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Sample records for lysotracker red ltr

  1. Photoconversion of Lysotracker Red to a green fluorescent molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C Freundt; Meggan Czapiga; Michael J Lenardo

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor: Lysotracker Red DND-99 (Invitrogen-Molecular Probes)is a fluorophore in the form of a conjugated multi-pyrrole ring structure containing a weakly basic amine that selectively accumulates in acidic compartments and exhibits red fluorescence(excitation:577 nm,emission:590 nm)(Figure 1A).It iS structurally related to Lvsotracker Green (Figure 1B)but has an additional pyrrole ring in conjugation with the primary structure,which produces a longer wavelength emission.Lysotracker Red is commonly used in multicolor imaging studies as a lysosomal marker to determine intracellular localization of a protein of interest by fluorescence and confocal microscopy[1-5] and is recommended by the manufacturer for this application.

  2. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  3. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...... of the LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

  4. Identification and characterization of jute LTR retrotransposons:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salim; Shafiuddin, MD; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Islam, Md. Shahidul; Ghosh, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a significant part of eukaryotic genomes and play an important role in genome evolution especially in plants. Jute is an important fiber crop with a large genome of 1,250 Mbps. This genome is still mostly unexplored. In this study we aimed at identifying and characterizing the LTR retrotransposons of jute with a view to understanding the jute genome better. In this study, the Reverse Transcriptase domain of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy LTR retrotransposons of jute were amplified by degenerate primers and their expressions were examined by reverse transcription PCR. Copy numbers of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy elements were determined by dot blot analysis. Sequence analysis revealed higher heterogeneity among Ty1-copia retrotransposons than Ty3-gypsy and clustered each of them in three groups. Copy number of RT genes in Ty1-copia was found to be higher than that of Ty3-gypsy elements from dot blot hybridization. Cumulatively Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy may constitute around 19% of the jute genome where two groups of Ty1-copia were found to be transcriptionally active. Since the LTR retrotransposons constitute a large portion of jute genome, these findings imply the importance of these elements in the evolution of jute genome. PMID:22016842

  5. LTR Design of propertional integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...

  6. Retroviral hybrid LTR vector strategy: functional analysis of LTR elements and generation of endothelial cell specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T B; Kaspers, J; Porter, C D

    2004-05-01

    Transcriptional targeting is an important aspect of developing gene therapy vectors in order to restrict transgene expression to selected target cells. One approach, when using retroviral vectors, is to replace viral transcriptional control elements within the long terminal repeat (LTR) with sequences imparting the desired specificity. We have developed such hybrid LTR retroviruses, incorporating sequences from each of the human promoters for flt-1, ICAM-2 and KDR, as part of our antivascular cancer gene therapy strategy targeting tumour endothelial cells. The chosen fragments were used to replace the enhancer or combined enhancer and proximal promoter regions of the viral LTR. All showed activity in primary human breast microvascular endothelial cells, with viruses incorporating ICAM-2 sequences exhibiting the greatest specificity versus nonendothelial cells in vitro and a marked alteration of specificity towards endothelial cells in a subcutaneous xenograft model in vivo. Moreover, our study documents the effect of enhancer and/or proximal promoter deletion on LTR activity and reports that differential dependence in different cell lines can give the false impression of specificity if experiments are not adequately controlled. This finding also has implications for other retroviral vector designs seeking to provide transcriptional specificity and for their safety with respect to prevention of gene activation at sites of proviral integration.

  7. HIV-1 LTR subtype and perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, J T; Renjifo, B; Fawzi, W; Hertzmark, E; Msamanga, G; Mwakagile, D; Hunter, D; Spiegelman, D; Sharghi, N; Kagoma, C; Essex, M

    2001-09-01

    Multiple subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified; however, there is little data on the relative transmissibility of viruses belonging to different subtypes. A matched case-control study addressed whether viruses with different long terminal repeat (LTR) subtypes were transmitted equally from mother to infant. The LTR subtype was determined for 45 matched cases and controls who participated in a clinical trial in Tanzania. HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D and intersubtype recombinant sequences were identified. Exact matched logistic regression analysis showed that viruses containing subtype A or intersubtype recombinant LTRs were 3.2 and 4.8 times more likely to be transmitted from mother to infant than viruses with subtype D LTRs. Viruses containing subtype C LTRs were 6.1 times more likely to be transmitted than those with subtype D LTRs. These differences in transmission were independent of maternal CD4 at enrollment. Thus, it appears that HIV-1 subtype may be associated with differing rates of perinatal transmission in Tanzania. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. A parametric LTR solution for discrete-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1989-01-01

    and the full loop transfer function, is manipulated into a general form involving the target loop transfer matrix and the fundamental recovery matrix. A parametric LTR solution based on the recovery matrix is developed. It is shown that the LQR/LTR (linear quadratic Gaussian/loop transfer recovery) solution......A parametric LTR (loop transfer recovery) solution for discrete-time compensators incorporating filtering observers which achieve exact recovery is presented for both minimum- and non-minimum-phase systems. First the recovery error, which defines the difference between the target loop transfer...

  9. An application of LTR design in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    as a standard Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) design problem. As a consequence of the connection between LTR and FDI design, it is shown in an example how the LQG/LTR design method for full order and a proportional-integral observer can be applied with advantages in connection with FDI.......The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem is considered in this paper. The FDI problem is formulated as a filter design problem, where the faults in the system is estimated and the disturbance acting on the system is rejected. It turns out that the filter design problem can be considered...

  10. LTR retroelements in the genome of Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat (LTR retroelements represent a successful group of transposable elements (TEs that have played an important role in shaping the structure of many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of LTR retroelements in Daphnia pulex, a cyclical parthenogen and the first crustacean for which the whole genomic sequence is available. In addition, we analyze transcriptional data and perform transposon display assays of lab-reared lineages and natural isolates to identify potential influences on TE mobility and differences in LTR retroelements loads among individuals reproducing with and without sex. Results We conducted a comprehensive de novo search for LTR retroelements and identified 333 intact LTR retroelements representing 142 families in the D. pulex genome. While nearly half of the identified LTR retroelements belong to the gypsy group, we also found copia (95, BEL/Pao (66 and DIRS (19 retroelements. Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase sequences showed that LTR retroelements in the D. pulex genome form many lineages distinct from known families, suggesting that the majority are novel. Our investigation of transcriptional activity of LTR retroelements using tiling array data obtained from three different experimental conditions found that 71 LTR retroelements are actively transcribed. Transposon display assays of mutation-accumulation lines showed evidence for putative somatic insertions for two DIRS retroelement families. Losses of presumably heterozygous insertions were observed in lineages in which selfing occurred, but never in asexuals, highlighting the potential impact of reproductive mode on TE abundance and distribution over time. The same two families were also assayed across natural isolates (both cyclical parthenogens and obligate asexuals and there were more retroelements in populations capable of reproducing sexually for one of the two families assayed. Conclusions

  11. A Theory of LTR Junk-food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2003-01-01

    LTR junk-food consumption balances the marginal satisfaction with the marginal deterioration of health. An LTR person discounts the instantaneous marginal satisfaction from junk-food consumption by its implications for his survival probability. His change rate of health evaluation is increased (decreased) by junk-food consumption when health is better (worse) than a critical level. The moderating direct effects of age and relative price on junk-food consumption may be amplified, or dimmed, by...

  12. Convergent evolution of ribonuclease h in LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyantsev, Kirill; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Smyshlyaev, Georgy

    2015-05-01

    Ty3/Gypsy long terminals repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are structurally and phylogenetically close to retroviruses. Two notable structural differences between these groups of genetic elements are 1) the presence in retroviruses of an additional envelope gene, env, which mediates infection, and 2) a specific dual ribonuclease H (RNH) domain encoded by the retroviral pol gene. However, similar to retroviruses, many Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons harbor additional env-like genes, promoting concepts of the infective mode of these retrotransposons. Here, we provide a further line of evidence of similarity between retroviruses and some Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. We identify that, together with their additional genes, plant Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons of the Tat group have a second RNH, as do retroviruses. Most importantly, we show that the resulting dual RNHs of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses emerged independently, providing strong evidence for their convergent evolution. The convergent resemblance of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses may indicate similar selection pressures acting on these diverse groups of elements and reveal potential evolutionary constraints on their structure. We speculate that dual RNH is required to accelerate retrotransposon evolution through increased rates of strand transfer events and subsequent recombination events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  14. Network dynamics of eukaryotic LTR retroelements beyond phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernad Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. Results We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. Conclusion The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as

  15. LTR-retrotransposons in plants: Engines of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Deyholos, Michael K; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle

    2017-08-30

    LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant group of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. These elements can fall inside or close to genes, and therefore influence their expression and evolution. This review aims to examine how LTR retrotransposons, especially Ty1-copia elements, mediate gene regulation and evolution. Various stimuli, including polyploidization and biotic and abiotic elicitors, result in the transcription and movement of these retrotransposons, and can facilitate adaptation. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs in the LTRs are central to their stress-mediated responses and are shared with host stress-responsive genes, showing a complex evolutionary history in which TEs provide new regulatory units to genes. The presence of retrotransposon remnants in genes that are necessary for normal gene function, demonstrates the importance of exaptation and co-option, and is also a consequence of the abundance of these elements in plant genomes. Furthermore, insertions of LTR retrotransposons in and around genes provide potential for alternative splicing, epigenetic control, transduction, duplication and recombination. These characteristics can become an active part of the evolution of gene families as in the case of resistance genes (R-genes). The character of TEs as exclusively selfish is now being re-evaluated. Since genome-wide reprogramming via TEs is a long evolutionary process, the changes we can examine are case-specific and their fitness advantage may not be evident until TE-derived motifs and domains have been completely co-opted and fixed. Nevertheless, the presence of LTR retrotransposons inside genes and as part of gene promoter regions is consistent with their roles as engines of plant genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary history of Oryza sativa LTR retrotransposons: a preliminary survey of the rice genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganko Eric W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LTR Retrotransposons transpose through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and are ubiquitous components of all eukaryotic genomes thus far examined. Plant genomes, in particular, have been found to be comprised of a remarkably high number of LTR retrotransposons. There is a significant body of direct and indirect evidence that LTR retrotransposons have contributed to gene and genome evolution in plants. Results To explore the evolutionary history of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons and their impact on the genome of Oryza sativa, we have extended an earlier computer-based survey to include all identifiable full-length, fragmented and solo LTR elements in the rice genome database as of April 2002. A total of 1,219 retroelement sequences were identified, including 217 full-length elements, 822 fragmented elements, and 180 solo LTRs. In order to gain insight into the chromosomal distribution of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome, a detailed examination of LTR-retrotransposon sequences on Chromosome 10 was carried out. An average of 22.3 LTR-retrotransposons per Mb were detected in Chromosome 10. Conclusions Gypsy-like elements were found to be >4 × more abundant than copia-like elements. Eleven of the thirty-eight investigated LTR-retrotransposon families displayed significant subfamily structure. We estimate that at least 46.5% of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome are older than the age of the species (

  17. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    transcriptional activity from Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons are normally flanked by two LTR sequences. However, the majority of LTR sequences in S. pombe exist as solitary LTRs, i.e. as single terminal repeat sequences not flanking a retrotransposon. Transcriptional activity...... of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription of solitary LTRs is correlated with the transcription of nearby protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: Presumably, the host organism negatively regulates...... proliferation of LTR retrotransposons. The finding of considerable transcriptional activity of retrotransposons suggests that part of this regulation is likely to take place at a posttranscriptional level. Alternatively, the transcriptional activity may signify a hitherto unrecognized activity level...

  18. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Malatinkova; Maja Kiselinova; Pawel Bonczkowski; Wim Trypsteen; Peter Messiaen; Jolien Vermeire; Bruno Verhasselt; Karen Vervisch; Linos Vandekerckhove; Ward De Spiegelaere

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. Materials and M...

  19. The LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is regulated by cell-line specific accessibility in the LTR U3 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, J. M.; Hergersberg, M.; Banville, D.;

    2006-01-01

    By germline insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an intracisternal A-particle type IAP retrovirus has overtaken the transcriptional control of the rat oncomodulin (OM) gene, which codes for a high affinity Ca2+-binding protein with modulatory capacity. In order to get insights into regulatory...... to the one of the OM gene. Genomic sequencing showed a good correlation between CpG hypomethylation in the OM LTR and OM transcription among various cell lines and tissues. DNase I mapping of a 18 kb fragment containing the OM gene and 5' flanking sequences revealed cell-line specific hypersensitivity sites...... located within the U3 region of the LTR element. Several cis-elements in the OM LTR promoter exhibiting cell-line specific occupancy were identified by in vivo DMS-footprinting. Detailed analysis of protein interactions with two such sequence elements in vitro revealed binding of ubiquitously expressed...

  20. LTR retrotransposons contribute to genomic gigantism in plethodontid salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Shepard, Donald B; Chong, Rebecca A; López Arriaza, José; Hall, Kathryn; Castoe, Todd A; Feschotte, Cédric; Pollock, David D; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 613 species. Salamander genome sizes range from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Because genome size is correlated with nucleus and cell sizes, as well as other traits, morphological evolution in salamanders has been profoundly affected by genomic gigantism. However, the molecular mechanisms driving genomic expansion in this clade remain largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of transposable element (TE) content in salamanders. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated genomic shotgun data for six species from the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. We then developed a pipeline to mine TE sequences from shotgun data in taxa with limited genomic resources, such as salamanders. Our summaries of overall TE abundance and diversity for each species demonstrate that TEs make up a substantial portion of salamander genomes, and that all of the major known types of TEs are represented in salamanders. The most abundant TE superfamilies found in the genomes of our six focal species are similar, despite substantial variation in genome size. However, our results demonstrate a major difference between salamanders and other vertebrates: salamander genomes contain much larger amounts of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, primarily Ty3/gypsy elements. Thus, the extreme increase in genome size that occurred in salamanders was likely accompanied by a shift in TE landscape. These results suggest that increased proliferation of LTR retrotransposons was a major molecular mechanism contributing to genomic expansion in salamanders.

  1. Protective efficacy of a recombinant BAC clone of Marek's disease virus containing REV-LTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...

  2. Expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in adenoid tissues from children with adenoid hypertrophy%CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2在腺样体肥大儿童腺样体组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美华; 梁敏; 王志坚; 沈雁; 温红艳; 翟锦明; 杨晓彬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 (CysLTR-1) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-2 (CysLTR-2) in the adenoid tissues from children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and to explore the role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of AH. Methods Sixty children with AH who were treated by adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy were classified into two groups: simple AH and AH plus allergic rhinitis (n=30 each). Twenty children who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent purulent tonsillitis were selected as the control group. The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the excised tonsil and/or adenoid tissues was determined by immunolfuorescence histochemical labeling and integrated optical density measurement. Results The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the adenoid and tonsil tissues increased signiifcantly in both the simple AH group and AH plus allergic rhinitis group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the AH plus allergic rhinitis group increased more signiifcantly compared with the simple AH group (P<0.01). Conclusions CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 are highly expressed in the adenoid tissues from children with AH, suggesting that leukotrienes are involved in the pathogenesis of AH.%目的:检测腺样体肥大(adenoid hypertrophy, AH)患儿腺样体组织中半胱氨酸白三烯受体1(CysLTR-1)和半胱氨酸白三烯受体2(CysLTR-2)的表达,探讨白三烯在AH发病中的作用。方法将60例行腺样体/扁桃体切除的AH患儿分为单纯AH组与伴变态反应性鼻炎AH组(每组30例),以反复化脓性扁桃体炎行扁桃体切除的20例患儿作为对照组。通过免疫荧光组织化学标记法及累积光密度(IOD)测量方法观察各组患儿术后扁桃体/腺样体组织中CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2的表达。结果在两个AH组的腺样体组织和扁桃体组织中,CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2的表达强度均明显高于对照组(P

  3. Tissue specificity of enhancer and promoter activities of a HERV-K(HML-2) LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Trubetskoy, D O; Manuylov, N L; Vetchinova, A S; Zavalova, L L; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2004-08-01

    Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate tissue-specific promoter and enhancer activities of a solitary extraviral long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in several human and CHO cell lines. The promoter activity of the LTR varied from virtually not detectable (GS and Jurkat cells) to as high as that of the SV40 early promoter (Tera-1 human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells). The negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR retained its activity in all cell lines where the LTR could act as a promoter, and was also capable of binding host cell nuclear proteins. The enhancer activity of the LTR towards the SV40 early promoter was detected only in Tera-1 cells and was not observed in a closely related human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line of different origin, NT2/D1. A comparison of proteins bound to central part of the LTR in nuclear extracts from Tera-1 and NT2/D1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed striking differences that could be determined by different LTR enhancer activities in these cells. Tissue specificity of the SV40 early promoter activity was also revealed.

  4. The variances of Sp1 and NF-κB elements correlate with the greater capacity of Chinese HIV-1 B′-LTR for driving gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The 5′ end of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) serves as a promoter that plays an essential role in driving viral gene transcription. Manipulation of HIV-1 LTR provides a potential therapeutic strategy for suppressing viral gene expression or excising integrated provirus. Subtype-specific genetic diversity in the LTR region has been observed. The minor variance of LTR, particularly in the transcription factor binding sites, can have a profound impact on its activity. However, the LTR profiles...

  5. LTR retrotransposon landscape in Medicago truncatula: more rapid removal than in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin-Song

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic TEs that transpose through RNA intermediates. Accounting for significant proportion of many plant genomes, LTR elements have been well established as one of the major forces underlying the evolution of plant genome size, structure and function. The accessibility of more than 40% of genomic sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula (Mt has made the comprehensive study of its LTR elements possible. Results We use a newly developed tool LTR_FINDER to identify LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome and detect 526 full-length elements as well as a great number of copies related to them. These elements constitute about 9.6% of currently available genomic sequences. They are classified into 85 families of which 64 are reported for the first time. The majority of the LTR retrotransposons belong to either Copia or Gypsy superfamily and the others are categorized as TRIMs or LARDs by their length. We find that the copy-number of Copia-like families is 3 times more than that of Gypsy-like ones but the latter contribute more to the genome. The analysis of PBS and protein-coding domain structure of the LTR families reveals that they tend to use only 4–5 types of tRNAs and many families have quite conservative ORFs besides known TE domains. For several important families, we describe in detail their abundance, conservation, insertion time and structure. We investigate the amplification-deletion pattern of the elements and find that the detectable full-length elements are relatively young and most of them were inserted within the last 0.52 MY. We also estimate that more than ten million bp of the Mt genomic sequences have been removed by the deletion of LTR elements and the removal of the full-length structures in Mt has been more rapid than in rice. Conclusion This report is the first comprehensive description and analysis of LTR retrotransposons in the

  6. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Malatinkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. Materials and Methods: We compared two sample processing procedures to more accurately quantify 2-LTR circles using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR. Episomal HIV 2-LTR circles were either isolated by genomic DNA isolation or by a modified plasmid DNA isolation, to separate the small episomal circular DNA from chromosomal DNA. This was performed in a dilution series of HIV-infected cells and HIV-1 infected patient derived samples (n=59. Samples for the plasmid DNA isolation method were spiked with an internal control plasmid. Results: Genomic DNA isolation enables robust 2-LTR circles quantification. However, in the lower ranges of detection, PCR inhibition caused by high genomic DNA load substantially limits the amount of sample input and this impacts sensitivity and accuracy. Moreover, total genomic DNA isolation resulted in a lower recovery of 2-LTR templates per isolate, further reducing its sensitivity. The modified plasmid DNA isolation with a spiked reference for normalization was more accurate in these low ranges compared to genomic DNA isolation. A linear correlation of both methods was observed in the dilution series (R2=0.974 and in the patient derived samples with 2-LTR numbers above 10 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, (R2=0.671. Furthermore, Bland–Altman analysis revealed an average agreement between the methods within the 27 samples in which 2-LTR circles were detectable with both methods (bias: 0.3875±1.2657 log10. Conclusions: 2-LTR

  7. Low levels of LTR retrotransposon deletion by ectopic recombination in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2015-02-01

    Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes.

  8. Genome-wide survey and comparative analysis of LTR retrotransposons and their captured genes in rice and sorghum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ye Jiang

    Full Text Available Long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the major class I mobile elements in plants. They play crucial roles in gene expansion, diversification and evolution. However, their captured genes are yet to be genome-widely identified and characterized in most of plants although many genomes have been completely sequenced. In this study, we have identified 7,043 and 23,915 full-length LTR retrotransposons in the rice and sorghum genomes, respectively. High percentages of rice full-length LTR retrotransposons were distributed near centromeric region in each of the chromosomes. In contrast, sorghum full-length LTR retrotransposons were not enriched in centromere regions. This dissimilarity could be due to the discrepant retrotransposition during and after divergence from their common ancestor thus might be contributing to species divergence. A total of 672 and 1,343 genes have been captured by these elements in rice and sorghum, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed that no over-represented GO term was identified in LTR captured rice genes. For LTR captured sorghum genes, GO terms with functions in DNA/RNA metabolism and chromatin organization were over-represented. Only 36% of LTR captured rice genes were expressed and expression divergence was estimated as 11.9%. Higher percentage of LTR captured rice genes have evolved into pseudogenes under neutral selection. On the contrary, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes were under purifying selection and 72.4% of them were expressed. Thus, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes was functional. Small RNA analysis suggested that some of LTR captured genes in rice and sorghum might have been involved in negative regulation. On the other hand, positive selection has been observed in both rice and sorghum LTR captured genes and some of them were still expressed and functional. The data suggest that some of these LTR captured genes might have

  9. On the structure of AP-4 responsive element in the LTR of Jembrana disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies with deletion and sequence analysis of JDV LTR showed that there is a putative AP-4 responsive element in LTR. By antisense transient assay and gel shifting assay, we for the first time demonstrated that AP-4 modulated JDV gene expression by binding DNA directly to bovine cells. The results, derived from site-directed mutagenesis experiments, suggest that the six base pairs of AP-4 binding site (CAGCTG) have different effects on JDV gene expression. When the first two base pairs changed to GC, JDV gene expression is severely decreased.

  10. Identification and characterization of jute LTR retrotransposons:: Their abundance, heterogeneity and transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salim; Shafiuddin, Md; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Ghosh, Ajit; Khan, Haseena

    2011-05-01

    Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a significant part of eukaryotic genomes and play an important role in genome evolution especially in plants. Jute is an important fiber crop with a large genome of 1,250 Mbps. This genome is still mostly unexplored. In this study we aimed at identifying and characterizing the LTR retrotransposons of jute with a view to understanding the jute genome better. In this study, the Reverse Transcriptase domain of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy LTR retrotransposons of jute were amplified by degenerate primers and their expressions were examined by reverse transcription PCR. Copy numbers of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy elements were determined by dot blot analysis. Sequence analysis revealed higher heterogeneity among Ty1-copia retrotransposons than Ty3-gypsy and clustered each of them in three groups. Copy number of RT genes in Ty1-copia was found to be higher than that of Ty3-gypsy elements from dot blot hybridization. Cumulatively Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy may constitute around 19% of the jute genome where two groups of Ty1-copia were found to be transcriptionally active. Since the LTR retrotransposons constitute a large portion of jute genome, these findings imply the importance of these elements in the evolution of jute genome.

  11. Biological Characterization of CVRM2-BAC, A Recombinant CV1988 Virus Containing an REV LTR Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been previously reported that avian retroviruses, i.e. avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticoloendotheliosis virus (REV), integrate in the Marek’s disease virus genome affecting MDV pathogenicity. RM-2 is an attenuated serotype 1 MDV virus generated by insertion of the REV LTR in the genome of...

  12. Involvement of chromatin and histone acetylation in theregulation of HIV-LTR by thyroid hormone receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The HIV-1 LTR controls the expression of HIV-1 viral genes and thus is critical for viral propagation and pathology.Numerous host factors have been shown to participate in the regulation of the LTR promoter.Among them is the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR).TR has been shown to bind to the critical region of the promoter that contain the NFκB and Sp1 binding sites.Interestingly,earlier transient transfection studies in tissue culture cells have yielded contradicting conclusions on the role of TR in LTR regulation,likely due to the use of different cell types and/or lack of proper chromatin organization.Here,using the frog oocyte as a model system that allows replication-coupled chromatin assembly,mimicking that in somatic cells,we demonstrate that unliganded heterodimers of TR and RXR (9-cis retinoic acid receptor) repress LTR while the addition of T3 relieves the repression and further activates the promoter.More importantly,we show that chromatin and unliganded TR/RXR synergize to repress the promoter in a histone deacetylase-dependent manner.

  13. Molecular and biological characterization of a Marek's disease virus field strain with reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhizhong; Zhuang, Guoqin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Aijun; Su, Shuai

    2010-04-01

    A Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strain designated GX0101 was isolated from a layer flock and confirmed to be a recombinant virus with an insert of a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). A chimeric molecule containing an REV-LTR insert of 539 bp and its flanking sequences from MDV was amplified and sequenced. An REV-LTR downstream from the Internal Repeat Short (IRS) region has 77.4-98.6% homology to seven REV field strains isolated from different avian species in different parts of the world. The insertion site is located downstream of SORF 1 and upstream of SORF2 in the IRS region near the junction with the Unique Short (US) region in the MDV serotype 1 genome. Chicken experiments were conducted to determine the oncogenicity of the recombinant GX0101 virus and its transmissibility to contact chickens. Dot blot hybridization was used to detect the presence of the pp38 gene in feather tips from GX0101 or Md5 infected and contact birds. The pp38 was detected in GX0101 contact birds about 1-2 weeks earlier than in Md5 birds when both groups were vaccinated with HVT vaccine. Long term pathogenicity tests in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens reveal that the recombinant GX0101 has a higher virulence than GA, but less virulence than Md5, the very virulent pathotype of MDV. This is the first report on an oncogenic serotype 1 MDV field strain with LTR insert and its pathogenicity.

  14. Insertion of a Reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR into the Marek's disease virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) had previously been co-cultivated in culture with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). During co-cultivation, a long terminal repeat (LTR) from REV was inserted into the MDV genome. The resulting MDV, designated RM1, was attenuated but still induced severe thymic and bursal...

  15. The dynamics of LTR retrotransposon accumulation across 25 million years of panicoid grass evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L

    2013-02-01

    Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification.

  16. Analysis on LTR Retrotransposon in Vitis vinifera Based on the LTR-FINDER%基于LTR-FINDER分析葡萄基因组中LTR反转录转座子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫涛; 张焕丽; 押辉远

    2013-01-01

    运用LTR-FINDER对葡萄(Vitis vinifera)基因组中的19条染色体LTR反转录转座子进行分析.结果表明,葡萄基因组中19条染色体上共检索到5 470个LTR反转录转座子,约占葡萄基因组10.7%.LTR反转录转座子分析为进一步开展葡萄品种鉴定和遗传多样性分析奠定了基础.

  17. Rapid turnover of 2-LTR HIV-1 DNA during early stage of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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    Weijun Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and resides latently in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, which blocks the eradication of HIV-1. The viral persistence of HIV-1 is mainly caused by its proviral DNA being either linear nonintegrated, circular nonintegrated, or integrated. Previous reports have largely focused on the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA from the samples collected with relatively long time intervals during the process of disease and HAART treatment, which may have missed the intricate changes during the intervals in early treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA in patients during the early phase of HARRT treatment. Using optimized real time PCR, we observed significant changes in 2-LTR during the first 12-week of treatment, while total and integrated HIV-1 DNA remained stable. The doubling time and half-life of 2-LTR were not correlated with the baseline and the rate of changes in plasma viral load and various CD4+ T-cell populations. Longitudinal analyses on 2-LTR sequences and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels did not reveal any significant changes in the same treatment period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed the rapid changes in 2-LTR concentration in a relatively large number of patients during the early HAART treatment. The rapid changes indicate the rapid infusion and clearance of cells bearing 2-LTR in the peripheral blood. Those changes are not expected to be caused by the blocking of viral integration, as our study did not include the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. Our study helps better understand the dynamics of HIV-DNA and its potential role as a biomarker for the diseases and for the treatment efficacy of HAART.

  18. Hydroxyurea inhibits the transactivation of the HIV-long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, M A; Macho, A; Lucena, C; Muñoz, E

    2000-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by the promoter/enhancer located within the U3 region of the proviral 5′ LTR that contains multiple potential cis-acting regulatory sites. Here we describe that the inhibitor of the cellular ribonucleoside reductase, hydroxyurea (HU), inhibited phorbol myristate acetate- or tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1-LTR transactivation in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in a dose-dependent manner within the first 6 h of treatment, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0·5 mm. This inhibition was found to be specific for the HIV-1-LTR since transactivation of either an AP-1-dependent promoter or the CD69 gene promoter was not affected by the presence of HU. Moreover, gel-shift assays in 5.1 cells showed that HU prevented the binding of the NF-κB to the κB sites located in the HIV-1-LTR region, but it did not affect the binding of both the AP-1 and the Sp-1 transcription factors. By Western blots and cell cycle analyses we detected that HU induced a rapid dephosphorylation of the pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene, and the cell cycle arrest was evident after 24 h of treatment. Thus, HU inhibits HIV-1 promoter activity by a novel pathway that implies an inhibition of the NF-κB binding to the LTR promoter. The present study suggests that HU may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for inhibition of HIV-1 replication through different pathways. PMID:10792382

  19. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

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    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  20. Effects of As2O3 on DNA methylation, genomic instability, and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress.

  1. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary history...... of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription of solitary LTRs is correlated with the transcription of nearby protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: Presumably, the host organism negatively regulates...

  2. Improvements to LQGI/LTR Methodology for Plants with Lightly Damped or Low Frequency Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    93 IV X-29 Aircraft Longitudinal MIMO Model Design .......................................... 94 4.1 Plant...nyrads= F reC..: I -4- 16,7 -- - --- Figure 28 Perturbed Complementary Sensitivity Curves of Three Designs 92 3.5 Summary In aircraft longitudinal control...designing LQG/LTR compensators with the stated methods. An A-4 aircraft longitudinal control is used for a SISO model; it has a pair of lightly damped

  3. Evolution of brain functions in mammals and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the human genome, there are approximately 30 LTR retrotransposon-derived genes, such as the sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologues (SIRH) and the paraneoplastic Ma antigen (PNMA) family genes. They are derivatives from the original LTR retrotransposons and each gene seems to have its own unique function. PEG10/SIRH1 as well as PEG11/RTL1/SIRH2 and SIRH7/LDOC1 play essential roles in placenta formation, maintenance of fetal capillaries and the differentiation/maturation of a variety of placental cells, respectively. All of this evidence provides strong support for their contribution to the evolution of viviparity in mammals via their eutherian-specific functions. SIRH11/ZCCHC16 is an X-linked gene that encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high sequence identity to the LTR retrotransposon Gag protein and its deletion causes abnormal behavior related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory, possibly via the locus coeruleus noradrenaergic system in mice. Therefore, we have suggested that the acquisition of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 was involved in eutherian brain evolution. Interestingly, SIRH11/ZCCHC16 displays lineage-specific structural and putative species-specific functional variations in eutherians, suggesting that it contributed to the diversification of eutherians via increasing evolutionary fitness by these changes.

  4. Analysis of plant LTR-retrotransposons at the fine-scale family level reveals individual molecular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Douglas S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar production and increasingly, as a renewable energy source. Modern cultivars have polyploid, large complex genomes, with highly unequal contributions from ancestral genomes. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs are the single largest components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their contribution to the genome and transcriptome, however a detailed study of LTR-RTs in sugarcane has not been previously carried out. Results Sixty complete LTR-RT elements were classified into 35 families within four Copia and three Gypsy lineages. Structurally, within lineages elements were similar, between lineages there were large size differences. FISH analysis resulted in the expected pattern of Gypsy/heterochromatin, Copia/euchromatin, but in two lineages there was localized clustering on some chromosomes. Analysis of related ESTs and RT-PCR showed transcriptional variation between tissues and families. Four distinct patterns were observed in sRNA mapping, the most unusual of which was that of Ale1, with very large numbers of 24nt sRNAs in the coding region. The results presented support the conclusion that distinct small RNA-regulated pathways in sugarcane target the lineages of LTR-RT elements. Conclusions Individual LTR-RT sugarcane families have distinct structures, and transcriptional and regulatory signatures. Our results indicate that in sugarcane individual LTR-RT families have distinct behaviors and can potentially impact the genome in diverse ways. For instance, these transposable elements may affect nearby genes by generating a diverse set of small RNA's that trigger gene silencing mechanisms. There is also some evidence that ancestral genomes contribute significantly different element numbers from particular LTR-RT lineages to the modern sugarcane cultivar genome.

  5. LTR-retrotransposons in R. exoculata and other crustaceans: the outstanding success of GalEa-like copia elements.

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    Mathieu Piednoël

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. They can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. LTR-retrotransposons have been reported in many diverse eukaryote species, describing a ubiquitous distribution. Given their abundance, diversity and their extended ranges in C-values, environment and life styles, crustaceans are a great taxon to investigate the genomic component of adaptation and its possible relationships with TEs. However, crustaceans have been greatly underrepresented in transposable element studies. Using both degenerate PCR and in silico approaches, we have identified 35 Copia and 46 Gypsy families in 15 and 18 crustacean species, respectively. In particular, we characterized several full-length elements from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata that is listed as a model organism from hydrothermal vents. Phylogenic analyses show that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons likely present two opposite dynamics within crustaceans. The Gypsy elements appear relatively frequent and diverse whereas Copia are much more homogeneous, as 29 of them belong to the single GalEa clade, and species- or lineage-dependent. Our results also support the hypothesis of the Copia retrotransposon scarcity in metazoans compared to Gypsy elements. In such a context, the GalEa-like elements present an outstanding wide distribution among eukaryotes, from fishes to red algae, and can be even highly predominant within a large taxon, such as Malacostraca. Their distribution among crustaceans suggests a dynamics that follows a "domino days spreading" branching process in which successive amplifications may interact positively.

  6. Correlated evolution of LTR retrotransposons and genome size in the genus Eleocharis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedek, František; Smerda, Jakub; Smarda, Petr; Bureš, Petr

    2010-11-30

    Transposable elements (TEs) are considered to be an important source of genome size variation and genetic and phenotypic plasticity in eukaryotes. Most of our knowledge about TEs comes from large genomic projects and studies focused on model organisms. However, TE dynamics among related taxa from natural populations and the role of TEs at the species or supra-species level, where genome size and karyotype evolution are modulated in concert with polyploidy and chromosomal rearrangements, remain poorly understood. We focused on the holokinetic genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae), which displays large variation in genome size and the occurrence of polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy. We analyzed and quantified the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy in relation to changes in both genome size and karyotype in Eleocharis. We also examined how this relationship is reflected in the phylogeny of Eleocharis. Using flow cytometry, we measured the genome sizes of members of the genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). We found positive correlation between the independent phylogenetic contrasts of genome size and chromosome number in Eleocharis. We analyzed PCR-amplified sequences of various reverse transcriptases of the LTR retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy (762 sequences in total). Using real-time PCR and dot blot approaches, we quantified the densities of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy within the genomes of the analyzed species. We detected an increasing density of Ty1-copia elements in evolutionarily younger Eleocharis species and found a positive correlation between Ty1-copia densities and C/n-values (an alternative measure of monoploid genome size) in the genus phylogeny. In addition, our analysis of Ty1-copia sequences identified a novel retrotransposon family named Helos1, which is responsible for the increasing density of Ty1-copia. The transition:transversion ratio of Helos1 sequences suggests that Helos1 recently transposed in later

  7. Evidence for the adaptive significance of an LTR retrotransposon sequence in a Drosophila heterochromatic gene

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    Rodriguez Jose M

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential adaptive significance of transposable elements (TEs to the host genomes in which they reside is a topic that has been hotly debated by molecular evolutionists for more than two decades. Recent genomic analyses have demonstrated that TE fragments are associated with functional genes in plants and animals. These findings suggest that TEs may contribute significantly to gene evolution. Results We have analyzed two transposable elements associated with genes in the sequenced Drosophila melanogaster y; cn bw sp strain. A fragment of the Antonia long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon is present in the intron of Chitinase 3 (Cht3, a gene located within the constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 2L. Within the euchromatin of chromosome 2R a full-length Burdock LTR retrotransposon is located immediately 3' to cathD, a gene encoding cathepsin D. We tested for the presence of these two TE/gene associations in strains representing 12 geographically diverse populations of D. melanogaster. While the cathD insertion variant was detected only in the sequenced y; cn bw sp strain, the insertion variant present in the heterochromatic Cht3 gene was found to be fixed throughout twelve D. melanogaster populations and in a D. mauritiana strain suggesting that it maybe of adaptive significance. To further test this hypothesis, we sequenced a 685bp region spanning the LTR fragment in the intron of Cht3 in strains representative of the two sibling species D. melanogaster and D. mauritiana (~2.7 million years divergent. The level of sequence divergence between the two species within this region was significantly lower than expected from the neutral substitution rate and lower than the divergence observed between a randomly selected intron of the Drosophila Alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh. Conclusions Our results suggest that a 359 bp fragment of an Antonia retrotransposon (complete LTR is 659 bp located within the intron of the

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of LTR and LINE retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliani G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposable elements are important and peculiar genetic components derived from ancient retrovirus insertion inside plants genome. Their ability to move and/or replicate inside the genome is an important evolutionary force, responsible for the increase of genome size and the regulation of gene expression. Retrotransposable elements are well characterized in model or crop species like Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, but are poorly known in forest tree species. In this paper the molecular identification of retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L. is reported. Two retrotransposons, belonging to the two major classes of LTR and non-LTR elements, were characterized trough a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region strategy. The analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple copies of retrotransposable elements inside the genome of beech, in accordance with the viral quasi-species theory of retrotransposon evolution. The cloning and sequencing of amplification products and a Cleaved Amplified Polymorphisms (CAPs approach on the identified retrotransposons, showed a high level of diversity among the multiple copies of both elements. The identification of retrotransposable elements in forest trees represents an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution. Furthermore, the high polymorphism of retrotransposable elements can represent a starting point for the development of new genetic variability markers.

  9. HTLV-I antisense transcripts initiating in the 3'LTR are alternatively spliced and polyadenylated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott Susan J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense transcription in retroviruses has been suggested for both HIV-1 and HTLV-I, although the existence and coding potential of these transcripts remain controversial. Thorough characterization is required to demonstrate the existence of these transcripts and gain insight into their role in retrovirus biology. Results This report provides the first complete characterization of an antisense retroviral transcript that encodes the previously described HTLV-I HBZ protein. In this study, we show that HBZ-encoding transcripts initiate in the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR at several positions and consist of two alternatively spliced variants (SP1 and SP2. Expression of the most abundant HBZ spliced variant (SP1 could be detected in different HTLV-I-infected cell lines and importantly in cellular clones isolated from HTLV-I-infected patients. Polyadenylation of HBZ RNA occurred at a distance of 1450 nucleotides downstream of the HBZ stop codon in close proximity of a typical polyA signal. We have also determined that translation mostly initiates from the first exon located in the 3' LTR and that the HBZ isoform produced from the SP1 spliced variant demonstrated inhibition of Tax and c-Jun-dependent transcriptional activation. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate the existence of antisense transcription in retroviruses, which likely plays a role in HTLV-I-associated pathogenesis through HBZ protein synthesis.

  10. Recent CR1 non-LTR retrotransposon activity in coscoroba reveals an insertion site preference

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    Quinn Thomas W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken repeat 1 (CR1 is a taxonomically widespread non-LTR retrotransposon. Insertion site bias, or lack thereof, has not been demonstrated for CR1. Recent CR1 retrotranspositions were used to examine flanking regions for GC content and nucleotide bias at the insertion site. Results Elucidation of the exact octomer repeat sequence (TTCTGTGA allowed for the identification of younger insertion events. The number of octomer repeats associated with a CR1 element increases after insertion with CR1s having one octomer being youngest. These young CR1s are flanked by regions of low GC content (38%. Furthermore, a bias for specific bases within the first four positions at the site of insertion was revealed. Conclusion This study focused on those loci where the insertion event has been most recent, as this would tend to minimize noise introduced by post-integration mutational events. Our data suggest that CR1 is not inserting into regions of higher GC content within the coscoroba genome; but rather, preferentially inserting into regions of lower GC content. Furthermore, there appears to be a base preference (TTCT for the insertion site. The results of this study increase the current level of understanding regarding the elusive CR1 non-LTR retrotransposon.

  11. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of full-length Copia and Gypsy LTR retroelements in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia

    2017-08-03

    Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.

  12. A BAC clone of MDV strain GX0101 with REV-LTR integration retained its pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiJun; LAWRENCE Petherbridge; ZHAO YuGuang; LI YanPeng; NAIR Venugopal K; CUI ZhiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain GX0101,which was integrated with the LTR sequences of REV,was cloned in Escherichia coli as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).BAC vector sequences were introduced into the US2 locus of the MDV genome by homologous recombination.The viral DNA containing the BAC vector was used to transform Escherichia coli strain of DH10B.Then the recombinant virus was successfully rescued by transfection of the recombinant BAC DNA into primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF).This BAC viral clone was named bac-GX0101.When the reconstituted virus was inoculated into 1-day-old birds,visceral tumors could be detected as early as 62 d post infection.There was no difference in growth ability and pathogenicity to birds between the BAC derived virus and its parental virus.The BAC derived virus maintained its oncogenicity and immunosuppressive effects.In conclusion,the complete genome of GX0101 strain was successfully cloned into BAC and the infectious clone was rescued.With the powerful BAC manipulation system,the infectious clone will provide a useful tool for further understanding the functional roles of the inserted REV-LTR sequence in the GX0101 strain of MDV.

  13. Design of Critical Control Systems for Non-Minimum Phase Plants via LTR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tadashi; Ono, Takahiko

    An application of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) technique to critical control systems design is proposed for non-minimum phase plants. The controller structure is chosen as the Davison type integral controller with the Kalman filter. First, a critical control system is designed on the assumption that the state of the minimum phase part of the plant can be used for the feedback. A quadratic performance index with tuning parameters is used for determining the partial state feedback gain matrix. Second, the Kalman filter gain matrix is determined such that the output feedback controller performs as in the partial state feedback controller. The formal partial loop recovery procedure using the Riccati equation is adopted for this purpose. The proposed design method requires much simpler numerical search than the conventional one-step approach. An illustrative design example is presented.

  14. The variances of Sp1 and NF-κB elements correlate with the greater capacity of Chinese HIV-1 B′-LTR for driving gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Di; Li, Chuan; Sang, Feng; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Chiyu; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The 5′ end of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) serves as a promoter that plays an essential role in driving viral gene transcription. Manipulation of HIV-1 LTR provides a potential therapeutic strategy for suppressing viral gene expression or excising integrated provirus. Subtype-specific genetic diversity in the LTR region has been observed. The minor variance of LTR, particularly in the transcription factor binding sites, can have a profound impact on its activity. However, the LTR profiles from major endemic Chinese subtypes are not well characterized. Here, by characterizing the sequences and functions of LTRs from endemic Chinese HIV-1 subtypes, we showed that nucleotide variances of Sp1 core promoter and NF-κB element are associated with varied LTR capacity for driving viral gene transcription. The greater responsiveness of Chinese HIV-1 B′-LTR for driving viral gene transcription upon stimulation is associated with an increased level of viral reactivation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the introduction of CRISPR/dead Cas9 targeting Sp1 or NF-κB element suppressed viral gene expression. Taken together, our study characterized LTRs from endemic HIV-1 subtypes in China and suggests a potential target for the suppression of viral gene expression and a novel strategy that facilitates the accomplishment of a functional cure. PMID:27698388

  15. The cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 enhances HIV-1 transcription by unfolding LTR promoter G-quadruplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Matteo; Frasson, Ilaria; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Perrone, Rosalba; Tosoni, Elena; Lago, Sara; Tassinari, Martina; Palù, Giorgio; Richter, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded conformations of nucleic acids that act as cellular epigenetic regulators. A dynamic G-quadruplex forming region in the HIV-1 LTR promoter represses HIV-1 transcription when in the folded conformation. This activity is enhanced by nucleolin, which induces and stabilizes the HIV-1 LTR G-quadruplexes. In this work by a combined pull-down/mass spectrometry approach, we consistently found hnRNP A2/B1 as an additional LTR-G-quadruplex interacting protein. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed G-quadruplex specificity over linear sequences and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis indicated that hnRNP A2/B1 is able to efficiently unfold the LTR G-quadruplexes. Evaluation of the thermal stability of the LTR G-quadruplexes in different-length oligonucleotides showed that the protein is fit to be most active in the LTR full-length environment. When hnRNP A2/B1 was silenced in cells, LTR activity decreased, indicating that the protein acts as a HIV-1 transcription activator. Our data highlight a tightly regulated control of transcription based on G-quadruplex folding/unfolding, which depends on interacting cellular proteins. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the viral transcription mechanism and may pave the way to the development of drugs effective against the integrated HIV-1, present both in actively and latently infected cells.

  16. The Juan non-LTR retrotransposon in mosquitoes: genomic impact, vertical transmission and indications of recent and widespread activity

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    Tu Zhijian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to DNA-mediated transposable elements (TEs, retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs, are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards horizontal transfer. Detailed studies on site-specific non-LTR families have demonstrated strict vertical transmission. More studies are needed with non-site-specific non-LTR families to determine whether strict vertical transmission is a phenomenon related to site specificity or a more general characteristic of all non-LTRs. Juan is a Jockey clade non-LTR retrotransposon first discovered in mosquitoes that is widely distributed in the mosquito family Culicidae. Being a non-site specific non-LTR, Juan offers an opportunity to further investigate the hypothesis that non-LTRs are genomic elements that are primarily vertically transmitted. Results Systematic analysis of the ~1.3 Gbp Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti genome sequence suggests that Juan-A is the only Juan-type non-LTR in Aedes aegypti. Juan-A is highly reiterated and comprises approximately 3% of the genome. Using minimum cutoffs of 90% length and 70% nucleotide (nt identity, 663 copies were found by BLAST using the published Juan-A sequence as the query. All 663 copies are at least 95% identical to Juan-A, while 378 of these copies are 99% identical to Juan-A, indicating that the Juan-A family has been transposing recently in evolutionary history. Using the 0.34 Kb 5' UTR as the query, over 2000 copies were identified that may contain internal promoters, leading to questions on the genomic impact of Juan-A. Juan sequences were obtained by PCR, library screening, and database searches for 18 mosquito species of six genera including Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Culex, Deinocerites, and Wyeomyia. Comparison of host and Juan phylogenies shows overall congruence with few exceptions. Conclusion Juan-A is a major genomic component in Ae. aegypti and it has been

  17. SUV39H1 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and abrogates Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR

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    Tanaka Yuetsu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tax is the oncoprotein of HTLV-1 which deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes and cell cycle regulation of host cells. Transacting function of Tax is mainly mediated by its protein-protein interactions with host cellular factors. As to Tax-mediated regulation of gene expression of HTLV-1 and cellular genes, Tax was shown to regulate histone acetylation through its physical interaction with histone acetylases and deacetylases. However, functional interaction of Tax with histone methyltransferases (HMTase has not been studied. Here we examined the ability of Tax to interact with a histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 that methylates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 and represses transcription of genes, and studied the functional effects of the interaction on HTLV-1 gene expression. Results Tax was shown to interact with SUV39H1 in vitro, and the interaction is largely dependent on the C-terminal half of SUV39H1 containing the SET domain. Tax does not affect the methyltransferase activity of SUV39H1 but tethers SUV39H1 to a Tax containing complex in the nuclei. In reporter gene assays, co-expression of SUV39H1 represses Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR promoter activity, which was dependent on the methyltransferase activity of SUV39H1. Furthermore, SUV39H1 expression is induced along with Tax in JPX9 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis shows localization of SUV39H1 on the LTR after Tax induction, but not in the absence of Tax induction, in JPX9 transformants retaining HTLV-1-Luc plasmid. Immunoblotting shows higher levels of SUV39H1 expression in HTLV-1 transformed and latently infected cell lines. Conclusion Our study revealed for the first time the interaction between Tax and SUV39H1 and apparent tethering of SUV39H1 by Tax to the HTLV-1 LTR. It is speculated that Tax-mediated tethering of SUV39H1 to the LTR and induction of the repressive histone modification on the chromatin through H3 K9

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection Using Co-Culture with Jurkat LTR-Luciferase or Jurkat LTR-GFP Reporter Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alais, Sandrine; Dutartre, Hélène; Mahieux, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Unlike HIV-1, HTLV-1 viral transmission requires cell-to-cell contacts, while cell-free virions are poorly infectious and almost absent from body fluids. Though the virus uses three nonexclusive mechanisms to infect new target cells: (1) MTOC polarization followed by formation of a virological synapse and viral transfer into a synaptic cleft, (2) genesis of a viral biofilm and its transfer of embedded viruses, or (3) HTLV-1 transmission using conduits. The Tax transactivator and the p8 viral proteins are involved in virological synapse and nanotube formation respectively.HTLV-1 transcription from the viral promoter (i.e., LTR) requires the Tax protein that is absent from the viral particle and is expressed after productive infection. The present chapter focuses on a series of protocols used to quantify HTLV-1 de novo infection of target cells. These techniques do not discriminate between the different modes of transmission, but allow an accurate measure of productive infection. We used cell lines that are stably transfected with LTR-GFP or LTR-luciferase plasmids and quantified Green Fluorescent Protein expression or luciferase activity, since both of them reflect Tax expression.

  19. Vertical evolution and horizontal transfer of CR1 non-LTR retrotransposons and Tc1/mariner DNA transposons in Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormacheva, Irina; Smyshlyaev, Georgiy; Mayorov, Vladimir; Blinov, Alexander; Novikov, Anton; Novikova, Olga

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is a complex phenomenon usually used as an explanation of phylogenetic inconsistence, which cannot be interpreted in terms of vertical evolution. Most examples of HT of eukaryotic genes involve transposable elements. An intriguing feature of HT is that its frequency differs among transposable elements classes. Although HT is well known for DNA transposons and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons rarely undergo HT, and their phylogenies are largely congruent to those of their hosts. Previously, we described HT of CR1-like non-LTR retrotransposons between butterflies (Maculinea) and moths (Bombyx), which occurred less than 5 million years ago (Novikova O, Sliwinska E, Fet V, Settele J, Blinov A, Woyciechowski M. 2007. CR1 clade of non-LTR retrotransposons from Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence for recent horizontal transmission. BMC Evol Biol. 7:93). In this study, we continued to explore the diversity of CR1 non-LTR retrotransposons among lepidopterans providing additional evidences to support HT hypothesis. We also hypothesized that DNA transposons could be involved in HT of non-LTR retrotransposons. Thus, we performed analysis of one of the groups of DNA transposons, mariner-like DNA elements, as potential vectors for HT of non-LTR retrotransposons. Our results demonstrate multiple HTs between Maculinea and Bombyx genera. Although we did not find strong evidence for our hypothesis of the involvement of DNA transposons in HT of non-LTR retrotransposons, we demonstrated that recurrent and/or simultaneous flow of TEs took place between distantly related moths and butterflies.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  1. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians

    OpenAIRE

    Masahito Irie; Masanobu Yoshikawa; Ryuichi Ono; Hirotaka Iwafune; Tamio Furuse; Ikuko Yamada; Shigeharu Wakana; Yui Yamashita; Takaya Abe; Fumitoshi Ishino; Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Retrotransposon-derived DNA sequences occupy approximately 40% of the mammalian genome, compared with only 1.5% of protein coding genes. They have been commonly considered “junk DNA” and even potentially harmful for host organisms. However, a series of knockout (KO) mouse analyses demonstrated that at least some of the LTR retrotransposon- and retrovirus-derived sequences play essential roles in the current mammalian developmental system as endogenous genes, such as Peg10, Peg1...

  2. Mammalian-specific genomic functions: Newly acquired traits generated by genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANEKO-ISHINO, Tomoko; ISHINO, Fumitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mammals, including human beings, have evolved a unique viviparous reproductive system and a highly developed central nervous system. How did these unique characteristics emerge in mammalian evolution, and what kinds of changes did occur in the mammalian genomes as evolution proceeded? A key conceptual term in approaching these issues is “mammalian-specific genomic functions”, a concept covering both mammalian-specific epigenetics and genetics. Genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes are reviewed as the representative, mammalian-specific genomic functions that are essential not only for the current mammalian developmental system, but also mammalian evolution itself. First, the essential roles of genomic imprinting in mammalian development, especially related to viviparous reproduction via placental function, as well as the emergence of genomic imprinting in mammalian evolution, are discussed. Second, we introduce the novel concept of “mammalian-specific traits generated by mammalian-specific genes from LTR retrotransposons”, based on the finding that LTR retrotransposons served as a critical driving force in the mammalian evolution via generating mammalian-specific genes. PMID:26666304

  3. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

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    Kenji K Kojima

    Full Text Available Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT, which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  4. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  5. An abundant and heavily truncated non-LTR retrotransposon (LINE) family in Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Horn, Axel V; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    We describe a non-LTR retrotransposon family,BvL, of the long interspersed nuclear elements L1 clade isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Characteristic molecular domains of three full-length BvL elements were determined in detail, showing that coding sequences are interrupted and most likely non-functionally. In addition,eight highly conserved endonuclease regions were defined by comparison with other plant LINEs. The abundant BvL family is widespread within the genus Beta, however, the vast majority of BvL copies are extremely 50 truncated indicating an error-prone reverse transcriptase activity. The dispersed distribution of BvL copies on all sugar beet chromosomes with exclusion of most heterochromatic regions was shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The analysis of BvL 30 end sequences and corresponding flanking regions, respectively, revealed the preferred integration of BvL into A/T-rich regions of the sugar beet genome, but no specific target sequences.

  6. Mouse endogenous retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR) elements and environmental carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.K.; Ch' ang, L-Y; Myer, F.E.; Yang, M.D.; Koh, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    For the past several years, the working hypothesis of this laboratory has been that chromosomal retrovirus-related gene elements play important roles in gene-rearrangement and gene-activation events of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis induced by environmental agents. This working hypothesis is based on the concept of transposable genes as well as the recent understanding of retroviruses (RNA tumor viruses) in relation to the carcinogenesis problem. Activation of transposable gene elements has been discussed from the viewpoint of unprogrammed genomic changes in response to unanticipated genomic shocks. This view was used in considering the possibility of transposable gene elements involved in genetic changes of cancer formation in the animal. In this regard, this concept is similar to the perspectives of RNA tumor viruses, the oncogene-virogene hypothesis, and the provirus hypothesis because retroviruses replicate through DNA forms that carry long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences resembling the insertion sequences (or the IS elements) of prokaryotic transposons. The finding of oncogene myc activation in avian leukosis virus-induced leukemogenesis and proviral insertion in the mouse dilute locus mutation have also pointed to the functional similarity between retroviruses and transposable genes.

  7. A yeast model for target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposition

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    Busby Jason N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposons, such as the human L1 element, are mobile genetic elements found in many eukaryotic genomes. They are often present in large numbers and their retrotransposition can cause mutations and genomic rearrangements. Despite their importance, many aspects of their replication are not well understood. Results We have developed a yeast model system for studying target-primed retrotransposons. This system uses the Zorro3 element from Candida albicans. A cloned copy of Zorro3, tagged with a retrotransposition indicator gene, retrotransposes at a high frequency when introduced into an appropriate C. albicans host strain. Retrotransposed copies of the tagged element exhibit similar features to the native copies, indicating that the natural retrotransposition pathway is being used. Retrotransposition is dependent on the products of the tagged element's own genes and is highly temperature-regulated. The new assay permits the analysis of the effects of specific mutations introduced into the cloned element. Conclusion This Zorro3 retrotransposition assay system complements previously available target-primed retrotransposition assays. Due to the relative simplicity of the growth, manipulation and analysis of yeast cells, the system should advance our understanding of target-primed retrotransposition.

  8. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

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    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  9. The cotton centromere contains a Ty3-gypsy-like LTR retroelement.

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    Song Luo

    Full Text Available The centromere is a repeat-rich structure essential for chromosome segregation; with the long-term aim of understanding centromere structure and function, we set out to identify cotton centromere sequences. To isolate centromere-associated sequences from cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum we surveyed tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA in the genus. Centromere-associated elements in other plants include tandem repeats and, in some cases, centromere-specific retroelements. Examination of cotton genomic survey sequences for tandem repeats yielded sequences that did not localize to the centromere. However, among the repetitive sequences we also identified a gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon (Centromere Retroelement Gossypium, CRG that localizes to the centromere region of all chromosomes in domestic upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, the major commercially grown cotton. The location of the functional centromere was confirmed by immunostaining with antiserum to the centromere-specific histone CENH3, which co-localizes with CRG hybridization on metaphase mitotic chromosomes. G. hirsutum is an allotetraploid composed of A and D genomes and CRG is also present in the centromere regions of other AD cotton species. Furthermore, FISH and genomic dot blot hybridization revealed that CRG is found in D-genome diploid cotton species, but not in A-genome diploid species, indicating that this retroelement may have invaded the A-genome centromeres during allopolyploid formation and amplified during evolutionary history. CRG is also found in other diploid Gossypium species, including B and E2 genome species, but not in the C, E1, F, and G genome species tested. Isolation of this centromere-specific retrotransposon from Gossypium provides a probe for further understanding of centromere structure, and a tool for future engineering of centromere mini-chromosomes in this important crop species.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of the Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.

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    Jose Manuel C Tubio

    Full Text Available Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis.

  11. Stepwise evolution of two giant composite LTR-retrotransposon-like elements DA and Xiao

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    Li Xuanyang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently discovered two composite long terminal repeat (LTR-retrotransposon-like elements which we named DA (~300 kb and Xiao (~30 kb, meaning big and small in Chinese respectively. Xiao and DA (three types of DA identified were found to have been derived from several donor sites and have spread to 30 loci in the human genome, totaling to 5 Mb. Our bioinformatics analyses with the released human, chimp, rhesus macaque, orangutan, and marmoset genomic sequences indicate that DA and Xiao emerged ~25 million years (Myr ago. Results To better understand the evolution of these two complex elements, we investigated various internal junctions of DA and Xiao as well as orthologous genomic sites of the 30 DA/Xiao loci in non-human primates including great apes, lesser apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and a prosimian. We found that Xiao and type I DA first emerged in the genome between 25 and 18 Myr ago, whereas type II and Type III DAs emerged between 14 and 7 Myr ago. Xiao and DA were most active in great apes, with their amplification peaking during 25-14 and 14-7 Myr ago, respectively. Neither DA nor Xiao seem to have been active in the human and chimp genomes during last 6 Myr. Conclusion The study has led to a more accurate age determination of the DA and Xiao elements than our previous bioinformatics analyses, and indicates that the amplification activity of the elements coincided with that of group I HERV-Es during evolution. It has also illustrated an evolutionary path with stepwise structural changes for the elements during past 25 Myr, and in doing so has shed more light on these two intriguing and complex elements that have reshaped our genome.

  12. Hominoid composite non-LTR retrotransposons-variety, assembly, evolution, and structural determinants of mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Persch, Robert; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2014-11-01

    SVA (SINE-R-VNTR-Alu) elements constitute the youngest family of composite non-LTR retrotransposons in hominoid primates. The sequence of their assembly, however, remains unclear. Recently, a second family of VNTR-containing composites, LAVA (L1-Alu-VNTR-Alu), has been identified in gibbons. We now report the existence of two additional VNTR composite families, PVA (PTGR2-VNTR-Alu) and FVA (FRAM-VNTR-Alu), in the genome of Nomascus leucogenys. Like LAVA, they share the 5'-Alu-like region and VNTR with SVA, but differ at their 3'-ends. The 3'-end of PVA comprises part of the PTGR2 gene, whereas FVA is characterized by the presence of a partial FRAM element in its 3'-domain. Splicing could be identified as the mechanism of acquisition of the variant 3'-ends in all four families of VNTR composites. SVAs have been shown to be mobilized by the L1 protein machinery in trans. A critical role in this process has been ascribed to their 5'-hexameric repeat/ Alu-like region. The Alu-like region displays specific features in each of the VNTR composite families/subfamilies with characteristic deletions found in the evolutionary younger subfamilies. Using reciprocal exchanges between SVA_E and PVA/FVA elements, we demonstrate that the structure, not the presence of the (CCCTCT)n/ Alu-like region determines mobilization capacity. Combination of LAVA and SVA_E domains does not yield any active elements-suggesting the use of different combinations of host factors for the two major groups of VNTR composites. Finally, we demonstrate that the LAVA 3'-L1ME5 fragment attenuates mobilization capacity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Expression of the Idefix retrotransposon in early follicle cells in the germarium of Drosophila melanogaster is determined by its LTR sequences and a specific genomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheressiz, S; Calco, V; Arnaud, F; Arthaud, L; Dastugue, B; Vaury, C

    2002-04-01

    Retrotransposons are transcriptionally activated in different tissues and cell types by a variety of genomic and environmental factors. Transcription of LTR retrotransposons is controlled by cis-acting regulatory sequences in the 5' LTR. Mobilization of two LTR retroelements, Idefix and ZAM, occurs in the unstable RevI line of Drosophila melanogaster, in which their copy numbers are high, while they are low in all other stocks tested. Here we show that both a full-length and a subgenomic Idefix transcript that are necessary for its mobilization are present in the Rev1 line, but not in the other lines. Studies on transgenic strains demonstrate that the 5' LTR of Idefix contains sequences that direct the tissue-specific expression of the retroelement in testes and ovaries of adult flies. In ovaries, expression occurs in the early follicle and in other somatic cells of the germarium, and is strictly associated with the unstable genetic context conferred by the RevI line. Control of tissue-specific Idefix expression by interactions between cis-acting sequences of its LTR and trans-acting genomic factors provides an opportunity to use this retroelement as a tool for the study of the early follicle cell lineage in the germarium.

  14. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae

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    Renner Susanne S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae, offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. Findings We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Conclusions Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies

  15. LTR point mutations in the Tax-responsive elements of HTLV-1 isolates from HIV/HTLV-1-coinfected patients

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    Magri Mariana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Virology Journal 2011, 8:535, Neto et al. described point mutations into Tax-responsive elements (TRE of the LTR region of HTLV-1 isolates from asymptomatic carriers from Sao Paulo, Brazil, and hypothesized that the presence of the G232A mutation in the TRE-1 increase viral proliferation and consequently the proviral load (PvL, while the A184G mutation in the TRE-2 do not have such effect. Findings We performed the real-time PCR assay (pol and sequenced LTR region of HTLV-1 isolates from 24 HIV/HTLV-1-coinfected patients without HTLV-1-associated diseases from the same geographic area. These sequences were classified as belonging to the transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a. The frequency of G232A mutation (16/24, 66.7% was high as much as 61.8% reported by Neto’s in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers with high PvL. High frequency (13/24, 54.2% of double mutations G232A and A184G was also detected in HIV/HTLV-1-coinfected patients. We did not quantify PvL, but comparative analyses of the cycle threshold (Ct median values of the group of isolates presenting the mutated-types sequences (Ct 33.5, n = 16 versus the group of isolates with the wild-type sequences (Ct 32, n = 8 showed no statistical difference (p = 0.4220. Conclusion The frequencies of mutated-type sequences in the TRE-1 and TRE-2 motifs were high in HIV/HTLV-1-coinfected patients from Sao Paulo, Brazil. If these LTR point mutations have predictive value for the development of HTLV-1-associated diseases or they correspond to the subtype of virus that circulate in this geographic area has to be determined.

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 LTR DNA contains an intrinsic gene producing antisense RNA and protein products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Chiu-Bin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While viruses have long been shown to capitalize on their limited genomic size by utilizing both strands of DNA or complementary DNA/RNA intermediates to code for viral proteins, it has been assumed that human retroviruses have all their major proteins translated only from the plus or sense strand of RNA, despite their requirement for a dsDNA proviral intermediate. Several studies, however, have suggested the presence of antisense transcription for both HIV-1 and HTLV-1. More recently an antisense transcript responsible for the HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ protein has been described. In this study we investigated the possibility of an antisense gene contained within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Results Inspection of published sequences revealed a potential transcription initiator element (INR situated downstream of, and in reverse orientation to, the usual HIV-1 promoter and transcription start site. This antisense initiator (HIVaINR suggested the possibility of an antisense gene responsible for RNA and protein production. We show that antisense transcripts are generated, in vitro and in vivo, originating from the TAR DNA of the HIV-1 LTR. To test the possibility that protein(s could be translated from this novel HIV-1 antisense RNA, recombinant HIV antisense gene-FLAG vectors were designed. Recombinant protein(s were produced and isolated utilizing carboxy-terminal FLAG epitope (DYKDDDDK sequences. In addition, affinity-purified antisera to an internal peptide derived from the HIV antisense protein (HAP sequences identified HAPs from HIV+ human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusion HIV-1 contains an antisense gene in the U3-R regions of the LTR responsible for both an antisense RNA transcript and proteins. This antisense transcript has tremendous potential for intrinsic RNA regulation because of its overlap with the beginning of all HIV-1 sense RNA transcripts by 25 nucleotides. The

  17. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huneau Cecile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24 initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1, and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae

  18. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  19. Attitude control system synthesis for the Hoop/Column antenna using the LQG/LTR method. [loop transfer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, N.; Joshi, S. M.; Armstrong, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG)/loop transfer recovery (LTR) method to the problem of synthesizing a fine-pointing control system for a large flexible space anenna. The study is based on an antenna, which consists of three rigid-body rotational modes and the first ten elastic modes. A robust compensator design for achieving the required pointing performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties is obtained using the LQG/LTR method. For the Hoop/Column antenna, a satisfactory controller design meeting a desired bandwidth of .1 rad/sec and ensuring stability with unmodelled high frequency modes is obtained using only a collocated pair of 3-axis attitude sensors and torque actuators. This study also indicates that to achieve the desired performance bandwidth of 0.1 rad/sec. and to ensure stability in the presence of higher frequency elastic modes, the design model should include at least the first three flexible modes together with the rigid body modes.

  20. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  1. PKCtheta and HIV-1 transcriptional regulator Tat co-exist at the LTR promoter in CD4+ T cells

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    Maria Rosa eLopez-Huertas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PKCtheta is essential for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Upon TCR/CD28 stimulation, PKCtheta is phosphorylated and migrates to the immunological synapse, inducing the activation of cellular transcription factors such as NF-kB and kinases as ERK that are critical for HIV-1 replication. We previously demonstrated that PKCtheta is also necessary for HIV-1 replication but the precise mechanism is unknown. Efficient HIV-1 transcription and elongation is absolutely dependent on the synergy between NF-kB and the viral regulator Tat. Tat exerts its function by binding a RNA stem-loop structure proximal to the viral mRNA cap site termed TAR. Besides, due to its effect on cellular metabolic pathways, Tat causes profound changes in infected CD4+ T cells such as the activation of NF-kB and ERK. We hypothesized that the aberrant up-regulation of Tat-mediated activation of NF-kB and ERK occurred through PKCtheta signaling. In fact, Jurkat TetOff cells with stable and doxycycline-repressible expression of Tat (Jurkat-Tat expressed high levels of mRNA for PKCtheta. In these cells, PKCtheta located at the plasma membrane was phosphorylated at T538 residue in undivided cells, in the absence of stimulation. Treatment with doxycycline inhibited PKCtheta phosphorylation in Jurkat-Tat, suggesting that Tat expression was directly related to the activation of PKCtheta. Both NF-kB and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway were significantly activated in Jurkat-Tat cells, and this correlated with high transactivation of HIV-1 LTR promoter. RNA interference for PKCtheta inhibited NF-kB and ERK activity, as well as LTR-mediated transactivation even in the presence of Tat. In addition to Tat-mediated activation of PKCtheta in the cytosol, we demonstrated by sequential ChIP that Tat and PKCtheta coexisted in the same complex bound at the HIV-1 LTR promoter, specifically at the region containing TAR loop. In conclusion, PKCtheta-Tat interaction seemed to be essential for HIV-1

  2. RetroPred: A tool for prediction, classification and extraction of non-LTR retrotransposons (LINEs & SINEs) from the genome by integrating PALS, PILER, MEME and ANN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Mittal, Vinay Kumar; Gupta, Sumit

    2008-01-27

    The problem of predicting non-long terminal repeats (LTR) like long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) from the DNA sequence is still an open problem in bioinformatics. To elevate the quality of annotations of LINES and SINEs an automated tool "RetroPred" was developed. The pipeline allowed rapid and thorough annotation of non-LTR retrotransposons. The non-LTR retrotransposable elements were initially predicted by Pairwise Aligner for Long Sequences (PALS) and Parsimonious Inference of a Library of Elementary Repeats (PILER). Predicted non-LTR elements were automatically classified into LINEs and SINEs using ANN based on the position specific probability matrix (PSPM) generated by Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation (MEME). The ANN model revealed a superior model (accuracy = 78.79 +/- 6.86 %, Q(pred) = 74.734 +/- 17.08 %, sensitivity = 84.48 +/- 6.73 %, specificity = 77.13 +/- 13.39 %) using four-fold cross validation. As proof of principle, we have thoroughly annotated the location of LINEs and SINEs in rice and Arabidopsis genome using the tool and is proved to be very useful with good accuracy. Our tool is accessible at http://www.juit.ac.in/RepeatPred/home.html.

  3. Characterization of SR3 reveals abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade in the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindley Paul J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming apparent that perhaps as much as half of the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni is constituted of mobile genetic element-related sequences. Non-long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, related to the LINE elements of mammals, comprise much of this repetitive component of the schistosome genome. Of more than 12 recognized clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, only members of the CR1, RTE, and R2 clades have been reported from the schistosome genome. Results Inspection of the nucleotide sequence of bacterial artificial chromosome number 49_J_14 from chromosome 1 of the genome of Schistosoma mansoni (GenBank AC093105 revealed the likely presence of several RTE-like retrotransposons. Among these, a new non-LTR retrotransposon designated SR3 was identified and is characterized here. Analysis of gene structure and phylogenetic analysis of both the reverse transcriptase and endonuclease domains of the mobile element indicated that SR3 represented a new family of RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposons. Remarkably, two full-length copies of SR3-like elements were present in BAC 49-J-14, and one of 3,211 bp in length appeared to be intact, indicating SR3 to be an active non-LTR retrotransposon. Both were flanked by target site duplications of 10–12 bp. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated the presence of numerous copies (probably >1,000 of SR3 interspersed throughout the genome of S. mansoni. Bioinformatics analyses also revealed SR3 to be transcribed in both larval and adult developmental stages of S. mansoni and to be also present in the genomes of the other major schistosome parasites of humans, Schistosoma haematobium and S. japonicum. Conclusion Numerous copies of SR3, a novel non-LTR retrotransposon of the RTE clade are present in the genome of S. mansoni. Non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade including SR3 appear to have been remarkably successful in colonizing, and

  4. GABBR1 has a HERV-W LTR in its regulatory region – a possible implication for schizophrenia

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    Hegyi Hedi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schizophrenia is a complex disease with uncertain aetiology. We suggest GABBR1, GABA receptor B1 implicated in schizophrenia based on a HERV-W LTR in the regulatory region of GABBR1. Our hypothesis is supported by: (i GABBR1 is in the 6p22 genomic region most often implicated in schizophrenia; (ii microarray studies found that only presynaptic pathway-related genes, including GABA receptors, have altered expression in schizophrenic patients and (iii it explains how HERV-W elements, expressed in schizophrenia, play a role in the disease: by altering the expression of GABBR1 via a long terminal repeat that is also a regulatory element to GABBR1. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Sandor Pongor and Martijn Huynen.

  5. An avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate with a Rous sarcoma virus-like 5'-LTR shows enhanced replication capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanni; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-producing chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis. However, ALV-J infections associated with hemangiomas have occurred in egg-producing (layer) flocks in China. In this study, we identified an ALV-J layer isolate (HLJ13SH01) as a recombinant of ALV-J and a Rous sarcoma virus Schmidt-Ruppin B strain (RSV-SRB), which contained the RSV-SRB 5'-LTR and the other genes of ALV-J. Replication kinetic testing indicated that the HLJ13SH01 strain replicated faster than other ALV-J layer isolates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that the main difference between the two isolates was the 5'-LTR sequences, particularly the U3 sequences. A 19 nt insertion was uniquely found in the U3 region of the HLJ13SH01 strain. The results of a Dual-Glo luciferase assay revealed that the 19 nt insertion in the HLJ13SH01 strain increased the enhancer activity of the U3 region. Moreover, an additional CCAAT/enhancer element was found in the 19 nt insertion and the luciferase assay indicated that this element played a key role in increasing the enhancer activity of the 5'-U3 region. To confirm the potentiation effect of the 19 nt insertion and the CCAAT/enhancer element on virus replication, three infectious clones with 5'-U3 region variations were constructed and rescued. Replication kinetic testing of the rescued viruses demonstrated that the CCAAT/enhancer element in the 19 nt insertion enhanced the replication capacity of the ALV-J recombinant in vitro.

  6. Mutations in the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron that retain mobility in vivo

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    D'Souza Lisa M

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that form conserved secondary and tertiary structures. In order to determine which of the conserved structural elements are required for mobility, a series of domain and sub-domain deletions were made in the Lactococcus lactis group II intron (Ll.LtrB and tested for mobility in a genetic assay. Point mutations in domains V and VI were also tested. Results The largest deletion that could be made without severely compromising mobility was 158 nucleotides in DIVb(1–2. This mutant had a mobility frequency comparable to the wild-type Ll.LtrB intron (ΔORF construct. Hence, all subsequent mutations were done in this mutant background. Deletion of DIIb reduced mobility to approximately 18% of wild-type, while another deletion in domain II (nts 404–459 was mobile to a minor extent. Only two deletions in DI and none in DIII were tolerated. Some mobility was also observed for a DIVa deletion mutant. Of the three point mutants at position G3 in DV, only G3A retained mobility. In DVI, deletion of the branch-point nucleotide abolished mobility, but the presence of any nucleotide at the branch-point position restored mobility to some extent. Conclusions The smallest intron capable of efficient retrohoming was 725 nucleotides, comprising the DIVb(1–2 and DII(iia,b deletions. The tertiary elements found to be nonessential for mobility were alpha, kappa and eta. In DV, only the G3A mutant was mobile. A branch-point residue is required for intron mobility.

  7. Genome-wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of LTR-retrotrans-posons in Potato%马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)全基因组水平上LTR-逆转座子的鉴定与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莹修; 杜建厂

    2013-01-01

    LTR-逆转座子是构成基因组特别是植物基因组的重要组分。它们在寄主基因组的进化过程中起到重要作用。马铃薯是重要的经济作物和粮食作物,其全基因组序列的公布为进一步研究其遗传组成和演化提供了基础。本文以马铃薯全基因组序列为材料,用结构分析和同源比对的方法分离得到9318个完整的LTR-逆转座子,7281个非完整(truncated) LTR-逆转座子元件和3657个solo LTR元件。进一步研究表明, gypsy类转座子在距今两百万年(million years ago, MYA)时转座活性被抑制,而copia类元件活跃至今。马铃薯和番茄比较基因组学的研究表明,LTR-逆转座子序列变异率为18.73%,远高于基因序列的7.37%和CDS序列的5.01%。%LTR-retrotransposons are important components in plant genomes. They play key roles in the evolution of plant genomes and provide valuable information for analyzing evolution and species diversity. Potato is an impor-tant industrial crop and food crop. Whole genome sequencing of potato provides huge DNA information for genetic and genomic studies. Here we identified 9 318 intact LTR-retrotransposons, 7281 truncated elements and 3 657 solo LTR elements in the potato genome using structure-based and homologous search approaches. Analysis of gypsy elements insertion time indicates their transpositions were suppressed at about 2 million years ago (MYA), while copia elements has been active since then. Comparison between potato and tomato genome sequences suggests LTR-retrotransposons has a much higher substitution rate (18.73%) than that of gene sequence (7.37%) and CDS (5.01%).

  8. Birthmarks - red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are 2 main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  9. Multi-variable control of the GE T700 engine using the LQG/LTR design methodology. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, W. H.; Athans, M.; Spang, H. A., III

    1986-01-01

    The design of scalar and multi-variable feedback control systems for the GE T700 turboshaft engine coupled to a helicopter rotor system is examined. A series of linearized models are presented and analyzed. Robustness and performance specifications are posed in the frequency domain. The linear-quadratic-Gaussian with loop-transfer-recovery (LQG/LTR) methodology is used to obtain a sequence of three feedback designs. Even in the single-input/single-output case, comparison of the current control system with that derived from the LQG/LTR approach shows significant performance improvement. The multi-variable designs, evaluated using linear and nonlinear simulations, show even more potential for performance improvement.

  10. Analysis on the sequence of Ty1-copia retrotransposon LTR10 and its genetic diversity in Malus genus%苹果Ty1-copia类逆转座子LTR10序列及其在苹果属植物中的遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊; 房经贵; 王飞; 孙其宝; 章镇; 王昆

    2010-01-01

    应用改良的Pearce方法分离苹果Tyl-copia类逆转座子RNaseH-LTRs,分离到的RNaseH-LTR10序列已在GenBank注册(登录号DQ534515),该序列长度为299 bp.分析结果表明其5'端为含有终止密码子的RNaseH基因,PPT(polypurine tract)之后是3'-LTR,PPT起始于终止密码子内10 bp处,3'-LTR的起始标志末端倒转重复序列(inverted repeat,IR)TG紧随其后.LTR10的正链和反链均含有多个启动子的特征结构TATA box和CAAT box,α-淀粉酶启动子的保守序列及受不同胁迫条件作用的调控元件,如AuxRE、ABRE、HSE等.利用S-SAP技术研究了LTR10逆转座子在苹果属8个野生种和22个栽培品种中的遗传多样性,多态性片段比例为86.5%;品种长祝较祝光少1条约400 bp的特异性扩增条带.

  11. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono......) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three...

  12. The evolutionary dynamics of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows more similarity to fish than mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Peter A; Basta, Holly; Floumanhaft, Mark; McClure, Marcella A; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2009-08-01

    The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (the green anole) is the first nonavian reptilian genome sequenced. It offers a unique opportunity to comparatively examine the evolution of amniote genomes. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons in the anole using the Genome Parsing Suite. We found that the anole genome contains an extraordinary diversity of elements. We identified 46 families of elements representing five clades (L1, L2, CR1, RTE, and R4). Within most families, elements are very similar to each other suggesting that they have been inserted recently. The rarity of old elements suggests a high rate of turnover, the insertion of new elements being offset by the loss of element-containing loci. Consequently, non-LTR retrotransposons accumulate in the anole at a low rate and are found in low copy number. This pattern of diversity shows some striking similarity with the genome of teleostean fish but contrasts greatly with the low diversity and high copy number of mammalian L1 elements, suggesting a fundamental difference in the way mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates interact with their genomic parasites. The scarcity of divergent elements in anoles suggests that insertions have a deleterious effect and are eliminated by natural selection. We propose that the low abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons in the anole is related directly or indirectly to a higher rate of ectopic recombination in the anole relative to mammals.

  13. Unbiased proteomic analysis of proteins interacting with the HIV-1 5′LTR sequence: role of the transcription factor Meis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheny, A.; Michel, S.; Dieu, M.; Payen, L.; Arnould, T.; Renard, P.

    2012-01-01

    To depict the largest picture of a core promoter interactome, we developed a one-step DNA-affinity capture method coupled with an improved mass spectrometry analysis process focused on the identification of low abundance proteins. As a proof of concept, this method was developed through the analysis of 230 bp contained in the 5′long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Beside many expected interactions, many new transcriptional regulators were identified, either transcription factors (TFs) or co-regulators, which interact directly or indirectly with the HIV-1 5′LTR. Among them, the homeodomain-containing TF myeloid ectopic viral integration site was confirmed to functionally interact with a specific binding site in the HIV-1 5′LTR and to act as a transcriptional repressor, probably through recruitment of the repressive Sin3A complex. This powerful and validated DNA-affinity approach could also be used as an efficient screening tool to identify a large set of proteins that physically interact, directly or indirectly, with a DNA sequence of interest. Combined with an in silico analysis of the DNA sequence of interest, this approach provides a powerful approach to select the interacting candidates to validate functionally by classical approaches. PMID:22904091

  14. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Irie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16 causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA was reduced compared with dopamine (DA after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1.

  15. RED HOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 在Jimi Hendrix的这首《Red House》中,我们可以领略到非常多紧密、连贯、经典的吉他乐句,尤其是乐曲中众多给人以胁迫感的乐句更是另人回味无常。 在我们学习这首《Red House》的时候,就像学习Jimi Hendrix的其他曲目一样,最有效的办法就是先用心聆听几遍这首歌曲,然后再拿起吉他跟随着原曲一起反复弹奏。无论何时学习Jimi的歌曲,我们一定要意识到

  16. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  17. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of the LTR retrotransposons roo and rooA inferred from twelve complete Drosophila genomes

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    de la Chaux Nicole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roo is the most abundant retrotransposon in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Its evolutionary origins and dynamics are thus of special interest for understanding the evolutionary history of Drosophila genome organization. We here study the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of roo, and its highly diverged relative rooA in 12 completely sequenced genomes of the genus Drosophila. Results We identify a total of 164 roo copies, 57 of which were previously unidentified copies that occur in 9 of the 12 genomes. Additionally we find 66 rooA copies in four genomes and remnants of this element in two additional genomes. We further increased the number of elements by searching for individual roo/rooA sequence domains. Most of our roo and rooA elements have been recently inserted. Most elements within a genome are highly similar. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of our roo and rooA elements shows that the split between roo and rooA took place early in Drosophila evolution. Furthermore there is one incongruency between the species tree and the phylogenetic tree of the roo element. This incongruency regards the placement of elements from D. mojavensis, which are more closely related to D. melanogaster than elements from D. willistoni. Conclusion Within genomes, the evolutionary dynamics of roo and rooA range from recent transpositional activity to slow decay and extinction. Among genomes, the balance of phylogenetic evidence, sequence divergence distribution, and the occurrence of solo-LTR elements suggests an origin of roo/rooA within the Drosophila clade. We discuss the possibility of a horizontal gene transfer of roo within this clade.

  19. The Wide Distribution and Change of Target Specificity of R2 Non-LTR Retrotransposons in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3′ UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms. PMID:27662593

  20. The HIV-1 integrase α4-helix involved in LTR-DNA recognition is also a highly antigenic peptide element.

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    Sandy Azzi

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MAbas constitute remarkable tools to analyze the relationship between the structure and the function of a protein. By immunizing a mouse with a 29mer peptide (K159 formed by residues 147 to 175 of the HIV-1 integrase (IN, we obtained a monoclonal antibody (MAba4 recognizing an epitope lying in the N-terminal portion of K159 (residues 147-166 of IN. The boundaries of the epitope were determined in ELISA assays using peptide truncation and amino acid substitutions. The epitope in K159 or as a free peptide (pep-a4 was mostly a random coil in solution, while in the CCD (catalytic core domain crystal, the homologous segment displayed an amphipathic helix structure (α4-helix at the protein surface. Despite this conformational difference, a strong antigenic crossreactivity was observed between pep-a4 and the protein segment, as well as K156, a stabilized analogue of pep-a4 constrained into helix by seven helicogenic mutations, most of them involving hydrophobic residues. We concluded that the epitope is freely accessible to the antibody inside the protein and that its recognition by the antibody is not influenced by the conformation of its backbone and the chemistry of amino acids submitted to helicogenic mutations. In contrast, the AA →Glu mutations of the hydrophilic residues Gln148, Lys156 and Lys159, known for their interactions with LTRs (long terminal repeats and inhibitors (5CITEP, for instance, significantly impaired the binding of K156 to the antibody. Moreover, we found that in competition ELISAs, the processed and unprocessed LTR oligonucleotides interfered with the binding of MAba4 to IN and K156, confirming that the IN α4-helix uses common residues to interact with the DNA target and the MAba4 antibody. This also explains why, in our standard in vitro concerted integration assays, MAba4 strongly impaired the IN enzymatic activity.

  1. Diversity of LTR-retrotransposons and Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator-like transposons in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R

    2008-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.

  2. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gariglio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T, del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN HIV-2LTR y del ARN de HIV, en un grupo de 55 pacientes HIV-positivos en distintos estadios clínicos, con y sin TAAE, mediante ensayos de PCR con revelado colorimétrico en microplaca, optimizados en nuestro laboratorio. La sensibilidad clínica del ARN del HIV fue evaluada con el bDNA, resultando del 74% y del 64%, respectivamente, con una concordancia del 85%. Este ensayo podría ser utilizado en el seguimiento de pacientes bajo TAAE. El ADN HIV-2LTR resultó positivo en el 54% aunque estuvo ausente en pacientes con elevada CV. Este marcador se consideraba un producto lábil y su presencia se asociaba a infección reciente. Sin embargo, actuales evidencias ponen en discusión su estabilidad por lo que su significado clínico debe ser reconsiderado. La ausencia del ADN HIV-2LTR en pacientes con CV detectable puede relacionarse con la heterogeneidad de la secuencia utilizada para su detección. El ADN HIV-T estuvo presente en el 100% de las muestras y resultaría relevante como marcador de remisión cuando se dispongan de terapias que efectivamente erradiquen la infección.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART induces a persistent reduction of the plasmatic viremia, contributing to decrease mortality and morbidity of infected people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thus, viral load (VL is the reference method to evaluate therapy effectiveness. However, even in the presence of efficient HAART viral eradication was yet not achieved. In this

  3. Elite suppressors harbor low levels of integrated HIV DNA and high levels of 2-LTR circular HIV DNA compared to HIV+ patients on and off HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H Graf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Elite suppressors (ES are a rare population of HIV-infected individuals that are capable of naturally controlling the infection without the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Patients on HAART often achieve viral control to similar (undetectable levels. Accurate and sensitive methods to measure viral burden are needed to elucidate important differences between these two patient populations in order to better understand their mechanisms of control. Viral burden quantification in ES patients has been limited to measurements of total DNA in PBMC, and estimates of Infectious Units per Million cells (IUPM. There appears to be no significant difference in the level of total HIV DNA between cells from ES patients and patients on HAART. However, recovering infectious virus from ES patient samples is much more difficult, suggesting their reservoir size should be much smaller than that in patients on HAART. Here we find that there is a significant difference in the level of integrated HIV DNA in ES patients compared to patients on HAART, providing an explanation for the previous results. When comparing the level of total to integrated HIV DNA in these samples we find ES patients have large excesses of unintegrated HIV DNA. To determine the composition of unintegrated HIV DNA in these samples, we measured circular 2-LTR HIV DNA forms and found ES patients frequently have high levels of 2-LTR circles in PBMC. We further show that these high levels of 2-LTR circles are not the result of inefficient integration in ES cells, since HIV integrates with similar efficiency in ES and normal donor cells. Our findings suggest that measuring integration provides a better surrogate of viral burden than total HIV DNA in ES patients. Moreover, they add significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms that allow viral control and reservoir maintenance in this unique patient population.

  4. Elite suppressors harbor low levels of integrated HIV DNA and high levels of 2-LTR circular HIV DNA compared to HIV+ patients on and off HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Erin H; Mexas, Angela M; Yu, Jianqing J; Shaheen, Farida; Liszewski, Megan K; Di Mascio, Michele; Migueles, Stephen A; Connors, Mark; O'Doherty, Una

    2011-02-01

    Elite suppressors (ES) are a rare population of HIV-infected individuals that are capable of naturally controlling the infection without the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Patients on HAART often achieve viral control to similar (undetectable) levels. Accurate and sensitive methods to measure viral burden are needed to elucidate important differences between these two patient populations in order to better understand their mechanisms of control. Viral burden quantification in ES patients has been limited to measurements of total DNA in PBMC, and estimates of Infectious Units per Million cells (IUPM). There appears to be no significant difference in the level of total HIV DNA between cells from ES patients and patients on HAART. However, recovering infectious virus from ES patient samples is much more difficult, suggesting their reservoir size should be much smaller than that in patients on HAART. Here we find that there is a significant difference in the level of integrated HIV DNA in ES patients compared to patients on HAART, providing an explanation for the previous results. When comparing the level of total to integrated HIV DNA in these samples we find ES patients have large excesses of unintegrated HIV DNA. To determine the composition of unintegrated HIV DNA in these samples, we measured circular 2-LTR HIV DNA forms and found ES patients frequently have high levels of 2-LTR circles in PBMC. We further show that these high levels of 2-LTR circles are not the result of inefficient integration in ES cells, since HIV integrates with similar efficiency in ES and normal donor cells. Our findings suggest that measuring integration provides a better surrogate of viral burden than total HIV DNA in ES patients. Moreover, they add significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms that allow viral control and reservoir maintenance in this unique patient population.

  5. Hybrid retroviral vector with MCK enhancers inserted in LTR for stable and specific expression of human factor IX in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min 王健民; HOU Jun 侯军; QIU Xin-fang 邱信芳; Kurachi Kotoku; XUE Jing-lun 薛京伦

    2004-01-01

    Background Retroviral vectors have been widely used to introduce foreign into various target cells in vitro, thus showing relatively high systemic delivery efficiency of various transgene products. The authors investigated the stability and efficiency of skeletal muscle-specific hybrid retroviral vectors in expression of human factor IX (FIX) in vitro and iv vivo. Methods FIX cDNA in LIXSN vector was replaced with a FIX minigene containing splicing donor and splicing acceptor sequence of first intron of human FIX gene. Two copies of muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK, Me2) were inserted in forward or reverse orientation at NheI site of 3' long terminal repeat (LTR), resulting in two hybrid vectors, which were designated as LMe2IXm2SN(F) and LMe2IXm2SN(R), respectively. The vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo for stability and muscle-specificity of factor IX expression with SCID mice. Results Muscle cells carrying vector with Me2 expressed significantly higher levels of FIX (up to 1800 ng/106.24h) than those without Me2, thus suggesting that Me2 could specifically increase expression level of FIX in muscle cells. Myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) produced much less FIX in vivo in SCID mice than LMe2IXm2SN(F). One or two copies of Me2 sequence were deleted in myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) without changing the orientation of Me2. Conclusions LTR inserted with MCK enhancers can specifically increase human FIX expression in skeletal muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and MCK enhancer should be positioned in the same orientation as that of LTR promoter.

  6. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

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    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  7. A subtelomeric non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga is subject to inactivation by deletions but not 5' truncations

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    Gladyshev Eugene A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea are microscopic freshwater invertebrates best known for: their capacity for anhydrobiosis; the lack of males and meiosis; and for the ability to capture genes from other non-metazoan species. Although genetic exchange between these animals might take place by non-canonical means, the overall lack of meiosis and syngamy should greatly impair the ability of transposable elements (TEs to spread in bdelloid populations. Previous studies demonstrated that bdelloid chromosome ends, in contrast to gene-rich regions, harbour various kinds of TEs, including specialized telomere-associated retroelements, as well as DNA TEs and retrovirus-like retrotransposons which are prone to horizontal transmission. Vertically-transmitted retrotransposons have not previously been reported in bdelloids and their identification and studies of the patterns of their distribution and evolution could help in the understanding of the high degree of TE compartmentalization within bdelloid genomes. Results We identified and characterized a non-long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon residing primarily in subtelomeric regions of the genome in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Contrary to the currently prevailing views on the mode of proliferation of non-LTR retrotransposons, which results in frequent formation of 5'-truncated ('dead-on-arrival' copies due to the premature disengagement of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase from its template, this non-LTR element, Hebe, is represented only by non-5'-truncated copies. Most of these copies, however, were subject to internal deletions associated with microhomologies, a hallmark of non-homologous end-joining events. Conclusions The non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe from the bdelloid rotifer A. vaga was found to undergo frequent microhomology-associated deletions, rather than 5'-terminal truncations characteristic of this class of retrotransposons, and to exhibit preference for

  8. The Red Capitalist's Red Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROGER CHEUNG

    2008-01-01

    @@ A disastrous derivatives investment has seen Citic Pacific chairman Rong Zhijian lose hundreds of millions of dollars - not to mention his reputation Rong Zhijian may well go down in the history books as the last of China's "Red Capitalists," a group of pre-revolutionary tycoons who stayed on post-1949. His family owned one of China's largest private enterprises before 1949 and his father, Rong Yiren, who served as China's vice-president from 1993 to 1998, was hand-picked by Deng Xiaoping to oversee China's economic opening and reform during the 1980s.

  9. B-oligomer of pertussis toxin inhibits HIV-1 LTR-driven transcription through suppression of NF-kappaB p65 subunit activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Iordanskaya, Tatyana; Quivy, Vincent; Van Lint, Carine; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2002-10-10

    The binding subunit of pertussis toxin (PTX-B) has been shown recently to inhibit the entry and postentry events in HIV-1 replication in primary T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. While the effect of PTX-B on HIV-1 entry was shown to involve CCR5 desensitization, the mechanism of postentry inhibition remained unclear. In T lymphocytes, PTX-B affected transcription or stability of Tat-stimulated HIV-1 mRNAs. In this study, we sought to identify the mechanism of postentry inhibition of HIV-1 replication by PTX-B in U-937 promonocytic cells. We demonstrate that in these cells PTX-B inhibits expression of luciferase reporter gene controlled by the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This effect is Tat-independent and is not restricted to the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Instead, PTX-B activity is mediated through suppression of the cellular transcription factor, NF-kappaB. PTX-B inhibits phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. This effect is independent of the cytoplasmic NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBalpha, as PTX-B stimulates phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of this protein. The suppressive activity of PTX-B on NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation is delayed, suggesting that PTX-B signaling might initiate synthesis and cytoplasmic accumulation of a p65 phosphorylation inhibitor.

  10. Whole genome surveys of rice, maize and sorghum reveal multiple horizontal transfers of the LTR-retrotransposon Route66 in Poaceae

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    Manicacci Domenica

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal transfers (HTs refer to the transmission of genetic material between phylogenetically distant species. Although most of the cases of HTs described so far concern genes, there is increasing evidence that some involve transposable elements (TEs in Eukaryotes. The availability of the full genome sequence of two cereal species, (i.e. rice and Sorghum, as well as the partial genome sequence of maize, provides the opportunity to carry out genome-wide searches for TE-HTs in Poaceae. Results We have identified an LTR-retrotransposon, that we named Route66, with more than 95% sequence identity between rice and Sorghum. Using a combination of in silico and molecular approaches, we are able to present a substantial phylogenetic evidence that Route66 has been transferred horizontally between Panicoideae and several species of the genus Oryza. In addition, we show that it has remained active after these transfers. Conclusion This study constitutes a new case of HTs for an LTR-retrotransposon and we strongly believe that this mechanism could play a major role in the life cycle of transposable elements. We therefore propose to integrate classe I elements into the previous model of transposable element evolution through horizontal transfers.

  11. Deletion of the LTR enhancer/promoter has no impact on the integration profile of MLV vectors in human hematopoietic progenitors.

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    Arianna Moiani

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR, and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compared to a wild-type-LTR MLV vector in the genome of CD34(+ human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. We sequenced 13,011 unique SIN-MLV integration sites and compared them to 32,574 previously generated MLV sites in human HSPCs. The SIN-MLV vector recapitulates the integration pattern observed for MLV, with the characteristic clustering of integrations around enhancer and promoter regions associated to H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 histone modifications, specialized chromatin configurations (presence of the H2A.Z histone variant and binding of RNA Pol II. SIN-MLV and MLV integration clusters and hot spots overlap in most cases and are generated at a comparable frequency, indicating that the reduced genotoxicity of SIN-MLV vectors in hematopoietic cells is not due to a modified integration profile.

  12. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  13. LT(K63/R72), a New Mutant of Escherichia coli Heat-labile Enterotoxin,Exhibits Characteristics More Similar to LT(K63) than LT(R72)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang FENG; Jun YANG; Ping LUO; Wei-Jun ZHANG; Quan-Ming ZOU

    2005-01-01

    LT(K63), a non-toxic mutant and LT(R72), a low toxic mutant of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin are frequently used mucosal adjuvants. In many cases, the adjuvanticity of LT(K63) is lower than that of LT (R72), but LT(K63), which induces a mixed Th1/Th2 response, exhibits a higher level of protection than LT (R72) which induces a polarized Th2-type response. To utilize the advantages of both adjuvants, a doublemutation LT(K63/R72) was generated and purified. The characterization results showed that there was no significant difference in production rate and immunogenicity between wild type LT and LT mutants. The results also showed that the toxicity and the trypsin sensitivity of LT(K63/R72) are between that of LT(K63)and LT(R72). Using HPLC, when samples in an OHpak SB-800 column were eluted by denatural buffer (TEAN containing 10 mg/ml SDS), we found the stability of LT(K63/R72) was higher than that of LT(R72)and lower than that of LT(K63). Through further analyzes, we found that LT(K63/R72) exhibits characteristics more closely related to LT(K63) than LT(R72).

  14. The 73 kDa subunit of the CPSF complex binds to the HIV-1 LTR promoter and functions as a negative regulatory factor that is inhibited by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Laureano; Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Fresno, Manuel; Schmitz, M Lienhard; Muñoz, Eduardo; Calzado, Marco A

    2007-09-14

    Gene expression in eukaryotes requires the post-transcriptional cleavage of mRNA precursors into mature mRNAs. The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is critical for this process and its 73 kDa subunit (CPSF-73) mediates cleavage coupled to polyadenylation and histone pre-mRNA processing. Using CPSF-73 over-expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, this study identifies CPSF-73 as an important regulatory protein that represses the basal transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Similar results were found with over-expression of the CPSF-73 homologue RC-68, but not with CPSF 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100) and RC-74. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the physical interaction of CPSF-73 with the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Further experiments revealed indirect CPSF-73 binding to the region between -275 to -110 within the 5' upstream region. Functional assays revealed the importance for the 5' upstream region (-454 to -110) of the LTR for CPSF-73-mediated transcription repression. We also show that HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CPSF-73 and counteracts its repressive activity on the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Our results clearly show a novel function for CPSF-73 and add another candidate protein for explaining the molecular mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency.

  15. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know You’re Safe – Use Red Cross App and Website » Returning Home – Use Red Cross Flood Safety Steps » Red Cross Relief Efforts in the Caribbean & Mexico » At-a-Glance: Red Cross Response to Harvey, ...

  16. Analysis on LTR Retrotransposons in Potato Genome%马铃薯全基因组LTR反转录转座子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智菲; 李卫涛; 押辉远

    2013-01-01

    采用LTR-FINDER软件对马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)全基因组中的LTR反转录转座子进行分析,共发现4 725个全长LTR反转录转座子,平均长度约7 393 bp,其中反转录转座子的LTR平均长度为786 bp,全长LTR反转录转座子总碱基数约占马铃薯全基因组碱基数的4.95%.系统发育分析结果显示马铃薯LTR反转录转座子具有较高的遗传多样性和异质性.

  17. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  18. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Yoshihiro [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yamashina, Shunhei, E-mail: syamashi@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Izumi, Kousuke [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Ueno, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Tanida, Isei [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Laboratory of Biomembranes, National Institute of Infectious Disease, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. {yields} Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. {yields} Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. {yields} Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmented in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.

  19. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  20. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  1. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)... Hurricane Matthew: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent ... communities Port-au Prince, 3 November 2016 —Since Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti one month ago, the Haiti Re... ...

  2. Correlation between LTR point mutations and proviral load levels among Human T cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Walter K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies have demonstrated that deletions and point mutations introduced into each 21 bp imperfect repeat of Tax-responsive element (TRE of the genuine human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 viral promoter abolishes Tax induction. Given these data, we hypothesized that similar mutations may affect the proliferation of HTLV-1i nfected cells and alter the proviral load (PvL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional genetic analysis to compare the near-complete LTR nucleotide sequences that cover the TRE1 region in a sample of HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers with different PvL burden. Methods A total of 94 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with both sequence from the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR and a PvL for Tax DNA measured using a sensitive SYBR Green real-time PCR were studied. The 94 subjects were divided into three groups based on PvL measurement: 31 low, 29 intermediate, and 34 high. In addition, each group was compared based on sex, age, and viral genotypes. In another analysis, the median PvLs between individuals infected with mutant and wild-type viruses were compared. Results Using a categorical analysis, a G232A substitution, located in domain A of the TRE-1 motif, was detected in 38.7% (12/31, 27.5% (8/29, and 61.8% (21/34 of subjects with low, intermediate, or high PvLs, respectively. A significant difference in the detection of this mutation was found between subjects with a high or low PvL and between those with a high or intermediate PvL (both p p > 0.05. This result was confirmed by a non-parametric analysis that showed strong evidence for higher PvLs among HTLV-1 positive individuals with the G232A mutation than those without this mutation (p p > 0. 05. Conclusions The data described here show that changes in domain A of the HTLV-1 TRE-1 motif resulting in the G232A mutation may increase HTLV-1 replication in a majority of infected subjects.

  3. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  4. High-resolution NMR analysis of the conformations of native and base analog substituted retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon PPT primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Brunozzi, Hye Young; Brinson, Robert G; Brabazon, Danielle M; Lener, Daniela; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Marino, John P

    2008-03-01

    A purine-rich region of the plus-strand RNA genome of retroviruses and long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing retrotransposons, known as the polypurine tract (PPT), is resistant to hydrolysis by the RNase H domain of reverse transcriptase (RT) and ultimately serves as a primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis. The mechanisms underlying PPT resistance and selective processing remain largely unknown. Here, two RNA/DNA hybrids derived from the PPTs of HIV-1 and Ty3 were probed using high-resolution NMR for preexisting structural distortions in the absence of RT. The PPTs were selectively modified through base-pair changes or by incorporation of the thymine isostere, 2,4-difluoro-5-methylbenzene (dF), into the DNA strand. Although both wild-type (WT) and mutated hybrids adopted global A-form-like helical geometries, observed structural perturbations in the base-pair and dF-modified hybrids suggested that the PPT hybrids may function as structurally coupled domains.

  5. Identification of a novel PNMA-MS1 gene in marsupials suggests the LTR retrotransposon-derived PNMA genes evolved differently in marsupials and eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians.

  6. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  7. The Red Mansion Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the Red Mansion Banquet came from the famous Qing Dynasty classic novel, A Dream of Red Mansions. Each of its courses has, based on descriptions from the book, been carefully planned by the Grand View Garden Hotel chefs. Diners’ senses of sight, sound, and taste are thus regaled with the finest in food, wine and music.

  8. Red Sandalwood Treasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2003-01-01

    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  9. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  10. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  12. LTR Control Methodologies for Microvibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rogers, E.;

    1998-01-01

    Microvibrations at frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz generated by on-board equipment can propagate through a satellite's structure and hence significantly reduce the performance of sensitive payloads. This paper describes a Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz method for developing models suitable for the design...

  13. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  14. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  15. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  16. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing...... using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data...

  17. Red Emitting VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  18. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  19. Red Mud Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  20. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  1. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  2. Red Velvet Be Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    各种魅力全消化最近,以翻唱曲《Be Natural》展开回归活动的S.M新女团Red Velvet,在此次新歌中,展现了和出道曲《Happiness》中活泼可爱样子截然相反的成熟干练形象,如此极速的反差,吸引了大家的注意。作为一个刚出道的新人组合,Red Velvet此次不仅通过椅子舞表演完美地完成了高难度的打歌舞台,甚至在现场,也为大家展现了不输任何人的LIVE表演。

  3. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  4. The new 1.7 ltr. Zetec-SE engine for Ford`s sports coupe Puma; Der neue 1,7-l-Zetec-SE-Motor fuer das Sportcoupe Puma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, G. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Oppel, R. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Eden, M.; Farenden, G.; Warren, G.A. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Menne, R.J. [Ford Werke AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the 1996 model year, as well as a much revised Fiesta, Ford has introduced an entire generation of newly-developed engines. These were four-valve engines with swept volumes of 1.25 and 1.4 litres. On the basis of these engines, in close collaboration with Yamaha Ford has developed a high-performance engine with a swept volume of 1.7 litres. This engine will be launched in the course of this year in the sports coupe based on the Fiesta. In this engine, Ford is using a continuously variable advance/retard adjustment of the inlet camshaft for the first time. The essential features of this new engine are presented in this article, focusing on the most important differences and innovations compared with the 1.25 ltr. and 1.4 ltr. engines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Modelljahr 1996 fuehrte Ford zusammen mit dem stark ueberarbeiteten Fiesta eine komplett neu entwickelte Motorengeneration ein. Hierbei handelt es sich um Motoren in Vierventiltechnik mit Hubraeumen von 1,25 l und 1,4 l. Basierend auf diesen Motoren hat Ford in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Yamaha einen Hochleistungsmotor mit einem Hubraum von 1,7 l entwickelt. Er kommt im Verlauf dieses Jahres im auf dem Fiesta basierenden Sportcoupe zum Einsatz. Bei diesem Motor setzt Ford erstmals eine kontinuierlich einstellbare Einlassnockenwellen-Verstellung ein. In diesem Beitrag wird der neue Motor in seinen Grundzuegen vorgestellt. Den Schwerpunkt stellt jedoch die Darstellung der wichtigsten Unterschiede und Neuerungen im Vergleich zum 1,25-l- und zum 1,4-l-Motor dar. (orig.)

  5. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); El-Hage, Nazira [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah [George Mason University, Manassas, VA (United States); Ochem, Alex [ICGEB, Wernher and Beit Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); Simon, Gary L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Karn, Jonathan [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hauser, Kurt F. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Tyagi, Mudit, E-mail: tmudit@email.gwu.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  6. Endogenous avian leukosis viral loci in the Red Jungle Fowl genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Rutherford, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    The current build (galGal4) of the genome of the ancestor of the modern chicken, the Red Jungle Fowl, contains a single endogenous avian leukosis viral element (ALVE) on chromosome 1 (designated RSV-LTR; family ERVK). The assembly shows the ALVE provirus juxtaposed with a member of a second family of avian endogenous retroviruses (designated GGERV20; family ERVL); however, the status of the 3' end of the ALVE element as well as its flanking region remain unclear due to a gap in the reference genome sequence. In this study, we filled the gap in the assembly using a combination of long-range PCR (LR-PCR) and a short contig present in the unassembled portion of the reference genome database. Our results demonstrate that the ALVE element (ALVE-JFevB) is inserted into the putative envelope region of a GGERV20 element, roughly 1 kbp from its 3' end, and that ALVE-JFevB is complete, and depending on its expression status, potentially capable of directing the production of virus. Moreover, the unassembled portion of the genome database contains junction fragments for a second, previously characterized endogenous proviral element, ALVE-6.

  7. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  8. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  9. Fade to Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight. In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars. The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob. Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons. Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been

  10. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  12. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  13. Vancomycin induced Red Man Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drisyamol K.A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycoprotein antibiotic that has been associated with an anaphylactoid reaction termed the Red-man syndrome. It usually consists of erythema, flushing and pruritis of the face and upper torso and occasionally progresses to include dyspnoea, chest pain and hypotension. Red man syndrome (RMS is also known as “red neck syndrome. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can abort most of the reactions. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B, rifampcin and teicoplanin can potentially cause red man syndrome. The effects of red man syndrome can be relieved by antihistamines.

  14. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  16. Red Clump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  17. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  18. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  19. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  20. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  1. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  2. LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P mothers have received HAART. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Disorders of red cell membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies during the last three decades have enabled the development of detailed molecular insights into the structural basis of altered function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders...

  4. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  5. Red supergiants and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Groh, Jose; Granada, Anahí

    2013-01-01

    We review the significant role played by red supergiants (RSGs) in stellar populations, and some challenges and questions they raise for theoretical stellar evolution. We present how metallicity and rotation modify the way stars go to the red part of the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram or come back from it, and how RSGs might keep a trace of their main-sequence evolution. We compare theoretical popu- lation ratios with observed ones.

  6. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  8. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  9. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  10. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Red Cell Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; George J Christ; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the import...

  11. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a...

  12. Pensar la ciudad en red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El paradigma de la sociedad contemporánea es la red, como afirma Manuel Castells (1999 cuándo propone este concepto para que se piense el mundo frente a las tecnologías de información y comunicación. ¿Más como pensar la ciudad en red? Cuándo vemos una imagen aérea de una ciudad, con sus rutas que articulan puntos y regiones, tenemos una imagen perfecta de una red. Pero la evidencia absoluta entre la forma geométrica de una red no puede nos dejar iludirnos: esto no presupone el entendimiento de la sociedad urbana como red. El matemático Nikos Salingaros (2003 argumentó que “las fuerzas que hacen que la ciudad funcione son generadas por la diversidad y necesidad de cambio de información entre diferentes tipos de nodos”, y Gabriel Dupuy (1985 escribió que “si buscamos localizar partes de un sistema, debemos hacerlo en espacios abstractos, espacios topológicos, espacios de n dimensiones, inhabituales en el planeamiento y que no corresponden a la percepción inmediata de la ‘redes clásicas’. Así, las redes son, más que nada, una manera de pensar. Una manera de leer el mundo, una manera de actuar en el mundo.

  13. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  14. Estrategias de trabajo en red

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, María Cristina

    2006-01-01

    El presente informe fue elaborado en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Sentidos en las Estrategias de comunicación / Educación de las ONGs y el Estado dirigidas a los adolescentes de Viedma”. Aborda los debates en torno a las estrategias de intervención en lo social en trabajo en red, a partir de la experiencia de la Red Adolescencia Viedma. Además, de analizar las formas de participación, control e incidencia de la Sociedad Civil y el rol del Estado en las políticas sociales. Facult...

  15. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  16. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  18. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  19. Site curves for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Bishop; Floyd A. Johnson

    1958-01-01

    The increasing commercial importance of red alder (Alnus rubra) in the Pacific Northwest has created a demand for research on this species. Noting the lack of information on growth of alder, the Puget Sound Research Center Advisory Committee established a subcommittee in January 1956 to undertake construction of alder yield tables. Through the...

  20. Advances in Red VCSEL Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red VCSELs offer the benefits of improved performance and lower power consumption for medical and industrial sensing, faster printing and scanning, and lower cost, higher speed interconnects based upon plastic optical fiber (POF. However, materials challenges make it more difficult to achieve the desired performance than at the well-developed wavelength of 850 nm. This paper will describe the state of the art of red VCSEL performance and the results of development efforts to achieve improved output power and a broader temperature range of operation. It will also provide examples of the applications of red VCSELs and the benefits they offer. In addition, the packaging flexibility offered by VCSELs, and some examples of non-Hermetic package demonstrations will be discussed. Some of the red VCSEL performance demonstrations include output power of 14 mW CW at room temperature, a record maximum temperature of 115∘C for CW operation at an emission wavelength of 689 nm, time to 1% failure at room temperature of approximately 200,000 hours, lifetime in a 50∘C, 85% humidity environment in excess of 3500 hours, digital data rate of 3 Gbps, and peak pulsed array power of greater than 100 mW.

  1. Still red light for red light cameras? An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Alena

    2013-06-01

    The present study has replicated the results from a previous meta-analysis by Erke (2009) [Erke, A., 2009. Red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41 (5), 897-905.] based on a larger sample of RLC-studies, and provides answers to the criticisms that were raised by Lund et al. (2009) [Lund, A.K., Kyrychenko, S.Y., Retting, R.A., 2009. Caution: a comment on Alena Erke's red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention 41, 895-896.] against the previous meta-analysis. The addition of recent studies to the meta-analysis and a more thorough investigation of potential moderator variables lead to a slight improvement of the estimated effects of RLC in the previous meta-analysis. The present study found a non-significant increase of all crashes by 6% and a non-significant decrease of all injury crashes by 13%. Right-angle collisions were found to decrease by 13% and rear-end collisions were found to increase by 39%. For right-angle injury collisions a decrease by 33% was found and for rear-end injury collisions a smaller increase was found (+19%). The effects of RLC are likely to be more favorable when RLC-warning signs are set up at main entrances to areas with RLC enforcement than when each RLC-intersection is signposted. The effects of RLC may become more favorable over time, this could however not be investigated empirically. Several results indicate that spillover effects may occur for right-angle collisions, but most likely not for rear-end and other crashes. If spillover effects do not occur for rear-end crashes, which increase at RLC intersection, this would be a positive result for RLC. However, the results seem to be affected to some degree by publication bias and the effects may therefore be somewhat less favorable than indicated by the results from meta-analysis.

  2. Tre 酶真核表达载体构建及其特异性识别 loxLTR序列的功能鉴定%Construction of Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector and identification of its function in loxLTR sequence-specific recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清泉; 于卓然; 孙永涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clearing HIV provirus is the key to cure AIDS .The study was to construct the Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector and identify its function in specific recognition of loxLTR sequence in HIV provirus . Methods Tre gene was in-serted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3.1 gene recombination manipulation by genetic recombination techniques including gene synthesis , PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and ligation .EGFPpA-LoxLTR sequence was inserted into pmCherry-N1 vector and was tested by restriction enzyme digestion , PCR and sequencing .Constructed vectors were electroporated into HeLa cells , then using fluorescence microscopy to observe fluorescence intensity changes . Results PCR, restriction enzyme digestion , electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed that Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector had been constructed successfully , and it could specifically recog-nize and cut loxLTR sequence after being transfected into Hela cells . Conclusion Constructed Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector can be expressed in Hela cells and specifically recognize loxLTR sequence , which has prepared the experimental ground for fur-ther studies of clearing HIV provirus .%目的:清除人类免疫缺陷病毒( human immunodeficiency virus , HIV)前病毒是治愈艾滋病的关键。构建Tre酶真核表达载体,鉴定其特异性识别HIV前病毒中所含有的loxLTR序列功能。方法经基因合成、PCR、酶切、连接等基因重组技术将Tre基因插入pcDNA3.1真核表达载体中,将EGFPpA-LoxLTR序列插入pmCherry-N1载体中,并经酶切、PCR、测序鉴定;用电穿孔法将构建的载体转染到HeLa细胞,用荧光显微镜观察荧光强弱及变化。结果经PCR、酶切、电泳、测序分析鉴定,Tre酶真核表达载体构建正确,转染HeLa细胞后,能特异性识别并剪切loxLTR序列。结论构建的Tre酶真核表达载体可在HeLa细胞中表达,并特异性识别loxLTR序列。

  3. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  5. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  6. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  7. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  8. Extremely Red Quasars in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual "wingless" line profiles, large NV/Lya, NV/CIV, SiIV/CIV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [OIII] 5007. Here we present a new catalog of CIV and NV emission-line data for 216,188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR color, secondarily on REW(CIV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a "core" sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 > 4.6 (AB) and REW(CIV) > 100 A at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity log L (ergs/s) ~ 47.1, sk...

  9. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  10. Reverse Transcription of Retroviruses and LTR Retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen H

    2015-04-01

    The enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) was discovered in retroviruses almost 50 years ago. The demonstration that other types of viruses, and what are now called retrotransposons, also replicated using an enzyme that could copy RNA into DNA came a few years later. The intensity of the research in both the process of reverse transcription and the enzyme RT was greatly stimulated by the recognition, in the mid-1980s, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was a retrovirus and by the fact that the first successful anti-HIV drug, azidothymidine (AZT), is a substrate for RT. Although AZT monotherapy is a thing of the past, the most commonly prescribed, and most successful, combination therapies still involve one or both of the two major classes of anti-RT drugs. Although the basic mechanics of reverse transcription were worked out many years ago, and the first high-resolution structures of HIV RT are now more than 20 years old, we still have much to learn, particularly about the roles played by the host and viral factors that make the process of reverse transcription much more efficient in the cell than in the test tube. Moreover, we are only now beginning to understand how various host factors that are part of the innate immunity system interact with the process of reverse transcription to protect the host-cell genome, the host cell, and the whole host, from retroviral infection, and from unwanted retrotransposition.

  11. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  12. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets....

  13. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir...

  14. Solar Drying of Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John L.

    Solar drying of thickened red mud is the latest method for its disposal in an economical and environmentally acceptable way. Two years full scale experience with this method in Jamaica has shown that its success depends on accurate grading of the solar drying area and accurate control of the pre-dewatering of the mud in the alumina plant. Experience with the use of deep thickening for pre-dewatering is described, together with a novel method for measurement and control of thickened mud rheology.

  15. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  16. Woman Village Leader and The Red Peppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    YU Hua, 28, deputy head of Sanduan Village is very proud of her village. As she welcomes visitors, she is sure to let them know: "Our red peppers were reported in the Chinese Population News." Red peppers grown in Sanduan Village are distinctive for their good quality, bright color, and pure hot taste Traders came to the village to buy red peppers. Thus their reputation grew quickly and the village head was even invited to Beijing to take part in a

  17. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-22

    Oct 22, 2014 ... Key words: Rhodosorus marinus, red microalgae, antibacterial activity, antiproliferative activity, methanolic extract. ... subsequent production of metabolites (secondary ..... antioxidant molecules, such as vitamins, enzymes,.

  18. Red Sesbania Distribution - lines [ds81

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer conatains line data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  19. First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis) in ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative therapy for Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

  20. Red Sesbania Distribution - points [ds80

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer contains point data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  1. Pure red cell aplasia and associated thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rosu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia is a rare cause of anemia, caused by an absence of red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. It is usually a paraneoplastic syndrome, associated most commonly with large-cell granular lymphocyte leukemia but also thymoma. For patients who present both pure red cell aplasia and thymoma, thymectomy leads to an initial remission of the aplasia in 30% of cases. However, sustained remission may require the addition of medications such as corticosteroids, cyclospo­rine, or cyclophosphamide. We present a case of pure red cell aplasia associated with a thymoma in an otherwise healthy 80 year-old woman.

  2. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  3. Asteroseismology of Red Giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrant, N J; Elsworth, Y P; Spreckley, S A; Stevens, I R

    2008-01-01

    Sun-like oscillations, that is p-modes excited stochastically by convective noise, have now been observed in a number of Red Giant stars. Compared to those seen in the Sun, these modes are of large amplitude and long period, making the oscillations attractive prospects for observation. However, the low Q-factor of these modes, and issues relating to the rising background at low frequencies, present some interesting challenges for identifying modes and determining the related asteroseismic parameters. We report on the analysis procedure adopted for peak-bagging by our group at Birmingham, and the techniques used to robustly ensure these are not a product of noise. I also show results from a number of giants extracted from multi-year observations with the SMEI instrument.

  4. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  5. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir....../carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...

  6. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  7. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related h

  8. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  9. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  10. Internal rotation of red giants by asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, M P; Ventura, R; Stello, D; Beck, P G; Davies, G; Elsworth, Y; Garcıa, R A; Hekker, S; Mosser, B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Bloemen, S; Catanzaro, G; De Smedt, K; Tkachenko, A

    2012-01-01

    We present an asteroseismic approach to study the dynamics of the stellar interior in red-giant stars by asteroseismic inversion of the splittings induced by the stellar rotation on the oscillation frequencies. We show preliminary results obtained for the red giant KIC4448777 observed by the space mission Kepler.

  11. Red grain mycetoma foot in Western Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur D

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the colour of the grains seen in cases of mycetoma are either black or yellow. Recently there were reports that unusual red grains had been noticed in cases of mycetoma. A case of red grain mycetoma is reported.

  12. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  13. Red autofluorescence of dental plaque bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. H.; Thomas, R. Z.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; de Soet, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Red autofluorescence of plaque and its relation to fluorescence of a single species in the biofilm was studied. Fluorescence images of non-disclosed and disclosed plaque of 28 first-year students were captured. The plaque samples were assessed by culture methods and studied for red autofluorescence.

  14. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  15. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  16. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  17. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  18. Red wine, arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Papamichael, Christos; Lekakis, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Zampelas, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Red wine is considered to reduce cardiovascular risk and decrease peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Central aortic pressures are often more sensitive clinical and prognostic factors than peripheral pressures, while arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular events. Great efforts are being made to find natural sources of improving health. In order to clarify the mechanisms under which a widely used drink, like red wine, is affecting heart and vessels, we aimed to review the available data regarding the effects of red wine on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central blood pressures. The effect of red wine on central hemodynamics has been poorly explored with divergent results. Possible consequences of acute and long-term intake on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central pressures are not clear. This might make someone skeptical when suggesting the consumption of a glass of red wine, although its cardioprotective actions (when moderately consumed) are already shown from epidemiological studies.

  19. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  20. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  1. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  2. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  3. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  4. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  5. Toxicity induced by Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Liu, Hong-Cui; Ou, Wen-Bin; Eilers, Grant; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Guo; Li, Chun-Qi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 are classified as carcinogenic dyes in the European textile ecology standard, despite insufficient toxicity data. In this study, the toxicity of these dyes was assessed in a zebrafish model, and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated. Basic Violet 14 and Direct Red 28 showed acute toxicity with a LC50 value at 60.63 and 476.84 µg ml(-1) , respectively, whereas the LC50 of Acid Red 26 was between 2500 and 2800 µg ml(-1) . Treatment with Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 resulted in common developmental abnormalities including delayed yolk sac absorption and swimming bladder deflation. Hepatotoxicity was observed in zebrafish treated with Basic Violet 14, and cardiovascular toxicity was found in zebrafish treated with Acid Red 26 at concentrations higher than 2500 µg ml(-1) . Basic Violet 14 also caused significant up-regulation of GCLC gene expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas Acid Red 26 induced significant up-regulation of NKX2.5 and down-regulation of GATA4 at a high concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 induce developmental and organ-specific toxicity, and oxidative stress may play a role in the hepatotoxicity of Basic Violet 14, the suppressed GATA4 expression may have a relation to the cardiovascular toxicity of Acid Red 26. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  7. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  8. A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification system. ... of the research reported in this paper is to investigate the red meat knowledge, ... of carcass classification to consumers through fresh red meat product labels at ...

  9. Grating-based red lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Bardia; Hagberg, Mats; Zelinski, Michael; Zou, Sarah; Kolev, Emil I.

    1999-04-01

    We have demonstrated a number of high power and single- frequency lasers at 635 - 680 nm by incorporating a grating reflector within the device, including DBRs, tunable DBRs, monolithic MOPAs, DFBs, and angled-grating DFBs. The DBR laser, with an unpumped grating as the rear reflector, is the simplest single-frequency structure, with about 20 mW output power. The device can be tuned about 3 nm by injecting current in the rear grating. Higher output power can be obtained by combining the DBR with a flared amplifier to form a monolithic MOPA with over 250 mW CW output power. Unlike DBR structures, the DFBs have a grating throughout their gain region, and therefore show no mode hops. Wavelengths as short as 634 nm and output powers as high as 90 mW have been obtained with DFBs. An angle-grating DFB is a broad area device where the angled grating forces lasing in a single spatial and longitudinal mode. More than 400 mW in single-frequency power has been obtained at 660 nm from such a structure. In general, grating-based red lasers are useful for interferometry, spectroscopy, and fiber-coupling applications.

  10. Red quasars not so dusty

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, C R; Carballo, R; González-Serrano, J I; Sánchez, S F

    1997-01-01

    Webster et al (1995) claimed that up to 80% of QSOs may be obscured by dust. They inferred the presence of this dust from the remarkably broad range of B-K optical-infrared colours of a sample of flat-spectrum PKS radio QSOs. If such dust is typical of QSOs, it will have rendered invisible most of those which would otherwise been have detected by optical surveys. We used the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma to obtain K infrared images of 54 B3 radio quasars selected at low frequency (mainly steep-spectrum), and we find that although several have very red optical-infrared colours, most of these can be attributed to an excess of light in K rather than a dust-induced deficit in B. We present evidence that some of the infrared excess comes from the light of stars in the host galaxy (some, as previously suggested, comes from synchrotron radiation associated with flat-spectrum radio sources). The B-K colours of the B3 QSOs provide no evidence for a large reddened population. Either the Webster et al QSOs are ...

  11. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  12. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  13. Red cell hemolysis during processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apart from the visual assessment, measurement of plasma hemoglobin in the supernatant from red cell units provides an objective measure of the extent of hemolysis during storage. Study Design and Methods: Packed red cells (N=50, 25 units each in triple (CPD-A1 and SAGM and quadruple (CPD-A1 and ADSOL blood bags were evaluated for plasma hemoglobin by the tetramethylbenzidiene (TMB method on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of collection. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, LDH and potassium levels were also noted. Whole blood units (N=25 were used as controls. Results: Hemolysis increased in all the stored red cell units. Plasma hemoglobin increased significantly in the first week of storage. The hemolysis, LDH and potassium levels were found to be significantly higher in the red cell units harvested from the triple blood bags. However, on day 28 of storage, free hemoglobin in all the red cell units was much below the 0.8% hemolysis. Conclusion: Hemolysis of the red cells increases due to processing and during storage and is maximum during the first week. Adequate process control and proper storage facilities should be ensured to minimize the hemolysis of red cells during processing and storage.

  14. Active kinematics of the southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Ogubazghi, G.; Amlesom, A.; Haileab, B.; Sholan, J.; Vernant, P.; Arrajehi, A.

    2009-04-01

    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and around the Afar Triple Junction (Red Sea Rift-Gulf of Aden Rift-East African Rift), indicate that the Red Sea rift bifurcates south of 16° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea rift (~150° Azimuth) and the other oriented roughly N-S traversing the Danakil Depression/Afar volcanic province. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. Within the resolution of our observations, the partitioning of extension between rift branches varies linearly along strike; north of ~16°N extension (~15 mm/yr at 16°N) is confined to the main Red Sea rift while at the latitude of the Afar Triple Junction (~12°N) extension (~20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil-Afar Depression. The Danakil block separates the two rifts and rotates counterclockwise, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the triangular geometry of the Danakil/Afar Depression. Extrapolating the geodetic rates to the time of initial rifting of Arabia from Nubia (~25 ± 3 Ma) and estimating total extension across the rift branches from the present-day widths of the rifts suggests that Arabia-Nubia relative motion has been roughly constant since the initiation of Red Sea spreading, and that extension was initially confined to the main Red Sea rift with the presently observed bifurcation initiating at about 17 Ma.

  15. The Evolving Luminosity Function of Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M J I; Jannuzi, B T; Brand, K; Benson, A J; Brodwin, M; Croton, D J; Eisenhardt, P R M; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brand, Kate; Benson, Andrew J.; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    We trace the assembly history of red galaxies since z=1, by measuring their evolving space density with the B-band luminosity function. Our sample of 39599 red galaxies, selected from 6.96 square degrees of imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field and Spitzer IRAC Shallow surveys, is an order of magnitude larger, in size and volume, than comparable samples in the literature. We measure a higher space density of z=0.9 red galaxies than some of the recent literature, in part because we account for the faint yet significant galaxy flux which falls outside of our photometric aperture. The B-band luminosity density of red galaxies, which effectively measures the evolution of ~L* galaxies, increases by only 36 percent from z=0 to z=1. If red galaxy stellar populations have faded by 1.24 B-band magnitudes since z=1, the stellar mass contained within the red galaxy population has roughly doubled over the past 8 Gyr. This is consistent with star-forming galaxies being transformed into ~L* red galaxies after a decline in ...

  16. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  17. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  18. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  19. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohandas, Narla; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2008-01-01

    .... The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics...

  1. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  2. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  3. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  4. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  5. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  6. Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R; Henriksen, J M; Harving, H

    1986-12-01

    Drinking red wine may provoke bronchospasm in subjects with asthma. In order to reveal some of the possible agents involved in this reaction, 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma were studied. They received, in a double-blind fashion, red wine with low sulfur dioxide (SO2) and high amine, high SO2 and high amine and low SO2 and low amine content. In each challenge, the wine was administered in stepwise increasing quantities until a total of 385 ml or a fall in peak expiratory flow of greater than 15% was reached. Nine subjects demonstrated a significant fall in peak flow in one or more challenges. In all cases the most severe reaction was observed after the wine with high SO2 content. The study suggests that SO2 is the most important factor in red wine-induced asthma. It is recommended that wine labels provide information on the SO2 content.

  7. PUNGENT AND COLOUR COMPOUNDS OF RED PEPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The capcaicinoid amount of red peppers from Solanacea family is used for the evaluation of quality and classification in many countries. Capsaicin is the major pungent principle (69 % of capsaicinoids. The others are dihidrocapsaicin (22 %, nordihidrocapsaicin (7 %, homocapsaicin (1 % and homodihidrocapsaicin (1 %. As in most foods, the carotenoids of red peppers are also important compounds. Carotenoids are typical colour pigments and some of them have vitamin A activity. Major carotenoids of ripe fruit of red peppers are capsanthin, capsorubin, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Capcaicinoid and carotenoid contents of red peppers grown in many different regions of the world, their properties and roles on the human health were given in this review.

  8. Inbreeding depression in red deer calves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walling, Craig A; Nussey, Daniel H; Morris, Alison; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    .... Here we investigated the consequences of variation in inbreeding coefficient for three juvenile traits, birth date, birth weight and first year survival, in a wild population of red deer, considering...

  9. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium produces...

  10. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  11. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  12. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  13. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  14. Moving Forward with Computational Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    while the plant has its pollen spread, enabling reproduction). In a red teaming setting, we can simulate competitive co-evolution, by evolving red team... Reservations were expressed over the readiness or suitability of evolutionary algorithms in the context of CRT for CIED.  Advocates serious games...species like a cheetah. Or it can be cooperative, as in the case of an insect species evolving against a flowering plant (the insect gets nectar

  15. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  16. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome with Red Cell Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl.

  17. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  18. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  19. Random shRNA Library Screen for shRNAs Targeting HIV-1 LTR Related Host Factors with TK Suicide Gene%shRNA随机文库结合TK自杀基因筛选靶向HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建彬; 方祥; 童贻刚; 米志强; 安小平; 谭莉; 陈斌; 王晓娜; 范华昊; 张文慧; 张博

    2012-01-01

    构建shRNA随机文库与HIV-1 LTR启动胸苷激酶基因(TK基因)稳定表达的稳定细胞系HEK293/TK,将两者结合起来,筛选靶向HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子.方法:通过化学合成含有19个随机脱氧核苷酸的发夹结构,将其退火补平后与合成的接头Linker连接进行PCR反应,将PCR产物酶切后置于慢病毒载体pLenti-U6启动子下游由此构建shRNA随机文库;利用重叠PCR将HIV-1 LTR片段和TK基因连接起来,连接产物经酶切后与pcDNA3.1载体连接;将连接正确的质粒转染HEK293细胞同时用G418加压筛选获得稳定细胞系HEK293/TK;将所获得的文库质粒包装成慢病毒后侵染所构建的HEK293/TK细胞系,通过加入药物GCV进行加压筛选获得存活细胞.结果:成功筛选到加药后存活下来的细胞,抽提细胞基因组,采用巢式PCR扩增目的干扰序列并用Western blot对干扰序列进行验证,鉴定获得一个克隆所表达的shRNA能对TK基因的表达起到抑制作用,通过测序分析获得其干扰序列,该序列很有可能针对HIV-1 LTR某宿主相关因子.结论:成功构建了一种筛选HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子的方法,筛选所得序列可以定位到具体相关宿主因子,为靶向筛选抗HIV-1药物提供了重要手段.%To screen HIV-1 LTR related host factors by constructing random RNAi library based on the lentiviral vector and HIV-1 LTR reporter cell line in which TK suicide gene can express stably. Methods: Oligo deoxynucleotides were chemically synthesized which formed hairpin structure that contain 19 random bases and were then fused with a linker sequence. The joined product was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was cloned downstream of U6 promoter of a lentiviral vector pLenti-U6 to prepare random shRNA Library. HIV-1 LTR and HSV-TK gene were amplified by PCR and then joined by overlapping PCR. The joined product was cloned into pcDNA3. 1 expression vector. The recombinant plasmid obtained was transfected into HEK293

  20. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  2. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  3. Spectral Tuning of Deep Red Cone Pigments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tabitha L.; Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Galan, Jhenny F.; Birge, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11-cis-retinal) or A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6-s-trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6-s-cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6-s-trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by ~1500 cm−1 (~50 nm) and A2 pigments by ~2700 cm−1 (~100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6-s-trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6-s-trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites. PMID:18370404

  4. Spectral tuning of deep red cone pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tabitha L; Ramos, Lavoisier S; Galan, Jhenny F; Birge, Robert R

    2008-04-22

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11- cis-retinal) or A2 (11- cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6- s- trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6- s- cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6- s- trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by approximately 1500 cm (-1) ( approximately 50 nm) and A2 pigments by approximately 2700 cm (-1) ( approximately 100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6- s- trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6- s- trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites.

  5. Red Tide Frequency Analysis Using the Extreme Value Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the red tide erupted frequently, and caused a great economic loss. At present, most literatures emphasize the academic research on the growth mechanism of red tide alga. In order to find out the characters of red tide in detail and improve the precision of forecast, this paper gives some new approaches to dealing with the red tide. By the extreme values, we deal with the red tide frequency analysis and get the estimation of T-times red tide level U(T), which is the level once the consistence of red tide alga exceeds on the average in a period of T times.

  6. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  7. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  8. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  9. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  10. The Red Power(less Tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S. S. Kramer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that wearing red can have significant effects on perceptions of the wearer. However, these findings are based on impressions formed while viewing static images. Here, I focus on perceptions of political leaders and show participants short videos in order to investigate color effects in stimuli with increased ecological validity. Viewers watched videos of politicians and made judgments regarding how dominant, how good a leader, and how believable the politicians appeared to be. The colors of the politicians’ ties were digitally manipulated to be red or blue. Whether the politician was familiar (Study 1 or unfamiliar to viewers (Study 2, tie color had no effect on perceptions. Even when the sound was muted in order to increase the influence of visual cues (Study 3, I found no clothing color effect. Finally, when only presented with a static image (Study 4, wearing red still had no effect on judgments. These results suggest that, at least in a political setting, wearing red has no effect on perceptions. Therefore, real-world applications associated with red clothing may be limited.

  11. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  12. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  13. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  14. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  15. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  16. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life.

  17. Red rainbows at sunset/sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The rainbow model deveeloped at CEPAL is based on the Airy theory. The outputs show that a pure red rainbow could only observed from a hill or a mountain when the sun is below the horizon. When the sun is on the horizon, there should be a juxtaposition of a red band on the outside and of a yellow band on the inside (upper figures). However, observers report pure red bows at sea level (lower left figure). In these rare cases, it is possible to still see the sun after it has set. As sunlight passes through more and more dense atmosphere at sunset the light slows and bends closer and closer toward the normal. When the eye traces the light ray it appears to be higher in the sky (lower right figure).

  18. Late Devonian red tide and mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular stratigraphical, carbonate carbon isotopic, stratigraphical and paleontological data show that algal booming, eutrophication, anoxia, hypersalinity, positive ( 13C excursion and biomass decreasing occurred in the offshore carbonate environments of the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) transition, which hints that red tide might frequently take place in the F-F transition of Guangxi, South China. We suggest that the mass extinction of the reef ecosystems and the shallow-water marine organisms in the F-F transition of the lower-middle latitudes may be related to the frequent occurrence of red tide in that time.

  19. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  20. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds...... of stars on or near the main sequence. Here I mainly consider solar-like oscillations in red giants, where Kepler observations are yielding results of a perhaps unexpected richness. In addition to giving a brief overview of the observational and numerical results for these stars, I present a simple...

  1. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  2. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  3. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  4. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  5. Phosphine on Jupiter and implications for the Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, R. G.; Lewis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the chemistry and photochemistry of the recently discovered phosphine in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggests that the red colorations on this planet result from photochemical production of red phosphorus particles. Chemical-dynamical models of this red phosphorus haze imply that the intensity of the red coloration is a strong function of the strength of vertical turbulent mixing in the atmosphere. If the Jovian Great Red Spot is a region of considerable dynamical activity our model provides a self-consistent explanation for the redness of this region in comparison to the rest of the planet.

  6. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  7. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2000-07-01

    Model independent constraints on supersymmetric models emerge when certain couplings are drawn towards their infra-red (quasi) fixed points in the course of their renormalization group evolution. The general principles are first reviewed and the conclusions for some recent studies of theories with -parity and baryon and lepton number violations are summarized.

  8. A Dream of Red Mansions as Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    ADream of Red Mansions is a world-famous literary workand one of the greatest trea-sures among the Chinese classics.Itholds a special position in the histo-ry of Chinese literature unmatchedby other works,and with the devel-opment of history and the progressof society,its ideological and literary values have become even dee-

  9. Synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will provide a synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative and will highlight certain important elements of success. It will re-address the aims and objectives which were provided in Section 1 and also address some significant changes which...

  10. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  11. MERIS and the red-edge position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Jong, de S.M.; Epema, G.F.; Meer, van der F.; Bakker, W.H.; Skidmore, A.K.; Addink, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is a payload component of Envisat-1. MERIS will be operated over land with a standard 15 band setting acquiring images with a 300 m spatial resolution. The red-edge position (REP) is a promising variable for deriving foliar chlorophyll concentration

  12. Chloroplast DNA variation of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Romero-Severson; Preston Aldrich; Yi Feng; Weilin Sun; Charles Michler

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was examined in 48 northern red oaks at 14 sites representing contrasting glacial histories and age structures within the state of Indiana in the United States. PCR-RFLP of three intergenic regions revealed five haplotypes. Haplotype I was common to seven sites and was the most frequent (17 trees). Haplotype II was common to five sites...

  13. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  14. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  15. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  16. Linear Sweep Voltammetry of Adsorbed Neutral Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    E. Creager, G. T. Marks, D. A. Aikens and H. H. Richtol Prepared for Publication in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry Rensselaer Polytechnic... Electroanalytical Chemistry It. KEY WORDS (Continue oun reverse side It necessary mid Ideneliy by block ntaibor) Neutral Red, cyclic voltammetry, adsorbed dye 20

  17. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  18. American Red Cross: A History And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AMERICAN RED CROSS: A HISTORY AND ANALYSIS December......N/ A 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy B. Egan and Thanousone Pravongviengkham 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  19. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  20. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  1. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  2. South African red data book - fishes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skelton, PH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available and marginal estuarine species. Within these groups the species are listed alphabetically according to the established IUCN categories of endangered, vulnerable or rare. The red data sheets include a line drawing of each species as well as maps indicating...

  3. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. A COMPLEX IDENTITY: RED COLOR-CODING IN ALAI'S RED POPPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Draggeim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alai's Red Poppies presents a complex depiction of Tibetan identity that is at odds with the romanticized portrayal of the Tibetan minority in Chinese government media as well as with the standard historical positioning of Old Tibet as feudal and primitive. The color red is an ongoing theme that recurs throughout the novel, from the original introduction of the red poppies, to their spread throughout the area surrounding the Maichi chiefdom and, finally, to the chiefdom's downfall, offering insight not only into the complexity of Sino-Tibetan relations, but also into tension between Tibetan self-perception and popular image. Using a color frequently associated with Red China to highlight diverse cultural themes, Alai's work provides us a valuable window into marginal Tibetan realms outside of Central Tibet.

  5. Red salmon investigations: Kodiak red salmon studies, plan of operations, April 1966 to April 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The broad objective of the Karluk research program is to study those aspects of the life cycle and ecology of red salmon pertinent to explaining the long-term...

  6. A Preliminary Exploration of the Metrical Musicality in Robert Burns’s A Red, Red Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军; 刘芹

    2013-01-01

    The musicality of poetry is a project that has been in great need of scholars’attentions and studies due to its charming typicality, which has been a rarely-visited for a long time. To get away with this intellectual sterility and poverty, and highlight the aesthetic universality of the musicality in poetic texts, this paper aims to give a preliminary exploration of the metrical musical-ity in A Red, Red Rose.

  7. The stylistic analysis of “A Red,Red Rose”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔德玉

    2013-01-01

    Robert Burns was a famous‘ploughmas poet’.He adhered to traditional poetic form,general language and song tunes combined with ordinary experience to describe the.beautiful love.The thesis analyses Robert burns’famous love song “A Red,Red Rose”from the perspective of stylistics.It includes the stylistic levels of phonology and graphology,lexis,syntax and semantics.

  8. Modulation of vacuolar pH is required for replication of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Wes A; Dubytska, Lidiya; Rogge, Matthew L; Mottram, Peter J; Thune, Ronald L

    2014-06-01

    Previous in vitro work demonstrated that Edwardsiella ictaluri produces an acid-activated urease that can modulate environmental pH through the production of ammonia from urea. Additional work revealed that expression of the E. ictaluri type III secretion system (T3SS) is upregulated by acidic pH. Both the urease and the T3SS were previously shown to be essential to intracellular replication. In this work, fluorescence microscopy with LysoTracker Red DND-99 (LTR) indicated that E. ictaluri-containing vacuoles (ECV) became acidified following ingestion by head kidney-derived macrophages (HKDM). In vivo ratiometric imaging demonstrated a lowered ECV pH, which fell to as low as pH 4 but subsequently increased to pH 6 or greater. Inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases by use of the specific inhibitor bafilomycin A1 abrogated both ECV acidification and intracellular replication in HKDM. Failure of an E. ictaluri urease knockout mutant to increase the ECV pH in the in vivo ratiometric assay suggests that ammonia produced by the urease reaction mediates the pH increase. Additionally, when the specific arginase inhibitor l-norvaline was used to treat E. ictaluri-infected HKDM, the ECV failed to neutralize and E. ictaluri was unable to replicate. This indicates that the HKDM-encoded arginase enzyme produces the urea used by the E. ictaluri urease enzyme. Failure of the ECV to acidify would prevent both upregulation of the T3SS and activation of the urease enzyme, either of which would prevent E. ictaluri from replicating in HKDM. Failure of the ECV to neutralize would result in a vacuolar pH too low to support E. ictaluri replication.

  9. The role of autophagy in chloroplast degradation and chlorophagy in immune defenses during Pst DC3000 (AvrRps4 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlorosis of leaf tissue normally observed during pathogen infection may result from the degradation of chloroplasts. There is a growing evidence to suggest that the chloroplast plays a significant role during pathogen infection. Although most degradation of the organelles and cellular structures in plants is mediated by autophagy, its role in chloroplast catabolism during pathogen infection is largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the function of autophagy in chloroplast degradation during avirulent Pst DC3000 (AvrRps4 infection. We examined the expression of defensive marker genes and suppression of bacterial growth using the electrolyte leakage assay in normal light (N and low light (L growing environments of wild-type and atg5-1 plants during pathogen treatment. Stroma-targeted GFP proteins (CT-GFP were observed with LysoTracker Red (LTR staining of autophagosome-like structures in the vacuole. The results showed that Arabidopsis expressed a significant number of small GFP-labeled bodies when infected with avirulent Pst DC3000 (AvrRps4. While barely detectable, there were small GFP-labeled bodies in plants with the CT-GFP expressing atg5-1 mutation. The results showed that chloroplast degradation depends on autophagy and this may play an important role in inhibiting pathogen growth. CONCLUSION: Autophagy plays a role in chloroplast degradation in Arabidopsis during avirulent Pst DC3000 (AvrRps4 infection. Autophagy dependent chloroplast degradation may be the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as the pathogen-response signaling molecules that induce the defense response.

  10. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  11. Understanding the Red Sea nutrient cycle - a first look into nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Roslinda; Arrieta, Jesus; Alam, Intikhab; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea is an elongated and semi-enclosed system bordered by Africa and Saudi Arabia. Positioned in an arid, tropical zone, the system receives high solar irradiance and heat flux, extensive evaporation, low rainfall and therefore high salinity. These harsh environmental conditions has set the Red Sea to be one of the fastest warming and saltiest ecosystem in the world. Although nutrients are known to be at very low concentrations, the ultimately limiting nutrient in the system is still undefined. Therefore, like most other oligotrophic systems, we regard the Red Sea as being nitrogen-limited and we foresee nitrogen fixation as the most probable bottleneck in the Red Sea nitrogen budget. On the basis of metagenomes from pelagic microbial communities along the Red Sea, we looked into the distribution of nitrogenase, an enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation, in this system and provide a first insight into the microbial community that is involved in the process. The implications of this study will not only help improve our understanding of the Red Sea nutrient regime, but may also hint on future ocean responses to rising climates.

  12. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121 oC and their red fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121 oC . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121 oC. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures up to 300 oC. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectangle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving, an extraterrestrial origin.

  13. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  14. Do male sticklebacks prefer females with red ornamentation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeide J.T

    2002-01-01

    ...) from a population in which both sexes have red pelvic spines. Two females differing in red spine colour extravagance were presented simultaneously to a male under white and green light, and the male's courtship activity towards each female was quantified...

  15. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  16. Sample information - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Sample information - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Population and breeding success of Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Periodic monitoring of each identified nest was done to determine breeding success ... Historical reports indicate Red- headed Vultures .... 24. 217. 241. Table 2: Age composition of Red-headed and Egyptian Vultures based on highest count.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  19. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  20. Comparative Study of Betacyanin Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yi Yi; Dykes, Gary; Lee, Sui Mae; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-03-01

    Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.

  1. The HPV16 E5 oncogene inhibits endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P; van Deurs, B; Norrild, B

    2000-01-01

    fibroblasts to study the effects of E5. Various endocytic markers including the pH-sensitive probe DM-NERF coupled to dextran, TransFluoSpheres and TRITC-concanavalin A, were applied. In E5-transfected cells, none of these markers colocalized with the membrane permeable probe LysoTracker Red, which...

  2. PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLE TENDON/SCLERA PRECURSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractPurpose: This study was designed to examine the occurrence of natural cell death in the periocular mesenchyme of mouse embryos. Methods: Vital staining with LysoTracker Red and Nile blue sulphate as well as terminal nick end labeling (TUNEL) were utiliz...

  3. PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLE TENDON/SCLERA PRECURSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractPurpose: This study was designed to examine the occurrence of natural cell death in the periocular mesenchyme of mouse embryos. Methods: Vital staining with LysoTracker Red and Nile blue sulphate as well as terminal nick end labeling (TUNEL) were utiliz...

  4. Perceived Organizational Red Tape and Organizational Performance in Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2017-01-01

    The claim that perceived organizational red tape hampers public services has become a central theme in public administration research. Surprisingly, however, few scholars have empirically examined the impact of perceived red tape on organizational performance. This study empirically analyzes how...... perceived organizational red tape among managers and frontline staff relates to objectively measured performance. The data consists of survey responses from teachers and principals at Danish upper secondary schools combined with grade-level administrative performance data. Based on theories of red tape...

  5. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Caused by Acute Hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Heon; Oh, Suk Joong; Hong, Soojung; Lee, Kyu Bek; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is characterized as a normocytic anemia associated with reticulocytopenia and the absence of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Pure red cell aplasia can be induced by various causes such as thymoma, connective tissue disease, viral infection, lymphoma, and adverse drug reactions. There have been only a few reports of pure red cell aplasia associated with acute viral hepatitis A. In Korea, no case of pure red cell aplasia caused by acute hepatitis A has yet been reported....

  6. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  7. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  8. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29.1081 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red...

  12. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs. Now, the campaign is focusing on how women can take action to reduce their risk. The Red Dress During last year's Red Dress Fashion Show, 23 celebrities walked the runway in stunning red dresses to their own music, including Lindsay Lohan, Lee Ann Womack, Christina Milian, ...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan....

  14. Red propolis: Chemical composition and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Corbellini Rufatto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been used worldwide for years in folk medicine and currently marketed by the pharmaceutical industry. In Brazil, propolis was classified into 13 groups based on their organoleptics and physicochemical characteristics. The 13th type named red propolis has been an important source of investigation since late 90s. Their property comes from the countless compounds, including terpenes, pterocarpans, prenylated benzophenones and especially the flavonoids. This last compound class has been indicated as the responsible for its potent pharmacological actions, highlighting the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, healing and antiproliferative activities. The red propolis can also be found in other countries, especially Cuba, which has similar features as the Brazilian. Therefore, with the compilation of 80 papers, this review aims to provide a key reference for researchers interested in natural products and discovery of new active compounds, such as from propolis.

  15. Quantitative Adaptive RED in Differentiated Service Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG KePing(隆克平); WANG Qian(王茜); CHENG ShiDuan(程时端); CHEN JunLiang(陈俊亮)

    2003-01-01

    This paper derives a quantitative model between RED (Random Early Detection)maxp and committed traffic rate for token-based marking schemes in DiffServ IP networks. Then,a DiffServ Quantitative RED (DQRED) is presented, which can adapt its dropping probabilityto marking probability of the edge router to reflect not only the sharing bandwidth but also therequirement of performance of these services. Hence, DQRED can cooperate with marking schemesto guarantee fairness between different DiffServ AF class services. A new marking probabilitymetering algorithm is also proposed to cooperate with DQRED. Simulation results verify thatDQRED mechanism can not only control congestion of DiffServ network very well, but also satisfydifferent quality requirements of AF class service. The performance of DQRED is better than thatof WRED.

  16. Improvements to the Red List Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    Full Text Available The Red List Index uses information from the IUCN Red List to track trends in the projected overall extinction risk of sets of species. It has been widely recognised as an important component of the suite of indicators needed to measure progress towards the international target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, further application of the RLI (to non-avian taxa in particular has revealed some shortcomings in the original formula and approach: It performs inappropriately when a value of zero is reached; RLI values are affected by the frequency of assessments; and newly evaluated species may introduce bias. Here we propose a revision to the formula, and recommend how it should be applied in order to overcome these shortcomings. Two additional advantages of the revisions are that assessment errors are not propagated through time, and the overall level extinction risk can be determined as well as trends in this over time.

  17. Fingering Convection in Red Giants Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wachlin, F C; Althaus, L G

    2014-01-01

    Fingering (thermohaline) convection has been invoked for several years as a possible extra-mixing which could occur in Red Giant stars due to the modification of the chemical composition induced by nuclear reactions in the hydrogen burning zone. Recent studies show however that this mixing is not sufficient to account for the needed surface abundances. A new prescription for fingering convection, based on 3D numerical simulations has recently been proposed (BGS). The resulting mixing coefficient is larger than the ones previously given in the literature. We compute models using this new coefficient and compare them to previous studies. We use the LPCODE stellar evolution code with the GNA generalized version of the mixing length theory to compute Red Giant models and we introduce fingering convection using the BGS prescription. The results show that, although the fingering zone now reaches the outer dynamical convective zone, the efficiency of the mixing is not enough to account for the observations. The fing...

  18. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  19. Genomic Typing of Red Cell Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Antigen‐Matched  Red  Cells  for  Sickle  Cell  Anemia   Patients  Using  Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: Meghan Delaney, Prashant Gaur, Askale...Antigen‐Matched Red Cells for Sickle Cell  Anemia  Patients  Using Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: AABB (poster) 2009.  Background: Patients with sickle...not used. Delivery of a  healthy female  neonate  was uneventful. The serologic studies showed the mother and baby’s  phenotypes as O and AB

  20. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  2. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  3. Chemical constituents of red Mexican propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Cinzia; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Rastrelli, Luca

    2010-02-24

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Mexican propolis sample has led to the isolation of three new compounds, 1-(3',4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxyphenyl)-3-(phenyl)propane (1), (Z)-1-(2'-methoxy-4',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-phenyl)propene (2) and 3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxyflavan (3), together with seven known flavanones, isoflavans, and pterocarpans. Structural determination, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly 2D NMR and ESI-MS/MS techniques. The present study appears to be the first report on the occurrence of isoflavonoids in Mexican propolis. In addition, the presence of compounds with a 1,3-diarylpropane and 1,3-diarylpropene carbon skeleton were found for the first time in propolis. Isolated compounds 1-10 indicated the possible relation between red Mexican propolis and the genus Dalbergia.

  4. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  6. Red Velvet多味冰淇淋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Red Velvet在15年加入了一名新成员Yeri以全新的而貌与状态发行了第一张迷你专辑《Ice Cream Cake》。五位成员甜美的形象和主打歌中毒的旋律,让她们迅速获得了出道后的首个一位。

  7. Public Water Supply, Red River Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    nigra ) willow oak (Quercus phellos), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and elms (Ulmus spp.). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), silverbell...and consists of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), water oak (Quercus nigra ), post oak (Quercus stellata), mockernut hickory...Patridge Berry C,D,E 9 8 Mnium spp. Moss D 1 Morus rubra Red Mulberry D,E 2 Myrica cerifera Wax Myrtle C,E 97 49 Nyssa aquatica Tupelogum D,E 4 17 3 Nyssa

  8. Red Giant evolution and specific problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Alessandro; Girardi, Leo; Nanni, Ambra; Rubele, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the great effort made in the last decades to improve our understanding of stellar evolution, significant uncertainties still remain due to our poor knowledge of some complex physical processes that still require an empirical calibration, such as the efficiency of convective heat transport and interior mixing. Here we will review the impact of these uncertainties on the evolution of red giant stars.

  9. Red cells and rouleaux in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, H L

    1966-09-16

    The rotation and deformation of human red cells and linear aggregates (rouleaux) in dilute plasma suspension were observed in Poiseuille and Couette flow. Single lunideform-led erythrocyte. s and roluleauix rotated in orbits predicted by theory for rigid spheroids. Bending of rouleaux occurred at orientations at which compressive forces act on the particles and the degree of flexibility increased with the number of cells in linear array.

  10. Multigrid with red black SOR revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavneh, I. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1994-12-31

    Optimal relaxation parameters are obtained for red-black point Gauss-Seidel relaxation in multigrid solvers of a family of elliptic equations. The resulting relaxation schemes are found to retain high efficiency over an appreciable range of coefficients of the elliptic operator, yielding simple, inexpensive and fully parallelizable smoothers in many situations where more complicated and less cost-effective block-relaxation and/or partial coarsening are commonly used.

  11. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  12. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  13. Human Connections in Red Badge of Courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Afroz Ashrafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper Human connection in Red badge of Courage sought to reestablish the notion that humanity survives the ravages of war, the war that kills and alienates a good chunk of human populace. The sounds of bullets cannot soften the tissues of heart, rather it only appalls humanity. Crane’s human connection is stressed as the succor for the tormented and oppressed nations mainly through wars.

  14. Enzyme-inhibitor mediated red cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackery, D.M.; Singh, J.; Wyeth, P. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    Red blood cells contain 90% of the body's enzyme carbonic anhydrase to which aromatic sulphonamide inhibitors bind tightly. P-iodo-benzene sulphonamide (PIBS) is a lipophilic inhibitor which would afford rapid cell labelling. Radioiodinated PIBS was prepared, in high yield, by radio ion exchange in the presence of ammonium sulphate. After intravenous injection of /sup 131/I-PIBS the radiolabel was found in the blood pool.

  15. mufasa: the assembly of the red sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Romeel; Rafieferantsoa, Mika H.; Thompson, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    We examine the growth and evolution of quenched galaxies in the mufasa cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include an evolving halo mass-based quenching prescription, with galaxy colours computed accounting for line-of-sight extinction to individual star particles. mufasa reproduces the observed present-day red sequence reasonably well, including its slope, amplitude and scatter. In mufasa, the red sequence slope is driven entirely by the steep stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation, which independently agrees with observations. High-mass star-forming galaxies blend smoothly on to the red sequence, indicating the lack of a well-defined green valley at M* ≳ 1010.5 M⊙. The most massive galaxies quench the earliest and then grow very little in mass via dry merging; they attain their high masses at earlier epochs when cold inflows more effectively penetrate hot haloes. To higher redshifts, the red sequence becomes increasingly contaminated with massive dusty star-forming (SF) galaxies; UVJ selection subtly but effectively separates these populations. We then examine the evolution of the mass functions of central and satellite galaxies split into passive and star-forming via UVJ. Massive quenched systems show good agreement with observations out to z ∼ 2, despite not including a rapid early quenching mode associated with mergers. However, low-mass quenched galaxies are far too numerous at z ≲ 1 in mufasa, indicating that mufasa strongly overquenches satellites. A challenge for hydrodynamic simulations is to devise a quenching model that produces enough early massive quenched galaxies and keeps them quenched to z = 0, while not being so strong as to overquench satellites; mufasa's current scheme fails at the latter.

  16. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  17. Bioactive Constituents of Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Trusheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis, among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source. Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.

  18. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  19. Computer Assisted Diagnoses for Red Eye (CADRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expert System (ES named as “CADRE-Computer Assisted Diagnoses for Red Eye. Mostly the remote areas of the population are deprived of the facilities of having experts in eye disease. So it is the need of the day to store the expertise of Eye specialists in computers through using ES technology. This ES is a rule-based Expert System that assists in red-eye diagnosis and treatment. The knowledge acquired from literature review and human experts of the specific domain was used as a base for analysis, diagnosis and recommendations. CADRE evaluates the risk factors of 20 eye diseases and works just like an ophthalmologist, which will be useful for students, doctors and researchers as well as to patients. This expert system (ES was developed through using ESTA, VISUAL BASIC, MS-EXCEL, Seagate Crystal Reports and Image Styler. This ES is not limited to the Red-eye diseases but can be extended to all types of eye-diseases.

  20. The "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F

    2009-01-01

    Red Dwarfs (main-sequence / dwarf M or dM) stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy. These cool, faint, low mass stars comprise over 75% of all stars. Because of their low luminosities (~0.0008-0.06 of the Sun's luminosity), the circumstellar habitable zones (HZs) of dM stars are located within ~0.05-0.4 AU of the host star. Nevertheless, the prospect of life on a planet located within the HZ of a red dwarf is moderately high, based on the longevity of these stars (>50 Gyr), their constant luminosities and high space densities. Here we describe the aims and early results of the "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program - a study of dM stars that we have been carrying out over the last few years. The primary focus of our research on dM stars is the study of their magnetic dynamos and resulting star spots & coronal X-ray and chromospheric UV emissions as a function of age, rotation and spectral type. This program will provide datasets that can be used as inputs for the study of all aspects of dM stars, along w...

  1. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  2. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-12-12

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected sediment samples from brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. The taxonomic analysis showed the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OUT). Recently we established in the laboratory a microdroplet technology to encapsulate single cells. This technology enables us to analyze single-cell genomes and perform the high-throughput screening. The genomes of both cultivable and uncultivable organisms can be analyzed. We envision the collection of complimentary data, obtained by various techniques, such as single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. That will enable us not only to understand the environment and microorganism communities but also will allow to discover the previously unknown genes, pathways, and whole genomes. These data will facilitate the enhancement of biological and chemical producers, and pave the way for bioprospecting.

  3. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  4. Surface rotation of Kepler red giant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceillier, T.; Tayar, J.; Mathur, S.; Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Stello, D.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; van Saders, J.; Beck, P. G.; Bloemen, S.

    2017-09-01

    Kepler allows the measurement of starspot variability in a large sample of field red giants for the first time. With a new method that combines autocorrelation and wavelet decomposition, we measure 361 rotation periods from the full set of 17 377 oscillating red giants in our sample. This represents 2.08% of the stars, consistent with the fraction of spectroscopically detected rapidly rotating giants in the field. The remaining stars do not show enough variability to allow us to measure a reliable surface rotation period. Because the stars with detected rotation periods have measured oscillations, we can infer their global properties, e.g. mass and radius, and quantitatively evaluate the predictions of standard stellar evolution models as a function of mass. Consistent with results for cluster giants when we consider only the 4881 intermediate-mass stars, M > 2.0 M⊙ from our full red giant sample, we do not find the enhanced rates of rapid rotation expected from angular momentum conservation. We therefore suggest that either enhanced angular momentum loss or radial differential rotation must be occurring in these stars. Finally, when we examine the 575 low-mass (Mhttp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A111

  5. [Molecular genetics of red-green color blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A S; Jensen, H; Rosenberg, T; Jørgensen, A L

    1995-08-28

    Normal colour vision is trichromatic and is mediated by the blue, green and red visual pigments present in the corresponding blue, green, and red cone cells of the retina. The red and green pigment genes have evolved from an ancestral pigment gene and reside in a head-to-tail tandem array on the long arm of the X chromosome. This arrangement and a high degree of homology predispose to illegitimate recombination between the red and green pigment genes explaining the various forms and the high frequency of red-green colour vision defects.

  6. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  7. Current plate motions across the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dezhi; Gordon, Richard G.

    1998-11-01

    A new objective method is used to estimate precisely 64 rates of seafloor spreading since chron 2A (3.2 Ma) from all the Red Sea magnetic profiles available from 15.9° to 26°N. The fastest spreading rate, ~16 mm yr-1, occurs near 18°N, whereas the slowest rate, 10 mm yr-1, occurs at 25.5°N and is consistent with the rate predicted from Arabia-Nubia data to the south. The standard deviation of the spreading rates is 0.8 mm yr-1, much smaller than the median standard deviation of 4 mm yr-1 previously assigned to spreading rates in the global plate-motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al. 1990). The fit to the spreading rates, as well as the locations of earthquakes in and near the Red Sea, indicate that spreading south of approximately 17.7°N is less than the full rate of spreading between the Arabian and Nubian plates. The Red Sea spreading centre is instead usefully interpreted as the boundary between the Arabian Plate and a Danakil microplate that includes the subaerial Danakil block and a larger oceanic portion of lithosphere. Despite the absence of reliable azimuths of transform faults in the Red Sea, all components of the angular velocity of Arabia relative to Nubia are usefully constrained from just the 45 relevant spreading rates. The new compact 95 per cent confidence region of the angular velocity excludes prior estimates based on only four and two spreading rates by Chase (1978) and Jestin et al. (1994), respectively. 19 spreading rates in the southern Red Sea are used to estimate the angular velocity between the Danakil microplate and Arabia. An approach based on singular value decomposition shows that without slip vectors only two of the three components of the angular velocity of the Danakil microplate relative to Arabia or Nubia are usefully constrained, but that all three components are usefully constrained if one earthquake slip vector is included.

  8. Identification and Structural Analysis of a Class of Potentially Transposable Solo-LTR in Rice Genome%水稻基因组中一类具有潜在转座活性的S010-LTR的结构分析和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 陈泽华; 韩斌; 洪国藩

    2001-01-01

    Two solo-LTRs, named SLTR1 and SLTR2, were found in BAC t17804 and q5343 on rice chromosome 4, respectively. SLTR1 is in a 18 S rRNA gene and $LTR2 is in a retrotransposon. They share sequence homology and show sequence similarity 89.1% and 70.1% to the LTR of rice retrotransposon RIRE8,respectively. SLTR1 and SLTR2 are of gypsy retrotransposons of rice. They are both highly repetitive sequences and widely distributed in the rice genome, as shown by hybridization with specific probes of SLTR1 and SLTR2. Using PCR amplication with primers on flanking sequences of SLTR1 and SLTR2, no bands corresponding to those of BACs were amplified using the rice genomic DNA as template. SLTR1 and SLTR2 did not locate in the relative loci of the rice genome, as supported by hybridization with specific probes of genes interrupted by them. Obviously, SLTR1 and SLTR2 reported here came from different loci of the genome by the transposition. These solo-LTRs may be useful for our rice genome studies.%在水稻4号染色体两个BAC克隆序列分析中,发现了两个solo-LTR,分别命名为SLTR1和SLTR2。它们分别位于水稻18 S rRNA基因和一逆转座子内部。序列比较发现,SLTR1和SLTR2存在着较高的同源性,并与水稻逆转座子RIRE8的LTR序列高度同源,分别为89.1%和70.1%,它们属于一类水稻gypsy类型逆转座子。利用SITR1和SLTR2与水稻DNA杂交,结果显示两者广泛分布于水稻基因组中,是一类高拷贝重复序列。分别利用SLTR1和SLTR2的两侧特异性序列设计引物进行PCR扩增,结果发现在基因组的相应位置并不存在SLTR1或SITR2;利用它们两侧被打断基因的特异性片段杂交基因组DNA,得到了同样的的结果。这意味着,SITR1和SLTR2来源于基因组的其它位置,并通过某种转座的过程进入18 S rRNA基因和另一逆转座子内部。Solo-LTR存在着这种潜在的转座活性,对于进一步研究solo-LTR的来源以及其在基因组

  9. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1 Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec - zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.

  10. redMaGiC: Selecting Luminous Red Galaxies from the DES Science Verification Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rozo, E; Abate, A; Bonnett, C; Crocce, M; Davis, C; Hoyle, B; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Wechsler, R H; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Carollo, D; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Childress, M J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; Davis, T; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Glazebrook, K; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kim, A G; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lidman, C; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Melchior, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; O'Neill, C R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Uddin, S; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wester, W; Zhang, Y; da Costa, L N

    2015-01-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photozs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range $z\\in[0.2,0.8]$. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of $10^{-3}\\ (h^{-1} Mpc)^{-3}$, and a median photoz bias ($z_{spec}-z_{photo}$) and scatter $(\\sigma_z/(1+z))$ of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively. The corresponding $5\\sigma$ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorit...

  11. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). et al.

    2016-05-30

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  12. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  13. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoguang, C; Hongyan, L; Xiaohong, L; Zhaodi, F; Yan, L; Lihua, T; Rui, H

    1998-02-01

    Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system.

  14. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  15. Red, rank, and romance in women viewing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Kayser, Daniela Niesta; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H; Maier, Markus A; Liu, Huijun

    2010-08-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present research, we document parallels between human and nonhuman females' response to male red. Specifically, in a series of 7 experiments we demonstrate that women perceive men to be more attractive and sexually desirable when seen on a red background and in red clothing, and we additionally show that status perceptions are responsible for this red effect. The influence of red appears to be specific to women's romantic attraction to men: Red did not influence men's perceptions of other men, nor did it influence women's perceptions of men's overall likability, agreeableness, or extraversion. Participants showed no awareness that the research focused on the influence of color. These findings indicate that color not only has aesthetic value but can carry meaning and impact psychological functioning in subtle, important, and provocative ways. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  17. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  18. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  19. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  20. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential irradiation source for intensive plant culture systems and photobiological research. They have small size, low mass, a long functional life, and narrow spectral output. In this study, we measured the growth and dry matter partitioning of 'Hungarian Wax' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under red LEDs compared with similar plants grown under red LEDs with supplemental blue or far-red radiation or under broad spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Additionally, we describe the thermal and spectral characteristics of these sources. The LEDs used in this study had a narrow bandwidth at half peak height (25 nm) and a focused maximum spectral output at 660 nm for the red and 735 nm for the far-red. Near infrared radiation (800 to 3000 nm) was below detection and thermal infrared radiation (3000 to 50,000 nm) was lower in the LEDs compared to the MH source. Although the red to far-red ratio varied considerably, the calculated phytochrome photostationary state (phi) was only slightly different between the radiation sources. Plant biomass was reduced when peppers were grown under red LEDs in the absence of blue wavelengths compared to plants grown under supplemental blue fluorescent lamps or MH lamps. The addition of far-red radiation resulted in taller plants with greater stem mass than red LEDs alone. There were fewer leaves under red or red plus far-red radiation than with lamps producing blue wavelengths. These results indicate that red LEDs may be suitable, in proper combination with other wavelengths of light, for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments such as space-based plant culture systems.

  1. Sizing Up Red-Giant Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In KIC 9246715, two red-giant stars twins in nearly every way circle each other in a 171-day orbit. This binary pair may be a key to learning about masses and radii of stars with asteroseismology, the study of oscillations in the interiors of stars.Two Ways to MeasureIn order to understand a stars evolution, it is critical that we know its mass and radius. Unfortunately, these quantities are often difficult to pin down!One of the few cases in which we can directly measure stars masses and radii is in eclipsing binaries, wherein two stars eclipse each other as they orbit. If we have a well-sampled light curve for the binary, as well as radial velocities for both stars, then we can determine the stars complete orbital information, including their masses and radii.But there may be another way to obtain stellar mass and radius: asteroseismology. In asteroseismology, oscillations inside stars are used to characterize the stellar interiors. Conveniently, if a star with a convective envelope exhibits solar-like oscillations, these oscillations can be directly compared to those of the Sun. Mass and radius scaling relations which use the Sun as a benchmark and scale based on the stars temperature can then be used to derive the mass and radius of the star.Test Subjects from KeplerSolar-like oscillations from KIC 9246715 are shown in red across different resonant frequencies. The oscillations of a single red-giant star with similar properties are shown upside down in grey for reference. [Rawls et al. 2016]Of course, scaling relations are only useful if we can test them! A team of scientists including Meredith Rawls (New Mexico State University) has identified 18 red-giant eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field of view that also exhibit solar-like oscillations perfect for testing the scaling relations.In a recent study led by Rawls, the team analyzed the first of these binaries, KIC 9246715. Using the Kepler light curves in addition to radial velocity measurements from high

  2. White and Red Organic Light Emitting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOW Tahsin J.; CHIU Ching-Wen; TSAI Mu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Derivatives of 2,3-(1,4-dialkoxyaceno)norbornadiene underwent ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) upon the catalysis of a ruthenium complex to afford the corresponding polymers. The polymeric materials containing anthracene chromophores emit white electro-luminescence, which can be fabricated into light-emitting diodes (LED). The broad emission band is composed of a blue emission from anthracene and a red emission from aggregates. A single layer device, ITO/polymer/Ca/Al, can be turned on at 7V and exhibits maximum intensity 427 cd/m2 at 15 V. A double layer device, ITO/polymer/TPBI/Mg:Ag (TPBI = (2,2′,2"-(1,3,5-benzenetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole)) displayed blue light with turn-on voltage 6 V and maximal intensity 930 cd/m2 at 15 V.Derivatives of bisindolylmaleimide were found to form amorphous solid films which exhibit intensive red luminescence. The property of forming glasses can be ascribed to the nonplanar geometry of these molecules. LED devices were fabricated by a layer of pure dye sandwiched between two charge transporting films. The yellow emission spectrum of the devices utilizing Alq (tris(8-hydoxyquinolinato)aluminum) contains a green component from Alq. Pure red emissions can be achieved by replacing Alq with TPBI. Typical devices can be turned on at ~3 V with maximal intensity 2000 cd/m2. White color devices are under current investigation, in which the green Alq layer is replaced by its blue derivative (bis(2-methyl-8-hydoxyquinolinato)(phenolato)aluminum).

  3. Hydroxyl radical generation by red tide algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T; Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ishimatsu, A; Takeshita, S; Muramatsu, T; Maeda, H

    1992-04-01

    The unicellular marine phytoplankton Chattonella marina is known to have toxic effects against various living marine organisms, especially fishes. However, details of the mechanism of the toxicity of this plankton remain obscure. Here we demonstrate the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from a red tide unicellular organism, C. marina, by using ESR spectroscopy with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and by using the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence response. The spin-trapping assay revealed productions of spin adduct of superoxide anion (O2-) (DMPO-OOH) and that of hydroxyl radical (.OH) (DMPO-OH) in the algal suspension, which was not observed in the ultrasonic-ruptured suspension. The addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) almost completely inhibited the formation of both DMPO-OOH and DMPO-OH, and carbon-centered radicals were generated with the disappearance of DMPO-OH after addition of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, the generation of methyl and methoxyl radicals, which are thought to be produced by the reaction of hydroxyl radical and Me2SO under aerobic condition, was identified using spin trapping with a combination of PBN and Me2SO. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay also supported the above observations. These results clearly indicate that C. marina generates and releases the superoxide radical followed by the production of hydroxyl radical to the surrounding environment. The velocity of superoxide generation by C. marina was about 100 times faster than that by mammalian phagocytes per cell basis. The generation of oxygen radical is suggested to be a pathogenic principle in the toxication of red tide to susceptible aquaculture fishes and may be directly correlated with the coastal pollution by red tide.

  4. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  5. A Possibly Universal Red Chromophore for Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin; Fry, Patrick M.

    2016-10-01

    A new laboratory-generated chemical compound made from photodissociated ammonia (NH3) molecules reacting with acetylene (C2H2) was suggested as a possible coloring agent for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) by Carlson et al. (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115). Baines et al. (2016, AAS/DPS Meeting abstract) showed that the GRS spectrum measured by the visual channels of the Cassini VIMS instrument in 2000 could be accurately fit by a cloud model in which the chromophore appeared as small particles in a physically thin layer immediately above the main cloud layer of the GRS. Here we show that the same chromophore and similar layer structure can also provide close matches to the 0.4-1 micron spectra of many other cloud features on Jupiter, suggesting that this material may be a nearly universal chromophore responsible for the various degrees of red coloration on Jupiter. This is a robust conclusion, even for 12 percent changes in VIMS calibration and large uncertainties in the refractive index of the main cloud layer due to uncertain fractions of NH4SH and NH3 in its cloud particles. The chromophore layer can account for color variations among north and south equatorial belts, equatorial zone, and the Great Red Spot, by varying particle size from 0.12 to 0.29 micron and optical depth from 0.06 to 0.76. The total mass of the chromophore layer is much less variable than its optical depth, staying mainly within 6-10 micrograms/cm2 range, but is only about half that amount in the equatorial zone. We also found a depression of the ammonia volume mixing ratio in the two belt regions, which averaged 0.4-0.5 × 10-4 immediately below the ammonia condensation level, while the other regions averaged twice that value.LAS and PMF acknowledge support from NASA Grant NNX14AH40G.

  6. Red clothing increases perceived dominance, aggression and anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Diana; Burt, D. Michael; Hill, Russell A.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence and intensity of red coloration correlate with male dominance and testosterone in a variety of animal species, and even artificial red stimuli can influence dominance interactions. In humans, red stimuli are perceived as more threatening and dominant than other colours, and wearing red increases the probability of winning sporting contests. We investigated whether red clothing biases the perception of aggression and dominance outside of competitive settings, and whether red influences decoding of emotional expressions. Participants rated digitally manipulated images of men for aggression and dominance and categorized the emotional state of these stimuli. Men were rated as more aggressive and more dominant when presented in red than when presented in either blue or grey. The effect on perceived aggression was found for male and female raters, but only male raters were sensitive to red as a signal of dominance. In a categorization test, images were significantly more often categorized as ‘angry’ when presented in the red condition, demonstrating that colour stimuli affect perceptions of emotions. This suggests that the colour red may be a cue used to predict propensity for dominance and aggression in human males. PMID:25972401

  7. Red clothing increases perceived dominance, aggression and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Diana; Burt, D Michael; Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The presence and intensity of red coloration correlate with male dominance and testosterone in a variety of animal species, and even artificial red stimuli can influence dominance interactions. In humans, red stimuli are perceived as more threatening and dominant than other colours, and wearing red increases the probability of winning sporting contests. We investigated whether red clothing biases the perception of aggression and dominance outside of competitive settings, and whether red influences decoding of emotional expressions. Participants rated digitally manipulated images of men for aggression and dominance and categorized the emotional state of these stimuli. Men were rated as more aggressive and more dominant when presented in red than when presented in either blue or grey. The effect on perceived aggression was found for male and female raters, but only male raters were sensitive to red as a signal of dominance. In a categorization test, images were significantly more often categorized as 'angry' when presented in the red condition, demonstrating that colour stimuli affect perceptions of emotions. This suggests that the colour red may be a cue used to predict propensity for dominance and aggression in human males. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Light on Flavonoids Biosynthesis in Red Rice Rdh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lei; DONG Bao-cheng; YANG Xiao-ji; HUANG Cheng-bin; WANG Xu-dong; WU Xian-jun

    2009-01-01

    The effect of light on flavonoids biosynthesis in red rice Rdh was studied.The panicles of red rice Rdh produced colorless caryopses after darkness treatment;and these colorless caryopses displayed bright-red after vanillin treatment,but did not display red color after light inducing for 15 days,suggesting that red rice Rdh could produce leucoanthocyanidin,but could not produce polyproanthocyanidins in darkness.Histological study revealed that the aleurone layers of Rdh colorless caryopses displayed bright-red after vanillin assay,but the pericarp and seed coat layers did not display color change,which indicated that the aleurone layers could accumulate precursors of polyproanthocyanidins in darkness,but the pericarp and seed coat could not.Additionally,color ofRdh caryopses changed from green in immaturity to red in maturity,and the green caryopses changed color from green to red gradually indoor for 7 days after harvest,suggesting that leucoanthocyanidins could synthesize polyproanthocyanidins.It was concluded that light was necessary for red pigment biosynthesis in red rice Rdh,leucoanthocyanidins biosyntheses in the aleurone layers did not need light,leucoanthocyanidins biosynthesis in pericarp and seed coat needed light inducing,the effect of leucoanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Rdh to light had tissue specificity.

  9. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  10. Study on dealkalization and settling performance of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Muxi; Qi, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yurui; Ren, Yufei; Tong, Jiacheng; Chen, Zining; Hou, Yiming; Yeerkebai, Nuerxiate; Wang, Hongtao; Feng, Shijin; Li, Fengting

    2017-01-01

    At present, the dealkalization and comprehensive utilization of red mud is a worldwide problem. Studies on the settling performance and phase transformation of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching are limited. In this study, the characteristics of red mud were systematically analyzed. The average sizes of graded and initial red mud were 4.11 and 9.20 μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra (XRF), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) results indicated the different mineralogical phases, composition, and thermal behavior. The addition of HCl could neutralize the alkalization in the red mud slurry, and CaO could replace the Na and K. Notably, the pH of the red mud slurry had no obvious change with the increase in water washing times in a certain pH. Interestingly, soluble Al and Fe were not detected in the HCl-red mud and CaO-red mud. In addition, the settling ratio was used to express the settling performance of the red mud slurry. Their interaction mechanisms were proposed, which may include phase transformation and the changing of the size and surface area. The research provided a better understanding of the phase transformation and settling performance in the treatment of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching.

  11. China’s Red-Canned Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Herbal tea brand Wong Lo Kat gets global recognition for its product quality and embracing the traditional Chinese culture of health c oca Cola isn’t the only company with an iconic red can anymore-Wong Lo Kat herbal tea is gaining recognition worldwide. At the 15th World Congress of Food Science and Technology held on August 23 in Cape Town,South Africa,the canned Wong Lo Kat herbal tea,produced by The JDB Group,won the Global Food Industry Award.It is the first Chinese beverage brand to win this award.

  12. Wide reflected angle DBR red light LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The coupled DBR LED with one DBR for reflecting normal incidence light and the other for reflecting inclined incidence light has been grown by MOCVD. For improving the conventional DBR which was used to increase light extraction efficiency in A1GaInP red light LED is analyzed. At 20 mA Dc injection current, the LED peak wave length is 630 nm, and the light intensity of on axis is 137 mcd. The output light power is 2.32 mW. The light intensity and output light power have been improved compared with the conventional LEDs.

  13. Schistosomus reflexus in a red sokoto doe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia was observed in a primiparous One year old Red Sokoto Doe and was relieved manually, the fetus was observed to be monstrous and gross pathological examination showed; cleft sternum, scoliosis, abdominal and thoracic evisceration, absence of diaphragm, pulmonary hypoplasia, malpositioned kidney and heart, spinal inversion and limb ankylosis. The digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urogenital and skeletal system anomalies were observed in this report. Many of the malformations and malpositioning have been previously reported. The above clinical findings suggest Schistosomus Reflexus. 

  14. Postexplosion hydrodynamics of supernovae in red supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herant, Marc; Woosley, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    Shock propagation, mixing, and clumping are studied in the explosion of red supergiants as Type II supernovae using a two-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code. We show that extensive Rayleigh-Talor instabilities develop in the ejecta in the wake of the reverse shock wave. In all cases, the shell structure of the progenitor is obliterated to leave a clumpy, well-mixed supernova remnant. However, the occurrence of mass loss during the lifetime of the progenitor can significantly reduce the amount of mixing. These results are independent of the Type II supernova explosion mechanism.

  15. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  16. del territorio desde la red viaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Madiedo Ruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una metodología para la cuantificación del impacto visual que produciría un elemento antrópico en el medio natural percibido desde la red viaria. Partimos de la premisa de que el impacto visual no es tan sólo inversamente proporcional a la distancia objeto impactanteobservador impactado, sino que existen unos umbrales de distancia que determinan impactos de igual valor. Por otra parte se ha tenido en consideración las peculiaridades del visionado dinámico (en movimiento, desde la carretera.

  17. Red-samblando cultura y desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Red-samblando Cultura y desarrollo es un modelo de gestión cultural dirigido al gobierno local, el cual pretende aportar las estrategias necesarias para el asesoramiento y acompañamiento en la planeación, ejecución y evaluación de impactos sociales de los proyectos y programas dentro de los Planes de Desarrollo Municipales e incorporar a los gobiernos locales en las redes de cooperación a nivel regional, nacional e internacional.

  18. Generation of red fluorescent protein transgenic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kang, Jung Taek; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Teoan; Kwon, Mo Sun; Koo, Bon Chul; Ra, Jeong Chan; Kim, Dae Yong; Ko, CheMyong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2009-05-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) share many common genetic diseases with humans and development of disease models using a transgenic approach has long been awaited. However, due to the technical difficulty in obtaining fertilizable eggs and the unavailability of embryonic stem cells, no transgenic dog has been generated. Canine fetal fibroblasts were stably transfected with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene-expressing construct using retrovirus gene delivery method. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was then employed to replace the nucleus of an oocyte with the nucleus of the RFP-fibroblasts. Using this approach, we produced the first generation of transgenic dogs with four female and two male expressing RFP.

  19. A Red Carpet for Iron Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenthaler, Martina U; Rivella, Stefano; Hentze, Matthias W; Galy, Bruno

    2017-01-26

    200 billion red blood cells (RBCs) are produced every day, requiring more than 2 × 10(15) iron atoms every second to maintain adequate erythropoiesis. These numbers translate into 20 mL of blood being produced each day, containing 6 g of hemoglobin and 20 mg of iron. These impressive numbers illustrate why the making and breaking of RBCs is at the heart of iron physiology, providing an ideal context to discuss recent progress in understanding the systemic and cellular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of iron homeostasis and its disorders.

  20. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. SDPromo: construyendo red para educar en sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Segalàs Coral, Jorge; Motrel, Ana Paula; Gallón, Luciano; Ferrer Balas, Dídac

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados del proyecto SDPromo - Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development, adelantado a través del trabajo en red de Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) Europeas. SDPromo se desarrolla dentro de la Acción 4 del Programa Erasmus Mundus y sus socios son: Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Suecia (Coordinador), Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, UPC, España, y Universidad Técnica de Delft, TU Delft, Holanda. Los principales objetivos de SDPromo son: prom...

  3. Water resources of Red River Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Roy; Page, Leland Vernon

    1963-01-01

    Red River Parish is on the eastern flank of the Sabine uplift in northwestern Louisiana. The 'area is underlain by lignitic clay and sand of Paleocene and Eocene age which dip to the east at the rate of about 30 feet per mile. The Red River is entrenched in these rocks in the western part of the parish. Alternating valley filling and erosion during the Quaternary period have resulted in the present lowland with flanking terraces. In the flood-plain area moderate to large quantities of very hard, iron-bearing water, suitable for irrigation, are available to wells in the alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 20 to slightly more than 100 feet. It is recharged by downward seepage of rainfall through overlying clay and silt, by inflow from older sands adjacent to and beneath the entrenched valley, and by infiltration from the streams where the water table is below stream level during flood stages or as a result of pumping. Water levels are highest in the middle of the valley. Ground water moves mainly toward the Red River on the east and Bayou Pierre on the west, but small amounts move down the valley. Computations based on water-level and aquifer-test data indicate that the Quaternary alluvium contains more than 330 billion gallons of ground water in storage and that the maximum discharge of ground water to the streams is slightly more than 30 mgd (million gallons per day). At times of high river stage, surface water flows into the aquifer at a rate that depends in part upon the height and duration of the river stage. Moderate supplies of soft, iron-bearing water may be obtained from dissected Pleistocene terrace deposits that flank the flood plains of the Red River and Black Lake Bayou. However, the quantity of water that can be pumped from these deposits varies widely from place to place because of differences in the areal extent and saturated thickness of the segments of the deposits; this extent and thickness are governed

  4. Ciudad Mercado, infraestructura en red. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Los mercados de abastos de Madrid atraviesan uno profunda crisis que conlleva su decadencia arquitectónica. Si bien han sido una pieza el clave en la construcción social y urbana de Madrid. no son considerados una infraestructura, lo cual repercute en el tipo y calidad de intervenciones a los que se los somete. Recuperar su condición infraestructura, supone pensar en los mercados como red, enfocándose en las interacciones que plantean con el entorno a múltiples escalas. Éstas, pueden deber...

  5. Red flag imaging techniques in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Payal; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2013-07-01

    The key to detection and treatment of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is thorough and careful inspection of the Barrett's segment. The greatest role for red flag techniques is to help identify neoplastic lesions for targeted biopsy and therapy. High-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) can potentially improve endoscopic imaging of BE compared with standard endoscopy, but little scientific evidence supports this. The addition of autofluorescence imaging to HD-WLE and narrow band imaging increases sensitivity and the false-positive rate without significantly improving overall detection of BE-related neoplasia.

  6. Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaner, Nathan C; Campbell, Robert E; Steinbach, Paul A; Giepmans, Ben N G; Palmer, Amy E; Tsien, Roger Y

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are genetically encoded, easily imaged reporters crucial in biology and biotechnology. When a protein is tagged by fusion to a fluorescent protein, interactions between fluorescent proteins can undesirably disturb targeting or function. Unfortunately, all wild-type yellow-to-red

  7. Red gaming in support of the war on terrorism : Sandia Red Game report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group (ACG) at Sandia National Laboratories is exploring the use of Red Teaming to help intelligence analysts with two key processes: determining what a piece or pieces of information might imply and deciding what other pieces of information need to be found to support or refute hypotheses about what actions a suspected terrorist organization might be pursuing. In support of this effort, the ACG hosted a terrorism red gaming event in Albuquerque on July 22-24, 2003. The game involved two 'red teams' playing the roles of two terrorist cells - one focused on implementing an RDD attack on the DC subway system and one focused on a bio attack against the same target - and two 'black teams' playing the role of the intelligence collection system and of intelligence analysts trying to decide what plans the red teams might be pursuing. This exercise successfully engaged human experts to seed a proposed compute engine with detailed operational plans for hypothetical terrorist scenarios.

  8. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Je Cho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG on high-fat diet (HFD-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG. fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg, RG (250 mg/kg, simvastatin (10 mg/kg, silymarin (100 mg/kg and metformin (250 mg/kg were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders.

  9. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  10. Investigations on organolead compounds I. A novel red organolead compound a reinvestigation of krause's red diphenyllead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1964-01-01

    A red organolead compound of the structure (Ph3Pb)4Pb has been obtained from the simultaneous hydrolysis and oxidation of ether-free triphenylplumbyllithium or diphenyllead at low temperatures. Its structure was established by analysis and by an iodination reaction which yielded one mole of lead dii

  11. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-01-01

    ...) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings...

  12. A National Wildlife Refuge Proposal : Proposed Establishment of a National Wildlife Refuge at the Confluence of the Red and Red Lake Rivers of North Dakota and Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Red River Valley experienced catastrophic flooding in April of 1997 from the Red and Red Lake Rivers, and Congressional delegations and the U.S. Army Corps of...

  13. Adaptive RED algorithm based on minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiaolong; Lei, Ling; Qian, Jingjing

    2007-11-01

    With more and more applications appearing and the technology developing in the Internet, only relying on terminal system can not satisfy the complicated demand of QoS network. Router mechanisms must be participated into protecting responsive flows from the non-responsive. Routers mainly use active queue management mechanism (AQM) to avoid congestion. In the point of interaction between the routers, the paper applies minority game to describe the interaction of the users and observes the affection on the length of average queue. The parameters α, β of ARED being hard to confirm, adaptive RED based on minority game can depict the interactions of main body and amend the parameter α, β of ARED to the best. Adaptive RED based on minority game optimizes ARED and realizes the smoothness of average queue length. At the same time, this paper extends the network simulator plat - NS by adding new elements. Simulation has been implemented and the results show that new algorithm can reach the anticipative objects.

  14. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene over red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, S; Sastre, H; Díez, F V

    2001-01-29

    Hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene was investigated using red mud (RM, a by-product in the production of alumina by the Bayer process) as the catalyst. Use of RM as a hydrodechlorination catalyst is of interest from an industrial point of view because its cost is much lower than that of commercial catalysts. Hydrodechlorination reactions were carried out in a continuous fixed bed reactor. The influence of catalyst sulfiding, temperature (50-350 degrees C), pressure (2-10MPa), hydrogen flow rate and the presence of solvents (hexane, heptane, benzene and toluene) on the reaction was studied. Sulfided red mud is active as a hydrodechlorination catalyst, conversion of tetrachloroethylene increases as the pressure and temperature increase. The solvents did not influence the conversion, nor were side reactions involving the solvent observed. The kinetics of the reaction was studied at 350 degrees C and 10MPa, conditions for which mass transfer limitations were negligible. A good fit of a Langmuir-Hinselwood model to the experimental data was obtained.

  15. Code Red & Sir Cam 巡礼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 发现针对IIS的"Code Red"蠕虫病毒美国IT业界团体Info rmation Technology A ssociation ofAmerica(ITAA)与安全产品开发商于美国当地时间7月20日发布了有关蠕虫"Code Red"的警告.目前受这种蠕虫破坏的面积正在迅速扩大.Code Red是利用美国微软的"Inte rnet InformationServer(IIS)"的缓冲器溢出这一安全漏洞进行感染的蠕虫.这一安全漏洞在6月被发现,该蠕虫可以感染那些没有使用补丁程序的个人电脑.攻击者除了控制被感染的服务器对WWW站点进行改写外,还会发动DoS(拒绝服务)攻击以及格式化硬盘等非法行为.

  16. Code Red & Sir Cam 巡礼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 发现针对IIS的"Code Red"蠕虫病毒 美国IT业界团体Info rmation Technology A ssociation ofAmerica(ITAA)与安全产品开发商于美国当地时间7月20日发布了有关蠕虫"Code Red"的警告.目前受这种蠕虫破坏的面积正在迅速扩大.Code Red是利用美国微软的"Inte rnet InformationServer(IIS)"的缓冲器溢出这一安全漏洞进行感染的蠕虫.这一安全漏洞在6月被发现,该蠕虫可以感染那些没有使用补丁程序的个人电脑.攻击者除了控制被感染的服务器对WWW站点进行改写外,还会发动DoS(拒绝服务)攻击以及格式化硬盘等非法行为.

  17. Small PAHs in the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Vijh, U P; Gordon, K D; Vijh, Uma P.; Witt, Adolf N.; Gordon, Karl D.

    2004-01-01

    Following our initial discovery of blue luminescence in the spectrum of the Red Rectangle (RR) and its identification as fluorescence by small three- to four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, we report on the spatial correlation between the blue luminescence and the 3.3 micron emission, commonly attributed to small, neutral PAH molecules, and on the newly-derived UV/optical attenuation curve for the central source of the RR, HD 44179. Both results provide strong additional evidence for the presence of small PAH molecules with masses of less than 250 a.m.u. in the RR, which supports the attribution of the blue luminescence to fluorescence by the same molecules. We contrast the excellent spatial correlation of the two former emissions with the distinctly different spatial distribution of the extended red emission (ERE) and of the dust-scattered light within the RR. The UV/optical attenuation curve of the central star is unlike any interstellar extinction curve and is interpreted as resulti...

  18. Dynamics of ryegrass P in red soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiHai-Fu; ZhangQin-Zheng; 等

    1998-01-01

    An investigation on the dynamics of transformation of P from 32P-labelled ryegrass in red soils was conducted in laboratory.The results showed thast the rapid increase in flush 32P related with biomass P was accompanied with the decrease in extractable 32P on the first 3d of incubation in both sandy and clayey soils,and afterwards,itdisplayed great fluctuation in sandy soil,but hadlittle fluctuaston in clayey soil during 3-20d of incubation.At the later stage of incubation,the increase in extractable 32P was accompanied with decrease in flush 32P.The opposite changes in content of extractable 32P and flush 32P suggested transformation of ryegrass P was clkosely related to its utilization and its release from microorganisms in red soils.It can be concluded that addition of organic matter accelerated the release of soil native P according to the changes in the extractable soil P during incubation.

  19. The ERE of the "Red Rectangle" revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Van Winckel, H; Gull, T R; Winckel, Hans Van; Cohen, Martin; Gull, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    We present in this paper high signal-to-noise long-slit optical spectra of the Extended Red Emission (ERE) in the "Red Rectangle" (RR) nebula. These spectra, obtained at different positions in the nebula, reveal an extremely complex emission pattern on top of the broad ERE continuum. It is well known that three features converge at large distance from the central object, in wavelength and profile to the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5797, 5849.8 and 6614 ang., (e.g. Sarre et al., 1995). In this paper we give a detailed inventory of all spectral subfeatures observed in the 5550--6850 ang. spectral range. Thanks to our high S/N spectra, we propose 5 new features in the RR that can be associated with DIBs. For the 5550--6200 ang. spectral range our slit position was on top of the NE spike of the X shaped nebula. A detailed description of the spatial profile-changes is given of the strongest features revealing that even far out in the nebula at 24 arcsec from the central star, there remains a small shift i...

  20. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  1. Hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and other red cell membrane disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Lydie; Galimand, Julie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis are the two most common inherited red cell membrane disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding various red cell membrane and skeletal proteins. Red cell membrane, a composite structure composed of lipid bilayer linked to spectrin-based membrane skeleton is responsible for the unique features of flexibility and mechanical stability of the cell. Defects in various proteins involved in linking the lipid bilayer to membrane skeleton result in loss in membrane cohesion leading to surface area loss and hereditary spherocytosis while defects in proteins involved in lateral interactions of the spectrin-based skeleton lead to decreased mechanical stability, membrane fragmentation and hereditary elliptocytosis. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. Both these diseases can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include red blood cell cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of the red cell membrane proteins, and mutational analysis of gene encoding red cell membrane proteins.

  2. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-05

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with red mud can be completely utilized.

  3. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  4. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  5. Traceability in Red Meat: Market Opportunity or Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Liddell, Sterling; Bailey, DeeVon

    2001-01-01

    Traceability poses market opportunities and threats for U.S. red meat producers for at least two reasons. First, consumers are becoming more concerned about the inputs and practices used to produce food and the ability to trace red meat to its source is an essential step in providing information to consumers about inputs and practices. Second, our principal competitors and customers in international red meat trade have been developing traceability systems. If our competitors are successful in...

  6. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone.... 0170.1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T09-0198 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0198 Safety zone; Red River, MN. (a...

  7. The colour red affects time perception differently in different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiting

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that psychological and behavioural functions of the colour red vary according to context. In this research, we used the verbal estimation paradigm to determine if the colour red affects individuals' perception of interval duration. In our results, perceived duration was shorter in a red condition than in a blue one; additionally, only in the red condition, perceived duration was shorter in an online dating context than in an online interviewing context. The contribution and limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.

    2012-01-30

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology, reproductive biology and resource partitioning, subjects that are virtually absent in the Red Sea elasmobranch literature. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of elasmobranch biology in the Red Sea with the aim of facilitating research in a region that remains remarkably under-studied. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  10. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  11. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  12. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaet, J L Y; Thorrold, S R; Berumen, M L

    2012-04-01

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology, reproductive biology and resource partitioning, subjects that are virtually absent in the Red Sea elasmobranch literature. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of elasmobranch biology in the Red Sea with the aim of facilitating research in a region that remains remarkably under-studied.

  13. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

  14. Experimental information - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ba.nbdc00315-003 Description of data contents Detailed information of the experiment of each array glass. Da...ta file File name: red_experiment_info.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_experiment... 2,158 entries Data item Description Info ID ID of the experimental information Research ID Research ID (Sub...rsion) g : Rice8987 g_array (Full insert version) others : Other types blank : Unknown glass ID Array glass ID experiment..._info.zip File size: 20.3 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/red_experim

  15. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, MingJie; Wang, Guanyu; Yang, Zhengpeng; Huang, Shanxiu; Guo, Weijie; Shen, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  17. Inhibition of Neutral red photolysis with different antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpapa, Zlatan; Sofić, Emin; Sapcanin, Aida; Toromanović, Jasmin; Tahirović, Ismet

    2007-02-01

    Neutral red is a dye the azine structure which has been used as an acido-base indicator and a dye in histochemistry. In 1960 Goldhaber introduced Neutral red into the medium of resorbing bone cultures to localize the osteoclast in the living cultures. Using time-lapse microcinematography in order to follow the osteoclasts, he reported excellent contrast could be obtained with Neutral red due to the avidity of osteoclasts for this dye. Unfortunately, however, the photodynamic effect resulting from subsequent exposure of these cultures to light precluded this approach, and again in 1963. it was observed that the death of the osteoclasts was probably due to a photodynamic effect related to the dye in the cell, the presence of oxygen and the frequent exposure of light by our time-lapse photography. VIS and UV irradiation induced photolysis of Neutral red, and from Neutral red cation produced with photons a Neutral red radical. This Neutral red radical can be inhibited with action of an antioxidant, such as melatonin, glutathione, ascorbic acid, E vitamin, etc. We developed an assay with Neutral red photolysis which utilizes a VIS and UV irradiation technique for quantification the inhibition of photolysis with action of an antioxidant. In this method Neutral red acts double, as a free radical generator and as a photosensitizer.

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Ma; Guanyu Wang; Zhengpeng Yang; Shanxiu Huang; Weijie Guo; Yuxia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  19. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  20. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect, but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of RNaseH-LTR Sequences of Ty1-copia Like Retrotransposons in Oriental Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. 'Luotian-tianshi')%罗田甜柿Ty1-copia类逆转座子RNaseH-LTR序列的分离和特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓云; 张青林; 罗正荣

    2008-01-01

    逆转座子序列信息的获得,对了解其在基因组中的行为及系统学研究有重要价值.本试验从罗田甜柿(Diospyros kaki Thunb.'Luotian-tianshi')基因组中分离出31个RNaseH-LTR(long terminal repeat,长末端重复)序列,并利用逆转座子间扩增多态性(inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism,IRAP)技术对部分序列相应的逆转座子家族在柿属植物中的转座活性及分布情况进行初步探讨.序列分析结果表明,至少有10个Ty1-copia类逆转座子家族得到扩增;其家族间普遍表现高度异质,碱基替换、插入或缺失突变,以及翻译成氨基酸后发生不同程度的终止密码子突变、氨基酸取代和移框突变等,是产生高异质性的原因;此外,其家族内部某些序列间的相似性极高,可能是寄主基因组与逆转座子间互惠关系的体现.应用部分逆转座子引物的IRAP分析结果表明,相应的逆转座子家族在柿属植物中普遍存在,其分布广泛,拷贝数高,转座活性强,具有进一步开发为多种逆转座子分子标记的潜力.

  2. Supernova shock breakout from a red supergiant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Röser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma S; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, D Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-07-11

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic "core-collapse" supernova. Such events are usually only detected at least a few days after the star has exploded. Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from the supernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve confirm that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitor stars.

  3. Monitoring of pollution in Egyptian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of the Egyptian Red Sea water pollution by oil was studied to assess the general pattern of oil pollutants and to evaluate the hydrocarbon origin (anthropogenic, petrogenic or biogenic with emphasis on the poly aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water. The oil extracted from the samples was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the concentrations and distribution of aliphatic and alicyclic n-alkanes. Results obtained indicate that most of the organic species present in water samples consist of petrogenic hydrocarbons with additional biogenic types. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique was used to study the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs fingerprints of the studied water samples. The results obtained indicate the presence of PAHs of both pyrogenic and petrogenic origins.

  4. Red Shift in a Laboraory Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Yuriy, Yatsunenko

    2011-01-01

    A hypotheses of energy loss for polarization of e-e+ vacuum by a photon passing interstellar space is considered. An excitation and relaxation of vacuum can't run with speed of light due to very small but finite fraction of e-e+ pair mass that creates a retardment in recuperation of deposited energy back to photon. This "forgotten" by many photons energy is finally splashed out in real space as a Relic Radiation. An assumption that such energy loss is proportional to a photon energy conforms to Hubble low of Red Shift and experimental data treated as accelerated expansion of Universe. A possibility of an observation of this type energy loss is considered at high-energy accelerators where energy deposition may reach up hundreds MeV in second.

  5. Red blood cell clusters in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Misbah, Chaouqi; Elasmi, Lassaad

    2011-11-01

    We present 2D numerical simulations of sets of vesicles (closed bags of a lipid bilayer membrane) in a parabolic flow, a setup that mimics red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Vesicles, submitted to sole hydrodynamical interactions, are found to form aggregates (clusters) of finite size. The existence of a maximal cluster size is pointed out and characterized as a function of the flow intensity and the swelling ratio of the vesicles. Moreover bigger clusters move at lower velocity, a fact that may prove of physiological interest. These results quantify previous observations of the inhomogeneous distribution of RBCs in vivo (Gaehtgens et al., Blood Cells 6 - 1980). An interpretation of the phenomenon is put forward based on the presence of boli (vortices) between vesicles. Both the results and the explanation can be transposed to the three-dimensional case.

  6. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...... general intensive care units (ICUs) including all adult patients with septic shock in a 5-month period. RESULTS: Ninety-five of the 213 included patients (45%) received median 3 (interquartile range 2-5) RBC units during shock. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin level was 8.1 (7.4-8.9) g....../dl and independent of shock day and bleeding. Patients with cardiovascular disease were transfused at higher haemoglobin levels. Transfused patients had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (56 (45-69) vs. 48 (37-61), p = 0.0005), more bleeding episodes, lower haemoglobin levels days 1 to 5, higher...

  7. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  8. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  9. Calibrating Photometric Redshifts of Luminous Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, N; Schlegel, D J; Bridges, T J; Brinkmann, J; Cannon, R; Connolly, A J; Croom, S M; Csabai, I; Drinkwater, M; Eisenstein, D J; Hewett, P C; Loveday, J; Nichol, R C; Pimbblet, K A; De Propris, R; Schneider, D P; Scranton, R; Seljak, U; Shanks, T; Szapudi, I; Szalay, A S; Wake, D; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Budavari, Tamas; Schlegel, David J.; Bridges, Terry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Cannon, Russell; Connolly, Andrew J.; Croom, Scott M.; Csabai, Istvan; Drinkwater, Michael; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Propris, Roberto De; Schneider, Donald P.; Scranton, Ryan; Seljak, Uros; Shanks, Tom; Szapudi, Istvan; Szalay, Alexander S.; Wake, David

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the construction of a photometric redshift catalogue of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), emphasizing the principal steps necessary for constructing such a catalogue -- (i) photometrically selecting the sample, (ii) measuring photometric redshifts and their error distributions, (iii) and estimating the true redshift distribution. We compare two photometric redshift algorithms for these data and find that they give comparable results. Calibrating against the SDSS and SDSS-2dF spectroscopic surveys, we find that the photometric redshift accuracy is $\\sigma \\sim 0.03$ for redshifts less than 0.55 and worsens at higher redshift ($\\sim 0.06$). These errors are caused by photometric scatter, as well as systematic errors in the templates, filter curves, and photometric zeropoints. We also parametrize the photometric redshift error distribution with a sum of Gaussians, and use this model to deconvolve the errors from the measured photometric redshift distribution to est...

  10. Supernova Shock Breakout from a Red Supergiant

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Roeser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Basa, Stephane; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominque; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, Andy; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-01-01

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic `core-collapse' supernova. Such events are usually detected long after the star has exploded. Here we report the first detection of the radiative precursor from a supernova shock before it has reached the surface of a star followed by the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve show that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a promising and novel way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitors.

  11. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  12. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  13. Metabolite Profiling of Red Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Ortega, Jovhana Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change. In this study, we applied gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea, and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified 102 compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. F. granulosa and its symbiont showed a total of 59 metabolites which were similar to the 51 displayed by P. verrucosa. P. lutea and A. hemprichii both harbored 40 compounds in conjunction with their respective isolated algae. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites. The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis. Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing

  14. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (pyoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt. PMID:26761278

  15. Safer Roads Report 2014 : trends in red-light running.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, J.G. & Goodman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the evidence of significant numbers of red-light violations, one of the most effective ways for drivers, cyclists and pedestrians to protect themselves against this safety issue is by improving their awareness of when it is most likely to occur. While red-light safety cameras can help to catch

  16. Red fluorescent protein with reversibly photoswitchable absorbance for photochromic FRET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subach, F.V.; Zhang, L.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Gurskaya, N.G.; Lukyanov, K.A.; Verkhusha, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed the first red fluorescent protein, named rsTagRFP, which possesses reversibly photoswitchable absorbance spectra. Illumination with blue and yellow light switches rsTagRFP into a red fluorescent state (ON state) or nonfluorescent state (OFF state), respectively. The ON and OFF stat

  17. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  18. FIRE! A Red Flag Tap in Reclaiming Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Brian

    2007-01-01

    "Red Flag Interventions" address problems which are imported from elsewhere and acted out towards persons who are in effect innocent bystanders. This is commonly seen as students "carry in" problems from the home or street to school, or they "carry over" conflicts from one class to the next. A third variation of Red Flag intervention is when a…

  19. Effect of red wine consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Berg, R. van; Sierksma, A.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy men. Methods: Nineteen healthy men wit

  20. Effect of red wine consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Berg, R. van; Sierksma, A.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy men. Methods: Nineteen healthy men wit

  1. Pioneering the red planet; adventures on Martian soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Peijl, I.; Veraart, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mars has always obsessed humankind - the Red planet, the ‘New Earth’. And with the recent successful landing of NASA’s Curiosity rover, Mars is closer than ever. Ever since 1960, we have actively been sending probes and rovers to observe the planet, but not without defeat. The road to the red planet

  2. One pot biosynthesis of gold NPs using red cabbage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeufack, Diane D; Brioude, Arnaud

    2012-02-07

    Red cabbage extract was used as reducing agent and capping agent for the synthesis of gold NPs. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the control of NPs shape and size by changing the pH value and the concentration of aqueous red cabbage extract solution.

  3. Spin down of the core rotation in red giants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosser, B.; Goupil, M.J.; Belkacem, K.; Marques, J.P.; Beck, P.G.; Bloemen, S.; De Ridder, J.; Barban, C.; Deheuvels, S.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Ouazzani, R.M.; Pinsonneault, M.; Samadi, R.; Stello, D.; García, R.A.; Klaus, T.C.; Li, J.; Mathur, S.; Morris, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The space mission Kepler provides us with long and uninterrupted photometric time series of red giants. We are now able to probe the rotational behaviour in their deep interiors using the observations of mixed modes. Aims. We aim to measure the rotational splittings in red giants and to

  4. Emotionality of Colors: An Implicit Link between Red and Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Stijn V.; Schücker, Linda; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The color red has been shown to alter emotions, physiology, psychology, and behavior. Research has suggested that these alterations could possibly be due to a link between red and perceived dominance. In this study we examined if the color red is implicitly associated to the concept of dominance. In addition, we similarly hypothesized that blue is implicitly linked to rest. A modified Stroop word evaluation task was used in which 30 participants (23.07 ± 4.42 years) were asked to classify words shown in either red, blue, or gray (control condition), as being either dominant- or rest-related. The responses were recorded and analyzed for latency time and accuracy. The results revealed a significant word type × color interaction effect for both latency times, F(2,56) = 5.09, p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.15, and accuracy, F(1.614,45.193) = 8.57, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.23. On average participants showed significantly shorter latency times and made less errors when categorizing dominance words shown in red, compared to blue and gray. The measured effects show strong evidence for an implicit red-dominance association and a partial red-rest disassociation. It is discussed that this association can possibly affect emotionality, with the presentation of red eliciting a dominant emotional and behavioral response. PMID:28321202

  5. 7 CFR 29.3018 - Dark red color (D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dark red color (D). 29.3018 Section 29.3018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3018 Dark red color (D). A dark reddish brown....

  6. Cellulitis in a Red Kandhari Bull : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Pathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of cellulitis caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp in a Red Kandhari bull leading to death of animal was autopsied at the department. It is being a case of cellulitis in a Red Kandhari bull and placed on record. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 183-184

  7. Improved "optical highlighter" probes derived from discosoma red fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lisbeth C; Marchant, Jonathan S

    2005-02-01

    The tetrameric red fluorescent protein, DsRed, undergoes a rapid red to green color change evoked by short wavelength (lambda highlighter" probe for tracking live cells, organelles, and fusion proteins. This color change results from selective bleaching of the "mature" red-emitting species of DsRed and an enhancement of emission from the "immature" green species, likely caused by dequenching of fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring within the protein tetramer. Here, we have examined the role of residues known to influence the rate and completeness of chromophore maturation on the cellular and biophysical properties of DsRed mutants. Surprisingly, a single amino acid mutation (N42Q) with increased basal green emission yet rapid chromophore maturation displayed a multiphoton-evoked color change that was brighter, more consistent, more vivid, and easier to evoke than DsRed, despite the larger proportion of green chromophores. Rapidly maturing mutants with more complete chromophore maturation, exhibited little color change and increased resistance to multiphoton bleaching. We describe improved optical and cell biological properties for two DsRed-derived variants which we showcase in photolabeling studies, and discuss these data in terms of implications for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based probes.

  8. Adsorption of dichromate ions on the red mud surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, M. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Artamonova, I. V.; Rusakova, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of using a red mud (waste of alumina production) as a sorbent of dichromate ions from aqueous solutions is studied. A method for the activation of red mud by hydrochloric acid is proposed. The dependences of the amount adsorbed of dichromate ions on the pH and initial concentration of aqueous solutions are studied.

  9. Internal solitary waves in the Red Sea: An unfolding mystery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, J.C.B.; Magalhães, J.M.; Gerkema, T.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The off-shelf region between 16.0 degrees and 16.5 degrees N in the southern Red Sea is identified as a new hotspot for the occurrence of oceanic internal solitary waves. Satellite observations reveal trains of solitons that, surprisingly, appear to propagate from the center of the Red Sea, where it

  10. On the pigment system of the red alga Porphyra Lacineata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Marsman, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence around 725 mμ of suspensions of the red alga Porphyra lacineata were studied both with and without the phycobilins attached to the pigment system. The in vivo occurrence of 2 chlorophyll a types was confirmed spectroscopically. Their red absorption maxima are located at

  11. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  12. New risks from ancient food dyes: cochineal red allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Pellegrini, S; Contatore, M; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2014-11-01

    This study reports an unusual case of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to Cochineal red or Carmine red, a coloring agent of natural origin. Although the risk of anaphylactic reactions is well known, since the nineties the use of this additive seems to be nowadays on the rise. The problem of labeling of additives used in handmade food products is highlighted.

  13. Red Wing鞋底更换全记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    一直听说Red Wing选料上乘,做工优良,可惜无缘得见。皮革饰品公司Billykirk inc的创办人之一,同时打理潮流网站Seletism的Blogger Chris Bray作为Red Wing的忠实拥趸,

  14. Pioneering the red planet; adventures on Martian soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Peijl, I.; Veraart, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mars has always obsessed humankind - the Red planet, the ‘New Earth’. And with the recent successful landing of NASA’s Curiosity rover, Mars is closer than ever. Ever since 1960, we have actively been sending probes and rovers to observe the planet, but not without defeat. The road to the red planet

  15. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to

  16. FIRE! A Red Flag Tap in Reclaiming Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Brian

    2007-01-01

    "Red Flag Interventions" address problems which are imported from elsewhere and acted out towards persons who are in effect innocent bystanders. This is commonly seen as students "carry in" problems from the home or street to school, or they "carry over" conflicts from one class to the next. A third variation of Red Flag intervention is when a…

  17. Red cell alloimmunisation in patients with different types of infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Dorothea; van der Bom, Johanna G; Tijmensen, Janneke; Middelburg, Rutger A; de Haas, Masja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; de Vooght, Karen M K; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C V; Hudig, Francisca; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2016-01-01

    Red cell alloantigen exposure can cause alloantibody-associated morbidity. Murine models have suggested that inflammation modulates red cell alloimmunisation. This study quantifies alloimmunisation risks during infectious episodes in humans. We performed a multicentre case-control study within a sou

  18. Red cell alloimmunisation in patients with different types of infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, D.; Bom, J.G. Van Der; Tijmensen, J.; Middelburg, R.A.; Haas, M. de; Zalpuri, S.; Vooght, K.M. De; Kerkhof, D. van de; Visser, O; Pequeriaux, N.C.V.; Hudig, F.; Zwaginga, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Red cell alloantigen exposure can cause alloantibody-associated morbidity. Murine models have suggested that inflammation modulates red cell alloimmunisation. This study quantifies alloimmunisation risks during infectious episodes in humans. We performed a multicentre case-control study within a sou

  19. Control of red blood cell mass during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T. B.; Smith, S. M.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    Data are reviewed from twenty-two astronauts from seven space missions in a study of red blood cell mass. The data show that decreased red cell mass in all astronauts exposed to space for more than nine days, although the actual dynamics of mass changes varies with flight duration. Possible mechanisms for these changes, including alterations in erythropoietin levels, are discussed.

  20. Calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruibing [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Tingan, E-mail: zhangta@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A new approach named calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing is proposed. • The method can prevent emission of red mud from alumina production and is good for the environment. • Thermodynamics characteristics were investigated. • The method was verified experimentally using a jet-flow reactor. - Abstract: Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification–carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO{sub 2} carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized.

  1. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  2. Expression data - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Expression data - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Download - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Mixed Red-Complex Bacterial Infection in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The red complex, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia (formerly Bacteroides forsythus, are recognized as the most important pathogens in adult periodontal disease. These bacteria are usually found together in periodontal pockets, suggesting that they may cause destruction of the periodontal tissue in a cooperative manner. This article discusses the interspecies pathogenic interactions within the red complex.

  5. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  6. Lichenoid reactions in red tattoo: report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Complications of cosmetic decorative tattoos were uncommon some decades ago. The practice is increasing and more cases are being reported. Red pigments are by far the commonest cause in tattoo reactions. We report two cases of lichenoid reactions limited to red tattoo pigment and review the literature on the subject.

  7. Lichenoid reactions in red tattoo: report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bimbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications of cosmetic decorative tattoos were uncommon some decades ago. The practice is increasing and more cases are being reported. Red pigments are by far the commonest cause in tattoo reactions. We report two cases of lichenoid reactions limited to red tattoo pigment and review the literature on the subject.

  8. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  9. The yellow-red-black bladder diary: red-yellow-black is not just for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Nancy Ann

    2009-12-01

    The Red-Yellow-Black (RYB) wound classification system was introduced to the US in the late 1980s for the purpose of simplifying wound assessment and guiding treatment. Although the color system was found to have limitations for wound care, the colors (in revised order) may be useful for a bladder diary. Colored pencils are used to record fluid intake and voided output. For fluid intake, yellow signifies nonirritants (water); red, low bladder irritants (alcoholic, artificially sweetened, carbonated, or citrus beverages); and black, high bladder irritants (caffeinated beverages). For voided output, yellow denotes continent voids and red, incontinent voids. Output quantity is measured using a commode "hat". The completed diary allows the practitioner to tabulate the colored daily rows and quickly assess progress weekly or monthly and provide appropriate treatment/advice. The YRB diary was used successfully by a 78-year old woman with urge incontinence without evidence of stress incontinence. Modifications to the YRB diary can be made when additional data need to be collected. Studies to evaluate optimal usage criteria of bladder diaries are needed.

  10. Prediction Research of Red Tide Based on Improved FCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tides are caused by the combination effects of many marine elements. The complexity of the marine ecosystem makes it hard to find the relationship between marine elements and red tides. The algorithm of fuzzy c-means (FCM can get clear classification of things and expresses the fuzzy state among different things. Therefore, a prediction algorithm of red tide based on improved FCM is proposed. In order to overcome the defect of FCM which is overdependent on the initial cluster centers and the objective function, this paper gains the initial cluster centers through the principle of regional minimum data density and the minimum mean distance. The feature weighted cluster center is added to the objective function. Finally, the improved FCM algorithm is applied in the prediction research of red tide, and the results show that the improved FCM algorithm has good denoising ability and high accuracy in the prediction of red tides.

  11. Asteroseismology of 1523 misclassified red giants using Kepler data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jie; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed solar-like oscillations in 1523 Kepler red giants which have previously been misclassified as subgiants, with predicted nu(max) values [based on the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC)] between 280 and 700 mu Hz. We report the discovery of 626 new oscillating red giants in our sample......, in addition to 897 oscillators that were previously characterized by Hekker et al. from one quarter of Kepler data. Our sample increases the known number of oscillating low-luminosity red giants by 26 per cent (up to similar to 1900 stars). About three quarters of our sample are classified as ascending red...... giant branch stars, while the remainder are red-clump stars. A novel scheme was applied to determine Delta nu for 108 stars with nu(max) close to the Nyquist frequency (240 mu Hz

  12. The Yellow and Red Supergiants of M33

    CERN Document Server

    Drout, Maria R; Meynet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Yellow and red supergiants are evolved massive stars whose numbers and locations on the HR diagram can provide a stringent test for models of massive star evolution. Previous studies have found large discrepancies between the relative number of yellow supergiants observed as a function of mass and those predicted by evolutionary models, while a disagreement between the predicted and observed locations of red supergiants on the HR diagram was only recently resolved. Here we extend these studies by examining the yellow and red supergiant populations of M33. Unfortunately, identifying these stars is difficult as this portion of the color-magnitude diagram is heavily contaminated by foreground dwarfs. We identify the red supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and a two-color surface gravity discriminant and, after re-characterizing the rotation curve of M33 with our newly selected red supergiants, we identify the yellow supergiants through a combination of radial velocities and the strength of the...

  13. Durability of Bricks Coated with Red mud Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Basavanagowda, S. N.; Aswath, M. U.; Ranganath, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present study is undertaken to assess the durability of concrete blocks coated with red mud - fly ash based geopolymer paste. Concrete blocks of size 200 x 200 x 100mm were coated with geopolymer paste synthesized by varying the percentages of red mud and fly ash. Uncoated concrete blocks were also tested for the durability for comparison. In thermal resistance test, the blocks were subjected to 600°C for an hour whereas in acid resistance test, they were kept in 5% sulphuric acid solution for 4 weeks. The specimens were thereafter studied for surface degradation, strength loss and weight loss. Pastes with red mud percentage greater than 50% developed lot of shrinkage cracks. The blocks coated with 30% and 50% red mud paste showed better durability than the other blocks. The use of blocks coated with red mud - fly ash geopolymer paste improves the aesthetics, eliminates the use of plaster and improves the durability of the structure.

  14. Automated Detection of Red Lesions Using Superpixel Multichannel Multifeature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengdong

    2017-01-01

    Red lesions can be regarded as one of the earliest lesions in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and automatic detection of red lesions plays a critical role in diabetic retinopathy diagnosis. In this paper, a novel superpixel Multichannel Multifeature (MCMF) classification approach is proposed for red lesion detection. In this paper, firstly, a new candidate extraction method based on superpixel is proposed. Then, these candidates are characterized by multichannel features, as well as the contextual feature. Next, FDA classifier is introduced to classify the red lesions among the candidates. Finally, a postprocessing technique based on multiscale blood vessels detection is modified for removing nonlesions appearing as red. Experiments on publicly available DiaretDB1 database are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:28512511

  15. New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.

  16. Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    Red coloured rain occurred in many places of Kerala in India during July to September 2001 due to the mixing of huge quantity of microscopic red cells in the rainwater. Considering its correlation with a meteor airbust event, this phenomenon raised an extraordinary question whether the cells are extraterrestrial. Here we show how the observed features of the red rain phenomenon can be explained by considering the fragmentation and atmospheric disintegration of a fragile cometary body that presumably contains a dense collection of red cells. Slow settling of cells in the stratosphere explains the continuation of the phenomenon for two months. The red cells under study appear to be the resting spores of an extremophilic microorganism. Possible presence of these cells in the interstellar clouds is speculated from its similarity in UV absorption with the 217.5 nm UV extinction feature of interstellar clouds.

  17. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard S. Peperkoorn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating. Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual attractiveness. Experiment 2 replicated the first experiment with an American sample. In the final experiment, we aimed to replicate a study that did find evidence of a red effect, using a substantially larger sample size. The results from each of the three studies (totaling N = 830 men fail to support the red effect. We discuss the implications of our results and avenues for future research on red effects and attractiveness.

  18. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  19. The application of LTR retrotransposons as molecular markers in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Alan H; Flavell, Andrew J; Paux, Etienne; Ellis, T H Noel

    2012-01-01

    Retrotransposons are a major agent of genome evolution. Various molecular marker systems have been developed that exploit the ubiquitous nature of these genetic elements and their property of stable integration into dispersed chromosomal loci that are polymorphic within species. The key methods, SSAP, IRAP, REMAP, RBIP, and ISBP, all detect the sites at which the retrotransposon DNA, which is conserved between families of elements, is integrated into the genome. Marker systems exploiting these methods can be easily developed and inexpensively deployed in the absence of extensive genome sequence data. They offer access to the dynamic and polymorphic, nongenic portion of the genome and thereby complement methods, such as gene-derived SNPs, that target primarily the genic fraction.

  20. Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2016-06-30

    Information on the abundance and diversity of Red Sea elasmobranchs is notoriously scarce, even though sharks are among the most profitable fisheries of the region. Effective conservation would ideally entail baselines on pristine conditions, yet no such data is available for the Red Sea. To collect distribution and abundance data on Red Sea elasmobranchs, we conducted a dedicated longline and Baited Remote Underwater Video system (BRUVs) sampling program along the entire Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia over the course of two years. Both survey techniques were opportunistically employed at central and southern Saudi Arabian (SA) Red Sea reef systems. In addition, BRUVs were employed in the northern SA Red Sea and at selected reef systems in Sudan. Shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for BRUVs and longline surveys were compared to published data from non-Red Sea reef systems. This comparison revealed CPUE estimates several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the SA Red Sea compared to other reef systems around the world. Catch per unit effort values of BRUVs on Sudanese reefs on the contrary were within the range of estimates from various locations where sharks are considered common. We argue that decades of heavy fishing pressure on Red Sea marine resources has significantly altered the community structure of SA Red Sea reefs. There is an urgent need to establish effective management strategies for species of highest conservation concern. Our results have the potential to be used as a baseline, if such management strategies were to be established. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd