in disease susceptibility. Perhaps in 2059 we will be celebrating the anniversary of both Darwin and Lamarck.

  10. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

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    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  11. Darwin, and the role of theories in evolutionary thinking Darwin y el papel de las teorías en el pensamiento evolutivo

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    GERMÁN MANRÍQUEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The section "Special Features" is dedicated to share with its readers thematic works about natural history, ecology and evolution. In this introduction we focus on the role that theories play in the construction of evolutionary thinking. First, we briefly show the importance of Lamarck's work in the context of pre-Darwinian theories about organic evolution. Then, the main components of the Darwinian theoretical core and its postDarwinian extensions are thoroughly discussed. Finally the essays following this introduction in the present issue are summarized.La sección "Temas especiales" está dedicada a compartir con sus lectores trabajos temáticos sobre historia natural, ecología y evolución. En esta introducción nos centraremos en el papel que juegan las teorías en la construcción del pensamiento evolutivo. En primer lugar, se mostrará brevemente la importancia de la obra de Lamarck en el contexto de las teorías predarwinianas sobre evolución orgánica. Luego se discutirán en detalle los principales componentes del núcleo teórico del darwinismo así como sus extensiones postdarwinianas. Finalmente se resumen los ensayos que siguen a la presente introducción.

  12. Influence of a dominant consumer species reverses at increased diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Margarita; Witman, Jon D; Chiriboga, Angel I

    2012-04-01

    Theory and experiments indicate that changes in consumer diversity affect benthic community structure and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of consumer diversity have been tested in the laboratory and the field, little is known about effects of consumer diversity in the subtidal zone, one of the largest marine habitats. We investigated the grazing effects of sea urchins on algal abundance and benthic community structure in a natural subtidal habitat of the Galápagos Islands. Three species of urchins (Eucidaris, Lytechinus, and Tripneustes) were manipulated in inclusion cages following a replacement design with three levels of species richness (one, two, and three species) with all possible two-species urchin combinations. Identity was the main factor accounting for changes in the percentage of substrate grazed and benthic community structure. Two out of the three two-species assemblages grazed more than expected, suggesting a richness effect, but analyses revealed that this increased grazing was due to a sampling effect of the largest and commercially valued urchin species, Tripneustes. Benthic community structure in treatments with Eucidaris, Lytechinus, and Tripneustes alone was significantly different at the end of the experiment, suggesting that resource use differentiation occurred. Communities in Tripneustes enclosures were characterized by abundant crustose coralline algae and grazed substrate, while those without it contained abundant green foliose algae (Ulva sp.). An unexpected emergent property of the system was that the most species-rich urchin assemblage underyielded, grazing less than any other assemblage with Tripneustes, effectively reversing its dominant influence observed in the two-species treatments. While further experiments are needed to discern the mechanisms of underyielding, it may be related to changing interspecific interactions as richness increases from two to three species or to density-dependent Tripneustes grazing. This

  13. Abundance, distribution and feeding patterns of a temperate reef fish in subtidal environments of the Chilean coast: the importance of understory algal turf Abundancia, distribución y patrones alimentarios de un pez de arrecifes templados en ambientes submareales de la costa de Chile: la importancia de la capa de algas del subdosel

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    ÁLVARO T. PALMA

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheilodactylus variegatus is an abundant carnivorous demersal reef fish that lives in the shallow subtidal of the north-central Chilean coast. Characteristically, these environments are dominated by kelp forests of Lessonia trabeculata. This species preys on a great variety of benthic invertebrates, and shows particularly high consumption rates on amphipod crustaceans. In our study, two widely separated populations of C. variegatus were considered (central and northern Chile. Individuals that form part of these populations show considerable differences in their distribution, abundance and trophic behavior. In the northern zone, the species is abundant and both juveniles and adults are distributed along the whole bathymetric gradient. This contrasts with populations found in central Chile, which are more sparse and lack juveniles. The distribution and abundance patterns appear to be influenced mainly by the great abundance of diverse understory macroalgae in the northern subtidal, which harbors a large number of invertebrates, especially amphipods. In contrast, the understory algal abundance of the central zone is much lower, and does not show a direct relationship with the lesser abundance of amphipods. In general, C. variegatus maintains a high consumption rate on amphipods throughout its ontogeny but it includes several other prey items in later ontogenetic stages. The different understory algal assemblages, and their associated fauna, are likely to be the main factors influencing the patterns of abundance and distribution observed between these two geographically distinct fish populationsCheilodactylus variegatus es un pez demersal abundante que habita el submareal somero de la costa norte y central de Chile. Es característico de estos ambientes el estar dominados por praderas del alga Lessonia trabeculata. Esta especie incorpora en su dieta una variada gama de invertebrados bentónicos, mostrando una tasa particularmente alta de consumo de

  14. Biodynamics of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions in an oligochaete - Part II: Subcellular distribution following sediment exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thit, Amalie; Ramskov, Tina; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Selck, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    The use and likely incidental release of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is steadily increasing. Despite the increasing amount of published literature on metal NP toxicity in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the biological fate of NPs after sediment exposures. Here, we compare the bioavailability and subcellular distribution of copper oxide (CuO) NPs and aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq) in the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Ten days (d) sediment exposure resulted in marginal Cu bioaccumulation in L. variegatus for both forms of Cu. Bioaccumulation was detected because isotopically enriched 65Cu was used as a tracer. Neither burrowing behavior or survival was affected by the exposure. Once incorporated into tissue, Cu loss was negligible over 10 d of elimination in clean sediment (Cu elimination rate constants were not different from zero). With the exception of day 10, differences in bioaccumulation and subcellular distribution between Cu forms were either not detectable or marginal. After 10 d of exposure to Cu-Aq, the accumulated Cu was primarily partitioned in the subcellular fraction containing metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP, ≈40%) and cellular debris (CD, ≈30%). Cu concentrations in these fractions were significantly higher than in controls. For worms exposed to CuO NPs for 10 d, most of the accumulated Cu was partitioned in the CD fraction (≈40%), which was the only subcellular fraction where the Cu concentration was significantly higher than for the control group. Our results indicate that L. variegatus handle the two Cu forms differently. However, longer-term exposures are suggested in order to clearly highlight differences in the subcellular distribution of these two Cu forms.

  15. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

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    Linzhu Wang

    Full Text Available Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  16. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  17. Chromosome painting in three-toed sloths: a cytogenetic signature and ancestral karyotype for Xenarthra

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    Azevedo Nathália F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenarthra (sloths, armadillos and anteaters represent one of four currently recognized Eutherian mammal supraorders. Some phylogenomic studies point to the possibility of Xenarthra being at the base of the Eutherian tree, together or not with the supraorder Afrotheria. We performed painting with human autosomes and X-chromosome specific probes on metaphases of two three-toed sloths: Bradypus torquatus and B. variegatus. These species represent the fourth of the five extant Xenarthra families to be studied with this approach. Results Eleven human chromosomes were conserved as one block in both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: (HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21 and the X chromosome. B. torquatus, three additional human chromosomes were conserved intact (HSA 1, 3 and 4. The remaining human chromosomes were represented by two or three segments on each sloth. Seven associations between human chromosomes were detected in the karyotypes of both B. torquatus and B. variegatus: HSA 3/21, 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 and 17/19. The ancestral Eutherian association 16/19 was not detected in the Bradypus species. Conclusions Our results together with previous reports enabled us to propose a hypothetical ancestral Xenarthran karyotype with 48 chromosomes that would differ from the proposed ancestral Eutherian karyotype by the presence of the association HSA 7/10 and by the split of HSA 8 into three blocks, instead of the two found in the Eutherian ancestor. These same chromosome features point to the monophyly of Xenarthra, making this the second supraorder of placental mammals to have a chromosome signature supporting its monophyly.

  18. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting

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    N. MORAES

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 ± 0.07 to 0.87 ± 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations.

  19. Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?

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    Wolf Yuri I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The year 2009 is the 200th anniversary of the publication of Jean-Bapteste Lamarck's Philosophie Zoologique and the 150th anniversary of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Lamarck believed that evolution is driven primarily by non-randomly acquired, beneficial phenotypic changes, in particular, those directly affected by the use of organs, which Lamarck believed to be inheritable. In contrast, Darwin assigned a greater importance to random, undirected change that provided material for natural selection. The concept The classic Lamarckian scheme appears untenable owing to the non-existence of mechanisms for direct reverse engineering of adaptive phenotypic characters acquired by an individual during its life span into the genome. However, various evolutionary phenomena that came to fore in the last few years, seem to fit a more broadly interpreted (quasiLamarckian paradigm. The prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system of defense against mobile elements seems to function via a bona fide Lamarckian mechanism, namely, by integrating small segments of viral or plasmid DNA into specific loci in the host prokaryote genome and then utilizing the respective transcripts to destroy the cognate mobile element DNA (or RNA. A similar principle seems to be employed in the piRNA branch of RNA interference which is involved in defense against transposable elements in the animal germ line. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, a dominant evolutionary process, at least, in prokaryotes, appears to be a form of (quasiLamarckian inheritance. The rate of HGT and the nature of acquired genes depend on the environment of the recipient organism and, in some cases, the transferred genes confer a selective advantage for growth in that environment, meeting the Lamarckian criteria. Various forms of stress-induced mutagenesis are tightly regulated and comprise a universal adaptive response to environmental stress in cellular life forms. Stress-induced mutagenesis

  20. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jeane; Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Junior, Itabajara Silva Vaz; Mourão, Samanta Cardozo; Rocha, Leandro; Folly, Evelize

    2014-09-01

    Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lamarck (Rutaceae) is plant species with a variety of medical applications, including insecticidal activity. This study determined the bioacaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) females using the adult immersion test. For this purpose, three serial concentrations (5.0, 2.5, and 1.25%, vol:vol, in 1% dimetilsulfoxide) of the essential oil were used. Essential oil 5% caused 65% mortality on the first day after treatment, 85% on the second day, and 100% mortality by the fifth day. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against cattle ticks.

  1. Enzyme Inhibition by Molluscicidal Components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. in the Nervous Tissue of Snail Lymnaea acuminata

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    Preetee Jaiswal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata Lamarck (Lymnaeidae. In vivo and in vitro treatments of trimyristin and myristicin (active molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP activities in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that both the trimyristin and myristicin caused competitive noncompetitive inhibition of AChE. Trimyristin caused uncompetitive and competitive/noncompetitive inhibitions of ACP and ALP, respectively whereas the myristicin caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of ACP and ALP, respectively. Thus results from the present study suggest that inhibition of AChE, ACP, and ALP by trimyristin and myristicin in the snail Lymnaea acuminata may be the cause of the molluscicidal activity of Myristica fragrans.

  2. 缢蛏育苗过程中几个问题的探讨%Several problems in propagation of razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬群

    2004-01-01

    缢蛏(Sinonovacula constricta Lamarck)俗称蛏子(福建)、蜻子(浙江)、跣子(山东、河北和辽宁),隶属软体动物门(Mollusca)、瓣鳃纲(Lamelli-branchia)、真瓣鳃目(Eulamellibranchia)、竹蛏科(Solenidae),是我国养殖产量和面积最大的贝类之一,以前养殖缢蛏的苗种来自野生苗,但随着养殖面积的扩大,野生苗已远远不能满足生产的需要。

  3. Last call for units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Stuart; Rosen, Ronald; Jones, Clifford; Bean, Leonard W.; Lane, Frank

    2009-09-01

    I am writing with regard to Kevin McGuigan's definition of the darwin unit, Dw, as "the mathematical probability of one undergraduate (or faculty) fatality per practical if the person in question is left to their own devices" (July p60). Although it is clear how the loss of genitals in a laboratory accident would result in a student's removal from the gene pool, McGuigan does not explain how the loss of finger (a 1 mDw event, he suggests) might impede procreation in the slightest. Perhaps McGuigan is confusing Darwin's evolution by natural selection with Lamarck's discredited theory of evolution by the inheritance of acquired characteristics. If so, the gulf between physicists and biologists seems as wide as ever.

  4. Seasonal grazing and food preference of herbivores in a Posidonia oceanica meadow

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    Andrea Peirano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal grazing of the fish Sarpa salpa (L., the urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck and the isopods Idotea spp. was compared with the C/N ratio of adult and intermediate leaves and epiphytes of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile, collected at three different depths. Despite seasonal differences in grazing, herbivores showed preferences throughout the year for adult leaves with more epiphyte and higher N contents. The maximum grazing on adult and intermediate leaves was observed in September and in June for fish and in March for urchins, whereas it was irregular for isopods. Grazing by the three herbivores was not related to their preference for leaves or epiphytes, notwithstanding the seasonal differences in their C and N contents. We concluded that herbivores show no preference for food type throughout the year and that seasonal consumption of P. oceanica is related mainly to herbivore behaviour.

  5. Contaminação por mercúrio em sedimento e em moluscos do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil Mercury contamination in sediment and in molluscs of Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Luiz M. Vieira

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The total level of mercury detected in the sediment and in the tissues of molluscs from the Bento Gomes basin, although low, have shown that the mercury used in the gold mining activities in the Poconé wetlands has contaminated those aquatic habitats in Pantanal. From 69 sediment samples analyzed, 26 % (N = 18 have shown levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.25µg.g-1 of mercury (moist weight. Mercury levels analyzed in 54 samples of mollusc tissues (Ampullaria scalaris Orbigny, 1835; A. canaliculata Lamarck, 1819 and Marisa planogyra Pilsbry, 1933 have shown that 30% (N = 16 were contaminated with levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.16µg.g-1 moist weight. This study shows that the mercury used in digs for gold mining and released into the environment has reached the habitats of Pantanal spread from the sediment into the molluscs living in the region.

  6. [From the mechanical complexity in biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Libia Herrero

    2008-03-01

    From the mechanical complexity in biology. Through history, each century has brought new discoveries and beliefs that have resulted in different perspectives to study life organisms. In this essay, 1 define three periods: in the first, organisms were studied in the context of their environment, in the second, on the basis of physical and chemical laws, and on the third, systemically. My analysis starts with primitive humans, continues to Aristoteles and Newton, Lamarck and Darwin, the DNA doble helix discovery, and the beginnings of reduccionism in science. I propose that life is paradigmatical, that it obeys physical and chemical laws but cannot be explained by them I review the systemic theory, autopoiesis, discipative structures and non- linear dynamics. 1 propose that the deterministic, lineal and quantitative paradigm of nature are not the only way to study nature and invite the reader to explore the complexity paradigm.

  7. Cocaine in blood of coca chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homstedt, B; Lindgren, J E; Rivier, L; Plowman, T

    1979-01-01

    Coca leaves (Erythroxylum coca Lamarck) and powder (5 - 10 g) were taken orally by human subjects in the same way as South American natives do. The cocaine, as measured by mass fragmentography, was immediately detected in the blood, reached peak concentrations from 10 - 150 ng/ml plasma at 0.38 - 1.95 hours, and persisted in the plasma for more than 7 hours. Half-lives of the elimination of cocaine were calculated and ranged from 1.0 to 1.9 hours. The absorption half-lives ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 hours. The shape of the curves fits with the subjective effects reported. There is no reason to believe that the stimulating effect achieved by the use of either coca leaves or powder is not due to cocaine.

  8. Induction of stolon settlement in the scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae) by glycolipids of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G.

    1985-06-01

    The settlement of pedal stolons of scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita Lamarck could be induced by addition of a species of bacteria from the family Micrococcaceae. After treatment of the bacteria with several organic solvents a crude lipid extract free of bacteria could be obtained which was shown to be effective in inducing stolon settlement. Crude lipids extracted from the late logarithmic growth phase had an optimal effect on stolon attachment, in contrast to previously published experiments showing that all logarithmic phases of bacteria had the same level of effectiveness. After separation of the crude lipid extracts by thin layer chromatography and subsequent bioassay of the reeluated substances, acylgalactosidyldiglyceride and monogalactosidyldiglyceride were identified as the effective substances. Monogalactosidyldiglyceride was only found in bacteria from the medium logarithmic growth phase, whereas the former was found at all stages. The effectiveness of acylgalactosidyldiglyceride was independent of the growth phase of the extracted bacteria.

  9. Nonequilibrium population dynamics of phenotype conversion of cancer cells.

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    Joseph Xu Zhou

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers. The cell fraction ratio can be shifted by changing either the growth rates of the subpopulations (Darwinism selection or by environment-instructed transitions (Lamarckism induction. This insight can help us to understand the dynamics of the heterogeneity of cancer cells and lead us to new strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance.

  10. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

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    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  11. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century.

  12. THE AVAILABILITY OF Mytilus galloprovincialis FOR MONITORING ENTERIC BACTERIA

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    Nüket SĐVRĐ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage of Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 as monitoring organism on enteric bacteria concentrations in heavily polluted marine environments and its use possibilities as water quality improving tool were investigated. The ability of the Mediterranean Mussel to accumulate and purge fecal coliform bacteria investigated in laboratory experiments. First, increase on bacteria concentration was observed on 1,5th hour and sharp decrease rate lasted until 10th hours after that period slow but steady declining bacteria concentration rate was observed and beginning bacteria concentration rate was reached within next 30- 50 hours. Time dependent bacteria concentration reduction has found statistically significant at p<0.001 (r-sq = 0.81. The investigation has also revealed that mussel farming could be established in the over polluted area which is the case only in the different discharge points in the sea.

  13. Viabilidade sustentável de biomassas de Moringa oleifera para produção de biodiesel e briquetes

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, Francisco Sávio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho investigou algumas propriedades das biomassas (sementes, cascas, grãos das sementes, óleos brutos e purificado, tortas de prensagem e da extração com hexano e biodiesel metílico do óleo) da Moringa oleifera Lamarck, partindo de suas vagens (frutos maduros), para aplicação energética. O óleo obtido dos grãos por prensagem mecânica teve média de 11,36% e 36,48% por extração com hexano. As biomassas da moringa apresentaram teores de umidade entre 0,06 e 10,86%, cinza...

  14. Optimality in evolution: new insights from synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marjon G J; Poelwijk, Frank J; Tans, Sander J

    2013-08-01

    Whether organisms evolve to perform tasks optimally has intrigued biologists since Lamarck and Darwin. Optimality models have been used to study diverse properties such as shape, locomotion, and behavior. However, without access to the genetic underpinnings or the ability to manipulate biological functions, it has been difficult to understand an organism's intrinsic potential and limitations. Now, novel experiments are overcoming these technical obstacles and have begun to test optimality in more quantitative terms. With the use of simple model systems, genetic engineering, and mathematical modeling, one can independently quantify the prevailing selective pressures and optimal phenotypes. These studies have given an exciting view into the evolutionary potential and constraints of biological systems, and hold the promise to further test the limits of predicting future evolutionary change.

  15. Editoral: Molecular epigenetics: dawn of a new era of biomedical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU RuiMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ At about the same time in 1940s when Erwin Schrǒdinger published his famous little book What Is Life, which sparked the birth of molecular biology, the term epigenetics was coined by the English biologist Conrad Waddington.The concept of epi-inheritance can be traced back to French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's idea of "inheritance of acquired traits". Nevertheless, epigenetics as an experimental science owes much credit to Barbara McCiintock's pio-neering work on transposable elements in maize. In early 1950s, she put forward a theory that alteration in chromatin structure is responsible for the peculiar non-Mendelian rules of inheritance - a concept nowadays widely accepted as the comer stone of modem epigenetics.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis in two scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) by PRINS and PI banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed for the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians Lamarck 1819) and the Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay 1857) by primed in situ labeling (PRINS) and propidium iodide (PI) banding techniques. The PRINS analysis revealed that major rRNA genes were clustered in two loci on the telomeric regions of the short arms on two acrocentric chromosome pairs in A. irradians and on two submetacentric pairs in P. yessoensis. The histone H3 gene sites differed in number and location between these two species. The C-band-like patterns revealed by PI staining varied considerably between these two species. A. irradians displayed terminal bands at long arms on all chromosomes, centromeric bands on some pairs and interstitial bands on five pairs. P. yessoensis exhibited only centromeric bands on all chromosomes. These results would contribute to the better understanding of karyotype evolution in A. irradians and P. yessoensis.

  17. Of mice and men: evolution and the socialist utopia. William Morris, H.G. Wells, and George Bernard Shaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Piers J

    2010-01-01

    During the British socialist revival of the 1880s competing theories of evolution were central to disagreements about strategy for social change. In News from Nowhere (1891), William Morris had portrayed socialism as the result of Lamarckian processes, and imagined a non-Malthusian future. H.G. Wells, an enthusiastic admirer of Morris in the early days of the movement, became disillusioned as a result of the Malthusianism he learnt from Huxley and his subsequent rejection of Lamarckism in light of Weismann's experiments on mice. This brought him into conflict with his fellow Fabian, George Bernard Shaw, who rejected neo-Darwinism in favour of a Lamarckian conception of change he called "creative evolution."

  18. Fator Cronológico na Credibilidade do Evolucionismo entre os Discentes da Universidade Severino Sombra

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    Maria das Graças Avila Guimarães

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Os conceitos evolucionistas começaram a se fundamentar a partir de Descartes, Buffon, Lamarck e Darwin e ao mesmo tempo despertaram as contradições das doutrinas criacionistas. A credibilidade do evolucionismo por faixa etária dos alunos de graduação da Universidade Severino Sombra (USS, nas diferentes áreas do saber foi o objeto deste trabalho. A população discente se concentrou na faixa etária entre 20 a 24 anos em que predomina o acreditar em ideias evolucionistas, não se podendo avaliar se estes posicionamentos independem da divulgação ou do ensino do criacionismo introduzido há algum tempo nas escolas públicas de alguns estados brasileiros. Pode-se inferir, a partir deste estudo, um grande desconhecimento sobre a teoria científica evolucionista entre os discentes dos cursos superiores pesquisados na USS.

  19. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of several Heliconia species in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, L; Marulanda, M L; López, A M

    2012-12-19

    Researchers have classified the Heliconia genus as a group of highly variable and diverse plants. Species and cultivars are visually differentiated primarily on the basis of the color and size of inflorescence bracts. At taxonomic level, flower type (parabolic, sigmoid, or erect) and size are taken into account. The vast morphological diversity of heliconias at intra-specific, intra-population, and varietal levels in central-west Colombia prompted the present study. We characterized the genetic variability of 67 genotypes of cultivated heliconias belonging to Heliconia caribaea Lamarck, H. bihai (L.) L., H. orthotricha L. Andersson, H. stricta Huber, H. wagneriana Petersen, and H. psittacorum L. f., as well as that of several interspecific hybrids such as H. psittacorum L. f. x H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta and H. caribaea Lamarck x H. bihai (L.) L. We also created an approximation to their phylogenetic analysis. Molecular analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed a total of 170 bands. Two large, well-defined groups resulted: the first grouped cultivars of the very closely related H. caribaea and H. bihai species with those of H. orthotricha and H. psittacorum, and the second grouped H. stricta and H. wagneriana cultivars. The lowest percentage of polymorphism was found in H. psittacorum (17.65%) and the highest was in H. stricta (55.88%). Using AFLP, phylogenetic analysis of the species studied revealed the monophyletic origin of the Heliconiaceae family, and identified the Heliconia subgenus as monophyletic while providing evidence of the polyphyletic origin of several representatives of the Stenochlamys subgenus.

  20. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

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    Mara N.G. Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck (BDB in nature and processed. Methods: BDB was processed as sweet (in natura, paste and syrup and physicochemical characteristics were compared, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, antioxidant activity (DPPH and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Results:The analysis of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant potential showed the following results: BDB in nature – 11.81 mg/100 g/440.5 mg/100 g/26.30%; sweet paste – 0.61 mg/100 g/53.5 mg/100 g/53.40% and savored syrup – 0.85 mg/100 g/46.0 mg/100 g/14.30%. The methods of conservation avoided the coliforms growth at 35 and 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella in all elaborated candies. The sensorial analysis didn’t detect significant differences among the syrup or paste. Conclusions: The conservation methods have an important function keeping the physical, chemical characteristics and sensorial of BDB, although they can influence in their chemical and nutritional composition, mainly in relation to the quantity of total carotenoids and beta-carotene.

  1. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  2. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

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    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  3. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  4. EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES Y SU RELACIÓNCON EL INICIO DE LA ACTUAL TEORÍA DE LA HERENCIA The Origin of Species and its Relation with the Birth of Present Genetic Theory

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    WILLIAM USAQUÉN MARTÍNEZ

    Full Text Available En la primera parte se mostrarán algunos elementos históricos relacionados con la "Philosophie Zoologique" de Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, obra fundamental de la biología moderna merecedora de una mención especial en su aniversario número 200. Esta obra contiene algunos conceptos impor-tantes para "The Origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life" el trabajo fundamental de Charles Darwin. Posteriormente se revisará la idea general de la pangénesis y sus diferentes contradicciones en la explicación de la variabilidad necesaria para la acción de la selección natural que culminarían con el nacimiento de la genética. Es importante mostrar la posición particular de los experimentos mendelianos en relación con el paradigma evo-lutivo causado por el origen de las especies.In the first part I present some historical elements related to the "Philosophie Zoologique" by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a fundamental work of modern biology. This work deserves a special mention in its 200th anniversary, since it contains some important concepts for "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of favored races in the struggle for life" the principal work of Charles Darwin. Subsequently we review the pangenesis and various contradictions in the explanation of the variability required for the action of natural selection that culminate with the birth of genetics. In this paper is important show the particular position of Mendelian experiments in relation with the evolutionary paradigm caused by the origin of species.

  5. The origins of diversity: Darwin's conditions and epigenetic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David E

    2007-01-01

    This short history of evolutionary thought during the last few centuries describes how some of our foremost thinkers have debated--and still do--the precise mechanisms at the roots of evolutionary change. Commentators frequently contradicted themselves, as well as each other. The popularity of Christian fundamentalism waned following the World Wars. Eventually the rug was pulled from beneath it--till a more recent reaction. Amidst all this babble coming from numerous towers of Babel over centuries, we failed to see Charles Darwin as the great environmentalist: who said environmental conditions, whilst working hand in glove with natural selection, constituted the more important 'law'. A bird's eye view of 18th and 19th century evolutionary thought is considered against the climate of those times (politics, industrial revolution, trade, religious expansionism, etc). Darwinism superseded Lamarckism helped by the neo-Darwinism of Weismann, higher mathematics, population genetics--the 'Modern Synthesis' of 1935--culminating in the discovery of the double helix by Watson, Crick et al, assuring us of the correctness of 'primacy of DNA theory'. Stimulation and challenge is currently fuelled by exciting nascent knowledge of epigenetic variations and Cairnsian 'adaptive mutations'. The work of Marcus Pembrey and Barry Keverne tracking human and animal variation back generationally describing how 'genomic imprinting' causes reversible heritable change from slight variations in the chromosomes of parents, grandparents, great-grandparents and parents to be. The purpose of this thesis is to put forward a new theme proposed neither by Lamarck or Darwin. We stand on the threshold of the first paradigm change for 150 years.

  6. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  7. Lead Speciation and Bioavailability in Apatite-Amended Sediments

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    Kirk G. Scheckel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in situ sequestration of lead (Pb in sediment with a phosphate amendment was investigated by Pb speciation and bioavailability. Sediment Pb in preamendment samples was identified as galena (PbS with trace amounts of absorbed Pb. Sediment exposed to atmospheric conditions underwent conversion to hydrocerussite and anglesite. Sediments mixed with apatite exhibited limited conversion to pyromorphite, the hypothesized end product. Conversion of PbS to pyromorphite is inhibited under reducing conditions, and pyromorphite formation appears limited to reaction with pore water Pb and PbS oxidation products. Porewater Pb values were decreased by 94% or more when sediment was amended with apatite. The acute toxicity of the sediment Pb was evaluated with Hyalella azteca and bioaccumulation of Pb with Lumbriculus variegatus. The growth of H. azteca may be mildly inhibited in contaminated sediment, with apatite-amended sediments exhibiting on average a higher growth weight by approximately 20%. The bioaccumulation of Pb in L. variegatus tissue decreased with increased phosphate loading in contaminated sediment. The study indicates limited effectiveness of apatite in sequestering Pb if present as PbS under reducing conditions, but sequestration of porewater Pb and stabilization of near-surface sediment may be a feasible and alternative approach to decreasing potential toxicity of Pb.

  8. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance.

  9. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-10-20

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  10. Identifying shared genetic structure patterns among Pacific Northwest forest taxa: insights from use of visualization tools and computer simulations.

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    Mark P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola. Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  12. An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, D J; Markee, T P; Geiger, D L; Brooke, L T; VandeVenter, F A; Cox, D A; Genisot, K I; Robillard, K A; Gorsuch, J W; Parkerton, T F; Reiley, M C; Ankley, G T; Mount, D R

    2001-08-01

    Tests were performed with the freshwater invertebrates Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus to determine the acute toxicity of six phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was possible to derive 10-d LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the population) values only for the four lower molecular weight esters (DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP), for which toxicity increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and decreasing water solubility. The LC50 values for DMP, DEP, DBP, and BBP were 28.1, 4.21, 0.63, and 0.46 mg/L for H. azteca; 68.2, 31.0, 2.64, and > 1.76 mg/L for C. tentans; and 246, 102, 2.48, and 1.23 mg/L for L. variegatus, respectively. No significant survival reductions were observed when the three species were exposed to either DHP or DEHP at concentrations approximating their water solubilities.

  13. Copper oxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials act as inhibitors of multidrug resistance transport in sea urchin embryos: their role as chemosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan J; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-05-05

    The ability of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) to act as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters in embryos of white sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) was studied. Nanocopper oxide (nano-CuO), nanozinc oxide (nano-ZnO), and their corresponding metal ions (CuSO4 and ZnSO4) were used as target chemicals. The results showed that nano-CuO, nano-ZnO, CuSO4, and ZnSO4, even at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ppm), significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of ABC transporter activity) accumulation in sea urchin embryos at different stages of development. Exposure to nano-CuO, a very low solubility NM, at increasing times after fertilization (>30 min) decreased CAM accumulation, but nano-ZnO (much more soluble NM) did not, indicating that metal ions could cross the hardened fertilization envelope, but not undissolved metal oxide NMs. Moreover, nontoxic levels (0.5 ppm) of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO significantly increased developmental toxicity of vinblastine (an established ABC transporter substrate) and functioned as chemosensitizers. The multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP, one of ABC transporters) inhibitor MK571 significantly increased copper concentrations in embryos, indicating ABC transporters are important in maintaining low intracellular copper levels. We show that low concentrations of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO can make embryos more susceptible to other contaminants, representing a potent amplification of nanomaterial-related developmental toxicity.

  14. Dynamic activity of the filopodia of sea urchin embryonic cells and their role in directed migration of the primary mesenchyme in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, G C; Solursh, M

    1985-12-01

    Primary mesenchyme cells used in this study were isolated from Lytechinus pictus mesenchyme blastulae by their ability to preferentially adhere to the surface of a tissue culture dish in the presence of serum. Once isolated, primary mesenchyme cells were found to form thin, elongated, active filopodia which closely resemble the filopodia seen in vivo. The filopodia formed in vitro can move as stiffened bristles, bend gradually or very sharply, or be slowly withdrawn. The integrity of the filopodia is not affected by nocodazole but is totally disrupted by cytochalasin D. Filopodia exhibit several apparent functions in vitro: as organelles involved in contacting the external environment, as anchoring appendages that hold the cell bodies in place, and as intercellular connectives that can join cell bodies. The filopodia of primary mesenchyme cells appear to have similar roles within the embryo. The function of the filopodia has been explored by watching the behavior of isolated primary mesenchyme cells in close proximity to deposits of extracellular material (ECM) prepared from mesenchyme blastulae. When the filopodium from a mesenchyme cell makes contact with the nearby ECM, a response is initiated which causes the cell body to move in a directed manner toward the ECM deposit. The use of this type of response as a model system for the study of the migration of primary mesenchyme cells within the embryo is considered.

  15. Dependence of sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration on xyloside- and sulfate-sensitive cell surface-associated components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, M C; Solursh, M

    1988-05-01

    The migration of sea urchin primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) is inhibited in embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in seawater containing exogenous xylosides. In the present study, primary mesenchyme cells and extra-cellular matrix have been isolated from normal and treated Lytechinus pictus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos and recombined in an in vitro migration assay to determine whether the cells or the matrix are migration defective. Normal cells were found to migrate on either normal or treated matrix, whereas sulfate-deprived and xyloside-treated PMC failed to migrate in vitro on normal and treated substrata. Migratory ability can be restored to defective cells by returning the PMC to normal seawater, or by exposing the defective cells to materials removed from the surface of normal cells with 1 M urea. The similarity of the results obtained with sulfate-deprived and xyloside-treated PMC suggested that a common molecule may be affected by the two treatments. As a first test of this possibility, xyloside-treated S. purpuratus PMC were given the urea extract prepared from sulfate-deprived S. purpuratus PMC, and this extract did not restore migratory ability. These findings indicate that PMC normally synthesize a surface-associated molecule that is involved in cell migration, and the sensitivity to exogenous xylosides and sulfate deprivation suggests that a sulfated proteoglycan may be involved in primary mesenchyme cell migration.

  16. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  17. Zn(2+) induces hyperpolarization by activation of a K(+) channel and increases intracellular Ca(2+) and pH in sea urchin spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carmen; Rodríguez-Miranda, Esmeralda; Granados-González, Gisela; García de De la Torre, Lucia; Nishigaki, Takuya; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) has been recently recognized as a crucial element for male gamete function in many species although its detailed mechanism of action is poorly understood. In sea urchin spermatozoa, Zn(2+) was reported as an essential trace ion for efficient sperm motility initiation and the acrosome reaction by modulating intracellular pH (pHi). In this study we found that submicromolar concentrations of free Zn(2+) change membrane potential (Em) and increase the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and cAMP in Lytechinus pictus sperm. Our results indicate that the Zn(2+) response in sperm of this species mainly involves an Em hyperpolarization caused by K(+) channel activation. The pharmacological profile of the Zn(2+)-induced hyperpolarization indicates that the cGMP-gated K(+) selective channel (tetraKCNG/CNGK), which is crucial for speract signaling, is likely a main target for Zn(2+). Considering that Zn(2+) also induces [Ca(2+)]i fluctuations, our observations suggest that Zn(2+) activates the signaling cascade of speract, except for an increase in cGMP, and facilitates sperm motility initiation upon spawning. These findings provide new insights about the role of Zn(2+) in male gamete function.

  18. T-1, a mitotic arrester, alters centrosome configurations in fertilized sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T J; Schatten, H; Schatten, G; Mazia, D; Kobayashi, A; Sato, H

    1990-01-01

    T-1 induces modifications in the shape of the centrosome at division in fertilized eggs of the North American sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus. Phase contrast microscopy observations of mitotic apparatus isolated from T-1-treated (1.7-8.5 microM) eggs at first division shows that the centrosomes already begin to spread or to separate by prophase and that the mitotic spindle is barrel-shaped. When eggs are fertilized with sperm that have been preteated with T-1, the centrosomes become flattened; the spindles are of normal length. Immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-centrosomal monoclonal antibody reveals that T-1 modifies the structure of the centrosome so that barrel-shaped spindles with broad centrosomes are observed at metaphase, rather than the expected focused poles and fusiform spindle. Higher concentrations of T-1 induce fragmentation of centrosomes, causing abnormal accumulation of microtubules in polar regions. These results indicate that T-1 directly alters centrosomal configuration from a compact structure to a flattened or a spread structure. T-1 can be classified as a new category of mitotic drugs that may prove valuable in dissecting the molecular nature of centrosomes.

  19. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuikka, A.I., E-mail: anitat@student.uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T., E-mail: Matti.T.Leppanen@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Laboratories/Research and Innovation Laboratory, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Akkanen, J., E-mail: jarkko.akkanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sormunen, A.J., E-mail: Arto.Sormunen@mamk.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leonards, P.E.G., E-mail: pim.leonards@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hattum, B. van, E-mail: bert.vanhattum@deltares.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, L.A. van, E-mail: lavanvliet@hotmail.com [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); Brack, W., E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Smedes, F., E-mail: smedes@recetox.muni.cz [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); and others

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  20. Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [WRc-NSF, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, SL7 2HD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Conrad, A.U. [Weinberg Group, Blue Tower, Box 16, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538, Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S. [CEFIC, Ave E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Research, Environment Centre, Bebington, Wirral, Merseyside, L63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), to freshwater benthic organisms was assessed during exposure to spiked sediment. Lethal and sub-lethal end-points were monitored for two organisms (oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans). Results demonstrated relatively low toxicity (LOECs >100 mg/kg dry weight). No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of 81 mg/kg dw (Lumbriculus) and 100 mg/kg dw (Caenorhabditis) were determined. For the oligochaete, no specific endpoint was particularly sensitive to LAS. For the nematode, egg production was the most sensitive endpoint. Significant degradation was measured over the 28-day duration of the Lumbriculus study, equating to a half-life of 20 days in sediment. - This paper provides sediment toxicity data for LAS, essential for a detailed and accurate environment risk assessment.

  1. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  2. The effects of the contemporary-use insecticide (fipronil) in an estuarine mesocosm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, E.F.; Pennington, P.L.; Lawton, J.C.; DeLorenzo, M.E.; Bearden, D.; Shaddrix, B.; Sivertsen, S.; Fulton, M.H

    2004-10-01

    To examine the effects of environmentally realistic fipronil concentrations on estuarine ecosystems, replicated mesocosms containing intact marsh plots and seawater were exposed to three treatments of fipronil (150, 355, and 5000 ng/L) and a Control. Juvenile fish (Cyprinidon variegatus), juvenile clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), oysters (Crassostrea virginica), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were added prior to fipronil in an effort to quantify survival, growth, and the persistence of toxicity during the planned 28-day exposure. Results indicated that there were no fipronil-associated effects on the clams, oysters, or fish. Shrimp were sensitive to the highest two concentrations (40% survival at 355 ng/L and 0% survival at 5000 ng/L). Additionally, the highest fipronil treatment (5000 ng/L) was toxic to shrimp for 6 weeks post dose. These results suggest that fipronil may impact shrimp populations at low concentrations and further use in coastal areas should be carefully assessed.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of larvae and adults of two Enochrus Thomson (Coleóptera: Hydrophilidae species in temporary and permanent water bodies of an urban park in Buenos Aires Dinámica estacional de larvas y adultos de dos especies de Enochrus Thomson (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae en cuerpos de agua temporarios y permanentes en un parque urbano de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBARA BYTTEBIER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Enochrus variegatus (Steinheil and Enochrus vulgaris (Steinheil in temporary pools and permanent ponds were studied in an urban park of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Samples were collected from both types of habitats weekly throughout one year, and variables like water surface and vegetation cover were recorded. In permanent ponds, adults of both species were found throughout the study period, while in temporary pools their presence depended on the availability of water. Differences in their reproductive seasons and breeding sites were observed. Enochrus vulgaris was characterized by an opportunistic strategy, and its larvae were detected in both types of habitats, associated mainly with spring and summer temperatures. Conversely, E. variegatus larvae were recorded almost exclusively in temporary pools, during the winter and spring seasons. In permanent ponds, both species were associated with vegetation cover, which could be related to the availability of refuges from fish predators. First instar larvae showed the highest abundance and were captured more frequently, in consecutive weeks and simultaneously with third instar larvae, suggesting that the two populations studied are not synchronized in oviposition time or development of immature stages. In several occasions, second instar larvae of both species were captured in a pool that had been dry during the previous sampling date, suggesting that they had not hatched from fresh laid eggs. Our findings show that adults of these species are capable of dispersal to and from temporary pools to avoid drought. In addition, their larval stages may also be able to resist drought in the pools by burrowing into the substrate.Se estudió la dinámica de Enochrus variegatus (Steinheil y Enochrus vulgaris (Steinheil en ambientes acuáticos temporarios y permanentes de un parque de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Las muestras fueron colectadas semanalmente a lo largo de un año en ambos tipos de

  4. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  5. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  6. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.

  7. Evaluación del crecimiento del pulpo común Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentado con dietas formuladas Growth evaluation of octopus (Octopus mimus from northern Chile fed with formulated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zúñiga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante 57 días se comparó el crecimiento y sobreviviencia de pulpos juveniles Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentados con tres diferentes dietas: dos dietas húmedas (A y B aglutinadas con solución de gelatina embutidas en tripa de cordero y una dieta control (C natural. La dieta (A fue elaborada en base a una mezcla de filete triturado del pescado Cheilodactylus variegatus con harina de pellet para salmón, la dieta (B con pasta de almeja (Protothaca thaca mezclada con filete de Ch. variegatus y la dieta control consistió en el suministro de almejas frescas congeladas (C. Basado en un diseño experimental de medidas repetidas, los pulpos se mantuvieron individualmente en estanques de 70 L con circulación de agua de mar y aireación permanente. Los pulpos que consumieron la dieta B no experimentaron mortalidad y la dieta control C presentó mortalidad del 16,7%, sus crecimiento fueron similares (P > 0,05 con tasas de crecimiento absoluta (AGR de 7,0 ± 0,91 (g d-1 y 6,6 ± 1,10 (g d-1 respectivamente. Los pulpos alimentados con la dieta A registraron mortalidad de 33,3% y tasa de crecimiento absoluta negativa, AGR= -1,70 ± 0,37 (g d-1. La dieta A que contenía como ingrediente pellet para salmón molido como harina no tuvo una adecuada aceptación y los ejemplares experimentaron disminución de su peso. La dieta B preparada con gelatina de origen animal como aglutinante, no implicó un efecto negativo en la palatabilidad y aceptabilidad en comparación al control basada en almeja fresca congelada, incluso los organismos lograron crecimientos similares. Los resultados permitirán a futuro mejorar la calidad nutricional de dietas artificiales para maximizar el crecimiento de O. mimus en cautiverio.The growth and survival of juvenile octopus, Octopus mimus, from northern Chile, fed three different diets were analyze during 57 days. Two of the diets (A and B were wet diets stuffed in lamb gut with a gelatin solution, and the third (C was

  8. Determination of L-carnitine and its acylates in four sea snails%四种海螺中左卡尼汀及其酰化物含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉; 王晨静; 赵霞; 李存友; 王宏广; 王春波; 管华诗

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the contents of L-carnitine (LC),acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) in four sea snails (Natica tigrina,Thais clavigera Kuster,Busycon canaliculatu,Cerithidea obtusa Lamarck).Methods The samples were homogenated and extracted by 3% perchloric acid,and derivatized with 1-AA (1-aminoanthracene),and then the contents of LC,ALC and PLC in four sea snails were detected by HPLC-FL with precolumn derivatization.Result The contents of LC,ALC and PLC were (39.67 ± 11.80) μmol/100 g,(7.91 ± 1.85) μmol/100 g and (2.26 ±0.66) μmol/100 g respectively in Natica tigrina; (44.02 ± 12.30) μmoL/100 g,(9.64 ± 1.56) μ mol/100 g and (0.71 ±0.13) μmol/100 g in Thais clavigera Kuster; (9.20 ± 1.51) μmol/100 g,(3.55 ± 1.03) μmol/100 g and (1.61 ±0.50) μmol/100 g in Busycon canaliculatu; and the contents of LC,ALC and PLC in Cerithidea obtusa Lamarck were (162.51 ± 34.09) μmol/100 g,(33.47 ± 13.41) μmol/100 g and (11.03 ± 1.84) μmol/100 g respectively.Conclusion LC,ALC and PLC were all detected in four sea snails,and the contents of LC,ALC and PLC were the highest in Cerithidea obtusa Lamarck.%目的 比较斑玉螺、疣荔枝螺、海螺、钝拟蟹守螺中左卡尼汀(LC)及其代谢产生的酰化物乙酰左卡尼汀(ALC)和丙酰左卡尼汀(PLC)的含量.方法 海螺样品以3倍量的3%高氯酸匀浆提取后,用1-氨基蒽衍生化,荧光衍生化高效液相色谱法(HPLC)检测各种海螺中LC、ALC、PLC含量.结果 荧光衍生化HPLC精密度<4%、回收率96%~103%、稳定性<3.8%,均满足方法学要求.4种海螺中LC、ALC、PLC含量:LC:钝拟蟹守螺>疣荔枝螺>斑玉螺>海螺;ALC:钝拟蟹守螺>疣荔枝螺>斑玉螺>海螺;PLC:钝拟蟹守螺>斑玉螺>海螺>疣荔枝螺.结论 4种海螺中均能检测出LC、ALC、PLC,以钝拟蟹守螺中含量最高.

  9. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  10. On the taxonomy of some neotropical species of jumping spiders described by Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae Sobre a taxonomia de algumas espécies neotropicais de aranhas papa-moscas descritas por Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R.S. Ruiz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955 is synonymized with P. kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 and the male of this species is redescribed. The genus Uspachus Galiano, 1995 is synonymized with Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 and the male of its type species, R. nigra Caporiacco, 1947, is redescribed. The following new combinations are established for the species formerly included in Uspachus: Romitia albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia andina (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia bahiensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia colombiana (Galiano, 1995, Romitia juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846, Romitia misionensis (Galiano, 1995 and Romitia patellaris (Galiano, 1995. The genus Pseudamphidraus Caporiacco, 1947 is synonymized with Noegus Simon, 1900 by transfer of its type species, Noegus niger (Caporiacco, 1947 comb. nov., whose male is herein redescribed. The species Pseudamphidraus variegatus Caporiacco, 1947 and Marma trifidocarinata Caporiacco, 1947 are synonymized with Marma nigritarsis (Simon, 1900.Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955 é sinonimizada com P. kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 e o macho desta espécie é redescrito. O gênero Uspachus Galiano, 1995 é sinonimizado com Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 e o macho de sua espécie-tipo, R. nigra Caporiacco, 1947, é redescrito.As seguintes combinações novas são estabelecidas para as espécies até o momento incluídas em Uspachus: Romitia albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia andina (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia bahiensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia colombiana (Galiano, 1995, Romitia juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846, Romitia misionensis (Galiano, 1995 e Romitia patellaris (Galiano, 1995. O gênero Pseudamphidraus Caporiacco, 1947 é sinonimizado com Noegus Simon, 1900 pela transferência de sua espécie-tipo, Noegus niger (Caporiacco, 1947 comb. nov., cujo macho é redescrito. As espécies Pseudamphidraus variegatus Caporiacco, 1947 e Marma trifidocarinata

  11. Rapid genetic and morphologic divergence between captive and wild populations of the endangered Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew N; Seears, Heidi A; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Samollow, Paul B

    2017-01-30

    The Leon Springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) is an endangered species currently restricted to a single desert spring and a separate captive habitat in southwestern North America. Following establishment of the captive population from wild stock in 1976, the wild population has undergone natural population size fluctuations, intentional culling to purge genetic contamination from an invasive congener (Cyprinodon variegatus) and augmentation/replacement of wild fish from the captive stock. A severe population decline following the most recent introduction of captive fish prompted us to examine whether the captive and wild populations have differentiated during the short time they have been isolated from one another. If so, the development of divergent genetic and/or morphologic traits between populations could contribute to a diminished ability of fish from one location to thrive in the other. Examination of genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms and morphologic variation revealed no evidence of residual C. variegatus characteristics in contemporary C. bovinus samples. However, significant genetic and morphologic differentiation was detected between the wild and captive populations, some of which might reflect local adaptation. Our results indicate that genetic and physical characteristics can diverge rapidly between isolated subdivisions of managed populations, potentially compromising the value of captive stock for future supplementation efforts. In the case of C. bovinus, our findings underscore the need to periodically inoculate the captive population with wild genetic material to help mitigate genetic, and potentially morphologic, divergence between them and also highlight the utility of parallel morphologic and genomic evaluation to inform conservation management planning.

  12. Stereochemistry of Fuscumol and Fuscumol Acetate Influences Attraction of Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of the Subfamily Lamiinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G P; Meier, L R; Zou, Y; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Ginzel, M D

    2016-10-01

    The chemical structures of aggregation-sex pheromones of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are often conserved among closely related taxa. In the subfamily Lamiinae, adult males and females of several species are attracted by racemic blends of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (termed fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate). Both compounds have a chiral center, so each can exist in two enantiomeric forms. Males of many species of longhorned beetles only produce one stereoisomer of each pheromone component, and attraction may be reduced by the presence of stereoisomers that are not produced by a particular species. In a previous publication, analysis of headspace volatiles of adult beetles of the lamiine species Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman) revealed that males sex-specifically produced (S)-fuscumol and (S)-fuscumol acetate. Here, we describe field trials which tested attraction of this species to single enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, or to blends of enantiomers. We confirmed attraction of A. variegatus to its species-specific blend, but during the course of the trials, found that several other species also were attracted. These included Aegomorphus modestus (Gyllenhall), attracted to (S)-fuscumol acetate; Astylidius parvus (LeConte), attracted to (R)-fuscumol; Astylopsis macula (Say), attracted to (S)-fuscumol; and Graphisurus fasciatus (DeGeer), attracted to a blend of (R)-fuscumol and (R)-fuscumol acetate. These results suggest that chirality may be important in the pheromone chemistry of lamiines, and that specific stereoisomers or mixtures of stereoisomers are likely produced by each species.

  13. 对企业知识创造类生物现象及知识基因论的再思考%Rethinking on Biological Phenomenon and Knowledge Gene of Knowledge Creation in Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健宇; 李柏洲

    2014-01-01

    为揭示知识创造的本质和规律,采用二分法将新达尔文主义和拉马克主义两种观点予以融合。在此基础上,根据生物进化原理,围绕知识的类基因特性对知识基因、知识进化的选择、重组和变异以及知识进化与环境的关系进行解释。研究结果表明:纯粹的知识创造主要是新达尔文式的演化,体现知识创造的不确定性、随机性和不可控性。相对应地,知识的复制、流动等过程则具有更多的拉马克现象,带有明确的指向且结果可以被预测。知识基因的选择、重组和变异是知识得以被创造的根本原因。知识创造的方向受到环境的影响,知识创造的动力源于知识主体对环境的学习,新知识能够对环境进行改变。%In order to reveal the nature and patterns of knowledge creation, this thesis combines Neo-Darwinism with Lamarckism using Dichotomy. Based on biological evolution theories, we interpret knowledge gene, knowledge evolution's selection, restructuring and variation, as well as the relationship between knowledge evolution and the environment, with the acknowledgement that knowledge has characteristics in common with gene. Research results show that, knowledge creation in itself is evolution of Neo-Darwinism, reflecting that knowledge creation is uncer-tain, random and unpredictable. Correspondingly, Lamarckism could be reflected in knowledge's replication and flows, with certain direction and predictable results. The selection, restructuring and variation of knowledge are the basic reason why knowledge could be created. The direction of knowledge creation is affected by the environ-ment. The driving force of knowledge creation has its origin in the learning process of knowledge workers in the environment, and new knowledge can change the environment accordingly.

  14. O darwinismo e seu outro, a teoria transformacional da evolução Darwinism and its other, the transformational theory of evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O programa darwiniano sempre teve que enfrentar o desafio de uma plêiade de teorias alternativas que, por compartilhar um conjunto de pressupostos fundamentais, podem ser consideradas como formulações distintas de um único programa de pesquisa dirigido para o objetivo de articular aquilo que, seguindo a Richard Lewontin e a Elliot Sober, podemos caracterizar como uma explicação transformacional da evolução, alternativa à explicação de tipo variacional ou selecional proposta por Darwin. Antes de 1859, a teoria transformacional já tinha sido entrevista, de diferentes ângulos, por Lamarck, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire e Chambers. Paradoxalmente, é somente depois da publicação de A origem das espécies que ela parece adquirir maior plausibilidade. O próprio Owen se atreve inclusive a sugeri-la; e, a partir daí, desde Spencer e Häeckel, passando pelos defensores da ortogênese, pelos neo-lamarkianos americanos, e chegando até Brian Goodwin, essa obstinada hidra epistemológica nunca cessou de se insinuar como sendo ou uma genuína alternativa ou um necessário complemento da teoria da seleção natural.The darwinian program has always had to face the challenge of a constellation of alternative theories that, for having a common set of fundamental presuppositions, they can considered, all of them, as modifications of only one research program directed to the objective of articulate what, following Richard Lewontin and Eliot Sober, we can characterize as a transformational explanation of evolution alternative to the variational or selectional explanation proposed by Darwin. Before 1859, that transformational theory had been suggested, from a diferent point of view, by Lamarck, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Chambers; but, paradoxically, it is only after the publication of On the origin of the species that this theory won greater plausibility. Owen himself suggested it; and from Spencer and Häeckel, passing through the defenders of the

  15. Esponjas (Porifera, Demospongiae da plataforma continental ao largo do Estado do Amapá, Brasil Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the continental shelf off the coast of Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As amostras foram coletadas com draga retangular ao largo da costa (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W, pela Comissão Pesca Norte I, em 1968, através da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil com o N./Oc. " Almirante Saldanha" em profundidades que variaram de 56 a 95 m. Oito espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 e Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 são identificadas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. As demais espécies, Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 são conhecidas pela primeira vez para a área estudada. Todas as espécies identificadas são também registradas para o Caribe. Os espécimes encontram-se depositados na Coleção de Porifera do Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The collections were dredged off the coast (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W. They were collected between 56 to 95 depths, during an oceanographic expedition, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil, by R/V " Almirante Saldanha" in 1968. Eight species are here registered, among which Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 and Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 represent new registers for Brazil. The other species: Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 represent new records to the studied area. All registered species are also known from Caribbean. Specimens are deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  16. 我国的几种剧毒鹅膏菌%Deadly Poisonous Amanitae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祝良

    2002-01-01

    @@ 在鹅膏属(Amanita)真菌中,有的是重要的食用菌,有的有一定的毒性但误食并不致命,而有的则是剧毒的,误食常会危及生命.绿盖鹅膏[A.phalloides(Fr.)Link.]、春生鹅膏[A.verna(Bull.:Fr.)Lamarck]和鳞柄鹅膏[A.virosa(Fr.)Bertillon]就是著名的致死性毒菌,最初描述于欧洲,在欧洲许多国家都较常见,如笔者在德国南部的欧洲水青冈[Fagus sylvatica L.]林下就曾多次采到绿盖毒鹅膏菌.如同在其它地区一样,每年在欧洲都有误食毒菌而中毒死亡的记录,其中大都是因误食此三种毒菌所致.这是因为这些鹅膏中含有丰富的鹅膏毒肽(amatoxins)、鬼笔毒肽(phallotoxins)或毒伞素(virotoxins)等三大类肽类毒素,它们对肝脏和肾脏有强烈的破坏作用.

  17. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  18. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  19. The toxicity of laboratory burned oil to the amphipod Allorchestes compressa and the snail Polinices conicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Ismail; Holdaway, Douglas A. [Oil Spill Research Group, Dept. of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Acute 96 h LC50 values of the burned-oil-water-accommodated-fraction (BWAF) and burned-oil-residue-mixture (BRM) were determined in semi-static bioassays with seawater, using the amphipod Allorchestes compressa (Dana). Sublethal bioassays (suppression of burying behaviour over 30 min and 24 h exposure) were also conducted for these toxicants, using the marine sand snail Polinices conicus (Lamarck) as the test organism. The mean (n=4) 96 h LC50 (S.E.) value for BWAF was 80 (4.1)% and for BRM was greater than 100%. No-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentration (LOEC) for the both toxicants were 40% and 60% respectively. The burying behaviour of the snails after 30 min exposure to both toxicants was not affected with NOEC values greater than 100%. The 24 h EC50 (S.E.) value for BWAF was 60 (2.7)% with 10% NOEC and 20% LOEC values. The respective 24 h EC50 value for BRM was greater than 100% with 40% NOEC and 60% LOEC values. (Author)

  20. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  1. EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL INICIO DE LA ACTUAL TEORÍA DE LA HERENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLIAM USAQUÉN MARTÍNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte se mostrarán algunos elementos históricos relacionados con la “Philosophie Zoologique” de Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, obra fundamental de la biología moderna merecedora de una mención especial en su aniversario número 200. Esta obra contiene algunos conceptos impor- tantes para “The Origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life” el trabajo fundamental de Charles Darwin. Posteriormente se revisará la idea general de la pangénesis y sus diferentes contradicciones en la explicación de la variabilidad necesaria para la acción de la selección natural que culminarían con el nacimiento de la genética. Es importante mostrar la posición particular de los experimentos mendelianos en relación con el paradigma evo- lutivo causado por el origen de las especies.

  2. Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-01

    Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ω-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ω-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-04-26

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution.

  4. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzahrae Elmasry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  5. The instinctual nation-state: non-Darwinian theories, state science and ultra-nationalism in Oka Asajirō's Evolution and Human Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In his anthology of socio-political essays, Evolution and Human Life, Oka Asajirō (1868-1944), early twentieth century Japan's foremost advocate of evolutionism, developed a biological vision of the nation-state as super-organism that reflected the concerns and aims of German-inspired Meiji statism and anticipated aspects of radical ultra-nationalism. Drawing on non-Darwinian doctrines, Oka attempted to realize such a fused or organic state by enhancing social instincts that would bind the minzoku (ethnic nation) and state into a single living entity. Though mobilization during the Russo-Japanese War seemed to evince this super-organism, the increasingly contentious and complex society that emerged in the war's aftermath caused Oka to turn first to Lamarckism and eventually to orthogenesis in the hopes of preserving the instincts needed for a viable nation-state. It is especially in the state interventionist measures that Oka finally came to endorse in order to forestall orthogenetically-driven degeneration that the technocratic proclivities of his statist orientation become most apparent. The article concludes by suggesting that Oka's emphasis on degeneration, autarkic expansion, and, most especially, totalitarian submersion of individuals into the statist collectivity indicates a complex relationship between his evolutionism and fascist ideology, what recent scholarship has dubbed radical Shinto ultra-nationalism.

  6. "Synergistic selection": a Darwinian frame for the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Peter A; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-04-21

    Non-Darwinian theories about the emergence and evolution of complexity date back at least to Lamarck, and include those of Herbert Spencer and the "emergent evolution" theorists of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In recent decades, this approach has mostly been espoused by various practitioners in biophysics and complexity theory. However, there is a Darwinian alternative - in essence, an economic theory of complexity - proposing that synergistic effects of various kinds have played an important causal role in the evolution of complexity, especially in the "major transitions". This theory is called the "synergism hypothesis". We posit that otherwise unattainable functional advantages arising from various cooperative phenomena have been favored over time in a dynamic that the late John Maynard Smith characterized and modeled as "synergistic selection". The term highlights the fact that synergistic "wholes" may become interdependent "units" of selection. We provide some historical perspective on this issue, as well as a brief explication of the underlying theory and the concept of synergistic selection, and we describe two relevant models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Anthropological Study of “Insect Society” in Evolutionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Quanqin; Zhang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionism is the first discipline paradigm in the history of anthropology.As early as 1801, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist clearly put forward the notion of evolution.Howev-er,it was not until C.R.Darwin published his book The Origin of Species in 1859,that the theory of evo-lution became widely regarded by the world.In ad-dition to the field of biology, evolutionism also broadly and deeply influenced the fields of anthro-pology,philosophy and psychology,etc.In the study of evolutionism,a comparative investigation between insect society and human society has attracted the special interest of many scholars.In addition to Charles Robert Darwin,Aldous Leonard Huxley,Jo-ham Jakob Bochofen and Henri Bergson published special works on this aspect.These scholars not only lived during the era of evolutionism, their thinking and research were more or less connected with evo-lutionism and insect society.Their research spawned a series of new theoretical thinking on the division of labor,ethics and morality,matrilineal society,and the creation of evolution,etc.Clarifying the research on“insect society” in evolutionism is necessary and important for us to understand the construction of social theories during that time.Hence, this article seeks to review“insect society”in the eyes of these scholars and make comparisons among them.

  8. Alien taxa of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae in Italy: a nomenclatural synopsis

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    Iamonico Duilio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A nomenclatural synopsis of the alien species belonging to the tribe Senecioneae currently recorded in Italy (8 species is presented. The occurrence at the regional level, as well as the level of naturalization and ecological notes for each taxon are provided. A diagnostic key of the non-native Italian species is also given. The names Cineraria petasitis (now Senecio petasitis, Delairea odorata, Eupatorium auriculatum (now Senecio deltoideus, E. fulvum, Mikania ternifolia var. senecioides, Senecio andryaloides, S. angulatus, and S. leucanthemifolius subsp. vernalis are typified on specimens preserved at E, F, P, SBT, and UPS, and on images by Lamarck, Lemaire, Sims, and Waldstein & Kitaibel. The type of the name S. pterophorus, as indicated by Iamonico in 2015, was wrongly reported as holotype and need to be corrected to lectotype according to the Art. 9.9 of ICN. The names Cacalia auriculata, Cacalia fimbrillifera (nom. nov., nom. superfl. et illeg. pro Eupatorium auriculatum, Cacalia scandens by Thunberg, Cineraria crassiflora, Eupatorium scandens by Link (nom. illeg., Mikania senecioides (nom. illeg., Senecio auriculatum, and Senecio mikanioides are also investigated and discussed.

  9. The teaching of evolution in Portugal in the early 20th century through the programs and textbooks of Zoology

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    Bento CAVADAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of evolution in the Portuguese secondary schools is not yet fully understood. This research aimed to contribute to this clarification, in the framework of the history of the curriculum and the biology subject, by showing the expressions of the evolutionism teaching in the first three decades of the twentieth century. To this end we analyzed the programs of Zoology of 1905 and 1919, as well as two textbooks, entitled «Lições de Zoologia» and written by Bernardo Aires in accordance with these programs. This analysis showed that the study of evolution, eliminated from the program in 1905, was again recognized in the program in 1919. In textbooks, the exposure of evolution focused on the subject of evolution, in the grounds of competition and natural selection, adaptation, the biogenetic law and the essential differences between Lamarckism and Darwinism. The comparative study of these textbooks showed that the text which addresses the evolution is essentially Darwinian. However, neoLamarckians sections have been identified that show the influence of the «eclipse of Darwinism» on the teaching of evolutionism.

  10. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

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    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  11. Popper y Darwin: Evolucionismo Bio-Cosmológico y Epistemología Evolucionista

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    Juan Arana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de generalizar es uno de los rasgos más característicos de Popper como filósofo. Propone un lamarckismo sin Lamarck, un vitalismo sin principios vitales ni entelequias, y un animismo sin alma. En el fondo, es lo mismo que hizo Darwin con la teleología gracias a la selección natural: patrocinar un finalismo sin fines. La especulación es atrevida pero en modo alguno rechazable. El problema de Popper es que a veces no sabe contenerse y se implica demasiado en el debate científico de primera línea. Le ocurrió algo parecido con las discusiones que siguieron al desarrollo de la mecánica cuántica: en lugar de moverse con cautela en el terreno de la reflexión metateórica, tuvo que proponer un «experimento mental» para mediar en la controversia Einstein-Bohr.

  12. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

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    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  13. Evolution of evolution theory since Charles Darwin%达尔文学说问世以来生物进化论的发展概况及其展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒德干

    2014-01-01

    The development of evolutionary theory, from the original Darwinism through Neo-Lamarckism, Mendelism, Neo-Darwinism to the modern synthetic theory, is herein reviewed. The synthetic theory is again challenged by the new information from molecular investigations and new significant fossil discoveries. As a result, the neutral mutation-random hypothesis and the Three-episode Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were proposed.%综述了自达尔文学说诞生以来,生物进化论经历了孟德尔颗粒遗传理论、新拉马克主义、新达尔文主义直到现代综合进化论建立的发展历程。然而,综合论更面临着来自分子生物学新信息和古生物学重大新发现的挑战和发展机遇,由此产生了分子中性遗传漂变假说和三幕式寒武大爆发假说。

  14. Modelos de argumentación en ciencias: una aplicación a la genética

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    Dora Cardona Rivas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objetivo: Caracterizar los modelos argumentativos que utilizan estudiantes de biología en la solución de problemas de genética, desde las categorías modelo conceptual, estructura argumentativa y comportamiento discursivo. 2. Materiales y Métodos. Realizamos un estudio cualitativo, con metodología de tipo descriptiva, en el que analizamos las respuestas escritas y orales de 4 estudiantes. Como instrumentos para la recolección de la información diseñamos 7 problemas en cuya solución estaban implicados los modelos de herencia de Lamarck y de Mendel. Para el análisis de la información aplicamos los procedimientos del análisis de discurso y el análisis de contenido a los textos escritos y orales. 3. Resultados. En el momento de resolver problemas, las estudiantes con las que realizamos el estudio emplearon estructuras argumentativas restringidas, un comportamiento discursivo que se caracteriza por el uso frecuente de conectores de posibilidad y deícticos, y el uso de modelos de herencia que han precedido al modelo molecular. Los modelos argumentativos caracterizados se constituyen en la base para intervenciones didácticas en el campo de la Enseñanza de la Genética.

  15. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana

    2011-07-12

    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  16. Who invented the dichotomous key? Richard Waller's watercolors of the herbs of Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Lawrence R

    2011-12-01

    On 27 March 1689, Richard Waller, Fellow and Secretary of the Royal Society presented his "Tables of the English Herbs reduced to such an order, as to find the name of them by their external figures and shapes" to his assembled colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society. These tables were developed for the novice by being color images, composed in pencil and watercolor, of selected plants and their distinguishing characteristics. The botanical watercolors for the tables are now a Turning-the-Pages document online on the website of the Royal Society. However, for the past 320 years, the scientific context for the creation of these outstanding botanical watercolors has remained obscure. These tables were developed by Waller as an image-based dichotomous key, pre-dating by almost 100 years the text-based dichotomous keys in the first edition of Flora Française (1778) by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who is generally given priority for the development of the dichotomous key. How these large folio images were arranged to illustrate a dichotomous key is unknown, but an arrangement based on Waller's description is illustrated here as leaf-ordering for the separate hierarchical clusters (tables). Although only 24 species of watercolored dicot herbs out of a total of 65 in the set of watercolors (the others being monocots) are used in these tables, they are a "proof of concept", serving as models upon which a method is based, that of using a key composed of dichotomous choices for aiding identification.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

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    Boonyadist Vongsak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100–500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts.

  19. "Stand up straight": notes toward a history of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-03-01

    The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy.' Indeed an entire medical sub-specialty developed in which gymnastics defined and recuperated the body. But all of these claims were also part of a Western attempt to use posture (and the means of altering it) as the litmus test for the healthy modern body of the perfect citizen. Focusing on the centrality of posture in two oddly linked moments of modern thought--modern Zionist thought and Nationalism in early 20th century China--in terms of bodily reform, we show how "posture" brings all of the earlier debates together to reform the body.

  20. Enhanced resistance to four species of Clypeorrhynchan pests in Neotyphodium uncinatum infected Italian ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Shiba, Takuya; Sasaki, Tohru; Matsumura, Masaya

    2012-02-01

    Particular alkaloids produced by Neotyphodium endophytes show toxicity to invertebrates. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamarck) cultivars and strains that are symbiotic with Neotyphodium endophytes have been recently established in Japan. N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass lines accumulate N-formylloline, a type of loline alkaloid (1-aminopyrrolizidine) showing neurotoxicity to herbivorous insects. This study investigated the toxicity of N-formylloline and resistance of N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass to vascular-sap feeding Clypeorrhynchan pests. When four vascular-sap feeding insects: Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), Cicadulina bipunctata (Melichar) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), and Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) fed on N. uncinatum-infected Italian ryegrass, significant decreases in survival rate were observed for three phloem-sap feeders but not for a xylem-sap feeder, N. cincticeps. This result suggests an uneven distribution of N-formylloline among plant tissues. A potency assay for N-formylloline using a Parafilm feeding sachet and a quantitative analysis of N-formylloline in plant showed a concentration-dependent lethal effect of N-formylloline on all four tested vascular-sap feeders. Our results strongly suggest that N. uncinatum-infected plants can control some Clypeorrhynchan pests in crop fields.

  1. Evidence that blood flukes (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) of chondrichthyans infect bivalves as intermediate hosts: indications of an ancient diversification of the Schistosomatoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Chick, Rowan C; O'Connor, Wayne; O'Connor, Stephan; Johnson, Daniel; Sewell, Kim B; Cutmore, Scott C

    2017-08-12

    Blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) of actinopterygians (bony fishes), have been shown to infect freshwater gastropods and marine polychaetes as intermediate hosts. However, no life cycle is known for any aporocotylid of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and no adult aporocotylid has been linked to a cercaria infecting a bivalve. Here we report two novel infections that fill these gaps. Cercariae consistent with the family Aporocotylidae were found developing in sporocysts in the gonad of the surf pipi, Donax deltoides Lamarck, 1818 (Bivalvia: Donacidae), from Stockton Beach, central New South Wales, Australia. Adult aporocotylids were found in the heart of the giant shovelnose ray, Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830), from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rDNA region generated from the new specimens resulted in phylograms in which the two parasites form a strongly supported clade with Chimaerohemecus trondheimensis van der Land, 1967, the only aporocotylid known from a holocephalan and the only other chondrichthyan-infecting aporocotylid for which sequence data are available. Most marine aporocotylids of actinopterygians also form a strongly supported clade. These findings lead us to hypothesise that the aporocotylids of chondrichthyans are distinct from all other blood flukes in infecting bivalves as intermediate hosts. Putative cophyly between three major blood fluke clades and both definitive and intermediate host groups is consistent with diversification of the Schistosomatoidea over 400million years ago. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. All rights reserved.

  2. A revision of the Neogene Conidae and Conorbidae (Gastropoda) of the Paratethys Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Landau, Bernard

    2016-12-22

    The Miocene Conidae and Conorbidae of the central- and south-eastern European Paratethys Sea are revised. In total, 74 species are described of which 10 are new species and 5 are documented for the first time from Paratethyan localities. Species descriptions and delimitations are partly based on morphometric data. In addition, colour patterns are described for the first time for the majority of species. In respect to the ongoing discussion on the supraspecific treatment of extant Conidae, we strongly focus on generic allocations and provide a key for the genera as understood herein. Biogeographically, the larger part of the assemblage indicates affiliation with modern western African faunas as indicated by the occurrence of genera such as Lautoconus, Kalloconus, Monteiroconus and Pseudonoduloconus. The relationship with Indo-West Pacific faunas is comparatively low. The high alpha-diversities observed for localities in the Pannonian, Transylvanian and Vienna basins, with up to 44 species, is a marker of tropical conditions in the Paratethys Sea during middle Miocene times.        Conasprella minutissima nov. sp., Kalloconus hendricksi nov. sp., Kalloconus letkesensis nov. sp., Kalloconus pseudohungaricus nov. sp., Lautoconus kovacsi nov. sp., Lautoconus pestensis nov. sp., Lautoconus quaggaoides nov. sp., Leporiconus paratethyianus nov. sp., Plagioconus breitenbergeri nov. sp. and Plagioconus bellissimus nov. sp. are described as new species; Conilithes eichwaldi nov. nom. is proposed as new name for Conus exiguus Eichwald, 1830 [non Lamarck, 1810].

  3. Mantle-shell complex reactions elicited by digenean metacercariae in Gaimardia trapesina (Bivalvia: Gaimardiidae) from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and Magellan Strait.

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    Ituarte, C F; Cremonte, F; Deferrari, G

    2001-12-20

    The host response to 3 different larval digeneans affecting Southwestern Atlantic and Magellanic populations of the bivalve Gaimardia trapesina (Lamarck, 1819) (Gaimardiidae) is described. Unencysted metacercariae of 2 species of Gymnophallidae and 1 species of Lepocreadiidae co-exist in the peripheral and general extrapallial spaces. Differences in host responses to stimuli generated by each parasite are described. Infections by Gymnophallidae gen. sp. 1 metacercariae elicit a mantle-shell complex reaction involving both alteration of the mantle epithelium (hyperplasia and metaplasia) and calcium carbonate deposition to form an incomplete calcareous covering of single larvae, comprising individual crystallites in an organic matrix. The calcareous covering covers only the posterior two-thirds of the larval body, having its anterior end free in the extrapallial space, which ensures survival of the larvae. The peculiar features of the host response result from a successful process of adjustment to the parasite's life cycle. Metacercariae of Gymnophallidae gen. sp. 2 occur in one or more small groups of up to 30 individuals, either in the general or in the peripheral extrapallial spaces. The outer mantle reaction includes hyperplasia and metaplasia of the epithelium adjacent to the larvae. Deposition of calcium carbonate did not occur. Lepocreadiidae gen. sp. metacercariae were observed exclusively in the general extrapallial space lodged in single shallow pits whose shape fit the parasite's body shape and size. In simultaneous infections, metacercariae of Gymnophallidae and Lepocreadiidae elicited different responses in an individual, which suggests that each parasitic entity involves a different stimulus to the host.

  4. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  5. Infestation by the epibiont Octolasmis lowei in a portunid crab assemblage from a subtropical coast

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    Lylian Marcia da Silva-Inácio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the infestation by Octolasmis lowei Darwin, 1851 in branchial chambers of the portunid Achelous spinimanus (Latreille, 1819, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, and Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863. We evaluated how infestation is related to host maturity, molt stage, carapace width and sex. The infestation probability increases with host carapace width, and infested crabs were more likely to be adults in intermolt stage. Infestation prevalence did not differ between sexes, except for C. ornatus, in which females had higher infestation than males. Infestation intensity was higher for males than females in A. cribrarius and A. spinimanus, while C. ornatus showed an opposite pattern. Association of O. lowei with portunid seems to be tightly related to the biological traits of its host. Some of these traits, such as host size, maturity and molt stage, are likely to affect infestation in a similar way for all host species, while the effect of other traits, such as sex identity, seems to vary among hosts. We suggest a deeper understanding of the factors driving host use by generalist epibionts such as O. lowei depends on investigating their occurrence on a variety of potential hosts, as well as performing manipulative studies to evaluate the factors driving host preferences by this epibiont.

  6. Dimensionamento e sobreposição de nichos dos portunídeos (Decapoda, Brachyura, na Enseada da Fortaleza, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil Breadth and overlap niches of the portunid crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura, in Fortaleza Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The niche breadth of the Portunidae and their overlap on the subtidal sediments of Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba (São Paulo was analyzed. Samples were made monthly from November/1988 to October/1989, inseven areas of the bay using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with two otter-trawls. Each area was characterized based on environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and granulometric composition of the sediment. The number of individuais of each species was registered to each area (resource. Levins's standardized measure (BA and niche percentage were calculated. Five species of swimming crabs were recorded in this study: Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and Portunus spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871. The widest ecological niche occurred to C. ornatus, present in all sampled areas (generalist species. Such fact can be related to high sediment tolerance when it is compared to P. spinimanus (especialist species which was limited to the areas with coarse granulometric fractions. Highest niche overlap was verified between C. danae and A. cribrarius may be due to greater salinity tolerance of these species. The low occurrence of P. spinicarpus and its reduced niche size in Fortaleza Bay are due to association of this species to cold water currents (ACAS more evidente in smaler depths during summer months. One future evaluation of the portunid diet can be useful to complement informations about this important aspect of the marine ecology.

  7. Epibiosis in decapod crustaceans by stalked barnacle Octolasmis lowei (Cirripedia: Poecilasmatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco B. de O. Machado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stalked barnacles Octolasmis lowei Darwin, 1851 are frequently found attached to decapod crustaceans. Their epibiotic association depends on many factors, which are mainly related to characteristics of the host's biology. This study evaluated the infestation and distribution of stalked barnacles in the branchial chambers of crabs, and analyzed the data with respect to the host's sex, maturity stage, molt cycle and size. The crab species Arenaeus cribrarius Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Hepatus pudibundus Herbst, 1785, Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871, and Persephona punctata Linnaeus, 1758 were sampled and found to be infested by O. lowei. No juvenile crabs were infested. The prevalence of infestation by O. lowei was significantly different among C. danae, C. ornatus, and H. pudibundus males and females. All infested hosts were in the intermolt period. The mean size of infested crabs was larger than that observed for non-infested individuals. Internally, stalked barnacles were concentrated on the central gills or walls and floor of branchial chambers, suggesting that these gills provide more favorable conditions for the settlement and development of these epibionts. These results highlight the relationship between epibiont infestation and host biology, as well as the role of decapod crustaceans as a suitable substrate for the development of stalked barnacle O. lowei.

  8. The cushion–star Parvulastra exigua in South Africa: one species or more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robyn P.; Griffiths, Charles L.; von der Heyden, Sophie; Koch, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cushion–star Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816) is a widely distributed member of the temperate intertidal fauna in the southern hemisphere. In South Africa, it occurs in sympatry with the endemic Parvulastra dyscrita (Clark, 1923), the two species being differentiated predominantly by gonopore placement. Several recent studies have suggested that there may be additional cryptic species within the Parvulastra exigua complex in South Africa, based variously on color morphology, genetic evidence and the differential placement of the gonopores. This paper attempts to resolve whether one or more species are represented within Parvulastra exigua. A total of 346 Parvulastra exigua and 8 Parvulastra dyscrita were collected from sites on the west and south–west coasts of South Africa; morphological, anatomical and genetic analyses were performed to determine whether cryptic species and/or Parvulastra exigua specimens with aboral gonopores were present. Results show that neither cryptic species nor Parvulastra exigua specimens with aboral gonopores occur at these sites. This study thus refutes previous claims of the existence of aboral gonopores in South African Parvulastra exigua, and suggests that a single species is represented. The distinction between Parvulastra exigua and Parvulastra dyscrita is also confirmed, and features separating these two species are clarified and documented. PMID:26478703

  9. Homology--history of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchen, A L

    1999-01-01

    The concept of homology is traceable to Aristotle, but Belon's comparison in 1555 of a human skeleton with that of a bird expressed it overtly. Before the late 18th century, the dominant view of the pattern of organisms was the scala naturae--even Linnaeus with his divergent hierarchical classification did not necessarily see the resulting taxonomic pattern as a natural phenomenon. The divergent hierarchy, rather than the acceptance of phylogeny, was the necessary spur to discussion of homology and the concept of analogy. Lamarck, despite his proposal of evolution, attributed homology to his escalator naturae and analogy to convergent acquired characters. Significantly, it was the concept of serial homology that emerged at the end of the 18th century, although comparison between organisms became popular soon after, and was boosted by the famous Cuvier/Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire debate of the 1830s. The concepts of homology and analogy were well understood by the pre- (or anti-) evolutionary comparative anatomists before the general acceptance of phylogeny, and they were defined by Owen in 1843. The acceptance of evolution led to the idea that homology should be defined by common ancestry, and to the confusion between definition and explanation. The term 'homoplasy', introduced by Lankester in 1870, also arose from a phylogenetic explanation of homology.

  10. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  11. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  12. Molecular taxonomy of cupped oysters (Crassostrea, Saccostrea, and Striostrea) in Thailand based on COI, 16S, and 18S rDNA polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, S; Khamnamtong, B; Puanglarp, N; Jarayabhand, P; Yoosukh, W; Menasveta, P

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity of oysters Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), C. iredalei (Faustino, 1932), Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778), S. forskali (Gmelin, 1791), and Striostrea (Parastriostrea) mytiloides (Lamarck, 1819) (Ostreoida, Mollusca) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of 16S ribosomal DNA with AcsI, AluI, DdeI, DraI, RsaI, and TaqI, 18S ribosomal DNA with HinfI, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I with AcsI, DdeI and MboI. A total of 54 composite haplotypes were observed. Species-diagnostic markers were specifically found in C. belcheri, C. iredalei, and S. cucullata, but not in S. forskali and Striostrea mytiloides, which shared common composite haplotypes. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from genetic distances between pairs of composite haplotypes and species indicated large genetic differences between Crassostrea and Saccostrea (including Striostrea mytiloides), but closer relationships were observed within each genus. Four groups of unidentified oysters (Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. groups 1, 2, and 3) were also genetically analyzed. Fixed RFLP markers were found in Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2, but not in Saccostrea sp. groups 1 and 3. Phylogenetic and genetic heterogeneity analyses indicated that Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2 should be considered as newly unidentified oyster species in Thailand.

  13. Erasmus Darwin, Herbert Spencer, and the origins of the evolutionary worldview in British provincial scientific culture, 1770-1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The significance of Herbert Spencer's evolutionary philosophy has been generally recognized for over a century, as the familiarity of his phrase "survival of the fittest" indicates, yet accounts of the origins of his system still tend to follow too closely his own description, written many decades later. This essay argues that Spencer's own interpretation of his intellectual development gives an inadequate impression of the debt he owed to provincial scientific culture and its institutions. Most important, it shows that his evolutionism was originally stimulated by his association with the Derby philosophical community, for it was through this group--of which his father, who also appears to have espoused a deistic evolutionary theory, was a member--that he was first exposed to progressive Englightenment social and educational philosophies and to the evolutionary worldview of Erasmus Darwin, the first president of the Derby Philosophical Society. Darwin's scheme was the first to incorporate biological evolution, associationist psychology, evolutionary geology, and cosmological developmentalism. Spencer's own implicit denials of the link with Darwin are shown to be implausible in the face of Darwin's continuing influence on the Derby savants, the product of insecurity in his later years when he feared for his reputation as Lamarckism became increasingly untenable.

  14. [Buffon, the director of 'Jardin du Roi' in the 1700s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeune, Bernard; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Buffon and Linné were the two greatest naturalists of the 1700s. As they were both born in 1707, their 300 anniversaries were therefore celebrated in France and Sweden. At the celebration meeting at the University of Bourgogne in Dijon - The Buffon Legacy - September 3-6, 2007, we presented the following paper: "Buffon and the longevity of species". In the present paper the life and work of Buffon is introduced on the basis of recent literature, including Jacques Roger's famous biography. Among non-biologists Buffon has nearly been forgotten, even though in the 1700s he was considered to be at the same level as the most famous French thinkers of the Enlightenment - Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot. His largest contributions were the publication of his comprehensive "Histoire naturelle" and his long and significant leadership of "Jardin du Roi", which he built up to become one of the best scientific institutions of Europe. Buffon's scientific contributions wereas overshadowed by those of Linné, as it was his classification system, which became dominant all overn Europe. Buffon's student Lamarck and later Darwin contributed by pushing Buffon in oblivion of history, even though Darwin valued him highly. However, in recent decades Buffon is experiencing a renaissance in connection with the increasing interest in biological anthropology, biogeography, ethology, and ecology, as well as on account of his modern species concept.

  15. Experimental demonstration of a trophic cascade in the Galápagos rocky subtidal: Effects of consumer identity and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Smith, Franz; Novak, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus). Triggerfish predation effects were strong, causing a 24-fold reduction of pencil urchin densities during the initial 21 hours of a trophic cascade experiment. A trophic cascade was demonstrated for pencil urchins, but not for green urchins, by significantly higher percent cover of urchin-grazed algae in cages that excluded predatory fish than in predator access (fence) treatments. Pencil urchins were more abundant at night when triggerfish were absent, suggesting that this species persists by exploiting a nocturnal predation refuge. Time-series of pencil urchin survivorship further demonstrated per capita interference effects of hogfish and top predators. These interference effects respectively weakened and extended the trophic cascade to a fourth trophic level through behavioral modifications of the triggerfish-urchin interaction. We conclude that interference behaviors capable of modifying interaction strength warrant greater attention as mechanisms for altering top-down control, particularly in speciose food webs.

  16. Niflumic acid disrupts marine spermatozoan chemotaxis without impairing the spatiotemporal detection of chemoattractant gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Adán; Espinal, Jesús; Wood, Christopher D; Rendón, Juan M; Carneiro, Jorge; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Darszon, Alberto

    2013-03-15

    In many broadcast-spawning marine organisms, oocytes release chemicals that guide conspecific spermatozoa towards them through chemotaxis. In the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus, the chemoattractant peptide speract triggers a train of fluctuations of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the sperm flagella. Each transient Ca(2+) elevation leads to a momentary increase in flagellar bending asymmetry, known as a chemotactic turn. Furthermore, chemotaxis requires a precise spatiotemporal coordination between the Ca(2+)-dependent turns and the form of chemoattractant gradient. Spermatozoa that perform Ca(2+)-dependent turns while swimming down the chemoattractant gradient, and conversely suppress turning events while swimming up the gradient, successfully approach the center of the gradient. Previous experiments in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin spermatozoa showed that niflumic acid (NFA), an inhibitor of several ion channels, drastically altered the speract-induced Ca(2+) fluctuations and swimming patterns. In this study, mathematical modeling of the speract-dependent Ca(2+) signaling pathway suggests that NFA, by potentially affecting hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, Ca(2+)-regulated Cl(-) channels and/or Ca(2+)-regulated K(+) channels, may alter the temporal organization of Ca(2+) fluctuations, and therefore disrupt chemotaxis. We used a novel automated method for analyzing sperm behavior and we identified that NFA does indeed disrupt chemotactic responses of L. pictus spermatozoa, although the temporal coordination between the Ca(2+)-dependent turns and the form of chemoattractant gradient is unaltered. Instead, NFA disrupts sperm chemotaxis by altering the arc length traveled during each chemotactic turning event. This alteration in the chemotactic turn trajectory disorientates spermatozoa at the termination of the turning event. We conclude that NFA disrupts chemotaxis without affecting how the spermatozoa decode

  17. In Silico Determination of the Effect of Multi-Target Drugs on Calcium Dynamics Signaling Network Underlying Sea Urchin Spermatozoa Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Darszon, Alberto; Guerrero, Adán; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The motility of spermatozoa of both Lytechinus pictus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin species is modulated by the egg-derived decapeptide speract via an oscillatory [Ca2+]-dependent signaling pathway. Comprehension of this pathway is hence directly related to the understanding of regulated sperm swimming. Niflumic acid (NFA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug alters several ion channels. Though unspecific, NFA profoundly affects how sea urchin sperm respond to speract, increasing the [Ca2+]i oscillation period, amplitude, peak and average level values of the responses in immobilized and swimming cells. A previous logical network model we developed for the [Ca2+] dynamics of speract signaling cascade in sea urchin sperm allows integrated dissection of individual and multiple actions of NFA. Among the channels affected by NFA are: hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide gated Na+ channels (HCN), [Ca2+]-dependent Cl− channels (CaCC) and [Ca2+]-dependent K+ channels (CaKC), all present in the sea urchin genome. Here, using our model we investigated the effect of blocking in silico HCN and CaCC channels suggested by experiments. Regarding CaKC channels, arguments can be provided for either their blockage or activation by NFA. Our study yielded two scenarios compliant with experimental observations: i) under CaKC inhibition, this [Ca2+]-dependent K+ channel should be different from the Slo1 channel and ii) under activation of the CaKC channel, another [Ca2+] channel not considered previously in the network is required, such as the pH-dependent CatSper channel. Additionally, our findings predict cause-effect relations resulting from a selective inhibition of those channels. Knowledge of these relations may be of consequence for a variety of electrophysiological studies and have an impact on drug related investigations. Our study contributes to a better grasp of the network dynamics and suggests further experimental work. PMID:25162222

  18. Phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida within the phylum Porifera based on the amino acid sequence of the protein kinase C from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, M; Leys, S P; Müller, I M; Müller, W E

    1998-06-01

    Recent analyses of genes encoding proteins typical for multicellularity, especially adhesion molecules and receptors, favor the conclusion that all metazoan phyla, including the phylum Porifera (sponges), are of monophyletic origin. However, none of these data includes cDNA encoding a protein from the sponge class Hexactinellida. We have now isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a protein kinase C, belonging to the C subfamily (cPKC), from the hexactinellid sponge Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni. The two conserved regions, the regulatory part with the pseudosubstrate site, the two zinc fingers, and the C2 domain, as well as the catalytic domain were used for phylogenetic analyses. Sequence alignment and construction of a phylogenetic tree from the catalytic domains revealed that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei are at the base of the tree, while the hexactinellid R. dawsoni branches off first among the metazoan sequences; the other two classes of the Porifera, the Calcarea (the sequence from Sycon raphanus was used) and the Demospongiae (sequences from Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula were used), branch off later. The statistically robust tree also shows that the two cPKC sequences from the higher invertebrates Drosophila melanogaster and Lytechinus pictus are most closely related to the calcareous sponge. This finding was also confirmed by comparing the regulatory part of the kinase gene. We suggest, that (i) within the phylum Porifera, the class Hexactinellida diverged first from a common ancestor to the Calcarea and the Demospongiae, which both appeared later, and (ii) the higher invertebrates are more closely related to the calcareous sponges.

  19. Range and stability of cell fate determination in isolated sea urchin blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, B T; Wilt, F H

    1990-03-01

    We have examined the developmental potential of blastomeres isolated from either the animal (mesomeres) or vegetal (macromeres-micromeres) half of 16-cell embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. We have also examined the effects of two known vegetalizing agents on the development of isolated mesomeres; LiCl treatment and combination with micromeres, the small blastomeres found at the vegetal pole of the 16-cell embryo. The markers for differentiation used were both morphological (invaginations, spicules and pigment cells) and molecular (gut-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, and monoclonal antibodies against antigens specific for gut and oral ectoderm). Embryoids derived from isolated mesomeres expressed markers characteristic of vegetal differentiation only at very low levels. They did express an antigen characteristic of animal development, the oral ectoderm antigen, but with an altered pattern. Isolated macromere-micromere pairs expressed all markers characteristic of vegetal development, but did not express the marker characteristic of animal development. Increasing concentrations of LiCl caused isolated mesomeres to give rise to embryoids with an increasing tendency to express vegetal markers of differentiation, and it was found that expression of different vegetal markers begin to appear at different concentrations of LiCl. LiCl also caused the marker for oral ectoderm to be expressed in a more normal pattern. Combining micromeres with mesomeres also induced mesomere derivatives to differentiate in a vegetal manner. Micromeres were not completely effective in inducing a more normal pattern of expression of the marker for oral ectoderm. The treatment of isolated mesomeres with both LiCl and micromeres produces a synergistic effect resulting in embryoids expressing markers not induced by either treatment alone.

  20. Autonomous and non-autonomous differentiation of ectoderm in different sea urchin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, A H; Brandhorst, B P; Klein, W H

    1995-05-01

    During early embryogenesis, the highly regulative sea urchin embryo relies extensively on cell-cell interactions for cellular specification. Here, the role of cellular interactions in the temporal and spatial expression of markers for oral and aboral ectoderm in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus was investigated. When pairs of mesomeres or animal caps, which are fated to give rise to ectoderm, were isolated and cultured they developed into ciliated embryoids that were morphologically polarized. In animal explants from S. purpuratus, the aboral ectoderm-specific Spec1 gene was activated at the same time as in control embryos and at relatively high levels. The Spec1 protein was restricted to the squamous epithelial cells in the embryoids suggesting that an oral-aboral axis formed and aboral ectoderm differentiation occurred correctly. However, the Ecto V protein, a marker for oral ectoderm differentiation, was detected throughout the embryoid and no stomodeum or ciliary band formed. These results indicated that animal explants from S. purpuratus were autonomous in their ability to form an oral-aboral axis and to differentiate aboral ectoderm, but other aspects of ectoderm differentiation require interaction with vegetal blastomeres. In contrast to S. purpuratus, aboral ectoderm-specific genes were not expressed in animal explants from L. pictus even though the resulting embryoids were morphologically very similar to those of S. purpuratus. Recombination of the explants with vegetal blastomeres or exposure to the vegetalizing agent LiCl restored activity of aboral ectoderm-specific genes, suggesting the requirement of a vegetal induction for differentiation of aboral ectoderm cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  2. Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb

  3. Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakatura, John A; Fischer, Martin S

    2011-09-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion. In mammals the extrinsic shoulder musculature forms a 'muscular sling' to support the trunk in quadrupedal postures. In addition, the extrinsic pectoral muscles are responsible for moving the proximal forelimb elements during locomotion. Due to the inverse orientation of the body in regard to the gravitational force, the muscular sling as configured as in pronograde mammals is unsuited to suspend the weight of the thorax in sloths. We here review the muscular topography of the shoulder in Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus variegatus in the light of presumably convergent evolution to adapt to the altered functional demands of the inverse orientation of the body. In addition, we venture to deduce the effect of the shoulder musculature of C. didactylus during locomotion based on previously published 3D kinematic data. Finally, we assess likely convergences in the muscular topography of both extant sloth lineages to test the hypothesis that convergent evolution is reflected by differing morphological solutions to the same functional demands posed by the suspensory posture. Muscular topography of the shoulder in C. didactylus is altered from the plesiomorphic condition of pronograde mammals, whereas the shoulder in B. variegatus more closely resembles the general pattern. Overall kinematics as well as the muscles suitable for pro- and retraction of the forelimb were found to be largely comparable to pronograde mammals in C. didactylus. We conclude that most of the peculiar topography of extrinsic forelimb musculature can be attributed to the inverse orientation of the body. These characteristics are often similar in both genera, but we also identified different morphological solutions that evolved to satisfy the new functional demands and are indicative of convergent evolution. We suggest that the shared phylogenetic heritage canalized

  4. TREMATODOFAUNA COMPLEXULUI PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA DIN CODRII CENTRALI AI REPUBLICII MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIILE PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAE

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    Dumitru ERHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea conţine date cu privire la infestarea cu trematode a amfibienilor din familia Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura care populează ecosistemele naturale şi antropizate ale Codrilor centrali din Republica Moldova. Cercetări helmintologice ale amfibienilor au fost efectuate pentru prima dată în Republica Moldova. Rezultatele obţinute atestă infestarea ranidelor verzi (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. esculenta cu trematode din familiile Gorgoderidae (Gorgodera varsoviensis Sinitzin, 1905, Diplodiscidae (Diplodiscus subclavatus Pallas, 1760, Plagiorchiidae (Opisthioglyphe ranae Frohlich, 1791, Haematoloechus variegatus Rudolphi, 1819, Cephalogonimidae (Cephalogonimus retusus Dujardin, 1845 şi Lecithodendriidae (Pleurogenes claviger Rudolphi, 1819, Pleurogenoides medians,Olsson, 1876, Prosotocus confusus Looss, 1894, Candidotrema loossi, Africa, 1930. În lucrare sunt expuse rezultatele ce atestă nivelul de infestare a complexului Pelophylax esculenta cu specii de trematode din familiile Plagiorchiidae şi Cephalogonimidae. Pentru fiecare specie au fost stabilite: încadrarea sistema-tică, sinonimele, gazdele, localizarea organică, răspândirea geografică, etiologia şi ciclul biologic. De asemenea, este specificat volumul materialului colectat, este dată descrierea morfologică a speciilor, indicat nivelul de infestare în funcţie de vârstă, gen şi ecosistem, acestea fiind însoţite de fotografii şi figuri originale. FAUNA OF TREMATODES OF COMPLEX PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA FROM CENTRAL CODRI FOREST OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIES PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAEThe paper presents data on trematodes infestation in amphibians from family Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura in natural and anthropized ecosystems of Central Codri forest from the Republic of Moldova. The helminthological researches of amphibians were accomplished for the first time in the Republic of Moldova. As result the infestation of Ranidae family species

  5. Evaluation of charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO₂ nanoparticles in ecotoxicological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Y; Lead, J R; Baalousha, M

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic nature of nanoparticle (NP) agglomeration behavior is of paramount interest to many current studies in environmental nanoscience and nano(eco)toxicology because agglomeration affects the NP bioavailability and toxicity. The present study investigates the surface charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO2 NPs in four different ecotoxicological media (OECD algae, OECD L_variegatus, hardwater and plant media) and two different electrolytes KCl (200 mM) and CaCl2 (50 mM). TiO2 NPs were positively charged, and the zeta potential varied from +1.9 mV in hardwater (at pH7.1) to +24.5 mV in CaCl2 electrolyte (at pH7.4) in all media except algae media, where the zeta potential was -6.7 mV (at pH7.7). Despite the differences in the pH and the surface charge of TiO2 NPs in the different media, an immediate agglomeration of the NPs in all standard ecotoxicological media was observed with aggregate sizes in the micrometer scale, as the measured zeta potentials were insufficient to prevent TiO2 NP agglomeration. The isoelectric point (pHiep) of TiO2 NPs in the studied media varied in the range (6.8-7.6), which was attributed to preferential association of anions and cations to TiO2; that is the pHiep decreases with the increased concentration of Cl and increases with the increased concentrations of Na and Mg. Despite the complexity of the ecotoxicological media and the presence of a mixture of different monovalent and divalent electrolytes, the agglomeration kinetics in the media follows the DVLO theory where two distinct agglomeration rates (slow, reaction limited regime and fast, diffusion limited regime) were observable. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of TiO2 NPs in the ecotoxicological media varied from 17.6 to 54.0% v/v standard media in UHPW, due to differences in media pH and TiO2 NP surface charge. In the ecotoxicological media (hardwater, L-variegatus and plant), where TiO2 NPs are positively charged, the CCC decrease with the increased divalent

  6. Fossils and Theories of Evolution in Gustave Flaubert’s Bouvard et Pécuchet

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    Anthony Zielonka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude se propose d’analyser de près le chapitre III de ce chef d’œuvre comique et satirique qu’est le dernier roman de Flaubert, Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881. Après avoir exploré la médecine, la cosmologie, l’astronomie et la zoologie, les « deux bonshommes » de Flaubert se tournent vers la géologie, la paléontologie, et même les théories rivales de l’évolution. Ce chapitre est d’un intérêt considérable comme tour de force comique, surtout quand on le replace dans le contexte des découvertes, théories, controverses et querelles scientifiques (incluant les conflits entre les positions antagonistes de la religion et de la science qui faisaient rage à l’époque de Flaubert. Alors que le romancier avait réalisé des recherches exhaustives sur l’histoire des sciences, il est particulièrement intéressant de relever que ce sont les théories et les découvertes les plus récentes qui sont présentées sur le mode comique et sceptique. Après avoir passé en revue les idées de Buffon, Cuvier, Lamarck et Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ainsi que celle des savants fidèles à l’inspiration biblique, Bouvard et Pécuchet ne manquent pas de conclure à l’incompatibilité, et finalement à l’inanité, de toutes ces théories. Ils tirent leurs informations d’ouvrages savants mais aussi populaires, puisant dans les journaux et les magazines. Flaubert montre, de manière tout à fait significative, comment les simplifications et les erreurs des textes de vulgarisation ne servent qu’à renforcer le trouble et le doute des deux personnages et les amènent finalement à abandonner leurs recherches scientifiques.This paper proposes a close textual analysis of Chapter III of the masterpiece of comic and satirical fiction that is Gustave Flaubert’s last novel, Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881. After exploring the sciences of medicine, cosmology, astronomy, and zoology, Flaubert’s “deux bonshommes” turn their attention

  7. Los orígenes de la Biología como ciencia. El impacto de las teorías de evolución y las problemáticas asociadas a su enseñanza y aprendizaje

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    Gonzalo M.A. Bermudez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar los acontecimientos más relevantes de la historia de la Biología que le dieron corpus teórico y sustento científico, enfatizando el papel que cumplió la teoría de evolución de Lamarck y de Darwin en este proceso; y recopilar algunas de las problemáticas actuales asociadas con la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la teoría de la evolución por selección natural. Inicialmente, los estudios sobre la vida recibieron fuertes críticas por una corriente de pensamiento originada en el Círculo de Viena en la segunda década del siglo pasado y que tuvo a la Física como modelo de ciencia. Según ésta, se promulgaba la existencia de un único método y explicación para los fenómenos naturales y sociales, reduciendo todo sistema a sus partes constituyentes. Los puntos de confrontación con la Biología se centraron en la escasez de leyes, la inutilización de la matemática en sus clasificaciones, y en la imposibilidad de falsar muchas de sus hipótesis, fundamentalmente las históricas. Con el tiempo, las nuevas corrientes de pensamiento en la Filosofía de las Ciencias reconocieron a la Biología por sus características distintivas y objetos de estudio propios, de complejidad irreductible y con un irrefutable espacio de acción para el azar y la probabilidad. A tal efecto, tanto Lamarck como Darwin realizaron significativos aportes al ofrecer una visión de la vida en transformación permanente. Sin embargo, fue la teoría de la evolución por selección natural de Darwin la que produjo una revolución científica al dar al mundo una explicación laica al origen de las especies. En el ámbito educativo, existen en la actualidad distintas dificultades para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la evolución, entre las que se destaca la presencia de numerosas concepciones alternativas a la postura científica tanto en docentes como en alumnos y manuales escolares. Se discuten las implicancias de la Biología y de

  8. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

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    E. MERIC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this report is benthic foraminifer populations preserved in the saltpan of Camalti in the Province of Izmir. High salinity in certain habitats of Ammonia tepida Cushman may be the primary cause of the high rate of twins and triplets as well as other morphological abnormalities recorded within this species (50 % as compared to an anomaly rate of 1 % in normal marine waters. Thicker cyst membrane developing in extremely saline environments may encourage twins and other morphological deformities by denying free movement of the offspring. Ecological factors such as heavy metal contamination of ambient waters as well as contamination by other wastes are also not ruled out as leading to such developmental anomalies. Of the 27 collected samples, Number 5 (that is closest to the sea includes the typical marine foraminifers. Nonion depressulum (Walker & Jacob, Ammonia tepida Cushman and Porosononion subgronosum(Egger are the dominant species in other samples. A total of 63 abnormal individuals (8 triplets, 24 twins, and 31 morphological anomalies was found within seven of the 27 samples collected. Ten samples contained freshwater ostracods: Darwinula stevensoni(Brady and Robertson, Leptocythere lacertosa Hirschmann, Cyprideis torasa (Jones, Cyprideis (C. anatolica Bassiouni, and Loxochoncha elliptica Brady. Among these samples (some of which contained only a few species of ostracods - and those limited in number of offspring, one had an unusually high ratio of healthy foraminifers vs those with anomalies. Worthy of note in another sample was a high abundance of molluscs. Among pelecypods, were found Ostrea edulis Linné, Lucinella divaricata (Linné, Pseudocama gryphina Lamarck,Cerastoderma edule (Linné, and Scrobicularia plana da Costa; and among gastropods were identified Hydrobi (Hydrobia acuta(Draparnaud, Rissoa labiosa (Montagu, R. parva (da Costa, R. violacea Desmarest, Pirenella conica (Blainville, Bittium desayesi(Cerulli and

  9. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  10. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  11. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management.

  12. Diversity and structure of the stomatopod (Crustacea community on the Amazon continental shelf

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    Kátia C. Araújo Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the biodiversity of the Stomatopoda species found off the coast of the northern Brazilian states of Amapá and Pará, within the region's Exclusive Economic Zone. Two distinct sectors were surveyed, to the north and to the south of Cape Norte. The specimens were collected during fishery surveys carried out between 1996 and 1998 by the Revizee Program, using bottom shrimp trawl nets. The specimens were identified at the Crustaceans Laboratory of the Center for Research and Management of Fishery Resources of the Northern Coast and the Carcinology Laboratory of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco. The 189 identified specimens represented Lysiosquilla scabricauda (Lamarck, 1818 (n = 2, Parasquilla meridionalis Manning, 1916 (n = 1, Squilla empusa Say, 1818 (n = 6, and Squilla lijdingi Holthuis, 1959 (n = 180. Only three species were collected in each of the survey sectors, with L. scabricauda and S. lijdingi being captured in both sectors. Squilla lijdingi was dominant in both sectors, whereas the other species were considered to be rare. Squilla lijdingi was very frequent in the northern sector, although the other stomatopods were infrequent. In the southern sector, L. scabricauda was sporadic, S. empusa was frequent, and S. lijdingi was very frequent. A significant difference was observed in the number of specimens captured in both sectors. The Shannon index was 0.6144 bits.ind-1 for the northern sector and 0.2708 bits.ind-1 for the southern one, whereas equitability was 0.3876 in the North and 0.1708 in the South. The stomatopods were collected at depths between 32 and 109 m, and were captured primarily on gravelly bottoms in the northern sector, and on muddy substrates in the southern sector. Stomatopods were more abundant in the northern sector during the dry season from June to November, whereas they were more common in the South during rainy season, from December to May.

  13. Timing and duration of biotic extinction and recovery at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Texas and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Andrew; Hart, Malcolm; Hampton, Matt; Leng, Melanie; Smart, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary successions in Texas and Alabama provide a sedimentary record of events relatively close to the Chicxulub impact site. Recent work in both areas has shown that there was a single 'impact' event that is coincident with extinctions of planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil, although the dinoflagellate cyst community was little affected. The benthic foraminifera in the Texas successions are, remarkably, little affected with many taxa being found in both the Corsicana Mudstone Formation (uppermost Maastrichtian) and the Kincaid Mudstone Formation (lowermost Paleocene). In the sediments just above the erosive surface that marks the 'impact' event (and the K/Pg boundary) there are large benthic foraminifera, including nodosariids <1.5 mm in length and lenticulinids <1.5 mm in diameter. This assemblage is rather unusual, and we have been unable to determine any modern, or fossil, equivalent. As Lenticulina rotulata Lamarck occurs throughout the succession, this taxon has been used for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) of a range of different size fractions. The results show both a variation in oxygen and carbon isotope values with size as well as a distinct cyclicity which, almost certainly, reflects astronomical tuning. It is possible, therefore, to use this cyclicity to determine the possible duration of zones P0 and Pα (80-100 kyrs), and the timing of biotic recovery following the 'impact' event. The size of the stable isotope excursions (close to the base of zone P1a) is indicative of the Dan-C2 and the Lower 29n hyperthermal events, allowing direct correlation with the two other locations where these have been described: most notably in the Gubbio succession where there is also a good record of the magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy.

  14. EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES Y SU RELACION CON EL INICIO DE LA ACTUAL TEORIA DE LA HERENCIA.

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    Usanquén William

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En los 200 años del nacimiento de Charles Darwin se ha realizado un sinfín de discusiones y se han publicado cientos de artículos por todo el mundo haciendo referencia a los aportes de “El origen de las especies” en las diferentes ramas de la cultura occidental, Sin embargo, haciendo un mayor énfasis en las obras, como producto madurado de la mente humana, en este año más que ser el aniversario número doscientos del nacimiento de Darwin, es el 200 aniversario de la aparición de una obra fundamental dentro de la teoría biológica: La “Philosophie Zoologique” escrita por Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Por otra parte, también celebramos los 150 años de la primera edicion de “The Origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life”. En la primera parte se mostraran algunos elementos históricos relacionados con la filosofía zoológica y el contexto político de su nacimiento. Posteriormente se revisaran los principales conceptos darwinianos relacionados con la herencia y sus consecuencias en la formación de la disciplina llamada genética, se estudiara el caso especial de Gregor Mendel y finalmente se mostraran las implicaciones actuales en nuestra interpretación de la teoría evolutiva.

  15. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  16. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology.

  17. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MERIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this report is benthic foraminifer populations preserved in the saltpan of Camalti in the Province of Izmir. High salinity in certain habitats of Ammonia tepida Cushman may be the primary cause of the high rate of twins and triplets as well as other morphological abnormalities recorded within this species (50 % as compared to an anomaly rate of 1 % in normal marine waters. Thicker cyst membrane developing in extremely saline environments may encourage twins and other morphological deformities by denying free movement of the offspring. Ecological factors such as heavy metal contamination of ambient waters as well as contamination by other wastes are also not ruled out as leading to such developmental anomalies. Of the 27 collected samples, Number 5 (that is closest to the sea includes the typical marine foraminifers. Nonion depressulum (Walker & Jacob, Ammonia tepida Cushman and Porosononion subgronosum(Egger are the dominant species in other samples. A total of 63 abnormal individuals (8 triplets, 24 twins, and 31 morphological anomalies was found within seven of the 27 samples collected. Ten samples contained freshwater ostracods: Darwinula stevensoni(Brady and Robertson, Leptocythere lacertosa Hirschmann, Cyprideis torasa (Jones, Cyprideis (C. anatolica Bassiouni, and Loxochoncha elliptica Brady. Among these samples (some of which contained only a few species of ostracods - and those limited in number of offspring, one had an unusually high ratio of healthy foraminifers vs those with anomalies. Worthy of note in another sample was a high abundance of molluscs. Among pelecypods, were found Ostrea edulis Linné, Lucinella divaricata (Linné, Pseudocama gryphina Lamarck,Cerastoderma edule (Linné, and Scrobicularia plana da Costa; and among gastropods were identified Hydrobi (Hydrobia acuta(Draparnaud, Rissoa labiosa (Montagu, R. parva (da Costa, R. violacea Desmarest, Pirenella conica (Blainville, Bittium desayesi(Cerulli and

  18. Attraction and consumption of methyl eugenol by male Bactrocera umbrosa Fabricius (Diptera: Tephritidae) promotes conspecific sexual communication and mating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, S L; Abdul Munir, M Z; Hee, A K W

    2017-06-19

    The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest. The positive response of B. umbrosa males to methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent phytochemical lure, which attracts mainly males of many Bactrocera species, was shown to increase with increasing age. As early as 7 days after emergence (DAE), ca. 22% of males had responded to ME and over 50% by 10 DAE, despite no occurrence of matings (i.e. the males were still sexually immature). Male attraction to ME peaked from 10 to 27 DAE, which corresponded with the flies' attainment of sexual maturity. In wind-tunnel assays during the dusk courtship period, ME-fed males exhibited earlier calling activity and attracted a significantly higher percentage of virgin females compared with ME-deprived males. ME-fed males enjoyed a higher mating success than ME-deprived males at 1-day post ME feeding in semi-field assays. ME consumption also promotes aggregation behaviour in B. umbrosa males, as demonstrated in wind-tunnel and semi-field assays. We suggest that ME plays a prominent role in promoting sexual communication and enhancing mating performance of the Artocarpus fruit fly, a finding that is congruent with previous reports on the consequences of ME acquisition by other economically important Bactrocera species.

  19. Transgenerational inheritance of modified DNA methylation patterns and enhanced tolerance induced by heavy metal stress in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Ou

    inheritable and accord with transmission of the epigenetic modifications. We suggest that environmental induction of heritable modifications in DNA methylation provides a plausible molecular underpinning for the still contentious paradigm of inheritance of acquired traits originally put forward by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck more than 200 years ago.

  20. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing.

  1. First report of Temnocephala rochensis (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae outside Uruguay: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurring in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1 the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2 the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3 the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.

  2. Abundance and distribution of Portunidae larval phases (Crustacea: Brachyura in the estuarine and coastal region of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

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    Rony Roberto Ramos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abundance and distribution of larval phases of the Portunidae found in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon and the coastal region were studied during two years (1995 and 1999. A conical net (165 cm long, 60 cm mouth, and 330 µm mesh equipped with a flowmeter was towed for three minutes at 2 knots at six stations within the estuary and four stations in the coastal region. Samplings were carried out on the surface and near the bottom. At each sampling location, the salinity and temperature were also recorded. In 1995, the zoeae of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Achelous spinicarpus Stimpson, 1871 were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 121.98 ind.100 m-3 (90.95 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 31.03 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. A total of 452.27 ind.100 m-3 were caught in the megalopa phase (13.49 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 438.78 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. In 1999, only zoeae of C. sapidus were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 419.78 ind.100 m-3 (386.98 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 32.8 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Megalopae of these three species were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 179.91 ind.100 m-3 (25.38 ind.100 m-3 on surface and 154.53 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Summer was the season with the highest abundance of larvae in both years. During spring and summer, spawning was observed in the estuarine region of the Patos Lagoon.

  3. Reflexos da clarificação do caldo de cana com moringa sobre compostos inorgânicos do açúcar VHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. G. Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os reflexos da clarificação do caldo de cana utilizando extrato de folhas e sementes de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lamarck como auxiliares de sedimentação sobre os teores dos compostos inorgânicos do caldo clarificado e do açúcar VHP (Very High Purity - Tipo Exportação produzido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o fatorial 5 x 2 com quatro repetições; o primeiro fator correspondeu aos auxiliares de sedimentação: extrato de folhas e sementes de moringa, polieletrólito sintético e testemunha; já o segundo fator correspondeu a duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar: RB92579 e RB867515. O caldo extraído foi clarificado através de caleagem simples, concentrado até 60 oBrix e submetido ao processo de cozimento. No caldo original, clarificado e no açúcar produzido, foram quantificados os teores de fósforo, potássio, cálcio, sódio, magnésio, manganês e ferro além do teor de cinzas totais. Os empregos dos extratos de folhas e sementes de moringa se mostraram eficazes no tratamento do caldo destinado à produção de açúcar, por eliminar quantidades significativas de cálcio e ferro em comparação ao polieletrólito sintético. O extrato de folhas foi o melhor auxiliar de sedimentação,quando comparado aos demais.

  4. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential antiinflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC(50) = 0.96 ± 0.23 μM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC(50) = 2.86 ± 0.39 μM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50) = 2.08 ± 0.28 μM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating antiinflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity.

  5. Benefit of pulsation in soft corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremien, Maya; Shavit, Uri; Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-05-28

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae exhibit a unique, rhythmic pulsation of their tentacles (Movie S1), first noted by Lamarck nearly 200 y ago. However, the adaptive benefit of this perpetual, energetically costly motion is poorly understood. Using in situ underwater particle image velocimetry, we found that the pulsation motions thrust water upward and enhance mixing across the coral-water boundary layer. The induced upward motion effectively prevents refiltration of water by neighboring polyps, while the intensification of mixing, together with the upward flow, greatly enhances the coral's photosynthesis. A series of controlled laboratory experiments with the common xeniid coral Heteroxenia fuscescens showed that the net photosynthesis rate during pulsation was up to an order of magnitude higher than during the coral's resting, nonpulsating state. This enhancement diminished when the concentration of oxygen in the ambient water was artificially raised, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis was due to a greater efflux of oxygen from the coral tissues. By lowering the internal oxygen concentration, pulsation alleviates the problem of reduced affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to CO2 under conditions of high oxygen concentrations. The photosynthesis-respiration ratio of the pulsating H. fuscescens was markedly higher than the ratios reported for nonpulsating soft and stony corals. Although pulsation is commonly used for locomotion and filtration in marine mobile animals, its occurrence in sessile (bottom-attached) species is limited to members of the ancient phylum Cnidaria, where it is used to accelerate water and enhance physiological processes.

  6. Taxonomical and Biogeochemical Investigation of Elements in Holocene Mollusk Shells in the South and Southwestern Marmara Basin, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saday Azado(g)lu ALIYEV; Ali SARI; Bahadir (O)KTEN

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of some heavy metals and trace elements such as Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cu, Pb, Yb, Y, Nb, Ti, Sr, Ba, Mn, Sc, Co, V, Zr, Fe, Al, W, Se, Bi, Sb, As, Cd in recent mollusk shells and factors affecting their distribution and deposits collected from various depths in the southern and southwestern parts of the Marmara Sea are investigated. The distribution of the elements in the shells is categorized into four groups. Of these, concentrations of 12 elements (As, Bi, Cd, Co, Ga, Mo, Nb, Sb, Se, Sc, W and Yb) are below zero [(0.053-0.79)x10-6]; concentrations of seven elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Zr and Cu) are (1.0-6.0)x10-6; concentrations of four elements (Ti, Mn, Ba and Zn) are 10-20x10-6; and concentrations of five elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Sr) are (47.44-268.11)x10-6. The taxonomic characteristics of the 29 elements were studied separately in mollusk shells such as Chamalea gallina (Linné), Pitar rudis (Poli), Nassarius reticulatus (Linné), Venerupis senescens (Coocconi), Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck), Mytilaster lineatus (Gemelin in Linné) and Chlamys glabra. It was found that, in mollusk taxonomy, the elements have unique values. In other words, element concentrations in various mollusk shells depend mainly on the taxonomic characteristics of mollusks. In various bionomic environments different element distributions of the same species are attributed to the different geochemical characters of the each environment. Data obtained in this study indicate that the organisms are the most active and deterministic factors of the environment.

  7. The Oxford Companion to the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Paul L.

    2001-06-01

    Here is a wealth of information on planet Earth, ranging from the heights of the ionsphere down to the red-hot molten core. Written by some 200 expert contributors, and illustrated with over 600 pictures, including 16 pages of color plates, The Oxford Companion to the Earth offers 900 alphabetically arranged entries that cover everything from deserts and wetlands to mountains, caves, glaciers, and coral reefs. There are articles on natural phenomena such as tornadoes and tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes, jet streams and weather fronts; on the history of Earth, including the origin of life, Burgess Shale fauna, dinosaurs, and the Ice Ages; on key figures, such as Agassiz, Cuvier, Darwin, and Lamarck; and on such important ecological concerns as acid rain, the ozone layer, industrial waste disposal, and the greenhouse effect. The Companion also examines the great sources of wealth to be found in the Earth, from coal and oil to gold, silver, and diamonds, and many curious land formations, from sinkholes and fiords to yardangs and quicksand. There are brief entries on rock types, from amber to travertine, and extensive essays on cutting-edge aspects of the earth sciences, such as seismology and marine geology. The Companion includes extensive cross-references, suggested further reading, an index, and many useful appendices, with a geological timescale, facts and figures about the Earth, and a table of chemical elements. The Oxford Companion to the Earth is a unique reference work, offering unrivaled coverage of our home planet. Generously illustrated and vividly written, it is a treasure house of information for all lovers of natural history, geology, and ecology, whether professional or amateur.

  8. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds.

  9. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, W.H.; Williams, J.D.; McGregor, S.W.; Pierson, J.M.; Lydeard, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort

  10. The effect of the causative algae of large-scale HAB in the East China Sea on egg hatching of Argopecten irradians, and population growth of Brachionus plicatilis and Moina mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Taoying; YAN Tian; WANG Liping; ZHANG Bin; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu and Alexandrium catenella Balech, causative species of the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea, were studied under laboratory conditions. According to bloom densities, the effects of monoculture and mixture of the two species were examined on the egg-hatching success of Argopecten irradians Lamarck, and the population growth of Brachionus plicatilis Müller and Moina mongolica Daday. The results showed that monoculture of A. catenella had a significant inhibition on the egg hatching success of A. irradians, and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The median effective densities (EDs0) inhibiting the egg hatching success of A. irradians for 24 h and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M.mongolica for 96 h were 800, 630, and 2 400 cells/cm3, respectively. Monoculture of P. donghaiense has no such inhibitory effect on the egg hatching success of A. irradians; P. donghaiense at lower suitable densities could sustain the population growth of B. plicatilis ( 1 × 104 ~ 3 × 104 cells/cm3 ) and M. mongolica (2 × 104 ~ 5 × 104 cells/cm3 ); P. donghaiense at higher densities had significantly adverse effect on the population growth of B. plicatilis (4 × 104 ~ 10 × 104 cells/cm3 ) and M. mongolica ( 10 ×104 cells/cm3). When the two algae were mixed according to bloom densities, P. donghaiense at suitable densities to some extent could decrease the toxicity of A. catenella to B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The results indicated that the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea could have adverse effect on zooplankton, and might further influence the marine ecosystem, especially when there was also Alexandrium bloom.

  11. Toward an evolutionary-predictive foundation for creativity : Commentary on "Human creativity, evolutionary algorithms, and predictive representations: The mechanics of thought trials" by Arne Dietrich and Hilde Haider, 2014 (Accepted pending minor revisions for publication in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabora, Liane; Kauffman, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Dietrich and Haider (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (5), 897-915, 2014) justify their integrative framework for creativity founded on evolutionary theory and prediction research on the grounds that "theories and approaches guiding empirical research on creativity have not been supported by the neuroimaging evidence." Although this justification is controversial, the general direction holds promise. This commentary clarifies points of disagreement and unresolved issues, and addresses mis-applications of evolutionary theory that lead the authors to adopt a Darwinian (versus Lamarckian) approach. To say that creativity is Darwinian is not to say that it consists of variation plus selection - in the everyday sense of the term - as the authors imply; it is to say that evolution is occurring because selection is affecting the distribution of randomly generated heritable variation across generations. In creative thought the distribution of variants is not key, i.e., one is not inclined toward idea A because 60 % of one's candidate ideas are variants of A while only 40 % are variants of B; one is inclined toward whichever seems best. The authors concede that creative variation is partly directed; however, the greater the extent to which variants are generated non-randomly, the greater the extent to which the distribution of variants can reflect not selection but the initial generation bias. Since each thought in a creative process can alter the selective criteria against which the next is evaluated, there is no demarcation into generations as assumed in a Darwinian model. We address the authors' claim that reduced variability and individuality are more characteristic of Lamarckism than Darwinian evolution, and note that a Lamarckian approach to creativity has addressed the challenge of modeling the emergent features associated with insight.

  12. Amphimixis and the individual in evolving populations: does Weismann's Doctrine apply to all, most or a few organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J.; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    The German biologist August Weismann (1834-1914) proposed that amphimixis (sexual reproduction) creates variability for natural selection to act upon, and hence he became one of the founders of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution. He is perhaps best known for what is called "Weismann's Doctrine" or "Weismann's Barrier" (i.e. the irreversible separation of somatic and germ cell functionalities early during ontogeny in multicellular organisms). This concept provided an unassailable argument against "soft inheritance" sensu Lamarck and informed subsequent theorists that the only "individual" in the context of evolution is the mature, reproductive organism. Herein, we review representative model organisms whose embryology conforms to Weismann's Doctrine (e.g. flies and mammals) and those that do not (e.g. freshwater hydroids and plants) based on this survey and the Five Kingdoms of Life scheme; we point out that most species (notably bacteria, fungi, protists and plants) are "non-Weismannian" in ways that make a canonical definition of the "individual" problematic if not impossible. We also review critical life history functional traits that allow us to create a matrix of all theoretically conceivable life cycles (for eukaryotic algae, embryophytes, fungi and animals), which permits us to establish where this scheme Weismann's Doctrine holds true and where it does not. In addition, we argue that bacteria, the dominant organisms of the biosphere, exist in super-cellular biofilms but rarely as single (planktonic) microbes. Our analysis attempts to show that competition among genomic variants in cell lineages played a critical part in the evolution of multicellularity and life cycle diversity. This feature was largely ignored during the formulation of the synthetic theory of biological evolution and its subsequent elaborations.

  13. Embryotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni; Minetto, Diego; Totaro, Sara; Mičetić, Ivan; Pigozzo, Andrea; Sabbioni, Enrico; Marcomini, Antonio; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria

    2013-12-01

    Few data exist on the ecotoxicological effects of nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) towards marine species with specific reference to bivalve molluscs and their relative life stages. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck was selected to assess the potential adverse effects of nTiO2 (0-64 mg/L) on its early larval development stages (pre-D shell stage, malformed D-shell stage and normal D-shell stage larvae) considering two exposure scenarios characterised by total darkness (ASTM protocol) and natural photoperiod (light/dark). This approach was considered to check the presence of potential effects associated to the photocatalytic properties of nTiO2. Parallel experiments were carried on with the bulk reference TiCl4. The toxicity of nTiO2 showed to be mainly related to its "nano" condition and to be influenced by the exposure to light that supported the increase in the number of pre-D shell stage (retarded) larvae compared to the malformed ones especially at the maximum effect concentrations (4 and 8 mg nTiO2/L). The non-linear regression toxicity data analysis showed the presence of two EC50 values per exposure scenario: a) EC(50)1 = 1.23 mg/L (0.00-4.15 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 38.56 mg/L (35.64-41.47 mg/L) for the dark exposure conditions; b) EC(50)1 = 1.65 mg/L (0.00-4.74 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 16.39 mg/L (13.31-19.48 mg/L) for the light/dark exposure conditions. The potential implication of agglomeration and sedimentation phenomena on ecotoxicological data was discussed.

  14. High-quality RNA extraction from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Susan; Zupo, Valerio; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Fontana, Angelo; Costantini, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is a keystone herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea due to its ability to transform macroalgal-dominated communities into barren areas characterized by increased cover of bare substrates and encrusting coralline algae, reduced biodiversity and altered ecosystem functions. P. lividus is also an excellent animal model for toxicology, physiology and biology investigations having been used for more than a century as a model for embryological studies with synchronously developing embryos which are easy to manipulate and analyze for morphological aberrations. Despite its importance for the scientific community, the complete genome is still not fully annotated. To date, only a few molecular tools are available and a few Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) studies have been performed. Here we aimed at setting-up an RNA extraction method to obtain high quality and sufficient quantity of RNA for NGS from P. lividus embryos at the pluteus stage. We compared five different RNA extraction protocols from four different pools of plutei (500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 embryos): TRIzol®, and four widely-used Silica Membrane kits, GenElute™ Mammalian Total RNA Miniprep Kit, RNAqueous® Micro Kit, RNeasy® Micro Kit and Aurum™ Total RNA Mini Kit. The quantity of RNA isolated was evaluated using NanoDrop. The quality, considering the purity, was measured as A260/A280 and A260/230 ratios. The integrity was measured by RNA Integrity Number (RIN). Our results demonstrated that the most efficient procedures were GenElute, RNeasy and Aurum, producing a sufficient quantity of RNA for NGS. The Bioanalyzer profiles and RIN values revealed that the most efficient methods guaranteeing for RNA integrity were RNeasy and Aurum combined with an initial preservation in RNAlater. This research represents the first attempt to standardize a method for high-quality RNA extraction from sea urchin embryos at the pluteus stage, providing a new resource for this

  15. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  16. Quick characterization of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides in 5 shellfishes by oligosaccharide analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Jiaojiao; Ai, Chunqing; Zhang, Bao; Guo, Li; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-11-29

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including well-known glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and some non-GAGs exist widely in animal kingdom. Although numerous methods have been established to analyze GAGs, few methods are available for non-GAG UACPs. In the present study, a protocol to identify all kinds of UACPs with repeating disaccharide units of hexosamine and uronic acid was demonstrated, and UACP components in five shellfishes, namely Turritella fortilirata Sowerby (GTF), Batillaria zonalis (GBZ), Nassarius variciferus (GNV), Monodonta labio Linnaeus (GML), and Argopecten irradians Lamarck (BAI) were primarily revealed. After a simple isolation procedure, crude polysaccharides were depolymerized by controlled acid hydrolysis, and then the resulting oligosaccharides were detected by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometer after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labeling. According to chromatograms using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was found in GNV and GML, a non-GAG named abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) with a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA-(1 → 2)-α-Man-(1→ repeating units in GBZ, and both of AGSP and CS in BAI and GTF. Further characterization of tetrasaccharides and sulfated/acetylated disaccharides by HPLC combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer confirmed the structural identification of CS and AGSP, and indicated CS in GTF and BAI was Type C. These results suggest the 5 mollusks as potential resources for CS and AGSP. And the analysis protocol presented in this study was powerful and effective for quick characterization of UACPs including GAGs as well as non-GAGs in complicated matrix.

  17. Estado de conocimiento actual y problemas de conservación de los Meloidae (Coleoptera de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-París, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered from publications, entomological collections and field observations along the last eight years, provide information about the presence of 40 especies of the family Meloidae in Comunidad de Madrid. Seven species are only known from collections made more than 25 years ago, while two species have been found only during recent field surveys (Meloe rugosus and Nemognatha chrysomelina. Two out of the seven species without recent records (Stenoria apicalis and Meloe baudueri are represented in Madrid by one or two specimens, so that their current presence in the region may have been overlooked. This is not the case of the other five (Meloe variegatus, M. cavensis, M. violaceus, Mylabris uhagonii and M. amorii, which are represented by numerous specimens in the historical collections. Meloe variegatus, M. cavensis and Mylabris uhagonii, must be considered at risk of extinction, but if new specimens are not found in the near future they should be treated as definitively extinct. Mylabris amorii has been found in only one locality at the northernmost edge of its known distribution range, and the evaluation of its status depends on new information. Meloe violaceus has suffered and evident decline and therefore should be treated as Vulnerable. Five additional species suffered evident reductions of their distribution ranges in Madrid (Meloe brevicollis, M. autumnalis, M. proscarabaeus, Hycleus dufourii and Mylabris dejeani. Most of the recent records for those species are restricted to mountain areas, while the lowland populations seem to have been disappeared and consequently, these species should be listed as Vulnerable. If the current tendency continues they will be transferred to the Extinction Risk level. Meloe tuccius, a frequently found species 10 to 15 years ago in the urban area of Madrid can be considerered today as nearly extinct in the area, and therefore should be

  18. Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-11-01

    Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

  19. Review of the Ecotoxicological Properties of the Methylenedianiline Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, T; Allmendinger, H; Bossuyt, B T A; Hidding, B; Tury, B; West, R J

    Concerning chronic toxicity, D. magna is the most sensitive species tested against MDA aquatic exposures, with a 21 days-NOEC of 0.00525 mg/L. Exposure of daphnids takes place via the aquatic phase. Other species of the same phylum (Arthropoda) appear to be less sensitive albeit with exposures via soil or sediment, with a 28 days-NOEC of 562 mg/kg d. w. soil (F. candida) and 41.3 mg/kg d. w. sediment (Hyalella azteca), for reproductive and survival endpoints, respectively. Also for acute toxicity, D. magna is more sensitive than the other species, with an 48 h-EC50 that spreads over two orders of magnitude, ranging from 0.019 to 2.7 mg/L. Fish show a more uniform reaction to MDA, with 96 h-LC50 ranging from about 20 to 60 mg/L; chronic data for fish are not available. Acute toxicity data for algae and cyanobacteria are in the range of 1-10 mg/L; based on growth rate, the 72 h-NOECr or ErC10 of MDA to algae is 0.3-9.3 mg/L.For sediment organisms, the black worm L. variegatus shows the highest sensitivity against MDA with a NOEC between ≤3.75 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg d. w., followed by the amphipod H. azteca. The lower sensitivity of L. variegatus in the second study compared to the first study is obviously attributable to the different feeding regimes (semi-continuous feeding against pre-spiked sediment). One argument might be that semi-continuous feeding allows the organisms to avoid the contaminated food. However, a change from semi-continuous feeding to sediment pre-spiked with nettle powder (Urtica sp.) results in an earlier and much stronger increase in ammonia concentration in the system. This became apparent after both studies on the blackworm were finalized. The ammonia 96 h-EC50 for the blackworm is 0.69 mg/L at pH = 8.2, and the 96 h-EC10 at pH = 8.2 is 0.33 mg/L (Hickey and Vickers, Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 26:292-298, 1994). As a result, the lower NOEC and LOEC in the second study with L. variegatus are probably attributable to

  20. The wildlife research & rescue programme for mammals at Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project (HTHEP), Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-Syuhada, N.; Magintan, D.; Siti-Hajar, A. R.; Aisah, M. S.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    During the inundation of the Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project in October 2014, a wildlife rescue programme was conducted to rescue animals found trapped within the expanding 61.6 km2 reservoir. A total of 244 mammals from 30 species, representing 12 families were rescued by various methods included baited live trapping, catchpoles, hoop nets and by hand. The order Rodentia recorded the highest amount of rescued individuals at 20.9%, followed by Primate (18.9), Dermoptera (11.1), Carnivora (0.8) and Pholidota (0.4). The genus Rattus recorded the highest individuals rescued (51 individuals) probably due to the rapid clear-cut logging of the forest prior to inundation. Notable mammals of high conservational value rescued included Manis javanicus (Pangolin), Presbytis melalophos siamensis (Mitred Leaf Monkey), Trachypithecus obscurus (Dusky Leaf Monkey), Hylobates lar (White Handed Gibbon), Nycticebus coucang (Slow Loris), Galeopterus variegatus (Sunda Colugo), Callosciurus nigrovittatus (Sunda Black-banded Squirrel), Ratufa spp. (Giant Squirrels), and Sundasciurus hippurus (Horse-tailed Squirrel). Various data and biological samples were collected from the mammals rescued prior to their release at the nearest forest reserves. Rescue operation enabled the inventory and comprehensive data collection of various arboreal and rare mammal species that are hard to capture using the traditional survey method.