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Sample records for lysobacter antibioticus hs124

  1. Detectie van Lysobacter spp. in de bodem; het dilemma van te veel of te weinig meten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Onderzoek van de afgelopen jaren heeft aangetoond dat de aanwezigheid van de antagonistische bacterie Lysobacter correleert met ziektewering in bodems tegen Rhizoctonia solani-aantasting. Het betreft de nauw verwante soorten L. antibioticus, L. capsici en L. gummosus. Voor verder onderzoek naar stim

  2. Growth media affect the volatilome and antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora infestans in four Lysobacter type strains.

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    Lazazzara, Valentina; Perazzolli, Michele; Pertot, Ilaria; Biasioli, Franco; Puopolo, Gerardo; Cappellin, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecological roles in soil microbial interactions. Lysobacter spp. are key determinants of soil suppressiveness against phytopathogens and the production of non-volatile antimicrobial metabolites has been extensively characterised. However, the chemical composition and antagonistic properties of the Lysobacter volatilome have been poorly investigated. In this work, VOC emission profiles of four Lysobacter type strains grown on a sugar-rich and a protein-rich medium were analysed using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Lysobacter antibioticus, L. capsici, L. enzymogenes and L. gummosus type strains were recognised according to their volatilome assessed using both headspace mass spectrometry methods Moreover, the chemical profiles and functional properties of the Lysobacter volatilome differed according to the growth medium, and a protein-rich substrate maximised the toxic effect of the four Lysobacter type strains against Phytophthora infestans. Antagonistic (pyrazines, pyrrole and decanal) and non-antagonistic (delta-hexalactone and ethanol) VOCs against Ph. infestans or putative plant growth stimulator compounds (acetoin and indole) were mainly emitted by Lysobacter type strains grown on protein- and sugar-rich media respectively. Thus nutrient availability under soil conditions could affect the aggressiveness of Lysobacter spp. and possibly optimise interactions of these bacterial species with the other soil inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a Biological Control Agent Against Some Fungal Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Guo-liang; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2009-01-01

    Strain OH11, a Gram-negative, nonspore forming, rod-shaped bacterium with powerful antagonistic activity, was isolated from rhizosphere of green pepper in Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences of China and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OH11 belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and had the highest degree of sequence similarity to Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 (AY074793) (99%), Lysobacter enzyrnogenes strain N4-7 (U89965) (99%), Lysobacter antibioticus strain (AB019582) (97%), and Lysobacter gummosus strain (AB16136) (97%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain OH11 possesses a quinine system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and C15:0 iso,C17:1 iso w9c as the predominant iso-branched fatty acids,all of which corroborated the assignment of strain OH11 to the genus Lysobacter. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly showed that strain OH11 was classified as Lysobacter enzymogenes. Strain OH11 could produce protease, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. It showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia scletotiorum, and several other phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first report of identification and characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a biological control agent of plant diseases in China.

  4. RNase III Is Required for Actinomycin Production in Streptomyces antibioticus

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    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Gatewood, Marcha L.

    2013-01-01

    Using insertional mutagenesis, we have disrupted the RNase III gene, rnc, of the actinomycin-producing streptomycete, Streptomyces antibioticus. Disruption was verified by Southern blotting. The resulting strain grows more vigorously than its parent on actinomycin production medium but produces significantly lower levels of actinomycin. Complementation of the rnc disruption with the wild-type rnc gene from S. antibioticus restored actinomycin production to nearly wild-type levels. Western blotting experiments demonstrated that the disruptant did not produce full-length or truncated forms of RNase III. Thus, as is the case in Streptomyces coelicolor, RNase III is required for antibiotic production in S. antibioticus. No differences in the chemical half-lives of bulk mRNA were observed in a comparison of the S. antibioticus rnc mutant and its parental strain. PMID:23956389

  5. Comparative genomics and metabolic profiling of the genus Lysobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Irene; Cheng, Xu; Jager, de Victor; Expósito, Ruth Gómez; Watrous, Jeramie; Patel, Nrupali; Postma, Joeke; Dorrestein, P.C.; Kobayashi, Donald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lysobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in soil, plant and freshwater habitats. Lysobacter owes its name to the lytic effects on other microorganisms. To better understand their ecology and interactions with other (micro)organisms, five Lysobacter strains repr

  6. Comparative genomics and metabolic profiling of the genus Lysobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, I.; Cheng, Xu; de Jager, V.C.L.; Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Watrous, Jeramie; Patel, N.; Postma, J.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Kobayashi, D.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lysobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in soil, plant and freshwater habitats. Lysobacter owes its name to the lytic effects on other microorganisms. To better understand their ecology and interactions with other (micro)organisms, five Lysobacter strains represen

  7. Lysobacter species: a potential source of novel antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Suresh; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Paudel, Atmika; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-11-01

    Infectious diseases threaten global health due to the ability of microbes to acquire resistance against clinically used antibiotics. Continuous discovery of antibiotics with a novel mode of action is thus required. Actinomycetes and fungi are currently the major sources of antibiotics, but the decreasing rate of discovery of novel antibiotics suggests that the focus should be changed to previously untapped groups of microbes. Lysobacter species have a genome size of ~6 Mb with a relatively high G + C content of 61-70 % and are characterized by their ability to produce peptides that damage the cell walls or membranes of other microbes. Genome sequence analysis revealed that each Lysobacter species has gene clusters for the production of 12-16 secondary metabolites, most of which are peptides, thus making them 'peptide production specialists'. Given that the number of antibiotics isolated is much lower than the number of gene clusters harbored, further intensive studies of Lysobacter are likely to unearth novel antibiotics with profound biomedical applications. In this review, we summarize the structural diversity, activity and biosynthesis of lysobacterial antibiotics and highlight the importance of Lysobacter species for antibiotic production.

  8. Lysobacter novalis sp. nov., isolated from fallow farmland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Akter, Shahina; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated THG-PC7(T), was isolated from fallow farmland soil in Yongin, South Korea. Cells of strain THG-PC7(T) were Gram-stain-negative, dark yellow, aerobic, rod-shaped and had gliding motility. Strain THG-PC7(T) grew optimally at 25-35 °C, at pH 7 and in the absence of NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified strain THG-PC7(T) as belonging to the genus Lysobacter, exhibiting highest sequence similarity with Lysobacter ximonensis KCTC 22336(T) (98.7%) followed by Lysobacter niastensis KACC 11588(T) (95.7%). In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, DNA relatedness between strain THG-PC7(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbour L. ximonensis was below 25%. The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was determined to be 62.5 mol%. Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. The major cellular fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The major respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquonone-8 (Q8). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospolipid. On the basis of results from DNA-DNA hybridization and the polyphasic data, strain THG-PC7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter novalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-PC7(T)( = KACC 18276(T) = CCTCC AB 2014319(T)).

  9. Studying Factors Involved in Biogenesis of Lysobacter sp. XL1 Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryakova, I V; Suzina, N E; Vinokurova, N G; Shishkova, N A; Vasilyeva, N V

    2017-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 produces outer membrane vesicles that are heterogeneous in size, density, and protein composition. One of the subpopulations is secretory vesicles for lytic protease L5 of Lysobacter sp. XL1 (Kudryakova et al. (2015) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 362, fnv137). Protein L5 was assumed to influence biogenesis of these secretory vesicles that contain it. Using a Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87/B expression system, it was shown that the recombinant L5 protein may act as a factor of vesicle biogenesis. This points to a possible involvement of L5 protein in Lysobacter sp. XL1 vesicle biogenesis. Furthermore, it was established that the main phospholipid of Lysobacter sp. XL1 vesicles is cardiolipin, and vesicles are formed predominantly of outer membrane regions enriched with this phospholipid. This indicates that cardiolipin participates in biogenesis of all vesicle subpopulations in Lysobacter sp. XL1.

  10. New butenolides from the photoconductivity screening of Streptomyces antibioticus (Waksman and Woodruff) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

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    Braun, D; Pauli, N; Séquin, U; Zähner, H

    1995-02-01

    Streptomyces antibioticus strain TU 99, from which a wide variety of active compounds had been isolated previously, was reinvestigated using an HPLC photoconductivity screening system. Four new compounds were isolated, characterized and their constitutions determined. All four were alpha, beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones; the most abundant compound 3 (C10H16O4), as well as compound 1 (C9H14O4) had a hydroxy group at C(5) of the lactone ring. The four lactones showed antibiotic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also a weak inhibition of the chitinase from Serratia marcescens.

  11. Biosynthetic mechanism for sunscreens of the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes.

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    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Lysobacter are ubiquitous environmental bacteria emerging as novel biocontrol agents and new sources of anti-infectives. So far, very little effort has been invested in the study of the biology of these Gram-negative gliding bacteria. Many Lysobacter species are characterized by their yellow-orange appearance. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified a stand-alone polyketide synthase (PKS gene cluster required for the pigment production in L. enzymogenes OH11. The yellow pigments were abolished in the "white" mutants generated by target-specific deletions of ketosynthase (KS, acyl carrier protein, or ketoreductase. Spectroscopic data suggested that the pigments belong to xanthomonadin-like aryl polyenes. Polyene-type polyketides are known to be biosynthesized by modular PKS (Type I, not by stand-alone PKS (Type II which always contain the heterodimer KS-CLF (chain-length factor as the key catalytic component. Remarkably, this aryl polyene PKS complex only contains the KS (ORF17, but not the CLF. Instead, a hypothetical protein (ORF16 is located immediately next to ORF17. ORF16-17 homologs are widespread in numerous uncharacterized microbial genomes, in which an ORF17 homolog is always accompanied by an ORF16 homolog. The deletion of ORF16 eliminated pigment production, and homology modeling suggested that ORF16 shares a structural similarity to the N-terminal half of CLF. A point-mutation of glutamine (Q166A that is the conserved active site of known CLF abolished pigment production. The "white" mutants are significantly more sensitive to UV/visible light radiation or H2O2 treatment than the wild type. These results unveil the first example of Type II PKS-synthesized polyene pigments and show that the metabolites serve as Lysobacter "sunscreens" that are important for the survival of these ubiquitous environmental organisms.

  12. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

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    Dhawan, B; Sebastian, S; Malhotra, R; Kapil, A; Gautam, D

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  13. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

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    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  14. 抗生链霉菌(Streptomyces antibioticus)产吩噁嗪酮合成酶基因的重组表达%Optimization of the Expression of Phenoxazinone Synthase from Streptomyces antibioticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎春; 贾红华; 谢柏盛; 朱清禾; 贾丽莎; 韦萍

    2011-01-01

    从抗生链霉菌(Streptomyces antibioticus)中提取出目的基因phs,构建基于质粒pET28a的诱导型表达载体pET28a-phs.以E.coli为表达宿主,将重组质柱转化入宿主菌之后获得能够高效表达吩噁嗪酮合成酶(PHS)的重组菌,经SDS-PAGE验证在72.1 kD处有明显蛋白条带.通过调整可能影响表达的参数获得PHS在大肠杆菌中的最优表达条件.最终优化后的表达条件是最适Cu2+浓度为1.5 mmol/L,最适细菌培养温度为37℃,最适pH值为7.0,在OD 600为0.6,时加入终浓度为1.0 mmol/L的IPTG为最佳诱导条件,30℃诱导16 h为最佳诱导时间.

  15. Lysobacter oligotrophicus sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic freshwater lake in Antarctica.

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    Fukuda, Wakao; Kimura, Tomomi; Araki, Shigeo; Miyoshi, Yuki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium (strain 107-E2(T)) was isolated from freshwater samples containing microbial mats collected at a lake in Skarvsnes, Antarctica (temporary lake name, Lake Tanago Ike). Strain 107-E2(T) grew between 5 and 25 °C, with an optimum of 23 °C. Moreover, colony formation was observed on agar media even at -5 °C. The pH range for growth was between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum of pH 7.0-8.0. The range of NaCl concentration for growth was between 0.0 and 0.5% (w/v), with an optimum of 0.0%. No growth was observed in media containing organic compounds at high concentrations, which indicated that strain 107-E2(T) was an oligotroph. In the late stationary phase, strain 107-E2(T) produced a dark brown water-soluble pigment. Esterase, amylase and protease production was observed. Antimicrobial-lytic activities for Gram-negative bacteria and yeast were observed. Ubiquinone-8 was the major respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C(17:1)ω9c and iso-C(15:1) at 5. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 66.1 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 107-E2(T) belonged to the genus Lysobacter, and low DNA-DNA relatedness values with closely related species distinguished strain 107-E2(T) from recognized species of the genus Lysobacter. The phylogenetic situation and physiological characteristics indicated that strain 107-E2(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter oligotrophicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 107-E2(T) ( =JCM 18257(T) =ATCC BAA-2438(T)).

  16. Dominance of Lysobacter sp. in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, Calystegia soldanella and Elymus mollis.

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    Lee, Myoung Sook; Do, Jin Ok; Park, Myung Soo; Jung, Sera; Lee, Kang Hyun; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Seong Joo; Kim, Seung Bum

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of beach morning glory (Calystegia soldanella) and wild rye (Elymus mollis), two of the major plant species inhabiting the coastal sane dune in Tae-An, Korea, was studied by the analysis of community 16S rRNA gene clones. The amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the clones using HaeIII exhibited significant differences in the community composition between the two plant species as well as regional differences, but also identified a specific ARDRA pattern that was most common among the clones regardless of plant species. Subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the pattern was that of Lysobacter spp., which is a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae, class Gamma proteobacteria. The Lysobacter clones comprised 50.6% of the clones derived from C. soldanella and 62.5% of those from E. mollis. Other minor patterns included those of Pseudomonas spp., species of Rhizobium, Chryseobacterium spp. and Pantoea spp. among C. soldanella clones, and Pseudomonas sp. and Aeromonas hydrophila among E. mollis clones. It is not yet clear what kind of roles Lysobacter plays in association with sand dune plants, but its universal presence in the rhizosphere, together with the potential of this taxon for antagonistic activity against plant pathogens, suggests that Lysobacter might form a symbiotic relationship with its host plants.

  17. Decolorization of two azo dyes using marine Lysobacter sp. T312D9

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    Khouloud M. I. B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Novel azo dye-degrading bacterium T312D9 strain has been isolated from Abou Quir Gulf, Alexandria, Egypt. Methodology and Results: The identification of the isolate by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed to be Lysobacter sp. This marine ecofriendly isolate was exploited for its ability to degrade two synthetic azo dyes considered as detrimental pollutants from industrial effluents: congo red and methyl red. Using different dye concentrations showed the highest metabolic activity for complete degradation obtained from 100 to 500 mg/L within 30 h under static condition, also, sustaining higher dye loading of 1 g/L was carried out. The significant induction of enzymes NADH - 2,6-dichloroindophenol (NADH-DCIP reductase and tyrosinaseindicated their prominent role in dye degradation. The biodegradation of two azo dyes were analyzed by gas chromatographicmass spectrum analysis (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR before and after treatment. Toxicity study revealed the much less toxic nature of the metabolites produced after complete decolorization. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Lysobacter sp T312D9 represent an inexpensive and promising marine bacteria for removal of both methyl and congo red. High sustainable metabolic activity for biodegradation under static condition. NADHDCIPreductase and tyrosinase were significantly induced during biodegradation of dyes. The obtained metabolites revealed to beless toxic in nature which offers a practical biological treatment.

  18. Crystallization, optimization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a metal-dependent PI-PLC from Streptomyces antibioticus

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    Jackson, Michael R.; Selby, Thomas L.

    2012-10-30

    A recombinant metal-dependent phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) fromStreptomyces antibioticushas been crystallized by the hanging-drop method with and without heavy metals. The native crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space groupP222, with unit-cell parametersa= 41.26,b= 51.86,c = 154.78 Å. The X-ray diffraction results showed significant differences in the crystal quality of samples soaked with heavy atoms. Additionally, drop pinning, which increases the surface area of the drops, was also used to improve crystal growth and quality. The combination of heavy-metal soaks and drop pinning was found to be critical for producing high-quality crystals that diffracted to 1.23 Å resolution.

  19. A TonB-dependent receptor regulates antifungal HSAF biosynthesis in Lysobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruping; Xu, Huiyong; Du, Liangcheng; Chou, Shan-Ho; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Youzhou; Liu, Fengquan; Qian, Guoliang

    2016-05-31

    Lysobacter species are Gram-negative bacteria that are emerging as new sources of antibiotics, including HSAF (Heat Stable Antifungal Factor), which was identified from L. enzymogenes with a new mode of action. LesR, a LuxR solo, was recently shown to regulate the HSAF biosynthesis via an unidentified mechanism in L. enzymogenes OH11. Here, we used a comparative proteomic approach to identify the LesR targets and found that LesR influenced the expression of 33 proteins belonging to 10 functional groups, with 9 proteins belonging to the TBDR (TonB-Dependent Receptor) family. The fundamental role of bacterial TBDR in nutrient uptake motivates us to explore their potential regulation on HSAF biosynthesis which is also modulated by nutrient condition. Six out of 9 TBDR coding genes were individually in-frame deleted. Phenotypic and gene-expression assays showed that TBDR7, whose level was lower in a strain overexpressing lesR, was involved in regulating HSAF yield. TBDR7 was not involved in the growth, but played a vital role in transcribing the key HSAF biosynthetic gene. Taken together, the current lesR-based proteomic study provides the first report that TBDR7 plays a key role in regulating antibiotic (HSAF) biosynthesis, a function which has never been found for TBDRs in bacteria.

  20. Outer membrane vesicles of Lysobacter sp. XL1: biogenesis, functions, and applied prospects.

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    Kudryakova, Irina V; Shishkova, Nina A; Vasilyeva, Natalia V

    2016-06-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria have been intensively investigated in recent times. Vesicle formation models have been proposed, some factors affecting the process were established, and important roles vesicles play in vital activities of their producing cells were determined. Studies of pathogenic bacterial vesicles contribute to understanding the causes of acute infection and developing drugs on their basis. Despite intensive research, issues associated with the understanding of vesicle biogenesis, the mechanisms of bacterium-bacterium and pathogen-host interactions with participation of vesicles, still remain unresolved. This review discusses some results obtained in the research into OMVs of Lysobacter sp. XL1 VKM B-1576. This bacterium secretes into the environment a spectrum of bacteriolytic enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan of competing bacteria, thus leading to their lysis. One of these enzymes, lytic endopeptidase L5, has been shown not only to be secreted by means of vesicles but also to be involved in their formation. As part of vesicles, the antimicrobial potential of L5 enzyme has been found to be considerably expanded. Vesicles have been shown to have a therapeutic effect in respect of anthrax infection and staphylococcal sepsis modelled in mice. The scientific basis for constructing liposomal antimicrobial preparations from vesicle phospholipids and recombinant bacteriolytic enzyme L5 has been formed.

  1. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber with a combined application of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 and chitosan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Stevens, L.H.; Wiegers, G.L.; Davelaar, E.; Nijhuis, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., causing root and crown rot in cucumber, was successfully managed by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8. Greenhouse experiments were performed with cucumber plants grown in rockwool blocks up to 5 weeks with a recirculated nutrient solution. Application of L. e

  2. Induced Resistance as a Mechanism of Biological Control by Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3.

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    Kilic-Ekici, Ozlem; Yuen, Gary Y

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT Induced resistance was found to be a mechanism for biological control of leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) using the bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3. Resistance elicited by C3 suppressed germination of B. sorokiniana conidia on the phylloplane in addition to reducing the severity of leaf spot. The pathogen-inhibitory effect could be separated from antibiosis by using heat-inactivated cells of C3 that retained no antifungal activity. Application of live or heat-killed cells to tall fescue leaves resulted only in localized resistance confined to the treated leaf, whereas treatment of roots resulted in systemic resistance expressed in the foliage. The effects of foliar and root applications of C3 were long lasting, as evidenced by suppression of conidial germination and leaf spot development even when pathogen inoculation was delayed 15 days after bacterial treatment. When C3 population levels and germination of pathogen conidia was examined on leaf segments, germination percentage was reduced on all segments from C3-treated leaves compared with segments from non-treated leaves, but no dose-response relationship typical of antagonism was found. Induced resistance by C3 was not host or pathogen specific; foliar application of heat-killed C3 cells controlled B. sorokiniana on wheat and also was effective in reducing the severity of brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, on tall fescue. Treatments of tall fescue foliage or roots with C3 resulted in significantly elevated peroxidase activity compared with the control.

  3. Ovicidal activity of lactic acid produced by Lysobacter capsici YS1215 on eggs of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Lee, Yong Seong; Naning, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Kim, Sun Bae; Moon, Jae Hak; Kim, Kil Yong

    2014-11-28

    Lysobacter capsici YS1215 isolated from soil previously showed nematicidal potential for biological control of the root-knot nematode. In this study, lactic acid, a nematicidal compound, was isolated from culture filtrate of YS1215, and its ovicidal activity was investigated. Purification and identification of lactic acid were performed by a series of column chromatographies and identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and GC-MS analysis. Our results showed that bacterial culture filtrate containing lactic acid significantly inhibited egg hatching. The lowest egg hatch rate (5.9%) was found at a high concentration (25 μl/ml) of lactic acid at 5 days after incubation, followed by 20 (15.2%), 15 (23.7%), 10 (29.8%), and 5 (36.4%) μl/ml, while egg hatching in the control (sterile distilled water) was 44.5%. This is the first report of lactic acid as an ovicidal compound, and it may be considered as an alternative of chemical pesticide against root-knot nematodes.

  4. An antibiotic complex from Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3: antimicrobial activity and role in plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jochum, C C; Yu, F; Zaleta-Rivera, K; Du, L; Harris, S D; Yuen, G Y

    2008-06-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes C3 is a bacterial biological control agent that exhibits antagonism against multiple fungal pathogens. Its antifungal activity was attributed in part to lytic enzymes. In this study, a heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF), an antibiotic complex consisting of dihydromaltophilin and structurally related macrocyclic lactams, was found to be responsible for antagonism by C3 against fungi and oomycetes in culture. HSAF in purified form exhibited inhibitory activity against a wide range of fungal and oomycetes species in vitro, inhibiting spore germination, and disrupting hyphal polarity in sensitive fungi. When applied to tall fescue leaves as a partially-purified extract, HSAF at 25 mug/ml and higher inhibited germination of conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana compared with the control. Although application of HSAF at 12.5 mug/ml did not reduce the incidence of conidial germination, it inhibited appressorium formation and suppressed Bipolaris leaf spot development. Two mutant strains of C3 (K19 and DeltaNRPS) that were disrupted in different domains in the hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene for HSAF biosynthesis and had lost the ability to produce HSAF were compared with the wild-type strain for biological control efficacy against Bipolaris leaf spot on tall fescue and Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, on wheat. Both mutant strains exhibited decreased capacity to reduce the incidence and severity of Bipolaris leaf spot compared with C3. In contrast, the mutant strains were as efficacious as the wild-type strain in reducing the severity of Fusarium head blight. Thus, HSAF appears to be a mechanism for biological control by strain C3 against some, but not all, plant pathogenic fungi.

  5. Transcriptional and Antagonistic Responses of Biocontrol Strain Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 to the Plant Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF, which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L. enzymogenes OH11 was used to analyze the transcriptional changes in the bacteria that were induced by the oomycetes. Analysis was performed at three time points of the interaction, starting before inhibition zone formation until inhibition zone formation. A L. enzymogenes OH11 DNA microarray was constructed for the analysis. Microarray analysis indicated that a wide range of genes belonging to 14 diverse functions in L. enzymogenes were affected by P. aphanidermatum as critical antagonistic effects occurred. L. enzymogenes detected and responded to the presence of P. aphanidermatum early, but alteration of gene expression typically occurred after inhibition zone formation. The presence of P. aphanidermatum increased the twitching motility and HSAF production in L. enzymogenes. We also performed a contact interaction between L. enzymogenes and P. aphanidermatum, and found that HSAF played a critical role in the interaction. Our experiments demonstrated that L. enzymogenes displayed transcriptional and antagonistic responses to P. aphanidermatum in order to gain advantages in the competition with this oomycete. This study revealed new insights into the interactions between bacteria and oomycete.

  6. Pea broth enhances the biocontrol efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by triggering cell motility associated with biogenesis of type IV pilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Tomada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components an d regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  7. Pea Broth Enhances the Biocontrol Efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by Triggering Cell Motility Associated with Biogenesis of Type IV Pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomada, Selena; Puopolo, Gerardo; Perazzolli, Michele; Musetti, Rita; Loi, Nazia; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components and regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  8. Atomic resolution structure of a lysine-specific endoproteinase from Lysobacter enzymogenes suggests a hydroxyl group bound to the oxyanion hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Peter; Müller, Astrid; Hölke, Werner; Sobek, Harald; Rudolph, Markus G

    2014-07-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes lysyl endoproteinase (LysC) is a trypsin-type serine protease with a high pH optimum that hydrolyses all Lys-Xaa peptide bonds. The high specificity of LysC renders it useful for biotechnological purposes. The K30R variant of a related lysyl endoproteinase from Achromobacter lyticus has favourable enzymatic properties that might be transferrable to LysC. To visualize structural differences in the substrate-binding sites, the crystal structures of wild-type and the K30R variant of LysC were determined. The mutation is located at a distance of 12 Å from the catalytic triad and subtly changes the surface properties of the substrate-binding site. The high pH optimum of LysC can be attributed to electrostatic effects of an aromatic Tyr/His stack on the catalytic aspartate and is a general feature of this enzyme subfamily. LysC crystals in complex with the covalent inhibitor N(α)-p-tosyl-lysyl chloromethylketone yielded data to 1.1 and 0.9 Å resolution, resulting in unprecedented precision of the active and substrate-binding sites for this enzyme subfamily. Error estimates on bond lengths and difference electron density indicate that instead of the expected oxyanion a hydroxyl group binds to the partially solvent-exposed oxyanion hole. Protonation of the alkoxide catalytic intermediate might be a recurring feature during serine protease catalysis.

  9. Stepwise flow diagram for the development of formulations of non spore-forming bacteria against foliar pathogens: The case of Lysobacter capsici AZ78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-12-20

    The formulation is a significant step in biopesticide development and is an efficient way to obtain consistency in terms of biological control under field conditions. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of information regarding the processes needed to achieve efficient formulation of non spore-forming bacterial biological control agents. In response to this, we propose a flow diagram made up of six steps including selection of growth parameters, checking of minimum shelf life, selection of protective additives, checking that the additives have no adverse effects, validation of the additive mix under field conditions and choosing whether to use additives as co-formulants or tank mix additives. This diagram is intended to provide guidance and decision-making criteria for the formulation of non spore-forming bacterial biological control agents against foliar pathogens. The diagram was then validated by designing an efficient formulation for a Gram-negative bacterium, Lysobacter capsici AZ78, to control grapevine downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola. A harvest of 10(10)L. capsici AZ78cellsml(-1) was obtained in a bench top fermenter. The viability of cells decreased by only one order of magnitude after one year of storage at 4°C. The use of a combination of corn steep liquor, lignosulfonate, and polyethyleneglycol in the formulation improved the survival of L. capsici AZ78 cells living on grapevine leaves under field conditions by one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the use of these additives also guaranteed a reduction of 71% in P. viticola attacks. In conclusion, this work presents a straightforward stepwise flow diagram to help researchers develop formulations for biological control agents that are easy to prepare, stable, not phytotoxic and able to protect the microorganims under field conditions.

  10. Advances in the Study on Lysobacter spp.Bacteria and Their Effects on Biological Control of Plant Diseases%溶杆菌属及其在植物病害防治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬广海

    2011-01-01

    溶杆菌属具有滑动性和溶菌活性等典型特征.自1978年提出建属以来,迄今为止该属共报道了20个种.本文综述了该属的生物学、生态学特性和在植物病害生物防治中的应用潜力,讨论了它的定殖作用、抗生素、生物表面活性物质产生和诱导寄主抗病性等方面的防病机制,最后介绍了该属细菌的分子生物学、生物安全和应用前景等方面的研究进展.%The genus Lysohacter shares the characteristics of gliding motility and micropredatory activity.The total 20 species have been reported since the new genus Lysobacter was set in 1978.The Ecology, Biology and the potential application of Lysobacter spp.to control plant diseases were reviewed.Biocontrol mechanisms involved in colonization of hosts, antibiotic and biosurfactant production and resistance induction of host plants were also discussed.At last, the genus was introduced in its molecular biology and biosafety and their prospects for biological control.

  11. 溶杆菌SNNU513基因gfp标记及在玉米根部定殖%Colonization of gfp-tagged Lysobacter sp. SNNU513 on Maize’s Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武坤毅; 王斐斐; 崔浪军; 章华伟; 白成科

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter sp. SNNU513 isolated from Radix polygalae rhizospher could inhibit pathogenic fungus. In this study, the preparation of the efficient competent cells were screened out and pGLO plasmid was introduced into the competent cells by electroporation and transformation. The results showed that the recombinant strain SNNU513-pGLO could efficiently and stably express the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) when the electric field strength was 20 kV/cm and the electric pulse time was 5 ms. The percent of the green cells was 100%when the strain SNNU513-pGLO was recirculated in the non-selective medium for 20 times. Both strains SNNU513-pGLO and SNNU513 showed the same growth characteristics and the same inhibition of Rhizotonia cerealis in vivo. The gene gfp was transferred into original strain Lysobacter sp. SNNU513 by electroporation successfully. The gfp-tagged strain adhering more tightly to the velamen than the phloem could colonize on the surface and interior of maize’s root.%溶杆菌属细菌在植物病害生物防治中有着广阔的应用潜力。本文以本实验室从中药材远志分离筛选的溶杆菌属新菌株Lysobacter sp. SNNU513为材料,筛选出高效制备该菌株感受态细胞Inoue法,电击转化条件为场强20 kV/cm、电脉冲时间5 ms时可将含绿色荧光蛋白基因gfp的质粒pGLO导入该菌株感受态细胞中,重组菌SNNU513-pGLO能高效、稳定表达绿色荧光蛋白基因,与出发菌株的生长特性、抑菌活性等生物学特性差异不显著。将成功构建的重组菌SNNU513-pGLO用于检测该菌株在玉米根部的定殖规律,结果表明,定殖量从表皮到韧皮部有明显减少趋势。

  12. Mutagenesis of beta-1,3-Glucanase Genes in Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 Results in Reduced Biological Control Activity Toward Bipolaris Leaf Spot of Tall Fescue and Pythium Damping-Off of Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Yuen, Gary Y; Jochum, C Christine; Tatum, Kristin; Kobayashi, Donald Y

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT Lysobacter enzymogenes produces extracellular lytic enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungi and oomycetes. Many of these enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanases, are thought to contribute to the biological control activity expressed by several strains of the species. L. enzymogenes strain C3 produces multiple extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases encoded by the gluA, gluB, and gluC genes. Analysis of the genes indicates they are homologous to previously characterized genes in the related strain N4-7, each sharing >95% amino acid sequence identity to their respective counterparts. The gluA and gluC gene products encode enzymes belonging to family 16 glycosyl hydrolases, whereas gluB encodes an enzyme belonging to family 64. Mutational analysis indicated that the three genes accounted for the total beta-1,3-glucanase activity detected in culture. Strain G123, mutated in all three glucanase genes, was reduced in its ability to grow in a minimal medium containing laminarin as a sole carbon source. Although strain G123 was not affected in antimicrobial activity toward Bipolaris sorokiniana or Pythium ultimum var. ultimum using in vitro assays, it was significantly reduced in biological control activity against Bipolaris leaf spot of tall fescue and Pythium damping-off of sugar beet. These results provide direct supportive evidence for the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes strain C3.

  13. [Oleandomycin content of mycelium and fermentation solution during cultivation of Streptomyces antibioticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukoliukov, S A; Sokolova, I B

    1984-12-01

    The time-course of the oleandomycin content in the mycelium and fermentation broth-filtrate was studied by the microbiological assay at different periods of cultivation of strains 471 and 961 in fermenters and flasks containing a rich soybean-corn medium. It was shown that centrifugation of the mycelium over the sucrose density gradient induced a 25-80 per cent decrease in its moist weight at the expense of removal of the admixture components of the rich medium. Addition of glucose (2 per cent) to the culture-grown in a lactose medium by the 72nd hour of fermentation had no effect on further increase of the cell biomass. However, it lowered the content of the mycelium-fixed and excreted antibiotic at all the subsequent fermentation periods. The content of oleandomycin in the untreated mycelium was only 0.36 per cent of its content in the fermentation broth filtrate. After centrifugation of the mycelium over the sucrose density gradient and its intensive washing with distilled water the content of the mycelium-fixed antibiotic decreased still more. The time-course of the content of the mycelium-fixed and excreted oleandomycin was characterized by the presence of two activity peaks; by the 80-110th and by the 140-170th hour of cultivation.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13896-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Streptomyces antibioticus simocyc... 45 0.009 CP001177_225( CP001177 |pid:none) Bacillus cereus AH187, co...none) Streptomyces antibioticus simocyc... 43 0.027 AE016877_2719( AE016877 |pid:none) Bacillus cereus ATCC

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09515-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.009 AF322256_16( AF322256 |pid:none) Streptomyces antibioticus simocyc... 44 0.009 CR931997_1456( CR931997...e) Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6... 42 0.044 AF324838_18( AF324838 |pid:none) Streptomyces antibioticus simo

  16. Molecular cloning and in vitro expression of a silent phenoxazinone synthase gene from Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, A C; Jones, G H

    1989-12-14

    Phenoxazinone synthase (PHS) catalyzes a step in actinomycin D biosynthesis in Streptomyces antibioticus. Two sequences from Streptomyces lividans that hybridize to the phs gene of S. antibioticus have been cloned in Escherichia coli K-12 using the plasmid pBR322. Although there was some similarity in the restriction maps of the two cloned fragments, neither insert appeared to be a direct subset of the other nor of the S. antibioticus phs gene. In vitro expression studies, in a streptomycete coupled transcription-translation system, showed that a 3.98-kb SphI fragment encoded a PHS-related protein. These observations provide additional support for the existence of silent genes for antibiotic production in streptomycetes.

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK060653 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060653 001-027-H08 AF220951.1 Streptomyces antibioticus 8,8a-deoxyoleandolide syn...thase 1 (oleAI) and 8,8a-deoxyoleandolide synthase 2 (oleAII) genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 1e-10 +1 ...

  18. A membrane-like structure envelopes substrate mycelium during colony development in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M

    1995-08-15

    Colonies of Streptomyces antibioticus were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs show that substrate mycelium growth takes place among an intercellular material and this mycelium is covered by a surface film. This structure could be a boundary between the aerial mycelium and the substrate mycelium.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15741-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hrysogenum Wisconsin... 55 2e-05 EU443633_37( EU443633 |pid:none) Micromonospora chalcea tetrocarci... 55 2e...) Streptomyces antibioticus acetylt... 45 0.010 EU443633_23( EU443633 |pid:none) Micromonospora chalcea tetrocar...Micromonospora chalcea tetrocarci... 44 0.037 CP000908_1917( CP000908 |pid:none)

  20. Drug: D01458 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces varioti var. antibioticus Antibiotics Same as: C12905 ATC code: D01AA04 natural product Anatomi...CAL USE D01A ANTIFUNGALS FOR TOPICAL USE D01AA Antibiotics D01AA04 Pecilocin D014

  1. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  2. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities.

  3. The appraise of positions of obeying to the antibiotic using principles of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Kırcan, Nurten; Baybek, Hülya; Eksen, Mursayettin

    2006-01-01

    The research was done crosscutly and definely to appraise the position of obeying the principles of antibioticusing of mothers who has children between the age of 0 and 6. 160 mothers whose children between the age of 0-6 andhospitalized at the service of child in Mula State Hospital and Mula Social Insurance Institution Hospital betweenthe dates of 15.11.2002 and 15.01.2003 formed this research precedent, A questionnaie form which was defined by17 datas determined the mother’s obeying to t...

  4. The appraise of positions of obeying to the antibiotic using principles of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Nurten Kırcan; Hülya Baybek; Mursayettin Eksen

    2006-01-01

    The research was done crosscutly and definely to appraise the position of obeying the principles of antibioticusing of mothers who has children between the age of 0 and 6. 160 mothers whose children between the age of 0-6 andhospitalized at the service of child in Mula State Hospital and Mula Social Insurance Institution Hospital betweenthe dates of 15.11.2002 and 15.01.2003 formed this research precedent, A questionnaie form which was defined by17 datas determined the mother’s obeyin...

  5. Pyrrolnitrin from Burkholderia cepacia: antibiotic activity against fungi and novel activities against streptomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Banna, N; Winkelmann, G

    1998-07-01

    A bacterial strain identified as Burkholderia cepacia NB-1 was isolated from water ponds in the botanical garden in Tübingen, Germany, and was found to produce a broad spectrum phenylpyrrole antimicrobial substance active against filamentous fungi, yeasts and Gram-positive bacteria. In batch culture containing glycerol and L-glutamic acid, the isolate NB-1 produced the antibiotic optimally late in the growth phase and accumulated a main portion in their cells. Isolation and purification of the antibiotic from Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia NB-1 by acetone extraction, gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC yielded 0.54 mg l-1 of a pure substance. Spectroscopic data (HPLC, MS and NMR) confirmed that the compound was pyrrolnitrin [3-chloro-4-(2'-nitro-3'-chloro-phenyl) pyrrole]. Pyrrolnitrin has an inhibitory effect on the electron transport system, as demonstrated by isolated mitochondria from Neurospora crassa 74 A. This inhibition was relieved by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD), indicating that pyrrolnitrin blocked the electron transfer between the dehydrogenases and the cytochrome components of the respiratory chain. Among Gram-positive bacteria, pyrrolnitrin was most active against certain Streptomyces species, especially S. antibioticus, which has not previously been described in the literature. In the presence of pyrrolnitrin, aerial mycelium and spore formation of Strep. antibioticus was suppressed, although growth continued via substrate mycelium. The new findings of inhibition of streptomycetes and their secondary metabolism by pyrrolnitrin may contribute to the fact that Pseudomonas species predominate in soil and compete even with antibiotic-producing Streptomyces.

  6. Bacterial biodiversity from anthropogenic extreme environments: a hyper-alkaline and hyper-saline industrial residue contaminated by chromium and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda A; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Caretta, César A; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix; Duran, Robert; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Nevárez-Moorillón, G Virginia; Fahy, Anne; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic extreme environments are among the most interesting sites for the bioprospection of extremophiles since the selection pressures may favor the presence of microorganisms of great interest for taxonomical and astrobiological research as well as for bioremediation technologies and industrial applications. In this work, T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene library analyses were carried out to describe the autochthonous bacterial populations from an industrial waste characterized as hyper-alkaline (pH between 9 and 14), hyper-saline (around 100 PSU) and highly contaminated with metals, mainly chromium (from 5 to 18 g kg(-1)) and iron (from 2 to 108 g kg(-1)). Due to matrix interference with DNA extraction, a protocol optimization step was required in order to carry out molecular analyses. The most abundant populations, as evaluated by both T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene library analyses, were affiliated to Bacillus and Lysobacter genera. Lysobacter related sequences were present in the three samples: solid residue and lixiviate sediments from both dry and wet seasons. Sequences related to Thiobacillus were also found; although strains affiliated to this genus are known to have tolerance to metals, they have not previously been detected in alkaline environments. Together with Bacillus (already described as a metal reducer), such organisms could be of use in bioremediation technologies for reducing chromium, as well as for the prospection of enzymes of biotechnological interest.

  7. Inter individual variations of the fish skin microbiota: host genetics basis of mutualism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boutin

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota of fish skin is suspected to provide a protection against opportunist infections. The skin of fish harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that closely interacts with the surrounding water microbial communities. Up to now there is no clear evidence as to whether the host regulates the recruitment of environmental bacteria to build a specific skin microbiota. To address this question, we detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL associated with the abundance of specific skin microbiota bacterial strains in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis, combining 16S RNA tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with genetic linkage analysis. Skin microbiota analysis revealed high inter-individual variation among 86 F2 fish progeny based upon the relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Out of those OTUs, the pathogenic strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained the majority of inter-individual distances. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering a total of 266 markers, genetic linkage analysis highlighted three major QTL associated with the abundance of Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium. All these three genera are known for their beneficial antibacterial activity. Overall, our results provide evidence that host genotype may regulate the abundance of specific genera among their surface microbiota. They also indicate that Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium are potentially important genera in providing protection against pathogens.

  8. The family name Solimonadaceae Losey et al. 2013 is illegitimate, proposals to create the names 'Sinobacter soli' comb. nov. and 'Sinobacter variicoloris' contravene the Code, the family name Xanthomonadaceae Saddler and Bradbury 2005 and the order name Xanthomonadales Saddler and Bradbury 2005 are illegitimate and notes on the application of the family names Solibacteraceae Zhou et al. 2008, Nevskiaceae Henrici and Johnson 1935 (Approved Lists 1980) and Lysobacteraceae Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and order name Lysobacteriales Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) with respect to the classification of the corresponding type genera Solibacter Zhou et al. 2008, Nevskia Famintzin 1892 (Approved Lists 1980) and Lysobacter Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and importance of accurately expressing the link between a taxonomic name, its authors and the corresponding description/circumscription/emendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, B J

    2014-01-01

    In a recent publication the name Solimonadaceae Losey et al. 2013 has been proposed as a replacement name for the family name Sinobacteraceae Zhou et al. 2008. This course of action contravenes the current Code governing the nomenclature of prokaryotes, making Solimonadaceae Losey et al. 2013 an illegitimate name that neither has claim to priority nor can be used as a correct name. Closer examination of publications dealing with the taxonomy of members of the genera Solimonas and Sinobacter and the placement of these taxa at the rank of family and order reveal problems associated with the application of the family names Sinobacteraceae Zhou et al. 2008, Nevskiaceae Henrici and Johnson 1935 (Approved Lists 1980) and Lysobacteraceae Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and the order names Lysobacterales Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and Xanthomonadales Saddler and Bradbury 2005.

  9. The identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an antifungal metabolite produced by cutaneous bacteria of the salamander Plethodon cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Robert M; Baylor, Cambria M; Walters, Robert L; Lauer, Antje; Harris, Reid N; Minbiole, Kevin P C

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria that live on salamander skins have the ability to inhibit pathogenic fungi. Our study aimed to identify the specific chemical agent(s) of this process and asked if any of the antifungal compounds known to operate in analogous plant-bacteria-fungi systems were present. Crude extracts of bacteria isolated from salamander skin were exposed to HPLC, UV-Vis, GC-MS, and HR-MS analyses. These investigations show that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol is produced by the bacteria isolate Lysobacter gummosus (AB161361), which was found on the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Furthermore, exposure of the amphibian fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (isolate JEL 215), to different concentrations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol resulted in an IC50 value of 8.73 microM, comparable to crude extract concentrations. This study is the first to show that an epibiotic bacterium on an amphibian species produces a chemical that inhibits pathogenic fungi.

  10. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009-2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity.

  11. Hyporheic Microbial Biofilms as Indicators of Heavy and Rare Earth Metals in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, E. P.; Hornberger, M.; Hwang, C.; Dror, I.; Bouskill, N.; Short, T.; Cain, D.; Fields, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to effectively monitor the impact of hard rock mining activities on rivers and streams is a growing concern given the large number of active and abandoned mines in the western United States. One such example, the Clark Fork Basin (CFB), western Montana, was extensively mined for copper in the early 20th century: it is now one of largest U.S. EPA superfund sites. Microbial biofilms are at the base of the lotic food chain and may provide a useful biomonitoring tool for the assessment of metal toxicity due to their environmental ubiquity, rapidity of response to environmental perturbation, and importance in determining metal mobility. Hyporheic microbial biofilms from the CFB were sampled in 2014, concurrent with the USGS National Research Programs (NRP) long-term site monitoring of metals in bed sediment and aquatic benthic insects. Integration of the DNA sequencing results from the hyporheic biofilms with the sediment and insect metal concentrations correlated several bacterial phyla with metal contamination. For example, the genus Lysobacter was strongly associated with copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche. These results support previous studies identifying Lysobacter as a bacterial genus that is resistant to Cu ions. Our analysis is the first to indicate that specific microorganisms can act as biomarkers of Cu contamination in rivers. Moreover, our work demonstrates that changes at the microbial community level in the hyporheic zone can be coupled to observed perturbations across higher trophic levels. In 2015, extensive remediation occurred at several of the sites sampled in 2014, providing an excellent opportunity to revisit the sites and examine the temporal variability of identified biomarkers and the short-term effectiveness of remediation. In addition, samples were analyzed for rare earth metals, of which little is known, and could provide additional insight into other metals that change the microbial community structure.

  12. Changes in the soil microbial community after reductive soil disinfestation and cucumber seedling cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhang, Jinbo; Wang, Fenghe; Cai, Zucong

    2016-06-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) has been proven to be an effective and environmentally friendly way to control many soilborne pathogens and diseases. In this study, the RSDs using ethanol (Et-RSD) and alfalfa (Al-RSD) as organic carbons were performed in a Rhizoctonia solani-infected soil, and the dissimilarities of microbial communities during the RSDs and after planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings in the RSDs-treated soil were respectively investigated by MiSeq pyrosequencing. The results showed that, as for bacteria, Coprococcus, Flavisolibacter, Rhodanobacter, Symbiobacterium, and UC-Ruminococcaceae became the dominant bacterial genera at the end of Al-RSD. In contrast, Et-RSD soil involved more bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, such as Sedimentibacter, UC-Gracilibacteraceae, and Desulfosporosinus. For fungi, Chaetomium significantly increased at the end of RSDs, while Rhizoctonia and Aspergillus significantly decreased. After planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings, those bacteria belonging to Firmicutes significantly decreased, but Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria as well as UC-Sordariales and Humicola belonging to Ascomycota alternatively increased in Al- and Et-RSD-treated soils. Besides, some nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes were apparently increased in the RSD-treated soils, but the effect was more profound in Al-RSD than Et-RSD. Overall, Et-RSD could induced more antagonists belonging to Firmicutes under anaerobic condition, whereas Al-RSD could continuously stimulate some functional microorganisms (Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter) and further improve nitrogen transformation activities in the soil at the coming cropping season.

  13. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009–2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity. PMID:27965631

  14. Long-term application of bioorganic fertilizers improved soil biochemical properties and microbial communities of an apple orchard soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1 control without fertilization (CK; (2 chemical fertilizer application (CF; and (3 bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF. The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009-2015. The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0-20cm, 20-40cm, and 40-60cm, e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas and Bacillus, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity.

  15. Human tyrosinase produced in insect cells: a landmark for the screening of new drugs addressing its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, Stefano; Carotti, Marcello; Giaretta, Laura; Lanciai, Federico; Nogara, Leonardo; Bubacco, Luigi; Bergantino, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Human tyrosinase is the first enzyme of the multistep process of melanogenesis. It catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine and the following oxidation of o-diphenol to the corresponding quinone, L-dopaquinone. In spite of its biomedical relevance, its reactivity is far from being fully understood, mostly because of the lack of a suitable expression system. Indeed, until now, studies on substrates and inhibitors of tyrosinases have been performed in vitro almost exclusively using mushroom or bacterial enzymes. We report on the production of a recombinant human tyrosinase in insect cells (Sf9 line). Engineering the protein, improving cell culture conditions, and setting a suitable purification protocol optimized product yield. The obtained active enzyme was truthfully characterized with a number of substrate and inhibitor molecules. These results were compared to those gained from a parallel analysis of the bacterial (Streptomyces antibioticus) enzyme and those acquired from the literature for mushroom tyrosinase, showing that the reactivity of the human enzyme appears unique and pointing out the great bias introduced when using non-human tyrosinases to measure the inhibitory efficacy of new molecules. The described enzyme is therefore an indispensable paradigm in testing pharmaceutical or cosmetic agents addressing tyrosinase activity.

  16. Laccase- and peroxidase-free tyrosinase production by isolated microbial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasiva Rao, K R S; Tripathy, N K; Mahalaxmi, Y; Prakasham, R S

    2012-02-01

    Laccase- and peroxidase-free tyrosinase has commercial importance in the production of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is mainly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, isolation of an actinomycetes microbial strain capable of producing only tyrosinase is reported. Among all soil isolates, three individual colonies revealed black color around the colony in the presence of tyrosine. Further screening for laccase and peroxidase activities using syringaldazine denoted that one of the isolates, designated as RSP-T1, is laccase and peroxidase negative and produces only tyrosinase. The microbe was authenticated as Streptomyces antibioticus based on 16S ribotyping. Effective growth of this isolate was noticed with the use of medium (pH 5.5) containing casein acid hydrolysate (10.0 g/l), K(2)HPO(4) (5.0 g/l), MgSO(4) (0.25 g/l), L-tyrosine (1.0 g/l), and agar (15 g/l). The scanning electron micrograph depicted that the microbe is highly branched and filamentous in nature. The enzyme production was positively regulated in the presence of copper sulfate. The impact of different fermentation parameters on tyrosinase production depicted that the maximized enzyme titer values were observed when this isolate was grown at 6.5 pH and at 30 degrees C temperature under agitated conditions (220 rpm). Among all the studied physiological parameters, agitation played a significant role on tyrosinase production. Upon optimization of the parameters, the yield of tyrosinase was improved more than 100% compared with the initial yield.

  17. Effect of Actinomycetes on Main Pathogenic Bacteria and Odor-producing Bacteria from Swine Manure%几种放线菌处理后对猪粪中主要病原菌和恶臭产生菌的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灿; 唐新燕; 李季; 彭绪亚

    2007-01-01

    采用室内培养方法,研究评估了细黄链霉菌(Streptomyces microflavus)、抗生链霉菌(Streptomyces antibioticus)、灰色链霉菌(Streptomyces griseus)三种放线菌及其组合对猪粪中主要病原菌的影响,并对其体外的抑菌作用机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明,接菌处理能有效减少猪粪中的沙门氏菌(Salmonella spp.)、病原性大肠埃希氏菌(Escherichia coli O157)、空肠弯曲杆菌(Campylobacter spp.)、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌(Listeria monocytogenos)的数量.与对照组相比,单独添加细黄链霉菌组后猪粪中空肠弯曲杆菌的数量从3.1×101 cfu·g-1降至不可检测.放线菌胞内外活性混合物质的体外抗菌试验的结果显示,不管是单独处理还是几种放线菌的复合处理都对供试的大肠杆菌、梭菌、优杆菌、沙门氏菌、病原性大肠埃希氏菌、空肠弯曲杆菌、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌表现出一定程度的抑制作用,在抑菌能力方面,单独添加细黄链霉菌的效果优于其他各组.

  18. Modern sewage sludge treatment processes: From elimination of constituents to product recycling - sewage sludge utilisation. Final report; Moderne Abwasserreinigung - von der Eliminierung der Inhaltsstoffe zur Produktgewinnung - Hier: Klaerschlammverwertung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempter-Regel, B.; Trick, I.

    2002-10-18

    The extended treatment of sewage sludge accumulated in municipal sewage plants was investigated in this study. The intention was both the enhancement of the biological degradation of sewage sludge and the removal of ammonium from sludge water. For this purpose an aerobic treatment with fungi respectively with a lysobacter spec. screened for that purpose was attached to an existing two stage high performance digestion which already converts 50-55% of the organic of sewage sludge to biogas. The output of the aerobic treatment was led back to the anaerobic digestor. Thus an enhancement of the biogasyield was achieved up until 0,5 l/g VOS{sub input}. The sludge water gained by filtration from the second stage of the high performance digestion was used for removal of ammonium. The ammonium was removed from the sludge water with a new filtration process, the so called membrane contractor. Thus both the ammonium was gained and recycled as a resource, and the nitrification and the denitrification of the municipal sewage plant are relieved. (orig.)

  19. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-05-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons between both experiments were made using Désirée plants. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches were used to demonstrate effects on total bacterial, actinobacterial and Pseudomonas communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils and endospheres. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints prepared with group-specific primers were analyzed using multivariate analyses and revealed that bacterial communities in Achirana Inta plants differed most from those of Désirée and Merkur. No significant effects were found between Désirée and DL12 lines. Plant growth stage strongly affected different plant-associated communities in both experiments. To investigate the effect of plant-associated communities on plant health, 800 isolates from rhizospheres and endospheres at the flowering stage were tested for suppression of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and/or Rhizoctonia solani AG3. A group of isolates closely resembling Lysobacter sp. dominated in young plants. Its prevalence was affected by plant growth stage and experiment rather than by plant genotype. It was concluded that plant growth stage overwhelmed any effect of plant genotype on the bacterial communities associated with potato.

  20. Antifungal activity and genetic diversity of selected Pseudomonas spp. from maize rhizosphere in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic production by plant-associated microorganisms represents an environmentally compatible method of disease control in agriculture. However, a vide application of bacterial strains needs careful selection and genetic characterization. In this investigation, selected Pseudomonas strains were characterized by rep-PCR methods using ERIC and (GTG5 primers, and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. None of strains produced homoserine lactones (C4, C6, C8 as quorum sensing signal molecules. Very poor production of phenazines and no significant fungal inhibition was observed for PS4 and PS6 strains. High amount of phenazines were produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain PS2, which inhibited mycelial growth of 10 phytopatogenic fungi in percent of 25 (Verticillium sp. to 65 (Fusarium equiseti. Genetic characterization of the Pseudomonas sp. PS2 and evaluation of phenazines production, as the main trait for growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, will allow its application as a biosafe PGPR for field experiments of plant disease control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46007: New indigenous bacterial isolates Lysobacter and Pseudomonas as an important sources of metabolites useful for biotechnology, plant growth stimulation and disease control: From isolates to inoculants

  1. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  2. Control of the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp. on Cucumber by a Liquid Bio-Formulation Containing Chitinolytic Bacteria, Chitin and Their Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jong Ha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A liquid bio-formulation containing chitinolytic bacteria, chitin and their products was assessed for its potential biological control against root-knot nematodes on cucumber. The bio-formulation was prepared by cultures of three chitinolytic bacteria, Chromobacterium sp. strain C-61, Lysobacter engymogenes and Serratia plymuthica in minimal medium supplemented with chitin. Under pot conditions, the bio-formulation showed better growth of cucumber plants, and less root galls and population density of Meloidogyne spp. than control media without the bio-formulation. In a greenhouse, 75-fold diluted bio-formulations were treated instead of water around cucumber plants through hoses for drip irrigation six times at 5-day intervals from the transplanting date. After 30 and 60 days, the treatment provided about 7% and 10% enhancement in the plant height and about 78% and 69% reduction in population density of Meloidogyne spp. in the rhizosphere, respectively. In addition, the experiments showed that the control effects occurred only in the soils contacted with the bio-formulation. Undiluted bio-formulations were drenched three times at 10-day intervals around cucumber plants severely infested with Meloidogyne spp. The treatment showed about 37% plant enhancement without dead plants compared with 37% death in the untreated control, and about 82% nematode reduction. These results suggest that the bio-formulation can be practically used to control the root-knot nematode on cucumber.

  3. Diversity of cultivable bacteria involved in the formation of macroscopic microbial colonies (Cave silver on the walls of a cave in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagajana Herzog Velikonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined belonged to Streptomyces (25%, Micrococcus (16% and Rhodococcus (10% Other abundant groups were Pseudomonas (9%, Agrobacterium (8%, Lysobacter (6% and Paenibacillus (5%, while members of genera Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Kocuria, Oerskovia, Sphingomonas, Aerococcus, and Bosea represented a minor portion of cultivable diversity encountered. Members of Streptomyces and Agrobacterium were common to all samples. Although these microorganisms readily form colonies under laboratory conditions, they were unrelated to abundant environmental phylotypes recovered from same samples in a previous study. However, the comparative 16S rRNA analysis showed that microorganisms highly related to the ones obtained in this study were cultivated from other subterranean environments indicating that they might represent true microbial cave dwellers.

  4. Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of maize and the surrounding carbonate-rich bulk soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salamanca, Adela; Molina-Henares, M Antonia; van Dillewijn, Pieter; Solano, Jennifer; Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Roca, Amalia; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L

    2013-01-01

    Maize represents one of the main cultivar for food and energy and crop yields are influenced by soil physicochemical and climatic conditions. To study how maize plants influence soil microbes we have examined microbial communities that colonize maize plants grown in carbonate-rich soil (pH 8.5) using culture-independent, PCR-based methods. We observed a low proportion of unclassified bacteria in this soil whether it was planted or unplanted. Our results indicate that a higher complexity of the bacterial community is present in bulk soil with microbes from nine phyla, while in the rhizosphere microbes from only six phyla were found. The predominant microbes in bulk soil were bacteria of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, while Gammaproteobacteria of the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were the predominant in the rhizosphere. As Gammaproteobacteria respond chemotactically to exudates and are efficient in the utilization of plants exudate products, microbial communities associated to the rhizosphere seem to be plant-driven. It should be noted that Gammaproteobacteria made available inorganic nutrients to the plants favouring plant growth and then the benefit of the interaction is common.

  5. A high-salt diet further impairs age-associated declines in cognitive, behavioral, and cardiovascular functions in male Fischer brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Patki, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Mowrey, Christopher; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2013-09-01

    Aging-associated declines in cognitive, emotional, and cardiovascular function are well known. Environmental stress triggers critical changes in the brain, further compromising cardiovascular and behavioral health during aging. Excessive dietary salt intake is one such stressor. Here, we tested the effect of high salt (HS) on anxiety, learning-memory function, and blood pressure (BP) in male Fischer brown Norway (FBN) rats. Adult (A; 2 mo) and old (O; 20 mo) male rats were fed normal-salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diets for 4 wk after being implanted with telemeter probes for conscious BP measurement. Thereafter, tests to assess anxiety-like behavior and learning-memory were conducted. The rats were then killed, and samples of plasma, urine, and brain tissue were collected. We found that systolic BP was higher in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) than in A-NS (105 ± 0.8 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BP was higher in O-HS (124 ± 1.4 mm Hg) than in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, anxiety-like behavior (light-dark and open-field tests) was not different between A-NS and O-NS rats but was greater in O-HS rats than in A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Short-term memory (radial arm water maze test) was similar in A-NS and O-NS rats but was significantly impaired in O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxidative stress variables (in plasma, urine, and brain) as well as corticosterone (plasma) were greater in O-HS rats when compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme glyoxalase-1 expression was selectively reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala of O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05), whereas other antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension and behavioral derangement are associated with a redox imbalance in the brain of aged FBN rats.

  6. Discovery of novel small molecule modulators of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulan; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loïc; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Nislow, Corey; Fuchs, James R; Miller, Sally A; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is a Gram-positive seed-transmitted bacterial phytopathogen responsible for substantial economic losses by adversely affecting tomato production worldwide. A high-throughput, cell-based screen was adapted to identify novel small molecule growth inhibitors to serve as leads for future bactericide development. A library of 4,182 compounds known to be bioactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected for primary screening against Cmm wild-type strain C290 for whole-cell growth inhibition. Four hundred sixty-eight molecules (11.2% hit rate) were identified as bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic against Cmm at 200 μM. Seventy-seven candidates were selected based on Golden Triangle analyses for secondary screening. Secondary screens showed that several of these candidates were strain-selective. Several compounds were inhibitory to multiple Cmm strains as well as Bacillus subtilis, but not to Pseudomonas fluorescens, Mitsuaria sp., Lysobacter enzymogenes, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis, or Escherichia coli. Most of the compounds were not phytotoxic and did not show overt host toxicity. Using a novel 96-well bioluminescent Cmm seedling infection assay, we assessed effects of selected compounds on pathogen infection. The 12 most potent novel molecules were identified by compiling the scores from all secondary screens combined with the reduction of pathogen infection in planta. When tested for ability to develop resistance to the top-12 compounds, no resistant Cmm were recovered, suggesting that the discovered compounds are unlikely to induce resistance. In conclusion, here we report top-12 compounds that provide chemical scaffolds for future Cmm-specific bactericide development.

  7. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment.

  8. Huanglongbing, a systemic disease, restructures the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

    2010-06-01

    To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P

  9. Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA tag reveals bacterial community development in the rhizosphere of apple nurseries at a replant disease site and a new planting site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant and a new planting site (NewPlant in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil and from the new planting site (NewSoil was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant. More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.

  10. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

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    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  11. Rhizosphere microbial community composition affects cadmium and zinc uptake by the metal-hyperaccumulating plant Arabidopsis halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a "native" and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, "Candidatus Chloracidobacterium") of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Discovery of novel small molecule modulators of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

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    Xiulan eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm is a Gram-positive seed-transmitted bacterial phytopathogen responsible for substantial economic losses by adversely affecting tomato production worldwide. A high-throughput, cell-based screen was adapted to identify novel small molecule growth inhibitors to serve as leads for future bactericide development. A library of 4,182 compounds known to be bioactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected for primary screening against Cmm wild-type strain C290 for whole-cell growth inhibition. Four hundred sixty-eight molecules (11.2% hit rate were identified as bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic against Cmm at 200 M. Seventy-seven candidates were selected based on Golden Triangle analyses for secondary screening. Secondary screens showed that several of these candidates were strain-selective. Several compounds were inhibitory to multiple Cmm strains as well as Bacillus subtilis, but not Pseudomonas fluorescens, Mitsuaria sp., Lysobacter enzymogenes, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacter animalis, or Escherichia coli. Most of the compounds were not phytotoxic and did not show overt host toxicity. Using a novel 96-well bioluminescent Cmm seedling infection assay, we assessed effects of selected compounds on pathogen infection. The 12 most potent novel molecules were identified by compiling the scores from all secondary screens combined with the reduction of pathogen infection in planta. When tested for ability to develop resistance to the top-12 compounds, no resistant Cmm were recovered, suggesting that the discovered compounds are unlikely to induce resistance. In conclusion, here we report top-12 compounds that provide chemical scaffolds for future Cmm-specific bactericide development.

  13. The appraise of positions of obeying to the antibiotic using principles of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Kırcan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was done crosscutly and definely to appraise the position of obeying the principles of antibioticusing of mothers who has children between the age of 0 and 6. 160 mothers whose children between the age of 0-6 andhospitalized at the service of child in Mula State Hospital and Mula Social Insurance Institution Hospital betweenthe dates of 15.11.2002 and 15.01.2003 formed this research precedent, A questionnaie form which was defined by17 datas determined the mother’s obeying to the antibiotic using principles and a sociodemografic data form which has8 guestions related to mothers and children were used. [4]When the sociodemografic features of mothers who were in this research were studied, ıt was determined that66% of them were at the age of 25-34, 62.5 of them graduated from a primary school, 86.9% were housewives,53.8% had two children and 95.0% had health insurance. [5]When the positions of mother’s knowing the principles of antibiotic using were studied, it was determinedthat 55.6% of them knew what the antibiotic is. It was determined that 73.7% of them use it at the antibioticaccording to the doctor’s prescription, 77.5% of them use it at the right dosage, 68.7% use the antibiotic till itfinished, 68.1% keep it in the fridge, 80.6% of them use to waste antibiotic, 14.4% pray attention to the using dateof the antibiotic, 94.4% of them don’t use another child’s antibiotic, for hers, 93.1% dont use her own antibiotic forher child, 93.7% of them don’t use antibiotic without doctor’s prescription, 86.3% of them pay attention to thehunger-full principle, 99.4% of them shake the suspension antibiotics before using them and 67.5% take her child tothe doctor’s control after the antibiotic is finished.

  14. Highly sensitive measurements of substrates and inhibitors on the basis of tyrosinase sensors and recycling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streffer, Katrin

    2002-12-01

    compounds in river and sea water and the results could correlated very well with the corresponding DIN-test for the determination of phenolic compounds. An other developed tyrosinasesensor showed a very high sensitiveness for catecholamines, substances which are of special importance in the medical diagnostics. In addition, the investigations of two different tyrosinases, which were carried out also in the context of this thesis, have shown, that a special tyrosinase (tyrosinase from Streptomyces antibioticus) will be the better choice as tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus, which is used in the area of biosensor research till now, if one wants to develop in future even more sensitive tyrosinasesensors. Furthermore, first successes became reached on a molecular biological field, the production of tyrosinasemutants with special, before well-considered features. These successes can be used to develop a new generation of tyrosinasesensors, tyrosinasesensors in which tyrosinase can be bound directionally both to the corresponding physical pickup or also to another enzyme. From this one expects to achieve ways minimized which the substance to be determined (or whose product) otherwise must cover. Finally, this should result in an clearly visible increase of sensitivity of the Biosensor. Analytische Chemie heute meint nicht länger nur die große Messtechnik, die zeit- und kostenintensiv ist, die außerdem nur von qualifiziertem Personal zu bedienen ist und deren Resultate nur durch dieses Personal auswertbar sind. Meist erfordert diese sagen wir 'klassische analytische Messtechnik' auch noch spezielle Räumlichkeiten und oft eine relative große Menge an speziell vorbereiteten Proben. Neben dieser klassischen analytischen Messtechnik hat sich besonders in den letzten Jahren eine auf bestimmte Stoffgruppen und Anforderungen zugeschnittene Messtechnik durchgesetzt, die oft auch durch einen Laien bedient werden kann. Meist sind es sehr kleine Geräte. Auch die ben

  15. Degradation of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in soil microcosms: Use of stable C isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing to identify reactions and the responsible microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Warner, K.L.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; McDonald, I.R.; Radajewski, S.; Murrell, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria in soil microcosm experiments oxidized elevated levels of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr), the former compound more rapidly than the latter. MeBr was also removed by chemical reactions while MeCl was not. Chemical degradation dominated the early removal of MeBr and accounted for more than half of its total loss. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemical degradation of MeBr resulted in a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 59 ?? 7???. Soil bacterial oxidation dominated the later removal of MeBr and MeCl and was characterized by different KIEs for each compound. The KIE for MeBr oxidation was 69 ?? 9??? and the KIE for MeCl oxidation was 49 ?? 3???. Stable isotope probing revealed that different populations of soil bacteria assimilated added 13C-labeled MeBr and MeCl. The identity of the active MeBr and MeCl degrading bacteria in soil was determined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from 13C-DNA fractions, which identified a number of sequences from organisms not previously thought to be involved in methyl halide degradation. These included Burkholderia , the major clone type in the 13C-MeBr fraction, and Rhodobacter, Lysobacter and Nocardioides the major clone types in the 13C-MeCl fraction. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for methyl halide oxidizing bacteria currently in culture (including Aminobacter strain IMB-1 isolated from fumigated soil) were identified. Functional gene clone types closely related to Aminobacter spp. were identified in libraries containing the sequences for the cmuA gene, which codes for the enzyme known to catalyze the initial step in the oxidation of MeBr and MeCl. The cmuA gene was limited to members of the alpha-Proteobacteria whereas the greater diversity demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene may indicate that other enzymes catalyze methyl halide oxidation in different groups of bacteria. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Pyrosequencing reveals soil enzyme activities and bacterial communities impacted by graphene and its oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yan; Wang, Yi; Guan, Yina; Ma, Jiangtao; Cai, Zhiqiang; Yang, Guanghua; Zhao, Xiyue

    2017-09-26

    Graphene (GN) and graphene oxides (GOs) are novel carbon nanomaterial, they have been attracted much attention because of their excellent properties and are widely applied in many areas including energy, electronics, biomedicine and environmental science etc. With industrial production and consumption of GN/GO, they will inevitably enter the soil and water environment. GN/GO may directly cause certain harm to microorganisms and lead to ecological and environmental risks. Graphene oxides are graphene derivative with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in its graphitic backbone. The structure and chemistry of graphene show obvious differences compared with graphene oxide, which lead to the different environmental behaviors. In this study, four different types of soil (S1, S2, S3 and S4) were employed to investigate the effect of GN and GO on soil enzymatic activity, microbial population and bacterial community through pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The results showed that soil enzyme activity (invertase, protease, catalase and urease) and microbial population (bacteria, actinomycete and fungi) changed after GN/GO release into soils. Soil microbial community species are more richness and the diversity also increase after GO/GN application. The phylum of Proteobacteria increased at 90 days after treatment (DAT) after GN/GO application. The phylum of Chloroflexi occurred after GN applying at 90 DAT in S1 and reached 4.6%. Proteobacteria were the most phylum in S2, S3 and S4 soils, it ranged from 43.6% to 71.4% in S2, 45.6% to 73.7% in S3, 38.1% to 56.7% in S4, respectively. The most abundant genus were Bacillus (37.5% - 47.0%), Lactococcus (28.0% - 39.0%) in S1, Lysobacter and Flavobacterium in S2, Pedobacter in S3 and Massilia in S4 soil. The effect of GN and GO on soil microbial community is time dependent, and there are no significant differences between the samples at 10 and 90 DAT.

  17. 柑橘黄龙病寄主长春花内生细菌的分离及功能鉴定%Isolation, identification and basic function analysis of plant associated bacteria from huanglongbing's host plant-Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 殷幼平; 郑莉萍; 孙梦黎; 向晟; 郑月慧; 王中康

    2014-01-01

    [目的]感柑橘黄龙病长春花植株与健康长春花植株不同部位内生细菌菌群结构及功能对柑橘黄龙病菌与长春花内生细菌的相关性研究提供理论基础.[方法]利用兼性厌氧可培养技术以及植物内生菌功能特性分析相结合的方法.[结果]分别从感病和健康长春花叶、茎、根的组织中分离获得67株内生细菌,与GenBank中29种细菌的相似性达到97%-100%.其中短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium sp.)、欧文氏菌属(Erwinia sp.)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)为感病长春花内生细菌的优势菌群,鞘胺醇单胞菌属(Brevundimonas sp.)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillussp.)为健康长春花内生细菌的优势菌群;马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum)为两者的共同优势菌群.29种内生细菌进行功能分析,其中6株内生细菌至少具有4种功能特性,分属于马胃葡萄球菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌、巨大芽孢杆菌、短小杆菌属、摩氏摩根菌(Morganella morganii)及溶杆菌属(Lysobacter sp.)5个属.[结论]感病与健康长春花植株中均含有丰富的内生细菌且差异较大,黄龙病菌的存在改变了长春花原有内生细菌的菌群结构.通过分析菌群的差异,有望找到与柑橘黄龙病菌生长相关的菌种.

  18. Utilization analysis of antibiotics in dispensary outpatients%门诊药房抗生素的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史润琴; 高秀丽; 侯卫巍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the utilization of antibiotics in the dispensary outpatients of the third people’s hospital of Yangquan,and analyze the antibiotics abuse in clinics,in order to provide a powerful basic experience of the reasonable application. Methods Sixteen thousand randomly antibiotic-used prescriptions from our outpatient pharmacy were retrospectively analyzed,from January 2008 to January 2013. The DDDs,DUI,and also the clinic-medications were evaluated every 6 months,thereby the dynamic changes of antibiotics asage were observed. Results The situation of antibiotics-abuse was relieved partly after a long-term clinic education,and the DDDs of third-generation cephalospo-rin’s decreased significantly,but the situation of antibiotics-abuse wasn’t reversed fundamentally, and also the wrong-dosage of clinical medication. Conclusions The utilization of antibiotic in our dispensary outpatients was basically rational,but the phenomenon of antibiotics-abuse still exist,a deeper supervision was needed,thus confirm the control of antibiotic in a reasonable range and then avoid the occurcence of bacterial resistance in clinics.%目的:考察阳泉市第三人民医院门诊药房抗生素类药物的使用情况,对抗生素类药物的滥用情况加以分析,从而为临床的合理用药提供有力的依据。方法回顾性分析阳泉市第三人民医院2008年1月至2013年1月门诊药房收到的处方,随机抽取其中包含抗生素的处方共计16000张。对每半年抗生素的使用情况,如DDDS值、DUI值、临床用药情况进行分析,考察抗生素使用的动态变化。结果经过长期的临床教育,抗生素的使用情况有部分好转,第三代头孢的DDDs明显下降,但用药不合理的情况并未从根本上转变,临床用药剂量不合格的情况并未改善。结论本院门诊药房的抗生素类药物使用基本合理,但抗生素滥用的问题依然存在,需要进一步加强对该类

  19. 细菌性脑膜炎评分在儿科的应用%Application of bacterial meningitis score in department of pediatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建生; 于依湘; 张则玮

    2012-01-01

    在发达国家细菌性脑膜炎(BM)仅占急性脑膜炎的4%~6%,但延误诊治有引起死亡或严重神经后遗症的风险.鉴别儿童BM与病毒性脑膜炎(VM),有助于减少抗菌药物使用和/或住院.已发表鉴别儿童BM和VM的临床决策规则中,只有BM评分(BMS)经来自同一中心的内部验证和多中心的外部验证,具有敏感性高、特异性好、易于使用的特点.BMS由5个易于获得、客观的参数组成:脑脊液(CSF)革兰染色阳性、CSF蛋白质>0.8g/L、外周血中性粒细胞绝对计数(ANC)>10×109/L、惊厥、CSF ANC>1000 ×106/L.革兰染色阳性评2分,其余每个参数阳性评1分.BMS可以准确鉴别BM极低风险(BMS=0)和高风险(BMS≥2),预测BM敏感性为98.3%~100%、特异性为52%~73%.极低风险患儿可不用抗菌药物门诊管理.%Bacterial meningitis (BM) accounts for 4%-6% of acute meningitis, and is at risk of death or severeneurologic sequelae, especially when the diagnosis and antibiotic administrationare are delayed. Distinguishing between bacterial and viral meningitis (VM) inchildren could contribute to limiting unnecessary antibioticuse and/or hospital admissions. Published clinical decision rules have beenproposed to distinguish between BM and VM in children. Only the bacterial meningitis score (BMS) are internally and externally validatedandcould distinguish between BM and VM with high sensitivity andspecificity andeasierto use in practice. BMS is based solely on five parameterthat are objective and readily available at the time ofpresentation: Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showing bacteria, CSF protein > 0.8g/L, peripheral absolute neutrophilcount (ANC) > 10x10' cells/L, eclampsia, and CSF ANC > 1 000×106 cells/L BMSwas developedby attributing 2 points for a positive gram stain and 1 point for each of the othervariables. It accurately identifies childrenat very low (BMS = 0) or high (BMS≥2) risk of BM and could predict BM with high