WorldWideScience

Sample records for lysis electronic resource

  1. Electron Microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Wall Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, R.; González, C.; Muñoz, Nubia; Mendoza, Silvia

    1966-01-01

    Virgilio, Rafael (Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), C. González, Nubia Muñoz, and Silvia Mendoza. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2018–2024. 1966.—A crude suspension of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls (strain Cowan III) in buffer solution was shown by electron microscopy to lyse slightly after 16 hr, probably owing to the action of autolysin. The lysis was considerably faster and more intense after the addition of lysozyme. A remarkable reduction in thickness and rigidity of the cell walls, together with the appearance of many irregular protrusions in their outlines, was observed after 2 hr; after 16 hr, there remained only a few recognizable cell wall fragments but many residual particulate remnants. When autolysin was previously inactivated by trypsin, there was a complete inhibition of the lytic action of lysozyme; on the other hand, when autolysin was inactivated by heat and lysozyme was added, a distinct decrease in the thickness of the cell walls was observed, but there was no destruction of the walls. The lytic action of lysozyme, after treatment with hot 5% trichloroacetic acid, gave rise to a marked dissolution of the structure of the cell walls, which became lost against the background, without, however, showing ostensible alteration of wall outlines. From a morphological point of view, the lytic action of autolysin plus lysozyme was quite different from that of trichloroacetic acid plus lysozyme, as shown by electron micrographs, but in both cases it was very intense. This would suggest different mechanisms of action for these agents. Images PMID:5939482

  2. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  3. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  6. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Mee, Brian J; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-06-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.

  7. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  8. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  9. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  10. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  11. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  12. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  13. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  14. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  15. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  16. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  17. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement ...

  18. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  19. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  20. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  1. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  2. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  3. Electron microscope observation of Salmonella Pullorum transmembrane tunnel mediated by the bacteriophage lysis protein E%噬菌体裂解E蛋白介导鸡白痢沙门菌跨膜孔道的电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣显; 耿士忠; 焦红梅; 焦新安; 潘志明; 陈义芳; 安树敏

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage lysis protein E can lead to a fusion of the inner and outer membranes to form a specific transmembrane tunnel in Salmonella cytoderm. In this study, scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and transmission electron microscopy ( TEM) were used to observe the characteristic of the transmembrane tunnel. Bacterial ghosts were prepared by inducing expression of the bacteriophage lysis gene E in Salmonella Pullorum S06004 harboring plasmid pBBR1MCS2-E. The pre-treatment of samples were observed by SEM and TEM. After induced in 42 ℃, the vast majority of Salmonella Pullorum recombinants could form a transmembrane tunnel at the polar sites of bacteria with a diameter varying in the range of 200~400 nm. Bacterial ghosts show the loss of cytoplasmic material and maintain the integrity of the outer membrane structure. The cell surface wrinkled obviously. This research provides an efficient morphological evidence for Salmonella ghosts as vaccine candidate, which is mediated by the bacteriophage lysis protein E.%应用电镜对噬菌体裂解 E蛋白介导沙门菌内外膜融合而形成的特异性跨膜孔道进行超微结构观察。42℃诱导携带温控表达质粒的重组鸡白痢沙门菌S06004(pBBR1MCS2-E)表达E基因以制备鸡白痢沙门菌菌影;样品经前处理,扫描电镜和透射电镜观察其形态结构变化。重组鸡白痢沙门菌经温度诱导后,绝大多数发生裂解,在两极形成直径介于200~400 nm之间的跨膜孔道,细菌整体呈空泡状,并保持完整的外膜结构,但细胞表面发生明显的褶皱。本研究为噬菌体E蛋白裂解沙门菌制备新型灭活疫苗的研究提供了形态学依据。

  4. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  5. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  6. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  7. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  8. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  9. INTRAPERITONEAL LYSIS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, W H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1913-12-01

    1. Tubercle bacilli injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, rapidly disappear from the peritoneal fluids, while persisting in the peritoneal fluids of normal control animals. 2. This disappearance is in part due to an adhesion of the injected bacilli to the peritoneal leucocytes and a fixation of the leucocytes on the omentum. 3. The injected tubercle bacilli can be recovered quantitatively from the peritoneal cavities of normal guinea pigs from one and one half to two hours after the injection, while from tuberculous guinea pigs only 65 per cent. of the bacilli can be recovered at this time. 4. Isolated peritoneal tissues from tuberculous guinea pigs have the power of destroying tubercle bacilli in vitro. 5. A second factor reducing the number of tubercle bacilli free in the peritoneal fluid is therefore an actual lysis of the bacilli. 6. The intraperitoneal lysis is not due solely to substances present in the circulating fluids, since the phenomenon cannot be produced by these fluids in vitro, and since a lytic power cannot be passively conferred even by a direct transfusion of blood from tuberculous to normal animals. 7. The intraperitoneal lysis is apparently due to specific changes in the fixed peritoneal cells of the tuberculous animals.

  10. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  11. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  12. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  13. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  14. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  15. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  16. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  17. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  18. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  19. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  20. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  1. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  2. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  3. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  4. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  5. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  6. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  7. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  8. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  9. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  10. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  11. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  12. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  13. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes an increased sludge age is associated with a decreased sludge production. This phenomenon is generally interpreted as a result of endogenous respiration processes. In the activated sludge models cell lysis (or decay) is incorporated. The lysis is modelled...... mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... and maintenance processes. This conversion will in general be denoted as endogenous respiration. Based on the literature review the phenomena are discussed and organised, in order to create a working platform for discussing more detailed activated sludge models, one of which is being sketched. (C) 1999 IAWQ...

  14. Management of Pediatric Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevention and treatment, a multidisciplinary approach involving the collaboration of ... Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by a number of metabolic ..... methemoglobinemia or hemolytic anemia in patients with a deficiency of the ...

  15. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  16. Charge injection through nanocomposite electrode in microfluidic channel for electrical lysis of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Madhusmita; Krishna, Anil; Chandra, Aman; Shenoy, B. M.; Hegde, G. M.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2013-03-01

    Several concepts have been developed in the recent years for nanomaterial based integrated MEMS platform in order to accelerate the process of biological sample preparation followed by selective screening and identification of target molecules. In this context, there exist several challenges which need to be addressed in the process of electrical lysis of biological cells. These are due to (i) low resource settings while achieving maximal lysis (ii) high throughput of target molecules to be detected (iii) automated extraction and purification of relevant molecules such as DNA and protein from extremely small volume of sample (iv) requirement of fast, accurate and yet scalable methods (v) multifunctionality toward process monitoring and (vi) downward compatibility with already existing diagnostic protocols. This paper reports on the optimization of electrical lysis process based on various different nanocomposite coated electrodes placed in a microfluidic channel. The nanocomposites are synthesized using different nanomaterials like Zinc nanorod dispersion in polymer. The efficiency of electrical lysis with various different electrode coatings has been experimentally verified in terms of DNA concentration, amplification and protein yield. The influence of the coating thickness on the injection current densities has been analyzed. We further correlate experimentally the current density vs. voltage relationship with the extent of bacterial cell lysis. A coupled multiphysics based simulation model is used to predict the cell trajectories and lysis efficiencies under various electrode boundary conditions as estimated from experimental results. Detailed in-situ fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy studies are performed to validate various hypotheses.

  17. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  18. Detergent induced lysis of erythrocytes in kwashiorkor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A; Onuora, C U; Cherian, A

    1987-09-15

    The effect of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P40 on lysis of erythrocytes in children suffering from kwashiorkor was studied. The concentration of the detergent causing 50% haemolysis was significantly reduced in these patients. Detergent haemolysis was more sensitive than osmotic fragility (which was reduced). The abnormality was only slight in marasmic children.

  19. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  20. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  1. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  2. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  3. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  4. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  5. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  6. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  7. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  8. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  9. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohée D

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999. We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p -6. The efficiency scores of the method are Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Cauchie, Ph; Remacle, Cl; Guillaume, M; Brohée, D; Hubert, JL; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2002-01-01

    Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999). We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT) determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p < 10-6. The efficiency scores of the method are <4% in intra-assay and <7% in inter-assay. It allows to achieve the tests on hyperlipaemic samples. This new device has been easily integrated in laboratory routine and allows to achieve several ECLT every day without disturbance of laboratory workflow. Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:11985782

  11. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  13. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  14. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  15. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  16. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  17. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  19. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  20. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  1. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  2. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  3. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  4. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  5. An integratable microfluidic cartridge for forensic swab samples lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Brooks, Carla; Estes, Matthew D; Hurth, Cedric M; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Fully automated rapid forensic DNA analysis requires integrating several multistep processes onto a single microfluidic platform, including substrate lysis, extraction of DNA from the released lysate solution, multiplexed PCR amplification of STR loci, separation of PCR products by capillary electrophoresis, and analysis for allelic peak calling. Over the past several years, most of the rapid DNA analysis systems developed started with the reference swab sample lysate and involved an off-chip lysis of collected substrates. As a result of advancement in technology and chemistry, addition of a microfluidic module for swab sample lysis has been achieved in a few of the rapid DNA analysis systems. However, recent reports on integrated rapid DNA analysis systems with swab-in and answer-out capability lack any quantitative and qualitative characterization of the swab-in sample lysis module, which is important for downstream forensic sample processing. Maximal collection and subsequent recovery of the biological material from the crime scene is one of the first and critical steps in forensic DNA technology. Herein we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an integratable swab lysis cartridge module and the test results obtained from different types of commonly used forensic swab samples, including buccal, saliva, and blood swab samples, demonstrating the compatibility with different downstream DNA extraction chemistries. This swab lysis cartridge module is easy to operate, compatible with both forensic and microfluidic requirements, and ready to be integrated with our existing automated rapid forensic DNA analysis system. Following the characterization of the swab lysis module, an integrated run from buccal swab sample-in to the microchip CE electropherogram-out was demonstrated on the integrated prototype instrument. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that this swab lysis cartridge module is: (1) functionally, comparable with routine benchtop lysis

  6. Testing optimality with experimental evolution: lysis time in a bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Richard H; Bull, James J

    2007-07-01

    Optimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a trait for which an optimality model exists and in which genetic details can be studied. Here we evolved lysis time in bacteriophage T7, a virus of Escherichia coli. Lysis time is equivalent to the age of reproduction in an organism that reproduces once and then dies. Delaying lysis increases the number of offspring but slows generation time, and this trade-off renders the optimum sensitive to environmental conditions: earlier lysis is favored when bacterial hosts are dense, later lysis is favored when hosts are sparse. In experimental adaptations, T7 evolved close to the optimum in conditions favoring early lysis but not in conditions favoring late lysis. One of the late lysis adaptations exhibited no detectable phenotypic evolution despite genetic evolution; the other evolved only partly toward the expected optimum. Overall, the lysis time of the adapted phages remained closer to their starting values than predicted by the model. From the perspective of the optimality model, the experimental conditions were expected to select changes only along the postulated trade-off, but a trait outside the trade-off evolved as well. Evidence suggests that the model's failure ultimately stems from a violation of the trade-off, rather than a paucity of mutations.

  7. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  8. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  9. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  10. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  11. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  12. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  13. Arthroscopic Lysis of Arthrofibrosis of the Fifth Tarsometatarsal Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Loss of motion of the fifth tarsometatarsal joint can be a cause of lateral foot pain after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation or fracture of the fifth metatarsal tubercle. Arthroscopic lysis of the joint can be an effective surgical treatment with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue trauma and early vigorous mobilization of the joint. The lysis can be extended to the fourth tarsometatarsal joint and the adjacent tendons if indicated.

  14. The Spheroplast Lysis Assay for Yeast in Microtiter Plate Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Rafael; Spencer, Moyah; Thiwanont, Monthiwa; Lipke, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    A yeast lysis assay in the microtiter plate format improved precision and throughput and led to an improved algorithm for estimating lag time. The assay reproducibly revealed differences of 10% or greater in the maximal lysis rate and 50% or greater in the lag time. Clonal differences were determined to be the major source of variation. Microtiter-based assays should be useful for screening for drug susceptibility and for analyzing mutant phenotypes. PMID:10427014

  15. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  16. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  17. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  18. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

  19. Direct cell lysis for single-cell gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSvec

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest to analyze single and few cell samples is rapidly increasing. Numerous extraction protocols to purify nucleic acids are available, but most of them compromise severely on yield to remove contaminants and are therefore not suitable for the analysis of samples containing small numbers of transcripts only. Here, we evaluate 17 direct cell lysis protocols for transcript yield and compatibility with downstream reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Four endogenously expressed genes are assayed together with RNA and DNA spikes in the samples. We found bovine serum albumin (BSA to be the best lysis agent, resulting in efficient cell lysis, high RNA stability and enhanced reverse transcription efficiency. Furthermore, we found direct cell lysis with BSA superior to standard column based extraction methods, when analyzing from 1 up to 512 mammalian cells. In conclusion, direct cell lysis protocols based on BSA can be applied with most cell collection methods and are compatible with most analytical workflows to analyze single cells as well as samples composed of small numbers of cells.

  20. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  1. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  2. Miniaturized Cell Lysis Device Using Spherically Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 肖宏; 郭旻; 程京

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a miniaturized cell lysis device developed using a concave spherical transducer is capable of lysing bacteria without added chemical denaturants, enzymes or microparticles and is capable of efficiently lysing yeast without any mechanical or enzymatic pretreatment.The device is designed for miniature bio-analysis systems where cell lysing is needed to obtain intracellular materials for further analysis such as DNA identification.The device lysis efficiency was evaluated using viable cell counts and microscopy.Additionally, the device efficiency was compared with that of traditional chemical cell lysis methods using standard molecular biological techniques such as agarose gels and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy.The results indicate that efficient bacteria and cell disruption can be achieved through a low-voltage-driven and spherically focused high-frequency ultrasonic device.

  3. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  4. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  5. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  6. Comparison of point-of-care-compatible lysis methods for bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K; Buser, Joshua R; Mireles, Lillian; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ladd, Paula D; Lutz, Barry R; Yager, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Nucleic acid sample preparation has been an especially challenging barrier to point-of-care nucleic acid amplification tests in low-resource settings. Here we provide a head-to-head comparison of methods for lysis of, and nucleic acid release from, several pathogenic bacteria and viruses-methods that are adaptable to point-of-care usage in low-resource settings. Digestion with achromopeptidase, a mixture of proteases and peptidoglycan-specific hydrolases, followed by thermal deactivation in a boiling water bath, effectively released amplifiable nucleic acid from Staphylococcus aureus, Bordetella pertussis, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. Achromopeptidase was functional after dehydration and reconstitution, even after eleven months of dry storage without refrigeration. Mechanical lysis methods proved to be effective against a hard-to-lyse Mycobacterium species, and a miniature bead-mill, the AudioLyse, is shown to be capable of releasing amplifiable DNA and RNA from this species. We conclude that point-of-care-compatible sample preparation methods for nucleic acid tests need not introduce amplification inhibitors, and can provide amplification-ready lysates from a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens.

  7. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  8. Fluorescent method for monitoring cheese starter permeabilization and lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Schalkwijk, van S.; Meijer, W.; Abee, T.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method to monitor lysis of cheese starter bacteria using dual staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit is described. This kit combines membrane-permeant green fluorescent nucleic acid dye SYTO 9 and membrane-impermeant red fluorescent nucleic acid dye propidium iod

  9. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  10. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  11. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  12. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  13. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  14. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  15. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  17. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  18. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  19. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Chavarria, Krystle L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tom, Lauren M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  20. Direct cellular lysis/protein extraction protocol for soil metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Karuna; Jansson, Janet; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Shah, Manesh; Chavarria, Krystle L; Tom, Lauren M; Brodie, Eoin L; Hettich, Robert L

    2010-12-03

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  1. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  2. Direct Cell Lysis for Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    David eSvec; Daniel eAndersson; Milos ePekny; Robert eSjöback; Mikael eKubista; Anders eStåhlberg

    2013-01-01

    The interest to analyze single and few cell samples is rapidly increasing. Numerous extraction protocols to purify nucleic acids are available, but most of them compromise severely on yield to remove contaminants and are therefore not suitable for the analysis of samples containing small numbers of transcripts only. Here, we evaluate 17 direct cell lysis protocols for transcript yield and compatibility with downstream reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Four endogenously express...

  3. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    OpenAIRE

    Poskurica Mileta; Petrović Dejan; Poskurica Mina

    2016-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, alt...

  4. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed.

  5. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  6. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  7. Wireless induction heating in a microfluidic device for cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-ki; Min, Junghong; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2010-04-07

    A wireless induction heating system in a microfluidic device was devised for cell lysis to extract DNA and RNA from Escherichia coli. The thermal responses of nickel, iron and copper heating units were studied by applying an alternating magnetic field as a function of geometry of unit, strength of magnetic field, and kind of metal. Heating units were prepared by cutting metal film using a fiber laser, and the units were integrated into a microchannel system using a soft lithographic process. Variation and distribution of temperature on the surface of the heating units was observed using a thermographic camera and temperature labels. The amount of protein released from E. coli by thermal lysis was determined by protein concentration measurement. Hemoglobin released from red blood cells was observed using colorimetric intensity measurement. Extracted DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the profile was compared with that of a positive control of ultrasonically disrupted E. coli. The stability of RNA extracted by induction heating was quantified by the measurement of 23S/16S rRNA ratio and comparison with that by normal RNA extraction kit as a gold standard. A solid-shaped nickel structure was selected as the induction heating element in the microfluidic device because of the relatively small influence of geometries and faster thermal response.The amount of protein extracted from E. coli and hemoglobin released from red blood cells by induction heating of the nickel unit in the microfluidic device was proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field. The lysis of E. coli by induction heating was as effective as lysis of DNA by the ultrasonication method because the threshold cycle values of the sample were compatible with those of the positive control as measured by ultrasonication. Thermal lysis of E. coli by induction heating represents a reasonable alternative to a commercial RNA extraction method as shown by the comparative

  8. Comparison of Two Cell Lysis Procedures for Recovery of Microcystins in Water Samples from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware, with Microcystin Producing Cyanobacterial Accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Humphries, Edythe; Whereat, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A collaboration was developed between Abraxis, LLC, the State of Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Division of Water Resources Environmental Laboratory, the University of Delaware, and the United States Geological Survey to investigate the efficacy of the QuikLyse procedure developed by Abraxis, LLC as an alternative cell-lysis technique suitable for use with an existing liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry research method developed at the United States Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory to analyze cyanotoxins. A comparison of three sequential freeze/thaw cycles versus QuikLyse, a proprietary chemical lysis procedure was conducted on four water samples collected from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware. Results from the Abraxis Microcystins-DM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry were tabulated as a function of the cell lysis technique. Stastical comparison of percent relative standard deviations showed no significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between both cell-lysis techniques when measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for three of the four samples.

  9. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  10. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  11. Miniature acoustic wave lysis system and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Darren W.; Vreeland, Erika Cooley; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe

    2016-12-06

    The present invention relates to an acoustic lysis system including a disposable cartridge that can be reversibly coupled to a platform having a small, high-frequency piezoelectric transducer array. In particular, the system releases viable DNA, RNA, and proteins from human or bacterial cells, without chemicals or additional processing, to enable high-speed sample preparation for clinical point-of-care medical diagnostics and use with nano/microfluidic cartridges. Also described herein are methods of making and using the system of the invention.

  12. Modeling cellular lysis in skeletal muscle due to electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J; Lee, Raphael C; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2011-05-01

    High-voltage electrical trauma frequently results in injury patterns that cannot be completely attributed to Joule heating. An electrical-injury model describing cellular lysis damage caused by supraphysiological electric fields is introduced, and used to evaluate the effects of high-voltage electric shock on the skeletal muscle of a human upper limb in a configuration that simulates hand-to-hand contact. A novel multiresolution admittance method, capable of efficiently handling large computational models while maintaining excellent accuracy, was used to perform the numerical computations. Values for the computed current through the arm and the upper limb impedance are reported.

  13. Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Bock, Ryan M; McEntire, Bryan J; Jones, Erin; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Baggio, Greta; Boschetto, Francesco; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Bal, B Sonny

    2016-03-29

    Organisms of Gram-negative phylum bacteroidetes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, underwent lysis on polished surfaces of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics. The antibacterial activity of Si3N4 was mainly the result of chemically driven principles. The lytic activity, although not osmotic in nature, was related to the peculiar pH-dependent surface chemistry of Si3N4. A buffering effect via the formation of ammonium ions (NH4(+)) (and their modifications) was experimentally observed by pH microscopy. Lysis was confirmed by conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, and the bacteria's metabolism was traced with the aid of in situ Raman microprobe spectroscopy. This latter technique revealed the formation of peroxynitrite within the bacterium itself. Degradation of the bacteria's nucleic acid, drastic reduction in phenilalanine, and reduction of lipid concentration were observed due to short-term exposure (6 days) to Si3N4. Altering the surface chemistry of Si3N4 by either chemical etching or thermal oxidation influenced peroxynitrite formation and affected bacteria metabolism in different ways. Exploiting the peculiar surface chemistry of Si3N4 bioceramics could be helpful in counteracting Porphyromonas gingivalis in an alkaline pH environment.

  14. Weight reduction is associated with increased plasma fibrin clot lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Kolarz, Beata; Kolarz, Marek; Wałach, Angelika; Undas, Anetta

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of vascular thrombotic events. We sought to investigate how obesity and weight loss affect plasma fibrin clot properties. A total of 29 obese patients were studied before and after 3-month low-fat diet. Plasma fibrin clot parameters, including fibrin clot permeation coefficient (Ks), the lag phase of the turbidity curve, clot lysis time (t 50%), maximum rate of increase in D-dimer levels, and maximum D-dimer concentrations, were determined. Low-fat diet resulted in the reduction of body weight (P < .0001), body mass index (P < .0001), fat mass (P < .0001), total cholesterol (P < .0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0005), triglycerides (P = .008), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P = .02), but not in fibrinogen or C-reactive protein. The only change in fibrin clot variables was shorter t 50% (P = .02). Baseline t 50%, but not posttreatment, correlated with waist circumference (r = .44, p = .02). This study demonstrates that weight loss in obese people can increase the efficiency of fibrin clot lysis.

  15. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  16. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  17. Does the duration of lysis affect the sensitivity of the in vitro alkaline comet assay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, José Manuel; Sánchez, Oscar; López de Cerain, Adela; Azqueta, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline comet assay is now the method of choice for measuring different kinds of DNA damage in cells. Several attempts have been made to identify and evaluate the critical points affecting the comet assay outcome, highlighting the requirement of arriving at a standardised protocol in order to be able to compare the results obtained in different laboratories. However, reports on the effect of modifying the time of lysis are lacking. Here we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) in control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or H2O2. We also tested different times of lysis in the comet assay combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in untreated and Ro 19-8022 plus light-treated HeLa cells. The same DNA damage levels were detected in the absence of lysis or after 1h of lysis when the standard comet assay was used to detect the MMS- and H2O2-induced lesions; the response increased when longer lysis was used, up to at least 1 week. When FPG was used, a minimum lysis period of 5 min was necessary to allow the enzyme to reach the DNA; the same DNA damage levels were detected after 5 min or 1h of lysis and the response increased up to 24h. In conclusion, the time of lysis can be varied depending on the sensitivity needed in both versions of the assay, and a constant time of lysis should be used if results from different experiments or laboratories are to be compared.

  18. A common, non-optimal phenotypic endpoint in experimental adaptations of bacteriophage lysis time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantranupong Lynne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimality models of evolution, which ignore genetic details and focus on natural selection, are widely used but sometimes criticized as oversimplifications. Their utility for quantitatively predicting phenotypic evolution can be tested experimentally. One such model predicts optimal bacteriophage lysis interval, how long a virus should produce progeny before lysing its host bacterium to release them. The genetic basis of this life history trait is well studied in many easily propagated phages, making it possible to test the model across a variety of environments and taxa. Results We adapted two related small single-stranded DNA phages, ΦX174 and ST-1, to various conditions. The model predicted the evolution of the lysis interval in response to host density and other environmental factors. In all cases the initial phages lysed later than predicted. The ΦX174 lysis interval did not evolve detectably when the phage was adapted to normal hosts, indicating complete failure of optimality predictions. ΦX174 grown on slyD-defective hosts which initially entirely prevented lysis readily recovered to a lysis interval similar to that attained on normal hosts. Finally, the lysis interval still evolved to the same endpoint when the environment was altered to delay optimal lysis interval. ST-1 lysis interval evolved to be ~2 min shorter, qualitatively in accord with predictions. However, there were no changes in the single known lysis gene. Part of ST-1's total lysis time evolution consisted of an earlier start to progeny production, an unpredicted phenotypic response outside the boundaries of the optimality model. Conclusions The consistent failure of the optimality model suggests that constraint and genetic details affect quantitative and even qualitative success of optimality predictions. Several features of ST-1 adaptation show that lysis time is best understood as an output of multiple traits, rather than in isolation.

  19. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  20. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  2. Tumor lysis syndrome in the emergency department: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ñamendys-Silva SA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silvio A Ñamendys-Silva,1,2 Juan M Arredondo-Armenta,1 Erika P Plata-Menchaca,2 Humberto Guevara-García,1 Francisco J García-Guillén,1 Eduardo Rivero-Sigarroa,2 Angel Herrera-Gómez,1 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, 2Department of Critical Care Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is the most common oncologic emergency. It is caused by rapid tumor cell destruction and the resulting nucleic acid degradation during or days after initiation of cytotoxic therapy. Also, a spontaneous form exists. The metabolic abnormalities associated with this syndrome include hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia, and acute kidney injury. These abnormalities can lead to life-threatening complications, such as heart rhythm abnormalities and neurologic manifestations. The emergency management of overt TLS involves proper fluid resuscitation with crystalloids in order to improve the intravascular volume and the urinary output and to increase the renal excretion of potassium, phosphorus, and uric acid. With this therapeutic strategy, prevention of calcium phosphate and uric acid crystal deposition within renal tubules is achieved. Other measures in the management of overt TLS are prescription of hypouricemic agents, renal replacement therapy, and correction of electrolyte imbalances. Hyperkalemia should be treated quickly and aggressively as its presence is the most hazardous acute complication that can cause sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment of hypocalcemia is reserved for patients with electrocardiographic changes or symptoms of neuromuscular irritability. In patients who are refractory to medical management of electrolyte abnormalities or with severe cardiac and neurologic manifestations, early dialysis is recommended.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, emergency department, emergency

  3. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  4. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    1999-01-01

    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  6. Tumor lysis without syndrome in adenocarcinoma of the lung: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit; Marak, Creticus; Alappan, Narendra Kumar; Alterman, Daniel; Shim, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome TLS is commonly seen during the treatment of rapidly proliferating. However TLS is rarely reported in Non-small cell Lung Cancer. This may because of low proliferative rate and chemo-resistant nature of NSCLC. We are reporting a case of tumor lysis without concomitant syndrome in a patient with adenocarcinoma of Lung.

  7. Portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step DNA extraction of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Lee, E-H; Yoon, Y; Chua, B; Son, A

    2016-02-01

    To demonstrate and characterize a portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step bacterial DNA extraction. Our portable lysis apparatus employed a novel design consisting of an annular piezo-element with perforated diaphragm. Using Bacillus subtilis as target bacteria, our portable lysis apparatus was able to achieve a normalized percent lysis as high as 66% within 30 s. This is comparable to that by microprobe ultrasonication and almost 7 times higher than that by conventional bead beating. The effect from adding glass beads was predictable. However, the results from the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were counter-intuitive because a further increase from 0·5 to 1% concentration reduced the lysis performance. The portable lysis apparatus is also at least 1·5-5 times more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. Our portable lysis apparatus is capable of rapidly extracting bacterial DNA and is more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. The addition of glass beads or SDS concentration (up to 0·5%) improves its performance. The portable lysis apparatus provides a standalone, rapid, low cost and power efficient way of obtaining genomic constituents prior to a variety of bioassays used in the field of environmental, biomedical and other applied microbiology. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Activated protein C accelerates clot lysis by virtue of its coagulant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, N.J. de; Tilburg, N.H. van; Haverkate, F.; Bertina, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human activated protein C (APC) on t-PA dependent fibrinolysis was studied in vitro using plasma (and whole blood) clot lysis techniques. Clot lysis was monitored by measuring the release of soluble 125I-labelled fibrin degradation products from the clot over time. It was demonstrated

  9. On-chip lysis of mammalian cells through a handheld corona device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, C; Bürgel, S C; Kemmerling, S; Sauter, N; Braun, T; Hierlemann, A

    2015-07-21

    On-chip lysis is required in many lab-on-chip applications involving cell studies. In these applications, the complete disruption of the cellular membrane and a high lysis yield is essential. Here, we present a novel approach to lyse cells on-chip through the application of electric discharges from a corona handheld device. The method only requires a microfluidic chip and a low-cost corona device. We demonstrate the effective lysis of BHK and eGFP HCT 116 cells in the sub-second time range using an embedded microelectrode. We also show cell lysis of non-adherent K562 leukemia cells without the use of an electrode in the chip. Cell lysis has been assessed through the use of bright-field microscopy, high-speed imaging and cell-viability fluorescence probes. The experimental results show effective cell lysis without any bubble formation or significant heating. Due to the simplicity of both the components involved and the lysis procedure, this technique offers an inexpensive lysis option with the potential for integration into lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. A Method for Purifying Obligate Intracellular Coxiella burnetii that Employs Digitonin Lysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Beare, Paul A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert. A.

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii requires physical disruption of infected cells. Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells. The purity, yield, and infectivity of digitonin-prepped organisms are comparable to that of organisms purified using cell lysis by sonication. PMID:18242746

  11. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Suffici

  12. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  13. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis.

  14. Evidence that Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin induces colloid-osmotic lysis of erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R W; Sims, P J; Tweten, R K

    1991-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin was shown to lyse target erythrocytes by a colloid-osmotic mechanism. Analysis showed the onset of lysis of erythrocytes by theta-toxin could be temporarily stabilized with 0.3 M sucrose. Flow cytometry analysis of the size distribution of theta-toxin-treated erythrocytes showed swelling of the erythrocytes prior to lysis.

  15. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  16. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  17. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  18. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  19. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  20. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  1. Tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic colon cancer after treatment with oxaliplatin and 5-Fu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Han Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome in solid tumors is a rare occurrence, with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a patient of recurrent colon cancer who received chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen (lencovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin with subsequent tumor lysis. We present a recurrent rectal cancer patient suffered from tumor lysis syndrome after salvage FOLFOX regimen. After treat with CVVH with improved conscious status. In this case report, we had review the tumor lysis in solid tumor.

  2. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  3. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  4. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  5. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  6. Local lysis in acute basilar artery occlusions: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, R.; Perneczky, G.; Ammerer, H.P.; Brenner, H.; Slany, J. (Krankenanstalt der Stadt Wien Rudolfstiftung (Austria))

    1984-01-01

    Thrombosis of the basilar artery is not a rare disease, and the mortality is reported to be 60 to 80%. Present standard therapy with heparin infusions yields poor results. The high risk of intracerebral haemorrhage prohibits systemic fibrinolytic therapy. Due to these facts and good experience in our department with the use of local intracoronary lysis in acute myocardial infarction, the method of local thrombolysis was applied in a case of acute basiliar artery thrombosis. Fibrinolytic therapy was started via an angiography catheter placed in the vertebral artery in a 28 year-old woman with hemiplegia and severe brain stem symptoms. The patient received 200,000 IU streptokinase within 2 hours and subsequently 300,000 IU urokinase within 10 hours. The vessel re-opened completely. The neurological symptoms decreased during the following weeks. Based on this experience and according to rare reports in the literature we believe local low-dose thrombolysis to be a causal therapy promising success for acute thrombosis of the basilar artery. This therapy can be carried out in every medical centre able to perform selective angiography and experienced in the administration of fibrinolytic drugs.

  7. Fungal lysis by a soil bacterium fermenting cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Cerisy, Tristan; El-Sayyed, Hafez; Boutard, Magali; Salanoubat, Marcel; Church, George M

    2015-08-01

    Recycling of plant biomass by a community of bacteria and fungi is fundamental to carbon flow in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we report how the plant fermenting, soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans enhances growth on cellulose by simultaneously lysing and consuming model fungi from soil. We investigate the mechanism of fungal lysis to show that among the dozens of different glycoside hydrolases C. phytofermentans secretes on cellulose, the most highly expressed enzymes degrade fungi rather than plant substrates. These enzymes, the GH18 Cphy1799 and Cphy1800, synergize to hydrolyse chitin, a main component of the fungal cell wall. Purified enzymes inhibit fungal growth and mutants lacking either GH18 grow normally on cellulose and other plant substrates, but have a reduced ability to hydrolyse chitinous substrates and fungal hyphae. Thus, C. phytofermentans boosts growth on cellulose by lysing fungi with its most highly expressed hydrolases, highlighting the importance of fungal interactions to the ecology of cellulolytic bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan; Poskurica, Mina

    2016-01-01

    `Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure.The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat) significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn't possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase). Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  9. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al., as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc., can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS. It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn’t possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase. Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  10. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  11. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with hypocalcemic tetany: An unusual case and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Roshan; Batta, Akash; Suryadevera, Varun; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh

    2017-06-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome is an oncological emergency which is usually seen following chemotherapy for rapidly proliferating haematological malignancies. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is rare in solid tumour and even rarer with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumour lysis syndrome in the setting of HCC is usually reported as a consequence of therapeutic interventions like sorafenib administration or trans-arterial chemoembolization. We report about a case of a young lady with chronic hepatitis B related HCC who developed spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome and presented with hypocalcemic tetany. We also compare this case with the previously reported cases of spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  13. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  14. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  15. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  16. Carbon nanotubes for voltage reduction and throughput enhancement of electrical cell lysis on a lab-on-a-chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahini, Mehdi; Yeow, John T W, E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2011-08-12

    We report on the enhancement of electrical cell lysis using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Electrical cell lysis systems are widely utilized in microchips as they are well suited to integration into lab-on-a-chip devices. However, cell lysis based on electrical mechanisms has high voltage requirements. Here, we demonstrate that by incorporating CNTs into microfluidic electrolysis systems, the required voltage for lysis is reduced by half and the lysis throughput at low voltages is improved by ten times, compared to non-CNT microchips. In our experiment, E. coli cells are lysed while passing through an electric field in a microchannel. Based on the lightning rod effect, the electric field strengthened at the tip of the CNTs enhances cell lysis at lower voltage and higher throughput. This approach enables easy integration of cell lysis with other on-chip high-throughput sample-preparation processes.

  17. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K; Osvath, Sarah R; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H; Charles, Ian G; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2016-04-14

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs.

  18. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Secondary Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saad Usmani; Joel Appel; Zainab Shahid; Husain Saleh

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) is a well-described oncological emergency that is usually associated with hematological malignan-cies complicated by treatment. It is typically related to a high tumor burden, rapidly growing and chemosensitive malignancies.

  19. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P < 0.00001) and chronic (40% higher sensitivity; P = 0.087) forms of brucellosis. The major advantage of lysis centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  20. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  1. Polypeptone induces dramatic cell lysis in ura4 deletion mutants of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzy Matsuo

    Full Text Available Polypeptone is widely excluded from Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth medium. However, the reasons why polypeptone should be avoided have not been documented. Polypeptone dramatically induced cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant when cells approached the stationary growth phase, and this phenotype was suppressed by supplementation of uracil. To determine the specificity of this cell lysis phenotype, we created deletion mutants of other genes involved in de novo biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate (ura1, ura2, ura3, and ura5. Cell lysis was not observed in these gene deletion mutants. In addition, concomitant disruption of ura1, ura2, ura3, or ura5 in the ura4 deletion mutant suppressed cell lysis, indicating that cell lysis induced by polypeptone is specific to the ura4 deletion mutant. Furthermore, cell lysis was also suppressed when the gene involved in coenzyme Q biosynthesis was deleted. This is likely because Ura3 requires coenzyme Q for its activity. The ura4 deletion mutant was sensitive to zymolyase, which mainly degrades (1,3-beta-D glucan, when grown in the presence of polypeptone, and cell lysis was suppressed by the osmotic stabiliser, sorbitol. Finally, the induction of cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant was due to the accumulation of orotidine-5-monophosphate. Cell wall integrity was dramatically impaired in the ura4 deletion mutant when grown in the presence of polypeptone. Because ura4 is widely used as a selection marker in S. pombe, caution needs to be taken when evaluating phenotypes of ura4 mutants.

  2. Tumor lysis syndrome following trastuzumab and pertuzumab for metastatic breast cancer: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor lysis syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal complication of oncologic treatments, especially in solid tumors. To the best of our knowledge, tumor lysis syndrome has never been reported after trastuzumab and pertuzumab combination therapy. Knowledge of risk factors and active prevention proceedings is of utmost importance to avoid fatal outcomes. Case presentation We present the case of a chemo-naive 58-year-old Belgian woman developing hypovolemic shock and multiple organ ...

  3. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  4. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  5. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Production of lipase from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid and thereof for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides and lysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K; Sekaran, G

    2012-08-01

    The study demonstrates the production of lipase (LIP) from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid as the substrate for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipase was purified with the specific activity of 828 U/mg protein and the molecular weight of 56 kDa. The maximum lipase activity was observed at the pH 7.0 and the temperature 37 °C. The amino acid composition of purified lipase was determined by HPLC. The mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) was used for the immobilization of lipase for the repeated use of the enzyme catalyst. The K (m) value of immobilized lipase (MAC-LIP) and the free lipase (LIP) was 0.182 and 1.96 mM, respectively. The V (max) value of MAC-LIP and LIP was 1.33 and 1.26 mM/min, respectively. The MAC and MAC-LIP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrolysis study showed 78 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for LIP and 84 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for MAC-LIP at the reaction time of 1 h. The effect of lipase on cell wall lysis was carried out on the RBCs of blood plasma. Interestingly, 99.9% lysis of RBCs was observed within 2 h. SEM images and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the lysis of RBCs. This work provides a potential biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides.

  8. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  9. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  10. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  11. Stochastic holin expression can account for lysis time variation in the bacteriophage λ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhyudai; Dennehy, John J

    2014-06-06

    The inherent stochastic nature of biochemical processes can drive differences in gene expression between otherwise identical cells. While cell-to-cell variability in gene expression has received much attention, randomness in timing of events has been less studied. We investigate event timing at the single-cell level in a simple system, the lytic pathway of the bacterial virus phage λ. In individual cells, lysis occurs on average at 65 min, with an s.d. of 3.5 min. Interestingly, mutations in the lysis protein, holin, alter both the lysis time (LT) mean and variance. In our analysis, LT is formulated as the first-passage time (FPT) for cellular holin levels to cross a critical threshold. Exact analytical formulae for the FPT moments are derived for stochastic gene expression models. These formulae reveal how holin transcription and translation efficiencies independently modulate the LT mean and variation. Analytical expressions for the LT moments are used to evaluate previously published single-cell LT data for λ phages with mutations in the holin sequence or its promoter. Our results show that stochastic holin expression is sufficient to account for the intercellular LT differences in both wild-type phages, and phage variants where holin transcription and the threshold for lysis have been experimentally altered. Finally, our analysis reveals regulatory motifs that enhance the robustness of lysis timing to cellular noise.

  12. Cauda Equina Syndrome Following an Epidural Lysis Procedure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidural lysis is known to be one of the therapy methods used following an unsuccessful low back surgery. Despite its proven effectiveness, several complications associated with epidural lysis procedure have been reported. The most common complications are dural perforation, breaking of the catheter and infections. Cauda equina syndrome is a rare complication seen after epidural lysis. A 51-year-old female complaining of lower back pain for six years underwent an epidural lysis procedure at the lumbar 3-4-5 level. Following the procedure, the patient was not able to walk due to weakness starting in both lower extremities, besides, she had fecal and urinary incontinence. After being diagnosed with cauda equina syndrome, a rehabilitation program was administered. After three months, the patient was ambulant with a bilateral dynamic carbon fiber ankle foot orthoses and a walker. It should be kept in mind that serious complications such as cauda equina syndrome, which may considerably affect the patients’ quality of life in a negative way, might develop after an epidural lysis procedure.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Fast Microfluidic Thermal Lysis of Bacteria for Diagnostic Sample Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelyn C. Alocilja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new diagnostic platforms that incorporate lab-on-a-chip technologies for portable assays is driving the need for rapid, simple, low cost methods to prepare samples for downstream processing or detection. An important component of the sample preparation process is cell lysis. In this work, a simple microfluidic thermal lysis device is used to quickly release intracellular nucleic acids and proteins without the need for additional reagents or beads used in traditional chemical or mechanical methods (e.g., chaotropic salts or bead beating. On-chip lysis is demonstrated in a multi-turn serpentine microchannel with external temperature control via an attached resistive heater. Lysis was confirmed for Escherichia coli by fluorescent viability assay, release of ATP measured with bioluminescent assay, release of DNA measured by fluorometry and qPCR, as well as bacterial culture. Results comparable to standard lysis techniques were achievable at temperatures greater than 65 °C and heating durations between 1 and 60 s.

  14. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Srividhya; S Krishnaswamy

    2007-08-01

    Bacteriophage induced lysis of host bacterial cell is mediated by a two component cell lysis cassette comprised of holin and lysozyme. Prophages are integrated forms of bacteriophages in bacterial genomes providing a repertoire for bacterial evolution. Analysis using the prophage database (http://bicmku.in:8082) constructed by us showed 47 prophages were associated with putative two component cell lysis genes. These proteins cluster into four different subgroups. In this process, a putative holin (essd) and endolysin (ybcS), encoded by the defective lambdoid prophage DLP12 was found to be similar to two component cell lysis genes in functional bacteriophages like p21 and P1. The holin essd was found to have a characteristic dual start motif with two transmembrane regions and C-terminal charged residues as in class II holins. Expression of a fusion construct of essd in Escherichia coli showed slow growth. However, under appropriate conditions, this protein could be over expressed and purified for structure function studies. The second component of the cell lysis cassette, ybcS, was found to have an N-terminal SAR (Signal Arrest Release) transmembrane domain. The construct of ybcS has been over expressed in E. coli and the purified protein was functional, exhibiting lytic activity against E. coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence-structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the contribution of prophage proteins to bacterial evolution.

  15. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  16. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  17. The effects of differential extraction conditions on the premature lysis of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennekens, Catherine M; Cooper, Elyse S; Cotton, Robin W; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect Proteinase K, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), incubation times, and temperatures had on differential extraction efficiencies and the premature lysis of spermatozoa. The effect was measured using Quantifiler® Duo and Identifiler™ PCR Amplification kits, where the resultant male and female DNA concentrations and their ratios within the nonsperm- and sperm fractions (SFs) were determined. Comparisons between expected and observed ratios illustrate the quantity of female DNA in the SF increased when Proteinase K was absent during the initial incubation. Additionally, there is no indication of simultaneous sperm and epithelial cell lysis in the absence of DTT at Proteinase K concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μg/mL. All other conditions exhibited minimal variation in DNA concentration. Therefore, despite the various protocols used for the differential lysis of cell mixtures encountered in casework, the method is robust and successful at most conditions.

  18. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Valentine, E-mail: valentine.minet@unamur.be; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC) (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), Namur Nanosafety Center NNC, NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie, E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  19. Lysis of a Single Cyanobacterium for Whole Genome Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N. Zare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial species from natural environments, exhibiting a great degree of genetic diversity that has yet to be characterized, pose a specific challenge to whole genome amplification (WGA from single cells. A major challenge is establishing an effective, compatible, and controlled lysis protocol. We present a novel lysis protocol that can be used to extract genomic information from a single cyanobacterium of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 known to have multilayer cell wall structures that resist conventional lysis methods. Simple but effective strategies for releasing genomic DNA from captured cells while retaining cellular identities for single-cell analysis are presented. Successful sequencing of genetic elements from single-cell amplicons prepared by multiple displacement amplification (MDA is demonstrated for selected genes (15 loci nearly equally spaced throughout the main chromosome.

  20. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Valentine; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François; Toussaint, Olivier; Lucas, Stéphane; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  1. Utilization of graphene electrode in transparent microwell arrays for high throughput cell trapping and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, S Kabiri; Singh, P K; Sonkusale, S

    2014-11-15

    Here we present a high-throughput, transparent microfluidic device with embedded microwell arrays sandwiched between transparent electrodes made from graphene (at the bottom) and indium tin oxide (at the top) for dielectrophoretic cell trapping and electrical lysis. Graphene suppresses unwanted faradaic reaction effects on the cells and the medium that is typically observed in ITO based electrodes from application of DC field for electrical lysis. This is because graphene is more electrochemically inert than indium tin oxide (ITO) where ITO undergoes reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in the presence of electrolyte in most standard cell media. This redox process also compromises ITO's electrical properties and optical transparency over multiple use. The presented microfluidic device shows high efficiency for cell trapping and lysis and an electrochemically stable behavior for long operational life.

  2. Preventing acute renal failure is crucial during acute tumor lysis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmon Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour Lysis syndrome (TLS is characterized by the massive destruction of tumoral cells and the release in the extracellular space of their content. While TLS may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms and cause hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. Moreover, TLS may lead to an acute renal failure (ARF. In addition to the hospital mortality induced by the acute renal failure itself, development of an ARF may preclude optimal cancer treatment. Therefore, prevention of the acute renal failure during acute tumor lysis syndrome is mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms leading to acute tumor lysis syndrome, clinical and biological consequences of this syndrome and to provide up-to-date guidelines to ensure prevention and prompt management of this syndrome.

  3. Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempashanaiah Nanjundappa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy. Results We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80. Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection. Conclusions A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host

  4. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  5. Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Alvarenga Feres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure.

  6. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  7. Sensitivity of simian virus 40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts to lysis by murine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Karjalainen, H E; Tevethia, S S

    1987-02-15

    The susceptibility of mouse cells expressing full-length or truncated transforming protein (T antigen) of simian virus 40 (SV40) to lysis by murine natural killer (NK) cells was assessed. For these studies, C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts (B6/MEF) were transformed by transfection with SV40 DNA encoding the entire T antigen. The transformed cell lines were tested for susceptibility to lysis by nonimmune CBA splenocytes as a source of NK cells and to lysis by C57BL/6, SV40-specific cytolytic T cells (CTL). It was found that 13 of 15 clonally derived, SV40-transformed H-2b cell lines were susceptible to lysis by NK cells. However, there was some variation in their susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. There was no correlation between susceptibility to lysis by SV40-specific CTL and to lysis by NK cells. Cells transfected with a plasmid which encodes only the N-terminal half of the SV40 T antigen were consistently less susceptible to lysis by NK cells, suggesting that expression of only the N-terminus of the T antigen was insufficient for optimal susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed by human adenovirus type 5 E1 region DNA were also found to be susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Lysis of SV40-transformed cells by nonimmune CBA splenocytes was mediated by NK cells because: lysis was augmented when the effector cells were treated with interferon before assay; and lysis was abrogated when the effector cells were obtained from mice that had been depleted of NK activity by treatment with antiserum against the asialo GM1 surface marker. These results indicate that primary mouse cells which are transformed by SV40 and which express the native T antigen are susceptible to lysis by mouse NK cells. Conversely, cells transformed by a plasmid encoding only the N-terminal half of the T antigen express reduced susceptibility to lysis by NK cells.

  8. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  9. [Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Bacteriophage PhiYe-F10 Lysis Spectrum and Analysis of the Relationship between Lysis Ability and Virulence Gene of Yersinia Enterocolitica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Tao; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the lysis spectrum of Yersinia enterocolitica bacteriophage phiYe-F10 and to analyze the relationship between the lysis ability of phiYe-F10 and the virulence gene of Yersinia enterocolitica. To observe the lysis ability of the phage phiYe-F10 to the different Yersinia strains with the double-layer technique. The strains used in this study including 213 of Yersinia enterocolitica and 36 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and 1 of Yersinia pestis. The virulence genes of these Yersinia enterocolitica (attachment invasion locus (ail) and enterotoxin (ystA, ystB) and yersinia adhesin A (yadA), virulence factor (virF), specific gene for lipopolysaccharide O-side chain of serotype O : 3 (rfbc) were all detected. Among the 213 Yersinia enterocolitica, 84 strains were O : 3 serotype (78 strains with rfbc gene), 10 were serotype O : 5, 13 were serotype O : 8, 34 were serotype O : 9 and 72 were other serotypes. Of these, 77 were typical pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harboring with virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA+, virF+), and 15 were pathogenic bacterial strains deficiency virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA-, virF-) and the rest 121 were non pathogenic genotype strains. PhiYe-F10 lysed the 71 serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitica strains which were all carried with rfbc+, including 52 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, 19 nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed serotype O : 5, O : 9 and other serotype Y. enterocolitica, the lysis rate of serotype O : 3 was as high as 84.5%. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Yersinia phage phiYe-F10 is highly specific for serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitic at 25 degrees C, which showed a typical narrow lysis spectrum. Phage phiYe-F10 can lysed much more pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  10. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  11. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  12. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  13. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  14. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  15. Fabrication of rigid microstructures with thiol-ene-based soft lithography for continuous-flow cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey M; Pandit, Kunal R; Goertz, John P; White, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we introduce a method for the soft-lithography-based fabrication of rigid microstructures and a new, simple bonding technique for use as a continuous-flow cell lysis device. While on-chip cell lysis techniques have been reported previously, these techniques generally require a long on-chip residence time, and thus cannot be performed in a rapid, continuous-flow manner. Microstructured microfluidic devices can perform mechanical lysis of cells, enabling continuous-flow lysis; however, rigid silicon-based devices require complex and expensive fabrication of each device, while polydimethylsiloxane (PMDS), the most common material used for soft lithography fabrication, is not rigid and expands under the pressures required, resulting in poor lysis performance. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of microfluidic microstructures from off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymer using soft-lithography replica molding combined with a post-assembly cure for easy bonding. With finite element simulations, we show that the rigid microstructures generate an energy dissipation rate of nearly 10(7), which is sufficient for continuous-flow cell lysis. Correspondingly, with the OSTE device we achieve lysis of highly deformable MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells at a rate of 85%, while a comparable PDMS device leads to a lysis rate of only 40%.

  16. Genetically Determined Variation in Lysis Time Variance in the Bacteriophage φX174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher W; Miller, Craig R; Thaweethai, Tanayott; Yuan, Jeffrey; Baker, Meghan Hollibaugh; Joyce, Paul; Weinreich, Daniel M

    2016-04-07

    Researchers in evolutionary genetics recently have recognized an exciting opportunity in decomposing beneficial mutations into their proximal, mechanistic determinants. The application of methods and concepts from molecular biology and life history theory to studies of lytic bacteriophages (phages) has allowed them to understand how natural selection sees mutations influencing life history. This work motivated the research presented here, in which we explored whether, under consistent experimental conditions, small differences in the genome of bacteriophage φX174 could lead to altered life history phenotypes among a panel of eight genetically distinct clones. We assessed the clones' phenotypes by applying a novel statistical framework to the results of a serially sampled parallel infection assay, in which we simultaneously inoculated each of a large number of replicate host volumes with ∼1 phage particle. We sequentially plated the volumes over the course of infection and counted the plaques that formed after incubation. These counts served as a proxy for the number of phage particles in a single volume as a function of time. From repeated assays, we inferred significant, genetically determined heterogeneity in lysis time and burst size, including lysis time variance. These findings are interesting in light of the genetic and phenotypic constraints on the single-protein lysis mechanism of φX174. We speculate briefly on the mechanisms underlying our results, and we discuss the potential importance of lysis time variance in viral evolution.

  17. Genetically Determined Variation in Lysis Time Variance in the Bacteriophage φX174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Baker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in evolutionary genetics recently have recognized an exciting opportunity in decomposing beneficial mutations into their proximal, mechanistic determinants. The application of methods and concepts from molecular biology and life history theory to studies of lytic bacteriophages (phages has allowed them to understand how natural selection sees mutations influencing life history. This work motivated the research presented here, in which we explored whether, under consistent experimental conditions, small differences in the genome of bacteriophage φX174 could lead to altered life history phenotypes among a panel of eight genetically distinct clones. We assessed the clones’ phenotypes by applying a novel statistical framework to the results of a serially sampled parallel infection assay, in which we simultaneously inoculated each of a large number of replicate host volumes with ∼1 phage particle. We sequentially plated the volumes over the course of infection and counted the plaques that formed after incubation. These counts served as a proxy for the number of phage particles in a single volume as a function of time. From repeated assays, we inferred significant, genetically determined heterogeneity in lysis time and burst size, including lysis time variance. These findings are interesting in light of the genetic and phenotypic constraints on the single-protein lysis mechanism of φX174. We speculate briefly on the mechanisms underlying our results, and we discuss the potential importance of lysis time variance in viral evolution.

  18. Electrochemical lysis at the stage of endoresection for large posterior intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design the new combined technique of endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis at the tumor destruction stage for large posterior intraocular tumors.Methods: 3 patients (3 eyes with large choroidal melanomas t3N0M0 (tumor thickness — 8-10 mm, base diameter — 13-15 mm, juxtapapillary localization. Mean age was 55.4 years old. Endoresection with intraoperational intraocular electrochemical lysis of the tumor was performed. Electrochemical lysis was performed with use of the technical unit ECU 300 (Soering, Germany and the original method of combined intratumoral positioning of two platinum electrodes: anode and cathode.Results: the tumor was removal completely in all 3 cases. the anatomical retinal reattachment was reached in all patients. Sclera was safe in all 3 cases. Visual acuity was not changed (NLP. At the place of the removal tumor a surgical choroidal coloboma without pigmentation all over scleral bed and periphery was shown in all cases in distant postoperative period (from 1.5 to 3 years. No local recurrences or metastasis were revealed in all patients.Conclusion: Further investigations in clinical group are necessarily to determinate the real possibilities of the combined method and the indications for endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis for large intraocular tumors. 

  19. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Activated leukocytes generate the potent oxidants HOCl and HOBr via the formation of H(2)O(2) and the release of peroxidase enzymes (myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase). HOCl and HOBr are potent microbiocidal agents, but excessive or misplaced production can cause tissue damage and cell lysis...

  20. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

  1. Viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing of phytoplankton throughout the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated microzooplankton grazing and viral lysis of the pico- and nanophytoplankton community in the Southern Ocean during the "Sensitivity of Sub-Antarctic Zone Waters to Global Change" cruise to the Australian sector (January-February 2007) and the Antarctic-XXIV/3 (February-March 2008) ex

  2. Prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome, and the efficacy and role of rasburicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakel N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nael Alakel,1 Jan Moritz Middeke,1 Johannes Schetelig,1,2 Martin Bornhäuser1 1Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, 2German Bone Marrow Donor Center DKMS, Tübigen, Germany Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in oncologic and hematologic patients with large tumor burden, either due to cytotoxic therapy or, less commonly, spontaneously because of massive tumor cell lysis. TLS is clinically characterized by acute renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. While limited options are available for treating TLS, identifying patients at high risk for developing TLS and prevention in high-risk patients remain an important aspect in the treatment of cancer patients. In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, rapidly and effectively reduces hyperuricemia, which subsequently significantly decreases the risk of acute renal failure and other clinical manifestations of TLS. For this review, a comprehensive literature search using the term “tumor lysis syndrome” and/or “rasburicase” was performed considering articles listed in MEDLINE. Incidence, prevention, and therapy of TLS with a special focus on the role of rasburicase are discussed. We evaluated 120 relevant articles including 35 case reports, 32 clinical trials, and 14 meta-analyses. Keywords: rasburicase, tumor lysis syndrome, hyperuricemia, acute kidney injury

  3. Analysis of Electric Fields inside Microchannels and Single Cell Electrical Lysis with a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofy Mussivand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of electric fields generated inside the microchannels of a microfluidic device for electrical lysis of biological cells along with experimental verification are presented. Electrical lysis is the complete disintegration of cell membranes, due to a critical level of electric fields applied for a critical duration on a biological cell. Generating an electric field inside a microchannel of a microfluidic device has many advantages, including the efficient utilization of energy and low-current requirement. An ideal microchannel model was compared with a practical microchannel model using a finite element analysis tool that suggests that the overestimation error can be over 10%, from 2.5 mm or smaller, in the length of a microchannel. Two analytical forms are proposed to reduce this overestimation error. Experimental results showed that the high electric field is confined only inside the microchannel that is in agreement with the simulation results. Single cell electrical lysis was conducted with a fabricated microfluidic device. An average of 800 V for seven seconds across an 8 mm-long microchannel with the dimension of 100 μm × 20 μm was required for lysis, with electric fields exceeding 100 kV/m and consuming 300 mW.

  4. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: Theoretical modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernyshev, A.V.; Tarasov, P.A.; Semianov, K.A.; Nekrasov, V.M.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Maltsev, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, ela

  5. An ultra-high temperature flow-through capillary device for bacterial spore lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukari, Kyle W; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; West, Jay A A

    2010-08-01

    Rapid and specific characterization of bacterial endospores is dependent on the ability to rupture the cell wall to enable analysis of the intracellular components. In particular, bacterial spores from the bacillus genus are inherently robust and very difficult to lyze or solubilize. Standard protocols for spore inactivation include chemical treatment, sonication, pressure, and thermal lysis. Although these protocols are effective for the inactivation of these agents, they are less well suited for sample preparation for analysis using proteomic and genomic approaches. To overcome this difficulty, we have designed a simple capillary device to perform thermal lysis of bacterial spores. Using this device, we were able to super heat (195 degrees C) an ethylene glycol lysis buffer to perform rapid flow-through rupture and solubilization of bacterial endospores. We demonstrated that the lysates from this preparation method are compatible with CGE as well as DNA amplification analysis. We further demonstrated the flow-through lysing device could be directly coupled to a miniaturized electrophoresis instrument for integrated sample preparation and analysis. In this arrangement, we were enabled to perform sample lysis, fluorescent dye labeling, and protein electrophoresis analysis of bacterial spores in less than 10 min. The described sample preparation device is rapid, simple, inexpensive, and easily integratable with various microfluidic devices.

  6. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  7. An optimised direct lysis method for gene expression studies on low cell numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Viet-Phuong; Huang, Dexing; Blick, Tony; Thompson, Erik W; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2015-08-05

    There is increasing interest in gene expression analysis of either single cells or limited numbers of cells. One such application is the analysis of harvested circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are often present in very low numbers. A highly efficient protocol for RNA extraction, which involves a minimal number of steps to avoid RNA loss, is essential for low input cell numbers. We compared several lysis solutions that enable reverse transcription (RT) to be performed directly on the cell lysate, offering a simple rapid approach to minimise RNA loss for RT. The lysis solutions were assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in low cell numbers isolated from four breast cancer cell lines. We found that a lysis solution containing both the non-ionic detergent (IGEPAL CA-630, chemically equivalent to Nonidet P-40 or NP-40) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) gave the best RT-qPCR yield. This direct lysis to reverse transcription protocol outperformed a column-based extraction method using a commercial kit. This study demonstrates a simple, reliable, time- and cost-effective method that can be widely used in any situation where RNA needs to be prepared from low to very low cell numbers.

  8. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J.; Nelson, Daniel C.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2010-12-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  9. Optimization of a filter-lysis protocol to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated spermatid counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sara E; Anderson, Linnea M; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying testicular homogenization-resistant spermatid heads (HRSH) is a powerful indicator of spermatogenesis. These counts have traditionally been performed manually using a hemocytometer, but this method can be time consuming and biased. We aimed to develop a protocol to reduce debris for the application of automated counting, which would allow for efficient and unbiased quantification of rat HRSH. We developed a filter-lysis protocol that effectively removes debris from rat testicular homogenates. After filtering and lysing the homogenates, we found no statistical differences between manual (classic and filter-lysis) and automated (filter-lysis) counts using 1-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the counting methods, and there was a strong correlation between the classic manual counts and the filter-lysis manual (r = 0.85, P = .002) and the filter-lysis automated (r = 0.89, P = .0005) counts. We also tested the utility of the automated method in a low-dose exposure model known to decrease HRSH. Adult Fischer 344 rats exposed to 0.33% 2,5-hexanedione in the drinking water for 12 weeks demonstrated decreased body (P = .02) and testes (P = .002) weights. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the number of HRSH per testis (P = .002) when compared to controls. A filterlysis protocol was optimized to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated HRSH counts. Automated counting systems yield unbiased data and can be applied to detect changes in the testis after low-dose toxicant exposure.

  10. A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be

  11. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-01-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  12. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  13. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  14. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in the Setting of B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Opyrchal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS presenting in absence of chemotherapy is a rare occurrence. One of the true oncological emergencies, it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. TLS is a phenomena usually associated with tumor cell death after treatment. The etiology of the spontaneous TLS is not well understood, which complicates the diagnosis. TLS is well known to oncologists but physicians outside of this specialty have little or no experience with this condition. Early recognition and treatment are the keys to limiting the sequela of the condition. Spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome is rare but presents added risks to the patient because of the potential for delayed diagnosis and no benefit of pretreatment. Diagnosis may be further delayed because this may be the first symptom of underlying malignancy. Therefore, it is imperative that all clinicians are familiar with the syndrome to assure timely recognition.

  15. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.;

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death...... upon the induction of expression of two different heterologous killing genes in nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida KT2440 derivatives have been analyzed, P. putida CMC4 and CMC12 carry in their chromosomes a fusion of the PAl-04/03 promoter to the Escherichia coli gef gene and the phi X174 lysis gene E......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  16. [Tumor lysis syndrome in a pregnancy complicated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Goris, M P; Sánchez-Zamora, R; Torres-Aguilar, A A; Briones Garduño, J C

    2016-04-01

    Acute leukemia is rare during pregnancy, affects about 1 in 75,000 pregnancies, of all leukemias diagnosed only 28% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, this is a risk factor to develop spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome, it's a oncologic complication potentially deadly if the prophylactic treatment its avoided. Cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with pregnancy has been poorly documented in the literature the association of these two entities to pregnancy is the first report published worldwide, so the information is limited.

  17. One-step cell lysis suitable for quantitative bacteria detection in inhibitor-laden sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    Complexity and heterogeneity of soils often hinder effective DNA extraction from the soil matrix. In particular, conventional DNA extraction techniques require extensive purification which makes DNA extraction time-consuming and labor-intensive. Other drawbacks include lower recovery yield, degradation, and damage of DNA, which are also caused by intensive purifications during DNA extraction. Therefore a rapid and simple and yet effective DNA pretreatment method is preferred for environmental monitoring and screening. This study has evaluated the feasibility of simple physical pretreatment for effective cell lysis of bacteria in sands. Bead beating method was selected as an effective physical cell lysis method in this study. We examined the capability of this physical lysis for Pseudomonas putida seeded sands without additional chemical purification steps. The lysate from the method was analysed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and subsequently compared to that by commercial DNA extraction kit. The best lysis condition (treatment with 0.1 mm glass beads at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes) was selected. The qPCR results of bead beating treated samples showed the better performance than that of conventional DNA extraction kit. Moreover, the qPCR assay was performed to the sands laden with qPCR inhibitors (humic acids, clay, and magnesium), which generally present in environmental samples. Further experiments with the sands containing less than 10 μg/g of humic acids and 70% of clay showed successful quantification results of qPCR assay. In conclusion, the bead beating method is useful for simplified DNA extraction prior to qPCR analysis for sand samples of particular composition. It is expected that this approach will be beneficial for environmental in-situ analysis or immediate pre-screening. It also provides the groundwork for future studies with real soil samples that have various physico-chemical properties.

  18. Use of surface enhanced blocking (SEB electrodes for microbial cell lysis in flow-through devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdossamad Talebpour

    Full Text Available By simultaneously subjecting microbial cells to high amplitude pulsed electric fields and flash heating of the cell suspension fluid, effective release of intracellular contents was achieved. The synergistic effect of the applied electric field and elevated temperature on cell lysis in a flow-through device was demonstrated for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and Mycobacterium species. The resulting lysate is suitable for downstream nucleic acid amplification and detection without requiring further preparation. The lysis chamber employs surface enhanced blocking electrodes which possess an etched micro-structured surface and a thin layer of dielectric metal oxide which provides a large effective area and blocks transmission of electrical current. The surface enhanced blocking electrodes enable simultaneous suppression of the rapid onset of electric field screening in the bulk of the cell suspension medium and avoidance of undesired electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface. In addition the blocking layer ensures the robustness of the cell lysis device in applications involving prolonged flow-through processing of the microbial cells.

  19. A volatile factor inducing transmissible lysis in Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx and Olivier var. tritici Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasithamparam, K; Stukely, M; Parker, C A

    1975-03-01

    Filtered water extract of Gabalong soil with a recent history of take-all in wheat caused lytic plaques to form in agar cultures of a virulent strain of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The plaques resembled those produced by Bdellovibrio on plate seeded with bacteria. However, there was no evidence of the presence of bacteria, viruses, or mycoplasmas. The lytic factor was transmissible in culture filtrates to fresh subcultures of the fungus. Exposure of young healthy colonies to sublethal doses of ultraviolet light also induced transmissible lysis. The lytic factor was heat-stable, passed through a 25-nm filter, and was not affected by nuclease (enzymes) or severe irradiation with UV light. It also induced bysis in several other strains of G. graminis. Lysis was always preceded by a growth-stimulatory effect on the fungus. The lytic factor was active as a volatile chemical which induced transmissible lysis and continued to be formed, apparently as a self-perpetuating agent, in lysing cultures of the fungus.

  20. Rapid thermal lysis of cells using silicon-diamond microcantilever heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privorotskaya, Natalya; Liu, Yi-Shao; Lee, Jungchul; Zeng, Hongjun; Carlisle, John A; Radadia, Adarsh; Millet, Larry; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P

    2010-05-07

    This paper presents the design and application of microcantilever heaters for biochemical applications. Thermal lysis of biological cells was demonstrated as a specific example. The microcantilever heaters, fabricated from selectively doped single crystal silicon, provide local resistive heating with highly uniform temperature distribution across the cantilevers. Very importantly, the microcantilever heaters were coated with a layer of 100 nm thick electrically insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) layer used for cell immobilization on the cantilever surface. Fibroblast cells or bacterial cells were immobilized on the UNCD/cantilever surfaces and thermal lysis was demonstrated via optical fluorescence microscopy. Upon electrical heating of the cantilever structures to 93 degrees C for 30 seconds, fibroblast cell and nuclear membrane were compromised and the cells were lysed. Over 90% of viable bacteria were also lysed after 15 seconds of heating at 93 degrees C. This work demonstrates the utility of silicon-UNCD heated microcantilevers for rapid cell lysis and forms the basis for other rapid and localized temperature-regulated microbiological experiments in cantilever-based lab on chip applications.

  1. Hydrophobic ionic liquids for quantitative bacterial cell lysis with subsequent DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Telka, Sabine; Fister, Susanne; Mester, Patrick-Julian; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2017-02-01

    DNA is one of the most frequently analyzed molecules in the life sciences. In this article we describe a simple and fast protocol for quantitative DNA isolation from bacteria based on hydrophobic ionic liquid supported cell lysis at elevated temperatures (120-150 °C) for subsequent PCR-based analysis. From a set of five hydrophobic ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was identified as the most suitable for quantitative cell lysis and DNA extraction because of limited quantitative PCR inhibition by the aqueous eluate as well as no detectable DNA uptake. The newly developed method was able to efficiently lyse Gram-negative bacterial cells, whereas Gram-positive cells were protected by their thick cell wall. The performance of the final protocol resulted in quantitative DNA extraction efficiencies for Gram-negative bacteria similar to those obtained with a commercial kit, whereas the number of handling steps, and especially the time required, was dramatically reduced. Graphical Abstract After careful evaluation of five hydrophobic ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMPyr (+) ][Ntf 2(-) ]) was identified as the most suitable ionic liquid for quantitative cell lysis and DNA extraction. When used for Gram-negative bacteria, the protocol presented is simple and very fast and achieves DNA extraction efficiencies similar to those obtained with a commercial kit. ddH 2 O double-distilled water, qPCR quantitative PCR.

  2. Plasma nanotextured polymeric lab-on-a-chip for highly efficient bacteria capture and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougeni, K; Papadakis, G; Gianneli, M; Grammoustianou, A; Constantoudis, V; Dupuy, B; Petrou, P S; Kakabakos, S E; Tserepi, A; Gizeli, E; Gogolides, E

    2016-01-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and successful demonstration of a sample preparation module comprising bacteria cell capture and thermal lysis on-chip with potential applications in food sample pathogen analysis. Plasma nanotexturing of the polymeric substrate allows increase of the surface area of the chip and the antibody binding capacity. Three different anti-Salmonella antibodies were directly and covalently linked to plasma treated chips without any additional linker chemistry or other treatment. Then, the Ab-modified chips were tested for their capacity to bind bacteria in the concentration range of 10(2)-10(8) cells per mL; the module exhibited 100% efficiency in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria capture for cell suspensions below 10(5) cells per mL (10(4) cells injected with a 100 μL sample volume) and efficiency higher than 50% for 10(7) cells per mL. Moreover, thermal lysis achieved on-chip from as low as 10 captured cells was demonstrated and shown to compare well with off-chip lysis. Excellent selectivity (over 1 : 300) was obtained in a sample containing, in addition to S. Typhimurium and E. coli bacteria.

  3. A novel, compact disk-like centrifugal microfluidics system for cell lysis and sample homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Horacio; Micic, Miodrag; Smith, David; Zoval, Jim; Norton, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a novel platform for mechanical cell lysis of even the most difficult to lyse cell types on a micro or nanoscale (maximum 70 microL total volume). The system incorporates a machined plastic circular disk assembly, magnetic field actuated microfluidics, centrifugal cells and tissue homogenizer and centrifugation system. The mechanism of tissue disruption of this novel cell homogenization apparatus derives from the relative motion of ferromagnetic metal disks and grinding matrices in a liquid medium within individual chambers of the disk in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The oscillation of the ferromagnetic disks or blades produces mechanical impaction and shear forces capable of disrupting cells within the chamber both by direct action of the blade and by the motion of the surrounding lysis matrix, and by motion induced vortexing of buffer fluid. Glass beads or other grinding media are integrated into each lysis chamber within the disk to enhance the transfer of energy from the oscillating metal blade to the cells. The system also achieves the centrifugal elimination of solids from each liquid sample and allows the elution of clarified supernatants via siphoning into a collection chamber fabricated into the plastic disk assembly. This article describes system design, implementation and validation of proof of concept on two samples--Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing model systems for cells that are easy and difficult to lyse, respectively.

  4. Prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome, and the efficacy and role of rasburicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakel, Nael; Middeke, Jan Moritz; Schetelig, Johannes; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in oncologic and hematologic patients with large tumor burden, either due to cytotoxic therapy or, less commonly, spontaneously because of massive tumor cell lysis. TLS is clinically characterized by acute renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. While limited options are available for treating TLS, identifying patients at high risk for developing TLS and prevention in high-risk patients remain an important aspect in the treatment of cancer patients. In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, rapidly and effectively reduces hyperuricemia, which subsequently significantly decreases the risk of acute renal failure and other clinical manifestations of TLS. For this review, a comprehensive literature search using the term “tumor lysis syndrome” and/or “rasburicase” was performed considering articles listed in MEDLINE. Incidence, prevention, and therapy of TLS with a special focus on the role of rasburicase are discussed. We evaluated 120 relevant articles including 35 case reports, 32 clinical trials, and 14 meta-analyses. PMID:28203093

  5. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: theoretical modeling and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Andrey V; Tarasov, Peter A; Semianov, Konstantin A; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-03-07

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, elasticity and critical tension of membrane) through their sphering and lysis measured by a scanning flow cytometer (SFC). SFC allows measuring the light-scattering pattern (indicatrix) of an individual cell over the angular range from 10 degrees to 60 degrees . Comparison of the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated light scattering patterns allows discrimination of spherical from non-spherical erythrocytes and evaluation of volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual spherical cells. Three different processes were applied for erythrocytes sphering: (1) colloid osmotic lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride, (2) isovolumetric sphering in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and albumin in neutrally buffered isotonic saline, and (3) osmotic fragility test in hypotonic media. For the hemolysis in ammonium chloride, the evolution of distributions of sphered erythrocytes on volume and hemoglobin content was monitored in real-time experiments. The analysis of experimental data was performed in the context of a statistical approach, taking into account that parameters of erythrocytes vary from cell to cell.

  6. Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Dreier, Roland F; Schürmann, Nura; Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Warming, Søren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Bumann, Dirk; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Broz, Petr

    2014-05-15

    Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria is sensed in the host cell cytoplasm by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that ultimately results in caspase-11 activation and cell death. In mouse macrophages, activation of this pathway requires the production of type-I interferons, indicating that interferon-induced genes have a critical role in initiating this pathway. Here we report that a cluster of small interferon-inducible GTPases, the so-called guanylate-binding proteins, is required for the full activity of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome during infections with vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria. We show that guanylate-binding proteins are recruited to intracellular bacterial pathogens and are necessary to induce the lysis of the pathogen-containing vacuole. Lysis of the vacuole releases bacteria into the cytosol, thus allowing the detection of their lipopolysaccharide by a yet unknown lipopolysaccharide sensor. Moreover, recognition of the lysed vacuole by the danger sensor galectin-8 initiates the uptake of bacteria into autophagosomes, which results in a reduction of caspase-11 activation. These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol.

  7. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  8. Electrical lysis: dynamics revisited and advances in On-chip operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical lysis (EL) is the process of breaking the cell membrane to expose the internal contents under an applied high electric field. Lysis is an important phenomenon for cellular analysis, medical treatment, and biofouling control. This paper aims to review, summarize, and analyze recent advancements on EL. Major databases including PubMed, Ei Engineering Village, IEEE Xplore, and Scholars Portal were searched using relevant keywords. More than 50 articles published in English since 1997 are cited in this article. EL has several key advantages compared to other lysis techniques such as chemical, mechanical, sonication, or laser, including rapid speed of operation, ability to control, miniaturization, low cost, and low power requirement. A variety of cell types have been investigated for including protoplasts, E. coli, yeasts, blood cells, and cancer cells. EL has been developed and applied for decontamination, cytology, genetics, single-cell analysis, cancer treatment, and other applications. On-chip EL is a promising technology for multiplexed automated implementation of cell-sample preparation and processing with micro- or nanoliter reagents.

  9. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  10. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa; Carcinome spinocellulaire compliquant une epidermolyse bulleuse hereditaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2004-08-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  12. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : IX. EVIDENCE OF HYDROLYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN DURING LYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1928-07-31

    1. During the process of lysis by bacteriophage, there is an appreciable increase in the amount of free amino acid present in the culture. 2. The increase of free amino acid is due to hydrolysis of bacterial protein.

  13. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  14. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  15. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  16. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  17. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊贵琍; 余涛

    2012-01-01

    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  18. Tumour Lysis Syndrome and Partial Remission Occurring After Administration of a Test Dose of Obinutuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Jaffer Abdalkhalig Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL is one of the most common haematological malignancies worldwide, with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which showed superiority over rituximab in combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil for the treatment of CLL in the CLL11 trial (NCT01010061 and is becoming part of standard first line treatment for CLL in the elderly based on its potent efficacy and benign safety profile. We report the case of a chemotherapy naive patient who develop tumour lysis syndrome despite appropriate prophylaxis, and had partial remission of her disease after receiving only the initial test dose of obinutuzumab.

  19. Influence of a bacteriophage on the population dynamics of toxic dinoflagellates by lysis of algicidal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenwei; Wang, Hui; Tian, Yun; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Tianling

    2011-11-01

    A lytic phage (øZCW1) was isolated from an algicidal bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain SP48 that specifically kills the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. We demonstrated that øZCW1 could trigger the growth of A. tamarense by inhibiting the growth of algicidal bacterium SP48. In contrast, the growth of A. tamarense was suppressed when cocultured with either SP48 or the øZCW1-resistant mutant of SP48. This study provides the first evidence of the indirect impact of bacteriophage on bloom-forming microalgae via phage lysis of alga-killing bacteria.

  20. Sorafenib induced tumor lysis syndrome in an advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Shiung Huang; Chang-Hsu Yang

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis was found to have advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. His AFP was initially 9828 mg/L and rapidly dropped to 5597 mg/L in ten days after oral sorafenib treatment. However, he developed acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hyperuricemia 30 d after receiving the sorafenib treatment. Tumor lysis syndrome was suspected and intensive hemodialysis was performed. Despite intensive hemodialysis and other supportive therapy, he developed multiple organ failure (liver, renal, and respiratory failure) and metabolic acidosis. The patient expired 13 d after admission.

  1. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  2. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  3. Treatment and prevention of tumor lysis syndrome in children. Experience of Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pession, Andrea; Barbieri, Eveline

    2005-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) are complications that can arise from treatment of rapidly proliferating and drug-sensitive neoplasms. Clinical trials have shown rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase to be more effective than allopurinol for the prevention and treatment of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia. We investigated the safety and efficacy of rasburicase in the AIEOP centers' experience. We reviewed the data of 26 children with malignancy at risk for TLS, submitted to treatment (group 1) or prophylaxis (group 2) of acute hyperuricemia with rasburicase (0.20 mg/kg intravenously daily) for a median period of 4 days. Rasburicase produced a significant decrease in uric acid concentrations in all the patients. The control of uric acid levels was obtained in both the groups within 24 h of the first dose with a response rate of 100% (group 1) and 93% (group 2). Normalization of creatinine and phosphorus levels was obtained in 5 and 4 days respectively. Tolerance was excellent without toxicity. These data confirm that rasburicase is a safe, highly and rapidly effective agent in the treatment and prevention of malignancy-associated acute hyperuricemia and could be considered the treatment of choice to prevent tumor lysis syndrome in children at high risk for this metabolic complication.

  4. Plasminogen associates with phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets and contributes to thrombus lysis under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Claire S; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G; Lionikiene, Ausra S; Lancé, Marcus D; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Mutch, Nicola J

    2015-04-16

    The interaction of plasminogen with platelets and their localization during thrombus formation and fibrinolysis under flow are not defined. Using a novel model of whole blood thrombi, formed under flow, we examine dose-dependent fibrinolysis using fluorescence microscopy. Fibrinolysis was dependent upon flow and the balance between fibrin formation and plasminogen activation, with tissue plasminogen activator-mediated lysis being more efficient than urokinase plasminogen activator-mediated lysis. Fluorescently labeled plasminogen radiates from platelet aggregates at the base of thrombi, primarily in association with fibrin. Hirudin attenuates, but does not abolish plasminogen binding, denoting the importance of fibrin. Flow cytometry revealed that stimulation of platelets with thrombin/convulxin significantly increased the plasminogen signal associated with phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing platelets. Binding was attenuated by tirofiban and Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide, confirming a role for fibrin in amplifying plasminogen binding to PS-exposing platelets. Confocal microscopy revealed direct binding of plasminogen and fibrinogen to different platelet subpopulations. Binding of plasminogen and fibrinogen co-localized with PAC-1 in the center of spread platelets. In contrast, PS-exposing platelets were PAC-1 negative, and bound plasminogen and fibrinogen in a protruding "cap." These data show that different subpopulations of platelets harbor plasminogen by diverse mechanisms and provide an essential scaffold for the accumulation of fibrinolytic proteins that mediate fibrinolysis under flow.

  5. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  6. Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in Staphylococcus is most likely not due to cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Patrick; Rinker, Janina; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-02-01

    The excretion of cytoplasmic proteins (ECP) is a long-known phenomenon in bacteria and eukaryotes. So far, it was not possible to associate either a signal peptide-dependent or a signal peptide-independent pathway to ECP. Nevertheless 25% of the proteins found in Staphylococcus aureus supernatants were cytoplasmic proteins. Because the excreted proteins do not possess a common motive, the most widespread opinion is that ECP is due to cell lysis. This explanation seems to be too easy since several indications imply that there exists a yet unknown mechanism for ECP. Certainly, the up-regulation of autolysins as well as decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking increased ECP. However, in recent years, several evidences arose that cell lysis is not the only reason for ECP. It seems that ECP is a part of the normal cell cycle of S. aureus as it turned out that ECP with several model proteins occurs mainly during cell growth. It has common features as proteins secreted via the Sec translocon and finally the excretion site is the cross wall of dividing cells.

  7. [Study of a lysis medium stabilizing microfilaments and microtubules in vitro and in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Determination of experimental conditions which allow the evaluation of the variations in the ratio of non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin during the reorganization of the cytoskeletal cell system is of most valuable importance. In order to prepare cell homogenates which would reflect the in vivo situation, we tested in vitro a lysis medium which stabilized both microfilaments and microtubules, which were determined by DNase inhibition assays and colchicine binding assays respectively. This lysis medium containing 10 mM potassium phosphate, 1mM magnesium chloride, 5 mM EGTA, 1 M hexylene glycol, 1% Triton X-100, pH 6.4, used at 4 degrees C a) diffused rapidly into the cells; b) did not denature actin and tubulin; c) did not displace the equilibrium between non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin, allowing biochemical assays on cell homogenates; d) blocked the evolution of the cytoskeletal system and permitted structural studies; e) and allowed the decoration of microfilaments by heavy meromyosin.

  8. Deciphering How Pore Formation Causes Strain-Induced Membrane Lysis of Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Goh, Haw Zan; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-02-01

    Pore formation by membrane-active antimicrobial peptides is a classic strategy of pathogen inactivation through disruption of membrane biochemical gradients. It remains unknown why some membrane-active peptides also inhibit enveloped viruses, which do not depend on biochemical gradients. Here, we employ a label-free biosensing approach based on simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation and ellipsometry measurements in order to investigate how a pore-forming, virucidal peptide destabilizes lipid vesicles in a surface-based experimental configuration. A key advantage of the approach is that it enables direct kinetic measurement of the surface-bound peptide-to-lipid (P:L) ratio. Comprehensive experiments involving different bulk peptide concentrations and biologically relevant membrane compositions support a unified model that membrane lysis occurs at or above a critical P:L ratio, which is at least several-fold greater than the value corresponding to the onset of pore formation. That is consistent with peptide-induced pores causing additional membrane strain that leads to lysis of highly curved membranes. Collectively, the work presents a new model that describes how peptide-induced pores may destabilize lipid membranes through a membrane strain-related lytic process, and this knowledge has important implications for the design and application of membrane-active peptides.

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae GAPDH Is Released by Cell Lysis and Interacts with Peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Amoroso, Ana; Vernet, Thierry; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Release of conserved cytoplasmic proteins is widely spread among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Because these proteins display additional functions when located at the bacterial surface, they have been qualified as moonlighting proteins. The GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme which plays an important role in the virulence processes of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterial invasion and host immune system modulation. However, GAPDH, like other moonlighting proteins, cannot be secreted through active secretion systems since they do not contain an N-terminal predicted signal peptide. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of GAPDH export and surface retention in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen. We addressed the role of the major autolysin LytA in the delivery process of GAPDH to the cell surface. Pneumococcal lysis is abolished in the ΔlytA mutant strain or when 1% choline chloride is added in the culture media. We showed that these conditions induce a marked reduction in the amount of surface-associated GAPDH. These data suggest that the presence of GAPDH at the surface of pneumococcal cells depends on the LytA-mediated lysis of a fraction of the cell population. Moreover, we demonstrated that pneumococcal GAPDH binds to the bacterial cell wall independently of the presence of the teichoic acids component, supporting peptidoglycan as a ligand to surface GAPDH. Finally, we showed that peptidoglycan-associated GAPDH recruits C1q from human serum but does not activate the complement pathway.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae GAPDH Is Released by Cell Lysis and Interacts with Peptidoglycan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Terrasse

    Full Text Available Release of conserved cytoplasmic proteins is widely spread among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Because these proteins display additional functions when located at the bacterial surface, they have been qualified as moonlighting proteins. The GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme which plays an important role in the virulence processes of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterial invasion and host immune system modulation. However, GAPDH, like other moonlighting proteins, cannot be secreted through active secretion systems since they do not contain an N-terminal predicted signal peptide. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of GAPDH export and surface retention in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen. We addressed the role of the major autolysin LytA in the delivery process of GAPDH to the cell surface. Pneumococcal lysis is abolished in the ΔlytA mutant strain or when 1% choline chloride is added in the culture media. We showed that these conditions induce a marked reduction in the amount of surface-associated GAPDH. These data suggest that the presence of GAPDH at the surface of pneumococcal cells depends on the LytA-mediated lysis of a fraction of the cell population. Moreover, we demonstrated that pneumococcal GAPDH binds to the bacterial cell wall independently of the presence of the teichoic acids component, supporting peptidoglycan as a ligand to surface GAPDH. Finally, we showed that peptidoglycan-associated GAPDH recruits C1q from human serum but does not activate the complement pathway.

  11. High-k Dielectric Passivation: Novel Considerations Enabling Cell Specific Lysis Induced by Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Klemens J; Barth, Sven; Keplinger, Franz; Noehammer, Christa; Peham, Johannes R

    2016-08-24

    A better understanding of the electrodynamic behavior of cells interacting with electric fields would allow for novel scientific insights and would lead to the next generation of cell manipulation, diagnostics, and treatment. Here, we introduce a promising electrode design by using metal oxide high-k dielectric passivation. The thermally generated dielectric passivation layer enables efficient electric field coupling to the fluid sample comprising cells while simultaneously decoupling the electrode ohmically from the electrolyte, allowing for better control and adjustability of electric field effects due to reduced electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. This approach demonstrates cell-size specific lysis with electric fields in a microfluidic flow-through design resulting in 99.8% blood cell lysis at 6 s exposure without affecting the viability of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial spike-ins. The advantages of this new approach can support next-generation investigations of electrodynamics in biological systems and their exploitation for cell manipulation in multiple fields of medicine, life science, and industry.

  12. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  13. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-11-24

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  14. Facile Alkaline Lysis of Escherichia coli Cells in High-Throughput Mode for Screening Enzyme Mutants: Arylsulfatase as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mei; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Hongbo; Pu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Facile alkaline lysis of Escherichia coli cells in high-throughput (HTP) mode for screening enzyme mutants was tested with Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS). The alkaline lysis buffer was 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 9.0 plus 0.1 % Tween-20 and 2.0 mM 4-aminobenzamidine, mixed with cell suspension at 8:1 to 12:1 ratio for continuous agitation of mixtures in 96-well plates under room temperature; enzymatic activity in lysates was measured with 96-well microplate. PAAS activity tolerated final 0.1 % Tween-20. Individual clones were amplified for 12 h in 0.50 mL TB medium with 48-well plates to enhance the repeatability of induced expression. During continuous agitation of the mixture of cells and the lysis buffer, PAAS activities in lysates were steady from 3 to 9 h and comparable to sonication treatment but better than freezing-thawing. Coefficients of variation of activities of PAAS/mutants in lysates after treatment for 7 h reached ∼22 %. The mutant M72Q had specific activity 2-fold of G138S. By HTP lysis of cells, M72Q was recognized as a positive mutant over G138S with the area under the curve of 0.873. Therefore, for enzymes tolerating concentrated alkaline buffers, the proposed alkaline lysis approach may be generally applicable for HTP lysis of host cells during directed evolution.

  15. [Effect of lysis of acupotomology on plasma vasoactive substance levels in rats with third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Qing; Liu, Nai-Gang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Hong-Mei; Lu, Jing; Ma, Hui-Fang; Chen, Zhan-Lu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Han-Zhang

    2007-10-01

    To observe the effect of small needle-knife lysis on plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), endothelin (ET), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) contents in rats with experimental third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome (TLVTPS) so as to explore its underlying mechanism in clinical treatment. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, lysis and EA groups. TLVTPS model was established by embedding a piece of gelatin sponge (0.5 cm x 0.5 cm) to the transverse process of the 3rd lumbar vertebra under anesthesia. EA (2/100 Hz, 1-2 mA) was applied to left "Shenshu" (BL23) -"Yaoyangguan" (GV3) for 20 min, once every other day, 6 times altogether. For animals of lysis group, the lysis was performed by using a small needle-knife in the induration spot or cord-like region near the incision, once a week and twice altogether. Four weeks later after modeling, plasma CGRP, ET, 6-keto-PGF1alpha and TXA2 contents were detected by using radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with normal control group, plasma CGRP, ET, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha increased significantly in model group (Pplasma CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in both EA and lysis groups decreased considerably (Pplasma CGRP, ET and 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels (P>0.05). Both EA and lysis of acupotomology have an adjusting effect on vasoactive substances (CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha) levels in TLVTPS rats, which may contribute to their effects in improving local blood circulation and relieving soft tissue injury in the treatment of third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome.

  16. Viral lysis of Phaeocystis pouchetii: implications for algal population dynamics and heterotrophic C, N and P cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Middelboe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    A model ecosystem with two autotrophic flagellates, Phaeocystis pouchetii and Rhodomonas salina, a virus specific to P. pouchetii (PpV) and bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates was used to investigate effects of viral lysis on algal population dynamics and heterotrophic nitrogen...... of virus-resistant P. pouchetii following cell lysis was observed in long-term incubations (150 days), and possibly influenced by nutrient availability and competition from R. salina. The observed impact of viral activity on autotrophic and heterotrophic processes provides direct experimental evidence...... for virus-driven nutrient generation and emphasizes the potential importance of the viral activity in supporting marine primary production....

  17. Overexpressions of Lambda Phage Lysis Genes and Biosynthetic Genes of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Recombinant E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A plasmid (pTU9) containing the lambda (λ) phage lysis genes S(-)RRz and the biosynthetic genes phbCAB of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was constructed and transformed into E.coli JM109. Cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium with 20 g/L glucose, E.coli JM109 (pTU9) could accumulate PHB in cells up to 40% (g PHB per g dry cells). A chelating agent EDTA was applied to induce a complete cell lysis and PHB granules were released. This method has a potential application in PHB separation.

  18. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  19. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  20. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  1. Entropy Production Rate Changes in Lysogeny/Lysis Switch Regulation of Bacteriophage Lambda*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui; LUO Liao-Fu; LIN Hao

    2011-01-01

    According to the chemical kinetic model of lysogeny/lysis switch in Escherichia coli (E. coli) intected by bacteriophage λ, the entropy production rates of steady states are calculated. The results show that the lysogenic state has lower entropy production rate than lytic state, which provides an explanation on why the lysogenic state of λ phage is so stable. We also notice that the entropy production rates of both lysogenic state and lytic state are lower than that of saddle-point and bifurcation state, which is consistent with the principle of minimum entropy production for living organism in nonequilibrium stationary state. Subsequently, the relations between CI and Cro degradation rates at two bifurcations and the changes of entropy production rate with CI and Cro degradation are deduced. The theory and method can be used to calculate entropy change in other molecular network.

  2. LYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTOPLASTS AND SPHEROPLASTS BY STAPHYLOCOCCAL ALPHA-TOXIN AND STREPTOLYSIN S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERNHEIMER, A W; SCHWARTZ, L L

    1965-05-01

    Bernheimer, Alan W. (New York University School of Medicine, New York, N.Y.), and Lois L. Schwartz. Lysis of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts by staphylococcal alpha-toxin and streptolysin S. J. Bacteriol. 89:1387-1392. 1965.-Protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium, Sarcina lutea, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and spheroplasts of Escherichia coli were lysed by staphylococcal alpha-toxin, whereas spheroplasts of Vibrio metschnikovii and V. comma were not. In the spectrum of its lytic action, streptolysin S qualitatively resembled staphylococcal alpha-toxin except for failure to lyse S. pyogenes protoplasts. In contrast to the two foregoing agents, streptolysin O did not lyse protoplasts and spheroplasts. The observations are interpreted in relation to similarities and differences in lipid composition of bacterial and mammalian cell membranes.

  3. Perforin enhances the granulysin-induced lysis of Listeria innocua in human dendritic cells

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    Wagner Carsten A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer (NK cells play an essential role in the host defence against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria, and Mycobacteria. The key mediator of bacteria-directed cytotoxicity is granulysin, a 9 kDa protein stored in cytolytic granules together with perforin and granzymes. Granulysin binds to cell membranes and is subsequently taken up via a lipid raft-associated mechanism. In dendritic cells (DC granulysin is further transferred via early endosomes to L. innocua-containing phagosomes were bacteriolysis is induced. In the present study we analysed the role of perforin in granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis in DC. Results We found granulysin-induced lysis of intracellular Listeria significantly increased when perforin was simultaneously present. In pulse-chase experiments enhanced bacteriolysis was observed when perforin was added up to 25 minutes after loading the cells with granulysin demonstrating no ultimate need for simultaneous uptake of granulysin and perforin. The perforin concentration sufficient to enhance granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis did not cause permanent membrane pores in Listeria-challenged DC as shown by dye exclusion test and LDH release. This was in contrast to non challenged DC that were more susceptible to perforin lysis. For Listeria-challenged DC, there was clear evidence for an Ca2+ influx in response to sublytic perforin demonstrating a short-lived change in the plasma membrane permeability. Perforin treatment did not affect granulysin binding, initial uptake or intracellular trafficking to early endosomes. However, enhanced colocalization of granulysin with listerial DNA in presence of perforin was found by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusion The results provide evidence that perforin increases granulysin-mediated killing of intracellular Listeria by enhanced phagosome-endosome fusion triggered by a transient Ca2+ flux.

  4. Sustainable microbial water quality monitoring programme design using phage-lysis and multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane

    2011-11-15

    Contamination of surface waters is a pervasive threat to human health, hence, the need to better understand the sources and spatio-temporal variations of contaminants within river catchments. River catchment managers are required to sustainably monitor and manage the quality of surface waters. Catchment managers therefore need cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring and management designs to proactively protect public health and aquatic ecosystems. Multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were used to investigate spatio-temporal variations of water quality, main polluting chemophysical and microbial parameters, faecal micro-organisms sources, and to establish 'sentry' sampling sites in the Ouse River catchment, southeast England, UK. 350 river water samples were analysed for fourteen chemophysical and microbial water quality parameters in conjunction with the novel human-specific phages of Bacteroides GB-124 (Bacteroides GB-124). Annual, autumn, spring, summer, and winter principal components (PCs) explained approximately 54%, 75%, 62%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, of the total variance present in the datasets. Significant loadings of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and human-specific Bacteroides GB-124 were observed in all datasets. Cluster analysis successfully grouped sampling sites into five clusters. Importantly, multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were useful in determining the sources and spatial extent of water contamination in the catchment. Though human faecal contamination was significant during dry periods, the main source of contamination was non-human. Bacteroides GB-124 could potentially be used for catchment routine microbial water quality monitoring. For a cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring design, E. coli or intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and Bacteroides GB-124 should be monitored all-year round in this river catchment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

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    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  6. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

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    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  7. Citrullination in Rheumatoid Arthritis—A Process Promoted by Neutrophil Lysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazitt, Tal; Lood, Christian; Elkon, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific serologic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can pre-date clinical disease onset by up to 10 years, also predicting erosive disease. The process of citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues, is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes present in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Calcium ions (Ca2+) are required for PAD activation, but the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in normal cells is much lower than the optimal Ca2+ concentration needed for PAD activation. For this reason, it has been proposed that PAD activation, and thus citrullination, occurs only during PMN cell death when PAD enzymes leak out of the cells into the extracellular matrix, or extracellular Ca2+ enters the cells, with the high Ca2+ concentration activating PAD. Recently, using artificial in vitro systems to corroborate their hypothesis, Romero et al. demonstrated that “hypercitrullination,” citrullination of multiple intracellular proteins, occurs within synovial fluid (SF) cells of RA patients, and that only modes of death leading to membranolysis such as perforin-granzyme pathway or complement membrane attack complex activation cause hypercitrullination. In order for Romero’s hypothesis to hold, it is reasonable to surmise that PMN-directed lysis should occur in the rheumatoid joint or the circulation of RA patients. Research conducted thus far has shown that immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting PMNs are present in RA SF and mediate PMN activation. However, the role of anti-PMN IgG in mediating complement activation and subsequent PMN lysis and hypercitrullination has not been fully evaluated. PMID:27824546

  8. Citrullination in Rheumatoid Arthritis—A Process Promoted by Neutrophil Lysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Gazitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs are highly specific serologic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and can pre-date clinical disease onset by up to 10 years, also predicting erosive disease. The process of citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues, is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD enzymes present in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs. Calcium ions (Ca2+ are required for PAD activation, but the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in normal cells is much lower than the optimal Ca2+ concentration needed for PAD activation. For this reason, it has been proposed that PAD activation, and thus citrullination, occurs only during PMN cell death when PAD enzymes leak out of the cells into the extracellular matrix, or extracellular Ca2+ enters the cells, with the high Ca2+ concentration activating PAD. Recently, using artificial in vitro systems to corroborate their hypothesis, Romero et al. demonstrated that “hypercitrullination,” citrullination of multiple intracellular proteins, occurs within synovial fluid (SF cells of RA patients, and that only modes of death leading to membranolysis such as perforin-granzyme pathway or complement membrane attack complex activation cause hypercitrullination. In order for Romero’s hypothesis to hold, it is reasonable to surmise that PMN-directed lysis should occur in the rheumatoid joint or the circulation of RA patients. Research conducted thus far has shown that immunoglobulin G (IgG targeting PMNs are present in RA SF and mediate PMN activation. However, the role of anti-PMN IgG in mediating complement activation and subsequent PMN lysis and hypercitrullination has not been fully evaluated.

  9. Hsp90 inhibition accelerates cell lysis. Anti-Hsp90 ribozyme reveals a complex mechanism of Hsp90 inhibitors involving both superoxide- and Hsp90-dependent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Amere Subbarao; Mihály, Katalin; Pató, Bálint; Schnaider, Tamás; Steták, Attila; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Fidy, Judit; Simonics, Tibor; Maraz, Anna; Csermely, Péter

    2003-09-12

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein, Hsp90, is an abundant molecular chaperone participating in the cytoprotection of eukaryotic cells. Here we analyzed the involvement of Hsp90 in the maintenance of cellular integrity using partial cell lysis as a measure. Inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin, radicicol, cisplatin, and novobiocin induced a significant acceleration of detergent- and hypotonic shock-induced cell lysis. The concentration and time dependence of cell lysis acceleration was in agreement with the Hsp90 inhibition characteristics of the N-terminal inhibitors, geldanamycin and radicicol. Glutathione and other reducing agents partially blocked geldanamycin-induced acceleration of cell lysis but were largely ineffective with other inhibitors. Indeed, geldanamycin treatment led to superoxide production and a change in membrane fluidity. When Hsp90 content was diminished using anti-Hsp90 hammerhead ribozymes, an accelerated cell lysis was also observed. Hsp90 inhibition-induced cell lysis was more pronounced in eukaryotic (yeast, mouse red blood, and human T-lymphoma) cells than in bacteria. Our results indicate that besides the geldanamycin-induced superoxide production, and a consequent increase in cell lysis, inhibition or lack of Hsp90 alone can also compromise cellular integrity. Moreover, cell lysis after hypoxia and complement attack was also enhanced by any type of Hsp90 inhibition used, which shows that the maintenance of cellular integrity by Hsp90 is important in physiologically relevant lytic conditions of tumor cells.

  10. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  11. Comparison of the efficiency of different methods for the lysis of cells in lab-on-chip systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röser, T.; Drese, K.S.; Fütterer, X.; Germar, F. von; Hansen-Hagge, T.E.; Ritzi, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bolt, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative or qualitative examination of DNA has enormous impact on medical, forensic, or genealogical, analysis. The macro as well as micro world knows a panel of different methods for cell lysis that has to happen prior to the purification of the DNA. To our knowledge the efficiency of those

  12. Comparison of the efficiency of different methods for the lysis of cells in lab-on-chip systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röser, T.; Drese, K.S.; Fütterer, X.; Germar, F. von; Hansen-Hagge, T.E.; Ritzi, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bolt, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative or qualitative examination of DNA has enormous impact on medical, forensic, or genealogical, analysis. The macro as well as micro world knows a panel of different methods for cell lysis that has to happen prior to the purification of the DNA. To our knowledge the efficiency of those pro

  13. Complicated Tumor Lysis Syndrome after CVVH Treatment in a Renal Transplantation Patient: One Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengbo Liu; Li Li; Jianhui Yang; Zhishuang Han; Zengyi Ma; Aimei Feng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal emergency caused by lysed tumor cells, and it frequently occurs in tumors of hematologic origin. Up until now, there has been only one known report published overseas about TLS resulting from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)[1].

  14. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以婧; 李明

    2012-01-01

    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  15. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  16. [BPO-Specific, complement-dependant cell-lysis of differently sensitized sheep red cells: evaluation of haptenic groups and their influence on IgM and IgG-induced lysis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, G; Stemberger, H; Förster, O; Müller, M

    1976-04-01

    Sheep erythrocytes were coated with bencylpenicilloyl-(BPO)groups. Different incubation periods resulted in erythrocyte preparations with different hapten density. Complement dependent lysis induced by IgM or IgG antibodies was studied with the cell preparations. The calculation of hapten density on the erythrocyte surface was not possible by direct measurement of coupled radioactive BPO since more than 90% of radioactive material was found in the soluble supernatant after osmotic cell lysis and less than 10% was fixed to the cellular membrane. Measurement of membrane bound immunologically relevant BPO-groups was achieved, therefore, by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of the test cells with that of a standard cell preparation. The latter consisted of tannic acid treated erythrocytes coated with protein complexed radioactive BPO. Surface hapten density of the different target cell preparations varied between 1.9 x 10(5) and 4.8 10(5) BPO-groups per cell depending on the time of incubation. Complement dependent antibody mediated cell lysis was significantly reduced by reduction of haptenic sites per target cell, IgG induced lysis being much more affected than hemolysis induced by IgM antibodies. Statistical calculations led to the conclusion that 18,000 protein islets per cell bearing 4 or more BPO-groups are not sufficient for hemolysis induced by IgG antibodies. 48,000 protein islets with this hapten density are necessary for "optimal" sensitization. IgG antibodies must be apparently bound to the cell surface in bivalent form.

  17. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  18. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  19. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : VIII. THE MECHANISM OF LYSIS OF DEAD BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIOPHAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Muckenfuss, R

    1927-04-30

    We have been able to confirm the observations of Twort as well as of Gratia, that dead staphylococcus may undergo lysis if, in addition to a suitable bacteriophage, there is also present live staphylococcus. Moreover, we have endeavored to ascertain the mechanism of this phenomenon and have found that in order to elicit it it is necessary to control the numbers of live and dead bacteria in the mixture. An excess of dead bacteria interferes with lysis by adsorbing the bacteriophage before it has the opportunity to initiate necessary changes in the live bacteria, so that all lysis is prevented. The phenomenon is specific, that is, the lysis of live bacteria is accompanied by lysis of dead bacteria of the same species only. Lysis of dead bacteria occurs best with staphylococcus, an organism which easily undergoes spontaneous autolysis under appropriate conditions. In the case of B. coli or B. dysenteriae the lysis of the dead bacteria is uncertain. Dead bacteria need not be present in the mixture at the beginning of the experiment; they will be dissolved if added any time before, during, or after the completion of lysis of live bacteria. If the test is performed so that a suitable semipermeable membrane is interposed between the dead and live bacteria, the dead bacteria are not dissolved, in spite of the lysis of live bacteria on the other side of the membrane. The agent determining the lysis of dead bacteria is not diffusible, while the principle initiating the lysis of live bacteria diffuses freely and is demonstrably present on both sides of the membrane. The complete independence of the agent causing dissolution of dead bacteria from bacteriophage can also be shown by separating the two agents by means of filtration, or by adsorption on bacteria. The ferment-like substance responsible for the lysis of dead bacteria is different from the bacteriophage. It is not diffusible through collodion, it is easily adsorbed on clay filters, it is heat-labile, and is

  20. Prolonged clot lysis time increases the risk of a first but not recurrent venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Alev; Baglin, Trevor P; Luddington, Roger; Baglin, Caroline A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2016-03-01

    The role of the fibrinolytic system in the development of venous thrombosis (VT) is unclear. We studied the risk of first and recurrent VT associated with reduced fibrinolysis, as measured by clot lysis time (CLT). We also studied the relationship between CLT and thrombin generation to determine if any relationship between CLT and VT was affected by thrombin generation. Analyses were performed in the Thrombophilia Hypercoagulability Environmental risk for Venous Thromboembolism Study, a two-centre population-based case-control study, including 579 patients and 338 controls, with patients followed from the event to determine incidence of recurrent VT. Hypofibrinolysis was associated with a 1·8-fold increased risk of a first VT [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-2·7]. Adjustment for sex, age, study location and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) did not change the result. The risk of VT was 2·9-fold increased when the 90th percentiles of prolonged CLT and high ETP were combined, with the highest risk for unprovoked first events (Odds Ratio = 4·2, 95% CI 1·3-13·5). In the follow-up study the Hazard Ratio for a recurrent VT associated with hypofibrinolysis was 1·5 (95% CI 0·9-2·6). A weak dose response effect was observed in relation to prolongation of CLT and recurrent VT. Although hypofibrinolysis constitutes a risk factor for a first VT, an association with recurrence is, at best, weak.

  1. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  2. Uric acid and the prediction models of tumor lysis syndrome in AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahsan Ejaz

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of serum uric acid (SUA to predict laboratory tumor lysis syndrome (LTLS and compared it to common laboratory variables, cytogenetic profiles, tumor markers and prediction models in acute myeloid leukemia patients. In this retrospective study patients were risk-stratified for LTLS based on SUA cut-off values and the discrimination ability was compared to current prediction models. The incidences of LTLS were 17.8%, 21% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively. SUA was an independent predictor of LTLS (adjusted OR 1.12, CI95% 1.0-1.3, p = 0.048. The discriminatory ability of SUA, per ROC curves, to predict LTLS was superior to LDH, cytogenetic profile, tumor markers and the combined model but not to WBC (AUCWBC 0.679. However, in comparisons between high-risk SUA and high-risk WBC, SUA had superior discriminatory capability than WBC (AUCSUA 0.664 vs. AUCWBC 0.520; p <0.001. SUA also demonstrated better performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.695, p<0.001. In direct comparison of high-risk groups, SUA again demonstrated superior performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.668, p = 0.001 in predicting LTLS, approaching that of the combined model (AUC 0.685, p<0.001. In conclusion, SUA alone is comparable and highly predictive for LTLS than other prediction models.

  3. Ag nanoparticles generated using bio-reduction and -coating cause microbial killing without cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Aniket; Adams, Joshua; Britt, David W; Shen, Fen-Ann; McLean, Joan E; Jacobson, Astrid; Kim, Young-Cheol; Anderson, Anne J

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective "green" methods of producing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are being examined because of the potential of these NPs as antimicrobials. Ag NPs were generated from Ag ions using extracellular metabolites from a soil-borne Pythium species. The NPs were variable in size, but had one dimension less than 50 nm and were biocoated; aggregation and coating changed with acetone precipitation. They had dose-dependent lethal effects on a soil pseudomonad, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, and were about 30-fold more effective than Ag(+) ions. A role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was demonstrated by use of fluorescent dyes responsive to superoxide anion and peroxide accumulation. Also mutants of the pseudomonad, defective in enzymes that protect against oxidative stress, were more sensitive than the wild type strain; mutant sensitivity differed between exposure to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions demonstrating a nano-effect. Imaging of bacterial cells treated with the biocoated Ag NPs revealed no cell lysis, but there were changes in surface properties and cell height. These findings support that biocoating the NPs results in limited Ag release and yet they retained potent antimicrobial activity.

  4. Rasburicase represents a new tool for hyperuricemia in tumor lysis syndrome and in gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Cammalleri, Mariano Malaguarnera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a feature of several pathologies and requires an appropriate and often early treatment, owing to the severe consequences that it may cause. A rapid and massive raise of uric acid, during tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, and also a lower and chronic hyperuricemia, as in gout, mainly damage the kidney. To prevent or treat these consequences, a new therapeutic option is represented by rasburicase, a recombinant form of an enzyme, urate oxidase. This enzyme converts hypoxanthine and xanthine into allantoin, a more soluble molecule, easily cleared by kidney. The several types of urate oxidase have followed each other, with progressive reduction of adverse reactions. The most important among them are allergenicity and the development of antibodies which compromise their effectiveness. Nevertheless, a limit of rasburicase's use remains its cost, which obliges to a judicious choice to prevent TLS in high risk patients with cancer and in case of allergy or impossibility to take allopurinol orally both in TLS and in gout. A large body of evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of rasburicase, even in comparison to the standard drugs used in the aforementioned pathologies.

  5. Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome in a DBA/1J mouse: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Karen; vanGessel, Yvonne; Asher, Ludmila V; Vogel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) was diagnosed in a 10-month-old female DBA/1J sentinel mouse with leukemic lymphoma. The mouse was unable to maintain balance and died shortly after being observed rolling around in its cage. Disseminated neoplastic disease, including a large cranial mediastinal mass, enlarged lymph nodes and splenomegaly, was present at necropsy. Histopathologic examination revealed widespread massive necrosis of lymphoblastic tumor cells, and widely disseminated microemboli composed of nuclear and cytoplasmic cell debris. Although ATLS is widely recognized as an oncologic emergency in humans, acute lesions of ATLS have not been described. The mechanical obstruction of capillary beds by microemboli originating from disintegrating necrotic tumor cells was the likely cause of clinical signs and death in this mouse. We propose that similar microemboli may contribute to the pathogenesis of the acute renal failure and other clinical signs associated with ATLS in humans. Recognition of spontaneous ATLS in laboratory animals is especially important in studies that assess the efficacy and/or toxicity of anticancer treatments, where early deaths due to ATLS might mistakenly be attributed to a direct test article effect.

  6. Physical lysis only (PLO) methods suitable as rapid sample pretreatment for qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Lee, Byung-Tae; Son, Ahjeong

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables rapid and sensitive gene quantification and is widely used in genomics, such as biological, medical, environmental, and food sciences. However, sample pretreatment requires the use of conventional DNA extraction kits which are time-consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we investigated four physical lysis only (PLO) methods which are rapid and could serve as alternatives to conventional DNA extraction kits. These PLO methods are bead mill, heating, sonication, and freeze-thaw. Using ethidium bromide-based assay, their performance was evaluated and compared. The effects of cell debris and its removal were also investigated. Bead mill method without cell debris removal appeared to yield the best qPCR results among the four PLO methods. In addition, bead mill method also performed better than conventional DNA extraction kits. It is probably due to the substantial loss of DNA material during the extensive purification of the conventional DNA extraction kits. The bead mill method has been demonstrated to successfully quantify 10(2) to 10(7) copies of the PAH-RHDα gene of Pseudomonas putida.

  7. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  8. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For example...site: www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  9. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰

    2011-01-01

    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  10. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan;

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures....

  11. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  12. Acute spontaneous tumor lysis in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma presenting with hyperuricemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2004-01-01

    Acute spontaneous tumor lysis (ASTL) syndrome, an extremely rare disease, requires prompt recognition and aggressive management because it is fulminant at its outset, associated with severe metabolic derangement, and potentially reversible. We describe an unusual case in which spontaneous tumor lysis occurred in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma associated with acute uric acid nephropathy, persistent oliguria, and shock. This case contrasts markedly with previously reported cases of ASTL syndrome, which developed mainly in the pathologic type of Burkitt lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of ASTL syndrome associated with anaplastic large T-cell type lymphoma. This report also chronicles our successful experience with continuous renal replacement therapy in the presence of compromised hemodynamic status.

  13. Lisis de adherencias epidurales (Parte 2): Técnica intervencionista Percutaneous epidutal lysis of adhesions (2): Interventional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Racz, G.; Flores, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This technique consists in the use of catheters and special needles to introduce solutions into difficult access sites in order to treat fibrosis or chronic inflammation conditions. Solutions such as hyaluronidase and hypertonic saline solution can be used for the lysis of adhesions caused by the pathology. This paper refers to different alternatives to correctly apply the technique at different spine levels. The technique has evolved from the conventional Tuhoy solution needles with some neu...

  14. Lisis de adherencias epidurales (Parte 2): Técnica intervencionista Percutaneous epidutal lysis of adhesions (2): Interventional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Racz, G.; Flores, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This technique consists in the use of catheters and special needles to introduce solutions into difficult access sites in order to treat fibrosis or chronic inflammation conditions. Solutions such as hyaluronidase and hypertonic saline solution can be used for the lysis of adhesions caused by the pathology. This paper refers to different alternatives to correctly apply the technique at different spine levels. The technique has evolved from the conventional Tuhoy solution needles with some neu...

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in clinical samples by using a simple lysis method and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, L; Delgado, R; Palenque, E; Noriega, A R

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples from patients with tuberculous infection. Two simple methods for mycobacterial DNA release have been compared: sonication and lysis with nonionic detergents and proteinase K. The more effective method was the enzymatic technique. By using this protocol with 75 specimens we detected M. tuberculosis DNA in all of the samples, whereas only 48 and 71 samples were positive by acid-fast staining and culture, respectively. Images PMID:8463383

  16. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse(®)) with those of an alleged biosimilar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, Werner; Krech, Ingo; Michel, Martin C; Sangole, Nishant V; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse(®) and TNKase(®)), a "biosimilar" tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim(®) in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to a different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a "biosimilar" of Metalyse, i.e., whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  18. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse® with those of an alleged biosimilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner eKliche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse® and TNKase®, a ‘biosimilar’ tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim® in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a ‘biosimilar’ of Metalyse, i.e. whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  19. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  20. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  1. Plasma carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) generation during in vitro clot lysis and its interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, Dorien; Aernouts, Jef; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Sim, Yani; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Hendriks, Dirk

    2017-07-26

    Carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) is a basic carboxypeptidase that is able to attenuate fibrinolysis. The inactive precursor procarboxypeptidase U is converted to its active form by thrombin, the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex or plasmin. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise the time course of CPU generation in healthy individuals. In plasma of 29 healthy volunteers, CPU generation was monitored during in vitro clot lysis. CPU activity was measured by means of an enzymatic assay that uses the specific substrate Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg. An algorithm was written to plot the CPU generation curve and calculate the parameters that define it. In all individuals, CPU generation was biphasic. Marked inter-individual differences were present and a reference range was determined. The endogenous CPU generation potential is the composite effect of multiple factors. With respect to the first CPU activity peak characteristics, we found correlations with baseline proCPU concentration, proCPU Thr325Ile polymorphism, time to clot initiation and the clot lysis time. The second CPU peak related with baseline proCPU levels and with the maximum turbidity of the clot lysis profile. In conclusion, our method offers a technique to determine the endogenous CPU generation potential of an individual. The parameters obtained by the method quantitatively describe the different mechanisms that influence CPU generation during the complex interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which are in line with the threshold hypothesis.

  2. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  3. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  4. Lysis of pig endothelium by IL-2 activated human natural killer cells is inhibited by swine and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itescu, S; Artrip, J H; Kwiatkowski, P A; Wang, S F; Minanov, O P; Morgenthau, A S; Michler, R E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described a form of xenograft rejection, mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, occurring in pig-to-primate organ transplants beyond the period of antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. In this study, two distinct NK activation pathways were identified as mechanisms of pig aortic endotheliual cell (PAEC) lysis by human NK cells. Using an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, a progressive increase in human NK lysis of PAEC was observed following incubation with human IgG at increasing serum titer. In the absence of IgG, a second mechanism of PAEC lysis by human NK cells was observed following activation with IL-2. IL-2 activation of human NK cells increased lysis of PAEC by over 3-fold compared with ADCC. These results indicate that IL-2 activation of human NK cells induces significantly higher levels of lytic activity than does conventional ADCC involving IgG and FcRIII. We next investigated the role of MHC class I molecules in the regulation of NK lysis following IL-2 activation. PAEC expression of SLA class I molecules was increased by up to 75% by treatment with human TNFa. Following treatment with TNFa at 1 u/ml, IL-2 activated human NK lysis of PAEC was inhibited at every effector:target (E:T) ratio tested. Maximal effect occurred at an E:T ratio of 10:1, with TNFa inhibiting specific lysis by 59% (p < 0.01). Incubation with an anti-SLA class I Mab, but not IgG isotype control, abrogated the protective effects of TNFa on NK lysis of PAEC, suggesting direct inhibitory effects of SLA class I molecules on human NK function. To investigate whether human MHC class I molecules might have similar effects on human NK lysis of PAEC, further experiments were performed using a soluble peptide derived from the alpha-helical region of HLA-B7. Incubation with the HLA-B7 derived peptide significantly reduced the IL-2 activated NK lytic activity against PAEC in a dose-dependent fashion. Maximal effect occurred at a concentration of 10 mg

  5. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Maíra; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L M; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-07-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive. A 1.3 h exposure to a low dose of 0.5 mg l(-1) chitosan already almost completely killed these cultures resulting in release of cell contents. After 24 h, reductions in PSII efficiencies of all cyanobacteria tested were observed. EC50 values varied from around 0.5 mg l(-1) chitosan for the two sensitive strains, via about 5 mg l(-1) chitosan for an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain, a toxic P. agardhii strain and two Anabaena cylindrica cultures, to more than 8 mg l(-1) chitosan for a Microcystis aeruginosa strain and another A. flos-aquae strain. Differences in sensitivity to chitosan might be related to polymeric substances that surround cyanobacteria. Rapid lysis of toxic strains is likely and when chitosan flocking and sinking of cyanobacteria is considered in lake restoration, flocculation efficacy studies should be complemented with investigation on the effects of chitosan on the cyanobacteria assemblage being targeted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Human leukocyte antigen E contributes to protect tumor cells from lysis by natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, Elisa; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-09-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network.

  7. Human Leukocyte Antigen E Contributes to Protect Tumor Cells from Lysis by Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Lo Monaco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3 of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D. Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network.

  8. Human Leukocyte Antigen E Contributes to Protect Tumor Cells from Lysis by Natural Killer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Elisa Lo; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-01-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network. PMID:21969815

  9. Single Lysis-Salting Out Method of Genomic DNA Extraction From Dried Blood Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Muntaj; Shivanna, Devaraju Kuramkote; Kamate, Mahesh; Ab, Vedamurthy; Tp, Kruthika-Vinod

    2016-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are an important form of bio-sampling and valuable approach for storing blood samples for genetic studies. This has necessitated in developing an effective protocol to isolate genomic DNA (gDNA) from DBS samples.In this study, we have elucidated a dependable and non-hazardous "single lysis-salting out" (SLSO) protocol of gDNA extraction from DBS and compared against the available commercial kits. For the purpose of this study, blood spots were collected on S&S 903 filter cards from 10 healthy volunteers and 30 patients with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I). The gDNA was extracted from theseDBS samples by SLSO, QIAamp® gDNA Micro kit and innuPREP forensic kit methods. The quantity and quality of gDNA obtained from these methods were determined by measuring the absorbance using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer. The SLSO method showed four-fold and eight-fold increased yield of gDNA in healthy volunteers and patient samples, respectively, compared to commercial kits (p<0.0001). The protocol was also found to be cost efficient, reducing the per sample cost to almost half. The suitability of this method for genetic studies was confirmed by performing R402W genotyping by RFLP in GA-I patients. The genotyping results showed the presence of R402W mutation in 20% (6/30) of patients. The SLSO method was found to be inexpensive, non-hazardous and a suitable technique for isolating gDNA from DBS samples for genetic studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ogbomo

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test. Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test. Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072. These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  11. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbomo, Henry; Zemp, Franz J; Lun, Xueqing; Zhang, Jiqing; Stack, Danuta; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant; Mody, Christopher H; Forsyth, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase) and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test). Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO) to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test). Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072). These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  12. Single-dose rasburicase 6 mg in the management of tumor lysis syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anne M; Lenz, Kristi L; Frei-Lahr, Debra A; Hayslip, John; Hall, Philip D

    2006-06-01

    Rasburicase is currently approved at a dosage of 0.15-0.2 mg/kg once/day for 5 days in pediatric patients with cancer to lower plasma uric acid concentrations and manage tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Information on rasburicase dosing in adults is limited, with some data on using rasburicase as a single dose instead of multiple daily doses. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of rasburicase for preventing or managing TLS in adults. We collected retrospective data for 11 adults with hematologic malignancies who received a single 6-mg dose of rasburicase. All patients received intravenous hydration with urinary alkalinization and allopurinol; however, due to adverse reactions, two patients received short courses of allopurinol. Only patients at high risk for TLS (e.g., large tumor burden, increasing uric acid concentration) or those with TLS received rasburicase. The single dose of rasburicase 6 mg resulted in a median 0.0773-mg/kg dose (range 0.0232-0.1361 mg/kg). The single 6-mg dose rapidly lowered uric acid concentrations in 10 of the 11 patients. The median uric acid concentration of 11.7 mg/dl (range 7.4-17.4 mg/dl) declined to 2.0 mg/dl (range 0.5-15.4 mg/dl) within a day after rasburicase administration (p=0.022). In these 10 patients, uric acid concentrations remained low despite subsequent chemotherapy, and none required additional rasburicase doses. The only patient who did not respond to the single 6-mg rasburicase dose was a morbidly obese man (259 kg, body mass index 87 kg/m2) who subsequently responded to an additional dose of rasburicase 12 mg. These results warrant further investigation of a single 6-mg dose of rasburicase in adults with TLS or at high-risk for developing TLS.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa. In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication. PMID:28119472

  14. Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masaki; Ohta, Rieko; Varela, Juan C; Song, Hongbin; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide a hindrance to the therapeutic efficacy of some monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We investigated a novel strategy to overwhelm complement inhibitor activity and amplify complement activation on tumor cells. The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to target and amplify complement deposition on tumor cells was investigated. CR2 binds C3 activation fragments, and CR2-Fc targeted tumor cells by binding to C3 initially deposited by a tumor-specific antibody. Complement deposition on Du145 cells (human prostate cancer cell line) and anti-MUC1 mAb-mediated complement-dependent lysis of Du145 cells were significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc. Anti-MUC1 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of Du145 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc in both the presence and the absence of complement. Radiolabeled CR2-Fc targeted to s.c. Du145 tumors in nude mice treated with anti-MUC1 mAb, validating the targeting strategy in vivo. A metastatic model was used to investigate the effect of CR2-Fc in a therapeutic paradigm. Administration of CR2-Fc together with mAb therapy significantly improved long-term survival of nude mice challenged with an i.v. injection of EL4 cells. The data show that CR2-Fc enhances the therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapy, and the construct may provide particular benefits under conditions of limiting antibody concentration or low tumor antigen density.

  15. Microphotographs of cyanobacteria documenting the effects of various cell-lysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Smith, Christopher E.; Lane, Rachael F.; Keydel, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanotoxins are a group of organic compounds biosynthesized intracellularly by many species of cyanobacteria found in surface water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has listed cyanotoxins on the Safe Drinking Water Act's Contaminant Candidate List 3 for consideration for future regulation to protect public health. Cyanotoxins also pose a risk to humans and other organisms in a variety of other exposure scenarios. Accurate and precise analytical measurements of cyanotoxins are critical to the evaluation of concentrations in surface water to address the human health and ecosystem effects. A common approach to total cyanotoxin measurement involves cell membrane disruption to release the cyanotoxins to the dissolved phase followed by filtration to remove cellular debris. Several methods have been used historically, however no standard protocols exist to ensure this process is consistent between laboratories before the dissolved phase is measured by an analytical technique for cyanotoxin identification and quantitation. No systematic evaluation has been conducted comparing the multiple laboratory sample processing techniques for physical disruption of cell membrane or cyanotoxins recovery. Surface water samples collected from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers containing mixed assemblages of organisms dominated by cyanobacteria, as well as laboratory cultures of species-specific cyanobacteria, were used as part of this study evaluating multiple laboratory cell-lysis techniques in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluated extraction techniques included boiling, autoclaving, sonication, chemical treatment, and freeze-thaw. Both treated and untreated samples were evaluated for cell membrane integrity microscopically via light, epifluorescence, and epifluorescence in the presence of a DNA stain. The DNA stain, which does not permeate live cells with intact membrane structures, was used as an indicator for cyanotoxin release into the

  16. P2X7 receptors mediate resistance to toxin-induced cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenauer, Roman; Atanassoff, Alexander P; Wolfmeier, Heidi; Pelegrin, Pablo; Babiychuk, Eduard B; Draeger, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In the majority of cells, the integrity of the plasmalemma is recurrently compromised by mechanical or chemical stress. Serum complement or bacterial pore-forming toxins can perforate the plasma membrane provoking uncontrolled Ca(2+) influx, loss of cytoplasmic constituents and cell lysis. Plasmalemmal blebbing has previously been shown to protect cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. The activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated trimeric membrane cation channel, triggers Ca(2+) influx and induces blebbing. We have investigated the role of the P2X7R as a regulator of plasmalemmal protection after toxin-induced membrane perforation caused by bacterial streptolysin O (SLO). Our results show that the expression and activation of the P2X7R furnishes cells with an increased chance of surviving attacks by SLO. This protective effect can be demonstrated not only in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells transfected with the P2X7R, but also in human mast cells (HMC-1), which express the receptor endogenously. In addition, this effect is abolished by treatment with blebbistatin or A-438079, a selective P2X7R antagonist. Thus blebbing, which is elicited by the ATP-mediated, paracrine activation of the P2X7R, is part of a cellular non-immune defense mechanism. It pre-empts plasmalemmal damage and promotes cellular survival. This mechanism is of considerable importance for cells of the immune system which carry the P2X7R and which are specifically exposed to toxin attacks.

  17. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  18. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  19. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷东升; 郭振英

    2016-01-01

    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  20. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  1. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  2. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed ( 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Bacterial Lysis through Interference with Peptidoglycan Synthesis Increases Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carmen; Merlos, Alexandra; Viñas, Miguel; de Jonge, Marien I.; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation. The growth and biofilm formation of 4,172 transposon mutants were determined, and the involvement of the identified genes in biofilm formation was validated in in vitro experiments. Here, we present experimental data showing that increased bacterial lysis, through interference with peptidoglycan synthesis, results in elevated levels of extracellular DNA, which increased biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics, known to interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis, but such an effect does not appear with other classes of antibiotics. These results indicate that treatment with β-lactam antibiotics, especially for β-lactam-resistant NTHi isolates, might increase resistance to antibiotics by increasing biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Most, if not all, bacteria form a biofilm, a multicellular structure that protects them from antimicrobial actions of the host immune system and affords resistance to antibiotics. The latter is especially disturbing with the increase in multiresistant bacterial clones worldwide. Bacterial biofilm formation is a multistep process that starts with surface adhesion, after which attached bacteria divide and give rise to biomass. The actual steps required for Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation are largely not known. We show that interference with peptidoglycan biosynthesis increases biofilm formation because of the release

  4. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛玲; 杜坤

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  5. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂君; 吴冬曼

    2012-01-01

    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  6. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  7. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹

    2014-01-01

    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  8. 肿瘤溶解综合征的诊治%Diagnosis and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯顺乔

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome(tumor lysis syndrome,TLS) is a common severe early complication of malignant disease in blood system.It also can occur in other malignancies.TLS is due to the large number of tumor cells dissolved in the short term,and release the intracellular metabolites,which cause a group of metabolic disorders syndromes.Its clinical features are hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia,hyperphosphatemia,hypocalcemia,acute renal failure.Positive prevention.Early diagnosis and effective treatment can prevent serious complications.In this paper,we review the relevant literature to explore pathological mechanism,epidemiology, risk factors,clinical diagnosis,prevention and treatment of TLS.%肿瘤溶解综合征(Tumor lysis syndrome,TLS)是血液系统恶性病中较常见的早期严重并发症,也可发生于其他恶性肿瘤。TLS是由于肿瘤细胞短期内大量溶解,释放细胞内代谢产物,引起代谢紊乱的一组综合征,临床特点为高尿酸血症、高血钾、高血磷、低血钙、急性肾功能衰竭。积极预防、早期诊断和有效的治疗可避免严重并发症的发生。本文复习相关文献以探讨TLS发生的病理机制、流行病学特征、高危因素、临床诊断、预防及治疗。

  9. Pitfalls, prevention, and treatment of hyperuricemia during tumor lysis syndrome in the era of rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pession

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Pession, Fraia Melchionda, Claudia CastelliniOncologia Ematologia Pediatrica “Lalla Seràgnoli”, Clinica Pediatrica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Along with hydration and urinary alkalinization, allopurinol has been the standard agent for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with a high tumor burden at risk of tumor lysis syndrome; however, this agent often fails to prevent and treat this complication effectively. Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase has been shown to be effective in reducing uric acid and preventing uric acid accumulation in patients with hematologic malignancies with hyperuricemia or at high risk of developing it. Rasburicase acts at the end of the purine catabolic pathway and, unlike allopurinol, does not induce accumulation of xanthine or hypoxanthine. Its rapid onset of action and the ability to lower pre-existing elevated uric acid levels are the advantages of rasburicase over allopurinol. Rasburicase represents an effective alternative to allopurinol to promptly reduce uric acid levels, improve patient’s electrolyte status, and reverse renal insufficiency. The drug, initially studied in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seems to show comparable benefit in adults with similar lymphoid malignancies or at high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Current and future trials will evaluate alternative doses and different schedules of rasburicase to maintain its efficacy while reducing its cost. The review provides a comprehensive and detailed review of pathogenesis, laboratory, and clinical presentation of TLS together with clinical studies already performed both in pediatric and adult patients.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, urate oxidase, rasburicase, allopurinol, uric acid

  10. Severe Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Acute Pulmonary Edema Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Following Initiation of Chemotherapy for Metastatic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ethan; Wolbrink, Traci; Mack, Jennifer; Rowe, R Grant

    2016-05-01

    We present an 8-year-old male with metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) who developed precipitous cardiopulmonary collapse with severe tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) 48 hr after initiation of chemotherapy. Despite no detectable pulmonary metastases, acute hypoxemic respiratory failure developed, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Although TLS has been reported in disseminated ARMS, this singular case of life-threatening respiratory deterioration developing after initiation of chemotherapy presented unique therapeutic dilemmas. We review the clinical aspects of this case, including possible mechanisms of respiratory failure, and discuss the role of ECMO utilization in pediatric oncology.

  11. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  12. Fibrinolytic efficacy of Amediplase, Tenecteplase and scu-PA in different external plasma clot lysis models: sensitivity to the inhibitory action of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ana H C; Barrett-Bergshoeff, Marrie M; Criscuoli, Marco; Evangelista, Stefano; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the in-vitro fibrinolytic efficacy of Tenecteplase, Amediplase and scu-PA was investigated in different external lysis models by measuring the lysis of human plasma clots after the addition of the plasminogen activators (PAs) to the surrounding plasma. The effect of TAFI was examined for each PA by neutralising TAFIa with potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI). The lytic efficacy of Amediplase was lower than that of Tenecteplase at low PA concentrations but slightly higher at therapeutic concentrations. The activity of scu-PA was clearly lower than that of either Tenecteplase or Amediplase. The TAFI system inhibited external clot lysis mediated by all the PAs when thrombomodulin was present in the model. In the therapeutic range (5-10 mug/ml) however, the TAFIa effect was negligible for both Amediplase and Tenecteplase. At lower PA concentrations the effect of TAFI on Amediplase was slightly stronger than that on Tenecteplase. Under static conditions the lysis rates were lower than with stirring. The role of TAFI was similar under both conditions. In conclusion, at therapeutic concentrations Amediplase was slightly more active than Tenecteplase and scu-PA under all conditions used. Therefore, Amediplase might possibly be a more potent thrombolytic agent at these concentrations and increase the efficacy of thrombolysis. The potential of TAFI for inhibiting thrombolytic therapy is probably low. However in conditions where the local PA concentrations are sub-optimal TAFI might affect the lysis rate.

  13. A comparison of different pre-lysis methods and extraction kits for recovery of Streptococcus agalacticae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) DNA from whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, pextraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds.

  15. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  16. Fibrinolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Bacillus cereus SRM-001 with enhanced in-vitro blood clot lysis potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manoj Kumar; Chandrasekaran, Muthukumaran; Rajesh, Mathur

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of plasmin-like microbial fibrinolytic enzymes having high specificity and negligible side effects is crucial for thrombolytic therapy. Herein, we report one such extra-cellular fibrinolytic enzyme producing Bacillus cereus SRM-001 isolated from the blood-laden soil of a chicken dump yard. The potency of the enzyme was established with fibrin plate assay and in-vitro blood clot lysis assay. The shake-flask operating parameters and media composition were optimized for maximizing the productivity of the enzyme. The operating parameters, pH 7, 37°C, 1% inoculum volume and 24 h inoculum age, were found to be the optimum. The levels of media components, corn flour (0.3% w/v), soyabean powder (1.9% w/v) and MnSO4 (11.5 mM) were optimized by statistical analysis using Box-Behnken design derived RSM. This resulted in an almost 1.8 fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme productivity. The 3D response surface plots showed soyabean powder and MnSO4 to be the key ingredients for enhancing the enzyme productivity, whereas corn flour had a marginal effect. The in-vitro blood clot lysis assay conducted at near physiological pH 7 at 37°C showed the enzyme to be a potential therapeutic thrombolytic agent.

  17. Antigen-Specific Inhibition of High-Avidity T Cell Target Lysis by Low-Avidity T Cells via Trogocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brile Chung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current vaccine conditions predominantly elicit low-avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, which are non-tumor-cytolytic but indistinguishable by tetramer staining or enzyme-linked immunospot from high-avidity CTLs. Using CTL clones of high or low avidity for melanoma antigens, we show that low-avidity CTLs can inhibit tumor lysis by high-avidity CTLs in an antigen-specific manner. This phenomenon operates in vivo: high-avidity CTLs control tumor growth in animals but not in combination with low-avidity CTLs specific for the same antigen. The mechanism involves stripping of specific peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs via trogocytosis by low-avidity melanoma-specific CTLs without degranulation, leading to insufficient levels of specific pMHC on target cell surface to trigger lysis by high-avidity CTLs. As such, peptide repertoire on the cell surface is dynamic and continually shaped by interactions with T cells. These results describe immune regulation by low-avidity T cells and have implications for vaccine design.

  18. Recyclable Photo-Thermal Nano-Aggregates of Magnetic Nanoparticle Conjugated Gold Nanorods for Effective Pathogenic Bacteria Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Kim, Sanghyo; Lee, Su Seong; Yi, Dong Kee

    2016-01-01

    We describe the nucleophilic hybridization technique for fabricating magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) around gold nanorod (AuNR) for desired photo-thermal lysis on pathogenic bacteria. From the electromagnetic energy conversion into heat to the surrounding medium, a significant and quicker temperature rise was noted after light absorption on nanohybrids, at a controlled laser light output and optimum nanoparticle concentration. We observed a similar photo-thermal pattern for more than three times for the same material up on repeated magnetic separation. Regardless of the cell wall nature, superior pathogenic cell lysis has been observed for the bacteria suspensions of individual and mixed samples of Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) by the photo-heated nanoparticles. The synthesis of short gold nanorod, conjugation with magnetic nanoparticle and its subsequent laser exposure provides a rapid and reiterated photo-thermal effect with enhanced magnetic separation for efficient bactericidal application in water samples. Resultant novel properties of the nano-aggregates makes them a candidate to be used for a rapid, effective, and re-iterated photo-thermal agent against a wide variety of pathogens to attain microbe free water.

  19. Staphylococcal α-hemolysin is neurotoxic and causes lysis of brain cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Tønjum, Tone; Mæhlen, Jan; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2015-05-01

    Formation of a bacterial brain abscess entails loss of brain cells and formation of pus. The mechanisms behind the cell loss are not fully understood. Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of brain abscesses, produces various exotoxins, including α-hemolysin, which is an important factor in brain abscess formation. α-Hemolysin may cause cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of various eukaryotic cells. However, whether α-hemolysin causes lysis of brain cells is not known. Nor is it known whether α-hemolysin in the brain causes cell death through pore formation or by acting as a chemoattractant, recruiting leukocytes and causing inflammation. Here we show that α-hemolysin injected into rat brain causes cell damage and edema formation within 30 min. Cell damage was accompanied by an increase in extracellular concentrations of zinc, GABA, glutamate, and other amino acids, indicating plasma membrane damage, but leukocytic infiltration was not seen 0.5-12h after α-hemolysin injection. This was in contrast to injection of S. aureus, which triggered extensive infiltration with neutrophils within 8h. In vitro, α-hemolysin caused concentration-dependent lysis of isolated nerve endings and cultured astrocytes. We conclude that α-hemolysin contributes to the cell death inherent in staphylococcal brain abscess formation as a pore-forming neurotoxin.

  20. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Impact Chlorella variabilis Productivity and Host Quality for Viral Production and Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Labavitch, John; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a potential feedstock for biofuel production; however, cell disruption is usually required for collection and utilization of cytoplasmic polysaccharides and lipids. Virus infection might be one approach to disrupt the cell wall. The concentration of yeast extract and presence of KNO3 in algae cultivation media were investigated to observe their effects on Chlorella variabilis NC64A physiology and composition and the subsequent effect on production of Chlorella virus and disruption of infected cells. Cytoplasmic starch accumulation increased from 5% to approximately 35% of the total dry weight when yeast extract decreased from 1 to 0.25 g L(-1). When cells were cultured with the lowest nitrogen levels, the total polysaccharide accounted for more than 50% of the cell wall, which was 1.7 times higher than the content in cells cultured with the highest nitrogen levels. The C/N ratio of the algal biomass decreased by a factor of approximately 2 when yeast extract increased from 0.25 to 1 g L(-1). After virus infection, cells with a low C/N ratio produced a 7.6 times higher burst size than cells with a high C/N ratio, suggesting that the nitrogen content in C. variabilis has a large influence on viral production and cell lysis. The results have implications on management of nitrogen for both the synthesis of products from algae and product recovery via viral lysis.

  1. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明华; 马圣芹

    2012-01-01

    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  2. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  3. Very High Throughput Electrical Cell Lysis and Extraction of Intracellular Compounds Using 3D Carbon Electrodes in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Renaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an electrical lysis throughput of 600 microliters per minute at high cell density (108 yeast cells per ml with 90% efficiency, thus improving the current common throughput of one microliter per minute. We also demonstrate the extraction of intracellular luciferase from mammalian cells with efficiency comparable to off-chip bulk chemical lysis. The goal of this work is to develop a sample preparation module that can act as a stand-alone device or be integrated to other functions already demonstrated in miniaturized devices, including sorting and analysis, towards a true lab-on-a-chip.

  4. Daratumumab-mediated lysis of primary multiple myeloma cells is enhanced in combination with the human anti-KIR antibody IPH2102 and lenalidomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijhof, I. S.; Lammerts van Bueren, J. J.; van Kessel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    killer cell inhibitory receptors with the human monoclonal anti-KIR antibody IPH2102, next to activation of natural killer cells with the immune modulatory drug lenalidomide. In 4-hour antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, IPH2102 did not induce lysis of multiple myeloma cell lines......RIIa-131R allele, who bind IgG1 with lower affinity than patients carrying the FcgammaRIIIa-158V allele or the FcgammaRIIa-131H allele. Finally, a further synergistically improved myeloma cell lysis with the daratumumab-IPH2102 combination was observed by adding lenalidomide, which suggests that more...

  5. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  6. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  7. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  8. Identification, characterization, and cloning of TIP-B1, a novel protein inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-induced lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berleth, E S; Nadadur, S; Henn, A D; Eppolito, C; Shiojiri, S; Gurtoo, H L; Ehrke, M J; Mihich, E

    1999-11-01

    Some cancer cells evade elimination by virtue of their insensitivity to agents that induce apoptosis. Conversely, the side effects of anticancer agents could be diminished if normal cells were more resistant. To further elucidate the factors that contribute to the susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, these investigations were designed to identify proteins isolated from cells exposed to low concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that, when incubated with normally TNF-sensitive cells, protect these cells from TNF-induced cytotoxicity. TIP-B1, a novel protein, has been identified, purified, and characterized from cytosolic extracts of TNF-treated human fibroblasts. The approximately 27 kDa pI-4.5 TIP-B1 protein is unique based on both the sequence of three internal peptides (comprising 51 amino acids) and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding 783-bp cDNA partial clone. Western blot analyses using polyclonal antisera raised against both the purified native TIP-B1 and the approximately 14 kDa product of the cDNA partial TIP-B1 clone, as well as Northern blot analyses using the cDNA insert as a probe, indicate that TIP-B1 may belong to a family of proteins that are expressed in a number of cell lines from diverse tissues. TNF-sensitive cells, when exposed to 4-10 microg/ml concentrations of TIP-B1 prior to the addition of TNF, are completely protected from TNF-induced lysis. Furthermore, TIP-B1 protects cells from apoptotic lysis induced by TNF. Preincubation of TIP-B1 with TNF does not affect the ability of TNF to induce lysis. Moreover, TIP-B1 does not seem to interfere with the interactions between TNF and the TNF receptors, based on a preliminary flow cytometric analysis of the cellular binding of biotinylated TNF. On the basis of these characteristics, TIP-B1 is not a soluble TNF receptor, an anti-TNF antibody, nor a protease that degrades TNF; yet TIP-B1 functions when added exogenously to cells. These characteristics, its novel sequence, and its

  9. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  10. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  11. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Complement-Dependent Lysis of Influenza A Virus-Infected Cells by Broadly Cross-Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Masanori; Cruz, John; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Kaur, Kaval; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ennis, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cloned from influenza virus-infected patients and from influenza vaccine recipients by complement-dependent lysis (CDL) assay. Most MAbs active in CDL were neutralizing, but not all neutralizing MAbs can mediate CDL. Two of the three stalk-specific neutralizing MAbs tested were able to mediate CDL and were more cross-reactive to temporally distant H1N1 strains than the conventional hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing MAbs. One of the stalk-specific MAbs was subtype cross-reactive to H1 and H2 hemagglutinins, suggesting a role for stalk-specific antibodies in protection against influenza illness, especially by a novel viral subtype which can cause pandemics. PMID:21994454

  13. High-intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to illustrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24 ± 5% of the sonication power without droplets. Recanalization occurred in 71% of rabbits that received 1-ms pulsed sonications during continuous intravascular droplet infusion (p = 0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments indicated that damage was confined to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that tolerable treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispheric array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain.

  14. Nitric oxide hinders antibody clearance from the surface of Trypanoplasma borreli and increases susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Maria; Nakao, Miki; Wibowo, Indra; Joerink, Maaike; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2009-10-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular blood parasite of carp belonging to the same Order (Kinetoplastida) as African trypanosomes. These mammalian parasites have developed different strategies to evade the host immune system including antigenic variation, immunosuppression and clearance of surface-bound antibodies. The latter mechanism allows trypanosomes to use their swimming movement to cause surface-bound antibodies to 'sail' and accumulate at the posterior end of the parasite, to be internalized via the flagellar pocket and be degraded. There is no evidence that T. borreli shows antigenic variation, but during the late phases of infection NO-mediated immunosuppression is observed. High levels of nitric oxide (NO) lead to extensive tissue nitration whereas the parasite itself is not affected. Therefore, the induction of NO has thus far been considered a parasite-driven response with immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, we show that the induction of NO, particularly during the early phase of T. borreli infections, should be re-considered an effective part of the host immune response. We show that T. borreli rapidly removes surface-bound IgM. In addition, moderate concentrations of NO, by hindering surface antibody clearance, maintain high the concentrations of membrane-bound IgM, thereby favoring antibody-dependent complement-mediated parasite lysis. We performed a comprehensive quantitative gene expression analysis of in total seven different complement factors involved in all three activation pathways, differentiating between 1 and 4 isoforms for each complement gene. Our gene expression analysis supports an important role for antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of T. borreliin vivo. To our knowledge, NO-dependent inhibition of antibody clearance from the surface of kinetoplastid parasites has not been investigated. Our data support a role for NO as an important player in host-parasite interactions, not only as immune suppressor (late

  15. CADM1/TSLC1 Identifies HTLV-1-Infected Cells and Determines Their Susceptibility to CTL-Mediated Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Manivannan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T cells, causing inflammatory disorders or a T cell malignancy in 5% to 10% of carriers. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response is a key factor that controls the viral load and thus the risk of disease. The ability to detect the viral protein Tax in primary cells has made it possible to estimate the rate at which Tax-expressing infected cells are eliminated by CTLs in persistently infected people. However, most HTLV-1-infected cells are Tax-at a given time, and their immunophenotype is poorly defined. Here, we aimed to identify a cell-surface molecule expressed by both Tax+ and Tax-HTLV-1-infected cells and use it to analyse the CTL response in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1/TSLC1 was the best single marker of HTLV-1 infection, identifying HTLV-1-infected cells with greater sensitivity and specificity than CD25, CCR4 or ICAM-1. CADM1+CD4+ T cells carried a median of 65% of proviral copies in peripheral blood. In a cohort of 23 individuals, we quantified the rate of CTL-mediated killing of Tax+ and Tax-CADM1+ cells. We show that CADM1 expression is associated with enhanced susceptibility of infected cells to CTL lysis: despite the immunodominance of Tax in the CTL response, Tax+CADM1- cells were inefficiently lysed by CTLs. Upregulation of the CADM1 ligand CRTAM on CD8+ T cells correlated with efficient lysis of infected cells. Tax-CADM1+ cells were lysed at a very low rate by autologous CTLs, however, were efficiently killed when loaded with exogenous peptide antigen. High expression of CADM1 on most HTLV-1-infected cells in the face of enhanced CTL counterselection implies that CADM1 confers a strong benefit on the virus.

  16. Amount of colicin release in Escherichia coli is regulated by lysis gene expression of the colicin E2 operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mader

    Full Text Available The production of bacteriocins in response to worsening environmental conditions is one means of bacteria to outcompete other microorganisms. Colicins, one class of bacteriocins in Escherichia coli, are effective against closely related Enterobacteriaceae. Current research focuses on production, release and uptake of these toxins by bacteria. However, little is known about the quantitative aspects of these dynamic processes. Here, we quantitatively study expression dynamics of the Colicin E2 operon in E. coli on a single cell level using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. DNA damage, triggering SOS response leads to the heterogeneous expression of this operon including the cea gene encoding the toxin, Colicin E2, and the cel gene coding for the induction of cell lysis and subsequent colicin release. Advancing previous whole population investigations, our time-lapse experiments reveal that at low exogenous stress levels all cells eventually respond after a given time (heterogeneous timing. This heterogeneous timing is lost at high stress levels, at which a synchronized stress response of all cells 60 min after induction via stress can be observed. We further demonstrate, that the amount of colicin released is dependent on cel (lysis gene expression, independent of the applied exogenous stress level. A heterogeneous response in combination with heterogeneous timing can be biologically significant. It might enable a bacterial population to endure low stress levels, while at high stress levels an immediate and synchronized population wide response can give single surviving cells of the own species the chance to take over the bacterial community after the stress has ceased.

  17. Rasburicase in the management of tumor lysis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinnel J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Dinnel,1 Bonny L Moore,1 Brent M Skiver,1 Prithviraj Bose1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially life-threatening complication of cancer therapy characterized by two or more of the following laboratory abnormalities: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, with resultant end-organ damage, eg, renal failure, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias. High-risk patients include those with highly proliferative cancers and/or large tumor burdens, particularly in the setting of highly effective chemotherapy, among other risk factors. Before 2002, antihyperuricemic drug therapy was limited to allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for children in 2002 and adults in 2009, ushering in a new era in TLS therapy. We attempted to critically appraise the available evidence supporting the perceived benefits of rasburicase in the management of TLS. A Medline search yielded 98 relevant articles, including 26 retrospective and 22 prospective studies of rasburicase for the treatment of TLS, which were then evaluated to determine the best available evidence for the effectiveness of rasburicase in terms of disease-oriented, patient-oriented, and economic outcomes. Rasburicase is now a standard of care for patients at high risk of TLS despite continuing debate on the correlation between its profound and rapid lowering of plasma uric acid levels with hard patient outcomes, eg, need for renal replacement therapy and mortality. Rasburicase is dramatically effective in lowering plasma uric acid levels. The mortality and cost-effectiveness benefits of this expensive drug remain to be conclusively proven, and well designed, randomized controlled trials are needed to answer these fundamentally important questions. Keywords

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the anilino lysis of O-ethyl phenyl phosphonochloridothioic in acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md. Ehtesham Ul; Lee, Hai Whang [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The nucleophilic substitution reactions of O-ethyl phenyl phosphonochloridothioic with substituted anilines (XC{sub 6}H{sub 4}NH{sub 2}) and deuterated anilines (XC{sub 6}H{sub 4}ND{sub 2}) are kinetically investigated in acetonitrile at 55.0 .deg. C. The deuterium kinetic isotope effects (DKIEs) invariably increase from a secondary inverse DKIE (k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 0.93) to a primary normal DKIE (k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 1.28) as the substituent of nucleophile (X) changes from electron-donating to electron-withdrawing. These can be rationalized by the gradual transition state (TS) variation from a backside to front side attack. A concerted S{sub N}2 mechanism is proposed. A trigonal bipyramidal TS is proposed for a backside attack while a hydrogen-bonded, four-center-type TS is proposed for a front side attack.

  19. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  20. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  1. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  2. Process for the lysis of a culture of lactic acid bacteria by means of a lysin, and uses of the resulting lysed culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan; Ledeboer, Aat M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the lysis of a culture of lactic acid bacteria, or a product containing such culture e.g. cheese, by means of a lysin through the in situ production of a homologous autolysin, or a heterologous autolysin obtainable from Gram-positive bacteria esp. from lactic aci

  3. Improved lysis efficiency and immunogenicity of Salmonella ghosts mediated by co-expression of λ phage holin-endolysin and ɸX174 gene E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Gayeon; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria by bacteriophage ɸX174 gene E mediated lysis. They represent a novel inactivated vaccine platform; however, the practical application of BGs for human vaccines seems to be limited due to the safety concerns on the presence of viable cells in BGs. Therefore, to improve the lysis efficiency of the gene E, we exploited the peptidoglycan hydrolyzing ability of the λ phage holin-endolysins to expedite the process of current BG production system. In this report, we constructed a novel ghost plasmid encoding protein E and holin-endolysins in tandem. We observed that sequential expressions of the gene E and the holin-endolysins elicited rapid and highly efficient Salmonella lysis compared to the lysis mediated by gene E only. These lysed BGs displayed improved immunogenicity in mice compared to the gene E mediated BGs. Consequently, seventy percent of the mice immunized with these novel ghosts survived against a lethal challenge while all the mice vaccinated with gene E mediated ghosts died by day 9 post-infection. We conclude that this novel strategy has the potential to generate highly efficient inactivated candidate vaccines that could replace the currently available bacterial vaccines. PMID:28332591

  4. Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi isolates: in vitro susceptibility of epimastigotes to anti-trypanosoma cruzi drugs and metacyclic forms to complement-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pérez, Floribeth; Gómez-Garcia, Lorena; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; López, R; Monteón, V M

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a clonal organization with an ample array of genetic and phenotypic features and probably anaploid constitution. Consequently, the biological behavior, biochemistry, and molecular attributes may be distinctive for each parasite strain in different geographical regions. As far as we know, there is no published information on the susceptibility of Mexican T. cruzi stocks to anti-T. cruzi drugs such as benznidazole and gentian violet, or on its resistance to complement-mediated lysis. We studied 10 Mexican T. cruzi isolates from different geographical areas, such as the pacific coast (Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Nayarit States), central part of Mexico (Guanajuato State), Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz State), and the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche State). We searched for the natural resistance to drugs in in vitro assay against the 10 Mexican isolates using epimastigote forms and the complement-mediated lysis using metacyclic trypomastigotes insect-derived in three of them (one for each geographic region). In general, we observed high resistance to benznidazole in all the Mexican isolates tested, but in the complement-mediated lysis test, they showed moderate to high susceptibility. Although it is necessary to expand this study by using trypomastigotes and the intracellular form to verify its biological role, we suggest that Mexican T. cruzi parasites may have a variable susceptibility to antibody-mediated lysis and high resistance to benznidazole.

  5. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.

  6. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正芳

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  7. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  8. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  9. 基于高校图书馆电子资源的采访调查与分析——以海南大学图书馆为例%Survey and Analysis Based on the Electronic Resource of University Libraries Taking Hainan University library as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    随着信息化时代的到来,高校图书馆的馆藏资源建设模式已经发生了变化,形成了纸质资源与电子资源并存的局面,电子资源以其方便快捷深受读者喜爱,电子资源的采购比例越来越重,如何协调电子资源的采购比例,是图书馆界丞待解决的问题.文章通过对海南大学2006-2010年间的电子资源经费使用情况进行统计、对比和分析,对此问题进行了初步的探讨.%With the arrival of information age, college library collection resources construction mode has changed, and the paper-based resources and electroic resources coexist.With the convenience of electronic resources, the acquisition proportion of electronic resources grows.How to coordinate the acquisition of electronic resource proportion is a problem faced by the libraries.Through the funds statistics, contrast and analysis of electronic resources in hainan university 2006-2010 this article provides a preliminary discussion.

  10. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  11. Imaging secondary metabolism of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 during cellular lysis and colony degradation of competing Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Sarah R; Hoefler, B Chris; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andrés; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Straight, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Soil streptomycetes are saprotrophic bacteria that secrete numerous secondary metabolites and enzymes for extracellular functions. Many streptomycetes produce antibiotics thought to protect vegetative mycelia from competing organisms. Here we report that an organism isolated from soil, Streptomyces sp. Mg1, actively degrades colonies and causes cellular lysis of Bacillus subtilis when the organisms are cultured together. We predicted that the inhibition and degradation of B. subtilis colonies in this competition depends upon a combination of secreted factors, including small molecule metabolites and enzymes. To begin to unravel this complex competitive phenomenon, we use a MALDI imaging mass spectrometry strategy to map the positions of metabolites secreted by both organisms. In this report, we show that Streptomyces sp. Mg1 produces the macrolide antibiotic chalcomycin A, which contributes to inhibition of B. subtilis growth in combination with other, as yet unidentified factors. We suggest that efforts to understand competitive and cooperative interactions between bacterial species benefit from assays that pair living organisms and probe the complexity of metabolic exchanges between them.

  12. Nd:YAG Laser Lysis of the Fibrinous Membrane and Remnant Substance on the Anterior Surface of Intraocular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhendeLin; ChenjinJin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the effects of ND:YAGlaser to disrupt the fibrinous membrane and remnant substance on the anterior surface of intraocular lens.Methods:Nd:YAGlaser was applied on 23cases of fibrinous membrane forma-tion and 8cases of remnant substance on the anterior surface of intaocular lenses(IOL)which had not reponded well to steroid therapy,Eighteen cases were male and 13female.The mean age was49.7years(range,5-78years),The in-terval between IOL implantation and laser therapy was 0.5-30months in the fibrinous membrane cases and 3-10days in the remnant substance cases.The energy applied was0.8-3.0mJ/exp.with2-112exposures.mean follow-up period was3.6months.Results:Complications during therapy included only 2cases of slight iris bleed-ing,Visual acuity after therapy was improved 1line in 16cases,2lines in 11cas-es,3lines in 1case,4lines in 1case and 5lines in 2cases,No post-therapy com-plication was found.Conclusions:Nd:YAG laser lysis is an effective alternative to ramove the fibri-nous membrane and remnant substances on the anterior surface of IOL.Eye Sci-ence1995;11:128-130.

  13. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  14. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  15. Real-time monitoring of bioaerosols via cell-lysis by air ion and ATP bioluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Woo; Park, Ji-Woon; Lee, Sung Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we introduce a methodology for disrupting cell membranes with air ions coupled with ATP bioluminescence detection for real-time monitoring of bioaerosol concentrations. A carbon fiber ionizer was used to extract ATP from bacterial cells for generating ATP bioluminescence. Our methodology was tested using Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, which were aerosolized with an atomizer, and then indoor bioaerosols were also used for testing the methodology. Bioaerosol concentrations were estimated without culturing which requires several days for colony formation. Correlation equations were obtained for results acquired using our methodology (Relative Luminescent Unit (RLU)/m(3)) and a culture-based (Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) method; CFU/m(3)=1.8 × measured RLU/m(3) for S. epidermidis and E. coli, and CFU/m(3)=1.1 × measured RLU/m(3) for indoor bioaerosols under the experimental conditions. Our methodology is an affordable solution for rapidly monitoring bioaerosols due to rapid detection time (cell-lysis time: 3 min; bioluminescence detection time: <1 min) and easy operation.

  16. Modified Atkins diet induces subacute selective ragged-red-fiber lysis in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sofia; Auranen, Mari; Isohanni, Pirjo; Niemisalo, Satu; Urho, Niina; Buzkova, Jana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Lundbom, Nina; Hakkarainen, Antti; Muurinen, Tiina; Piirilä, Päivi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Suomalainen, Anu

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate "modified Atkins" diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1.5-2 weeks of diet, with progressive muscle pain and leakage of muscle enzymes, leading to premature discontinuation of the diet. Analysis of muscle ultrastructure revealed selective fiber damage, especially in the ragged-red-fibers (RRFs), a MM hallmark. Two years of follow-up showed improvement of muscle strength, suggesting activation of muscle regeneration. Our results indicate that (i) nutrition can modify mitochondrial disease progression, (ii) dietary counseling should be part of MM care, (iii) short mAD is a tool to induce targeted RRF lysis, and (iv) mAD, a common weight-loss method, may induce muscle damage in a population subgroup.

  17. The bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody: a model to preactivate T cells prior to tumour cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENSEN, M; ERNESTUS, K; KEMSHEAD, J; KLEHR, M; VON BERGWELT-BAILDON, M S; SCHINKÖTHE, T; SCHULTZE, J L; BERTHOLD, F

    2003-01-01

    To target the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56) on neuroblastoma by T cell-based immunotherapy we have generated a bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody (OE-1). This antibody can be used to redirect T cells to NCAM+ cells. Expectedly, the antibody binds specifically to NCAM+ neuroblastoma cells and CD3+ T cells. OE-1 induces T cell activation, expansion and effector function in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. T cell activation was shown to depend on the presence of normal natural killer (NK) cells in the culture. Interestingly, while PBMC- derived T cells were activated by OE-1, NK cells were almost completely depleted, suggesting that T cells activated by OE-1 deleted the NK cells. Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differentiate into a larger CCR7+ central memory and a smaller CCR7– effector memory cell population. Most importantly, preactivated T cells were highly cytotoxic for neuroblastoma cells. In eight of 11 experiments tumour-directed cytotoxicity was enhanced when NK cells were present during preactivation with OE-1. These data strongly support a bi-phasic therapeutic concept of primarily stimulating T cells with the bi-specific antibody in the presence of normal NCAM+ cells to induce T cell activation, migratory capacity and finally tumour cell lysis. PMID:14616785

  18. An unusual presentation of tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec, Danica Maria; Rubio, Jose Enrique; Fornoni, Alessia; Lenz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia in patients with a malignancy. When these laboratory abnormalities develop rapidly, clinical complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure, seizures, or death may occur. TLS is caused by rapid release of intracellular contents by dying tumor cells, a condition that is expected to be common in hematologic malignancies. However, TLS rarely occurs with solid tumors, and here we present the second chemotherapy-induced TLS in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma to be reported in the literature. We also provide information regarding the total cases of TLS in solid tumors reported from 1977 to present day. Our methodology involved identifying key articles from existing reviews of the literature and then using search terms from these citations in MEDLINE to find additional publications. We relied on a literature review published in 2003 by Baeksgaard et al., where they gathered all total 45 cases reported from 1977 to 2003. Then, we looked for new reported cases from 2004 to present day. All reports (case reports, brief reports, letters to editor, correspondence, reviews, journals, and short communications) identified through these searches were reviewed and included.

  19. An Unusual Presentation of Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Maria Vodopivec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia in patients with a malignancy. When these laboratory abnormalities develop rapidly, clinical complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure, seizures, or death may occur. TLS is caused by rapid release of intracellular contents by dying tumor cells, a condition that is expected to be common in hematologic malignancies. However, TLS rarely occurs with solid tumors, and here we present the second chemotherapy-induced TLS in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma to be reported in the literature. We also provide information regarding the total cases of TLS in solid tumors reported from 1977 to present day. Our methodology involved identifying key articles from existing reviews of the literature and then using search terms from these citations in MEDLINE to find additional publications. We relied on a literature review published in 2003 by Baeksgaard et al., where they gathered all total 45 cases reported from 1977 to 2003. Then, we looked for new reported cases from 2004 to present day. All reports (case reports, brief reports, letters to editor, correspondence, reviews, journals, and short communications identified through these searches were reviewed and included.

  20. Investigation of low-voltage pulse parameters on electroporation and electrical lysis using a microfluidic device with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir I; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2014-03-01

    Electroporation (EP) of biological cells leads to the exchange of materials through the permeabilized cell membrane, while electrical lysis (EL) irreversibly disrupts the cell membrane. We report a microfluidic device to study these two phenomena with low-voltage excitation for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. For systematic study of EP, we have employed a quantification metric: flow Index (FI) of EP. Simulation and experimental results with the microfluidic device containing interdigitated, coplanar, integrated electrodes to electroporate, and rapidly lyse biological cells are presented. H&E stained human buccal cells were subjected to various pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and number of pulses. Simulations show that an electric field of 25 kV/cm with a 20 V applied potential produced 1.3 (°)C temperature rise for a 5 s of excitation. For a 20 V pulse-excitation with pulse-widths between 0.5 to 5 s, EL was observed, whereas for lower excitations, only EP was observed. FI of EP is found to be a direct function of pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and numbers of pulses. To release DNA from nucleus, excitation-pulses of 5 s were required. Quantification of EP would be useful for systematic study of EP toward optimization with various excitation pulses, while low-voltage requirement and high yield of EP and EL are critical to develop LOC for drug delivery and cell-sample preparation, respectively.

  1. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  2. Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

  3. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes; Estudio del rendimiento en fagos para los procesos de lisis bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidania Munoz, R. de; Garces, F.; Davila, C. A.

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of {lambda}vir and{lambda} clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C{sub 6}00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and the bacterial burst side, we have found that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  5. Rethinking Resourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  6. Cloning of xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda-induced lysis for the release of cloned enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R; Ali, S S; Srivastava, B S

    1991-03-01

    The xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus was cloned in pUC8 plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda cI857. lambda-Induced lysis of E. coli at 42 degrees C allowed efficient release of cloned enzyme activity in extracellular environment. The xylanase gene was located in the 0.8-kb HindIII fragment and coded for 18,000 Mr xylanase.

  7. Hyperphosphatemia during spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome culminate in severe hyphosphatemia at the time of blast crisis of Phneg CML to acute myelomoncytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Ophira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme swing of phosphor from severe hyperphosphatemia to severe hypophosphatemia in a patient with blast crisis of myeloid origin was the result of imbalance between massive apoptosis of leukemic cells in the context of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and massive production of leukemic cells with only 1% of blast in peripheral blood. The mutated p53 protein suggested acting as oncogene in the presented case and possibly affecting phosphor status.

  8. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and ... electronics Library resources such as electronic journals, e-books, scholarly databases, ... researchers to have access to a wide range of high quality electronic information resources.

  9. Enhancement of NK cell-mediated lysis of non-small lung cancer cells by nPKC activator, ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenyuan; Yao, Chao; Xu, Zihang; Ni, Zhongya; Zhu, Xiaowen; Wang, Lixin; Yan, Xuewei; Zhou, Wuxiong; Zhu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    The IFN-γ production is crucial for NK cell-mediated lysis of cancer cells. Thus increasing the IFN-γ production by NK cells may be an ideal strategy to improve their tumoricidal effect. Since the focus on new drug development has shifted towards natural products, limited information is out there about natural products that enhance the IFN-γ production by NK cells. In this study, through a high-throughput screening, we have identified a natural product ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate (IDB), an activator of tumor suppressor protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, could increase the IFN-γ production and degranulation by NK cells, especially when NK cells were stimulated by non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. IDB also significantly enhanced the NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, PKC inhibitor, sotrastaurin abrogated IDB-induced IFN-γ production, degranulation and cytotoxicity, but did not affect IFN-γ production by NK cells without IDB treatment and NSCLC cell stimulation. The IFN-γ neutralization reversed the IDB-induced enhancement of NK cell mediated killing. In conclusion, our study indicated that IDB enhanced NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells is dependent on specific PKC mediated IFN-γ production and degranulation. Thus, IDB may have a promising application in clinic for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2016-10-06

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  11. Cyclosporin a, but not FK506, induces osmotic lysis of pancreas zymogen granules, intra-acinar enzyme release, and lysosome instability by activating K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kee; Braun, Matthias; Langelüddecke, Christian; Thévenod, Frank

    2012-05-01

    The immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506) has improved pancreas allograft survival compared with cyclosporin A (CsA), possibly because of reduced acute pancreatitis following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ion permeabilities in zymogen granule (ZG) membranes, including a KCNQ1 K channel, promote hormone-stimulated enzyme secretion. We investigated whether a differential modulation of ZG and lysosomal ion permeabilities and enzyme secretion by CsA/FK506 contributes to pancreatitis. Rat ZGs and lysosomes were isolated by gradient centrifugation, ion permeabilities assayed by osmotic lysis, and single-channel currents recorded in a planar lipid bilayer. Amylase release was measured in permeabilized acini and lysosomal cathepsin B release detected by immunoblotting. CsA (1-10 μM), but not FK506, enhanced ZGs osmotic lysis by selectively increasing K permeability up to 5-fold. Zymogen granule membrane K channels showed ∼2-fold increased single-channel open probability with CsA only. Cyclosporin A selectively increased basal (∼2-fold), but not cholecystokinin-octapeptide (1 nM)-induced amylase secretion in K medium only. Cyclosporin A (5 μM), but not FK506, increased cathepsin B release from lysosomes. Cyclosporin A selectively opens the ZG K channel and induces cathepsin B release from lysosomes, which cause increased in situ lysis of ZGs and may aggravate or fuel acute allograft pancreatitis following hypoxia-reperfusion injury.

  12. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Ding; Choylen Fong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, in contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFlex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  13. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeijunDing; ChoylenFong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, In contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFIex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  14. Using Mathematical Modelling to Explore Hypotheses about the Role of Bovine Epithelium Structure in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus-Induced Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Giorgakoudi

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD virus (FMDV shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and FMD is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue. By contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate. The reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are difficult to test experimentally. In order to identify the factors which drive cell lysis, and consequently determine the development of lesions, we developed a partial differential equation model of FMDV infection in bovine epithelial tissues and used it to explore a range of hypotheses about epithelium structure which could be driving differences in lytic behaviour observed in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that, based on current parameter estimates, epithelial tissue thickness and cell layer structure are unlikely to be determinants of FMDV-induced cell lysis. However, differences in receptor distribution or viral replication amongst cell layers could influence the development of lesions, but only if viral replication rates are much lower than current estimates.

  15. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  16. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  17. 地方高校的电子文献资源建设——以南京晓庄学院为例%Construction of Electronic Literature Resources of Local University Library —— A Case Study ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2012-01-01

    以南京晓庄学院图书馆为蓝本,从电子资源的文献价值入手,阐明了编制电子资源的采访标准和评价指标的意义,指出在当前网络环境下,地方高校加强电子文献资源建设的重要性和发展方向。%This paper is on the original version ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University library, from the literature value of electron- ic resource, expounds the meaning of compiling electronic resources acquisition standard and evaluation index, points out under current network environment, the importance of local university library strengthen electronic litera-ture resources construction and development direction.

  18. The Strategies for the Construction of the Electronic Journal Resources in Higher Vocational College Library in the Network Environment%网络环境下高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙琼

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds some main principles of the construction of the network electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library in the network environment, introduces several types of the network electronic journal resources, and probes into some strategies for the construction of electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library.%阐述了高职院校图书馆网络电子期刊资源建设的主要原则,介绍了网络电子期刊资源的几种类型, 探讨了高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设的策略.

  19. 区域性高校数字图书馆联盟电子资源建设研究--以湖南省高校数字图书馆为例%Study on the Electronic Resources Construction of Regional University Digital Library Alliance---Taking Hunan Academic Digital Library (HNADL)as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐婷

    2015-01-01

    介绍了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设情况,阐述了各联盟成员馆电子资源建设现状,探讨了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策及建议。%ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the situation of the electronic resources construction of HNADL, expounds the current status of the electronic resources construction of each number library, probes into the problems existing in the electronic resources construction of HNADL,and puts forward some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  20. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  1. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  2. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  3. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  4. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  5. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  6. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  7. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  8. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  9. Síndrome de lise tumoral: uma revisão abrangente da literatura Acute tumor lysis syndrome: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Darmon

    2008-09-01

    égias baseadas no risco dos pacientes são necessários para limitar a alta morbidade e mortalidade desta complicação.Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by the massive destruction of malignant cells and the release in the extra-cellular space of their content. While Tumor lysis syndrome may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms with development of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypocalcaemia. These biological manifestations may lead to clinical manifestations including, acute kidney injury, seizure, or sudden death that require intensive care. Since clinical tumor lysis syndrome is associated with a poor prognosis both prevention of tumor lysis syndrome and prevention of clinical consequences of tumor lysis syndrome are mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms, biological and clinical manifestations of tumor Lysis syndrome, and to provide upto-date guidelines to ensure prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. Review of selected studies on tumor lysis syndrome published at the PubMed database www.pubmed.gov during the last 20 years. Additional references were retrieved from the studies initially selected. Tumor lysis syndrome is a frequent and life-threatening complication of the newly diagnosed malignancies. Preventive measures, including hydration, uricolytic agents, eviction of factors predisposing to acute kidney injury and, in the more severe patients, on prophylactic renal replacement therapy, are required to prevent or limit clinical consequences of Tumor lysis syndrome. However optimal timing and modalities of prevention remains unknown and may be modified by the changing spectrum of patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Development and validation of risk based strategies is required to limit the high morbidity and mortality of this complication.

  10. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  11. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language The paper presents in brief Bulgarian language resources as a part of multilingual digital resources developed in the frame of some international projects, among them parallel annotated and aligned corpora, comparable corpora, morpho-syntactic specifications for corpora annotation and dictionaries encoding, lexicons, lexical databases, and electronic dictionaries.

  14. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  15. 高校图书馆外文电子资源的建设与利用研究——以安徽建筑大学图书馆为例%Study on the Construction and Utilization of Foreign Electronic Resources in University Library ——A Case Study of the Library of AUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes an investigation and statistical analysis on the current construction ans utilization of foreign electronic resources of the library of AUA from the aspects of the quantities, funds as well as utilization rate of foreign database, discusses some factors influencing the construction and utilization of foreign electronic resources, and probes into the countermeasures for strengthening the construction of foreign electronic resources and improving the utilization rate of foreign electronic resources.%从外文数据库的数量、经费和利用率等方面,对安徽建筑大学图书馆外文电子资源建设与利用现状进行了调查研究与统计分析,论述了影响外文电子资源建设与利用的因素,探讨了加强外文电子资源建设、提高外文数据库利用率的对策.

  16. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  17. Sublethal exposure to alpha radiation (223Ra dichloride) enhances various carcinomas' sensitivity to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes through calreticulin-mediated immunogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamas, Anthony S; Gameiro, Sofia R; Knudson, Karin M; Hodge, James W

    2016-12-27

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; 223Ra) is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical FDA-approved for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is also being examined clinically in patients with breast and lung carcinoma and patients with multiple myeloma. As with other forms of radiation, the aim of 223Ra is to reduce tumor burden by directly killing tumor cells. External beam (photon) and proton radiation have been shown to augment tumor sensitivity to antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, little is known about whether treatment with 223Ra can also induce such immunogenic modulation in tumor cells that survive irradiation. We examined these effects in vitro by exposing human prostate, breast, and lung carcinoma cells to sublethal doses of 223Ra. 223Ra significantly enhanced T cell-mediated lysis of each tumor type by CD8+ CTLs specific for MUC-1, brachyury, and CEA tumor antigens. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the increase in CTL killing was accompanied by augmented protein expression of MHC-I and calreticulin in each tumor type, molecules that are essential for efficient antigen presentation. Enhanced tumor-cell lysis was facilitated by calreticulin surface translocation following 223Ra exposure. The phenotypic changes observed after treatment appear to be mediated by induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathway. By rendering tumor cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated lysis, 223Ra may potentially be effective in combination with various immunotherapies, particularly cancer vaccines that are designed to generate and expand patients' endogenous antigen-specific T-cell populations against specific tumor antigens.

  18. The yield and quality of cellular and bacterial DNA extracts from human oral rinse samples are variably affected by the cell lysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mohsen; Nair, Raj G; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Zhang, Li; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Ahmetagic, Adnan; Good, David; Wei, Ming Q

    2016-03-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have enabled detailed mapping of human microbiome that has not been hitherto achievable by culture-based methods. DNA extraction is a key element of bacterial culture-independent studies that critically impacts on the outcome of the detected microbial profile. Despite the variations in DNA extraction methods described in the literature, no standardized technique is available for the purpose of microbiome profiling. Hence, standardization of DNA extraction methods is urgently needed to yield comparable data from different studies. We examined the effect of eight different cell lysis protocols on the yield and quality of the extracted DNA from oral rinse samples. These samples were exposed to cell lysis techniques based on enzymatic, mechanical, and a combination of enzymatic-mechanical methods. The outcome measures evaluated were total bacterial population, Firmicutes levels and human DNA contamination (in terms of surrogate GAPDH levels). We noted that all three parameters were significantly affected by the method of cell lysis employed. Although the highest yield of gDNA was obtained using lysozyme-achromopeptidase method, the lysozyme-zirconium beads method yielded the peak quantity of total bacterial DNA and Firmicutes with a lower degree of GAPDH contamination compared with the other methods. Taken together our data clearly points to an urgent need for a consensus, standardized DNA extraction technique to evaluate the oral microbiome using oral rinse samples. Further, if Firmicutes levels are the focus of investigation in oral rinse microbiome analyses then the lysozyme-zirconium bead method would be the method of choice in preference to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel integrated strategy for detection of human bocavirus based on a heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples in human specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Yao, Qing; Ma, Jing; Li, Jianning; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Li, Fang; Sun, Yuning

    2014-07-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be associated with acute respiratory tract infection in children. The aim of the work was to develop a novel integrated strategy for human bocavirus detection: heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples. The detection limit of the heminested PCR assay was 1.2 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid, and no cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses or bacteria was observed. By using the integrated strategy, a total of 202 secretions of the lower respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory diseases were collected and tested. The samples were treated and lysed in boiling lysis buffer rather than extracting viral DNA from secretions, then these sample lysates could be templates and tested by heminested PCR assay, and the amplification of HBoV DNA was detected by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that, only 7 samples were found to be positive by conventional single-round PCR; importantly, the other new 41 samples were positive by heminested PCR assay. Additionally, the genomic viral DNA was extracted from all positive and some negative specimens, amplified, and sequenced. The results were perfectly consistent with those of the integrated strategy. Taken together, these results suggest that the novel integrated strategy (heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples) is a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective and reliable detective method for HBoV detection and will have broad application prospects in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of cell lysis procedures and use of a micro fluidic system for an automated DNA-based cell identification in interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. A.; Felnagle, E.; Fries, M.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.

    2006-12-01

    A Modular Assay System for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) is being developed to include sample handling, pre-treatment, separation and analysis of biological target compounds by both DNA and protein microarrays. To better design sensitive and accurate initial upstream sample handling of the MASSE instrument, experiments investigating the sensitivity and potential extraction bias of commercially available DNA extraction kits between classes of environmentally relevant prokaryotes such as gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus megatarium), and Archaea ( Haloarcula marismortui) were performed. For extractions of both planktonic cultures and spiked Mars simulated regolith, FTA ® paper demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with detection as low as ˜1×10 1 cells and ˜3.3×10 2 cells, respectively. In addition to the highest sensitivity, custom modified application of FTA ® paper extraction protocol is the simplest in terms of incorporation into MASSE and displayed little bias in sensitivity with respect to prokaryotic cell type. The implementation of FTA paper for environmental microbiology investigations appears to be a viable and effective option potentially negating the need for other pre-concentration steps such as filtration and negating concerns regarding extraction efficiency of cells. In addition to investigations on useful technology for upstream sample handling in MASSE, we have also evaluated the potential for μTAS to be employed in the MASSE instrument by employing proprietary lab-on-a-chip development technology to investigate the potential for microfluidic cell lysis of different prokaryotic cells employing both chemical and biological lysis agents. Real-time bright-field microscopy and quantitative PMT detection indicated that that gram positive, gram negative and archaeal cells were effectively lyzed in a few seconds using the microfluidic chip protocol developed. This included employing a lysis buffer with

  1. A novel trifunctional IgG-like bispecific antibody to inhibit HIV-1 infection and enhance lysis of HIV by targeting activation of complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Stephen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system is not only a key component of innate immunity but also provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, especially for viral pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, however, possesses several mechanisms to evade complement-mediated lysis (CoML and exploit the complement system to enhance viral infectivity. Responsible for this intrinsic resistance against complement-mediated virolysis are complement regulatory membrane proteins derived from the host cell that inherently downregulates complement activation at several stages of the cascade. In addition, HIV is protected from complement-mediated lysis by binding soluble factor H (fH through the viral envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. Whereas inhibition of complement activity is the desired outcome in the vast majority of therapeutic approaches, there is a broader potential for complement-mediated inhibition of HIV by complement local stimulation. Presentation of the hypothesis Our previous studies have proven that the complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infection is mediated by the association of complement receptor type 2 bound to the C3 fragment and deposited on the surface of HIV virions. Thus, we hypothesize that another new activator of complement, consisting of two dsFv (against gp120 and against C3d respectively linked to a complement-activating human IgG1 Fc domain ((anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc, can not only target and amplify complement activation on HIV virions for enhancing the efficiency of HIV lysis, but also reduce the infectivity of HIV through blocking the gp120 and C3d on the surface of HIV. Testing the hypothesis Our hypothesis was tested using cell-free HIV-1 virions cultivated in vitro and assessment of virus opsonization was performed by incubating appropriate dilutions of virus with medium containing normal human serum and purified (anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc proteins. As a control group, viruses

  2. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  3. Influence of histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors on the NK cell-mediated lysis of pediatric B-lineage leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Manuel Pfeiffer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic drugs like histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have been shown to be effective against a variety of tumor entities. Among different molecular anticancer activities of epigenetic active substances, up-regulation of NK cell ligands was described to contribute to an enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of tumor cell lines. So far, no data is available on this effect in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We investigated the effect of two HDACi (vorinostat, VPA and two DNMTi (azacytidine, decitabine on the viability, expression of NK ligands and NK-susceptibility of the pre-B-cell-ALL cell line MHH-CALL-4. Whereas vorinostat, azacytidine and decitabine directly reduced viability of the cell line, VPA had no direct cytotoxic effect. NKG2D ligands were expressed only at very low levels and not affected by epigenetic treatment. Higher expression was found for the DNAM1 ligands with significant up regulation of CD112 after treatment with VPA (p=0.02. No significant increase in lysis mediated by resting NK cells could be observed, whereas incubation of target cells with decitabine resulted in a significant increase in lysis mediated by IL-2 activated NK cells (p=0.0051, p=0.06 for azacytidine. Vorinostat and VPA could increase the lysis by expanded NK cells which was statistically not significant due to high inter-individual variability. Furthermore, HDACi but not DNMTi reduced the NK mediated lysis of MHH-CALL-4 after incubation of effector cells. In conclusion, there is a synergistic effect between epigenetic drugs and NK cells against MHH-CALL-4 which is not as strong as in other tumor entities. In situations where NK mediated control of leukemia is assumed or wanted, a sophisticated combination of single epigenetic drugs and ex vivo expanded NK cells is needed to maximize the synergistic effect of both treatment strategies and DNMTIs may be preferred based on the direct inhibitory effect of HDACi on NK cell

  4. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  5. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  6. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Sadoon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and lithium chloride (LiCl with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification.

  7. c-Myc regulates expression of NKG2D ligands ULBP1/2/3 in AML and modulates their susceptibility to NK-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanbakhsh, Arash; Pochon, Cécile; Mallavialle, Aude; Amsellem, Sophie; Bourhis, Jean Henri; Chouaib, Salem

    2014-06-05

    Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite its efficiency against AML cells, the emergence of drug resistance due to prolonged chemotherapy in most patients is still a major obstacle. Several studies have shown that drug resistance mechanisms alter the sensitivity of leukemia cells to immune system effector cells. To investigate this phenomenon, parental acute myeloid cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1, were continuously exposed to increasing doses of cytarabine in order to establish equivalent resistant cell lines, HL-60(R) and KG-1(R). Our data indicate that cytarabine-resistant cells are more susceptible to natural killer (NK)-mediated cell lysis as compared with parental cytarabine-sensitive cells. The increased susceptibility correlates with the induction of UL-16 binding proteins (ULBP) 1/2/3 and NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands on target cells by a mechanism involving c-Myc induction. More importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ULBP1/3 are direct targets of c-Myc. Using drug-resistant primary AML blasts as target cells, inhibition of c-Myc resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D ligands and the subsequent impairment of NK cell lysis. This study provides for the first time, the c-Myc dependent regulation of NKG2D ligands in AML. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. [White blood cell lysis syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of renal AL amyloidosis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Antonio; Bertin, Pablo; Tagle, Rodrigo

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of AL amyloidosis was not successful until the advent of myeloablative chemotherapy consisting of high-dose intravenous melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. This new treatment has achieved better survival rates and, remarkably, it has obtained complete remission. Among patients with renal involvement, achievement of a complete hematological response was associated with a 50% reduction in proteinuria and stable creatinine clearance in more than 2/3 of patients. Despite of these excellent results, this new therapy is associated with significant toxicity, including the development of acute renal failure due to white blood cell lysis syndrome. We report a 59 year-old female with a nephrotic syndrome due to primary amyloidosis successfully treated autologous stem cell transplantation who developed acute renal failure caused by white blood cell lysis syndrome. The patient required treatment with granulocytic colony stimulating factor and intermittent hemofiltration and was discharged 23 days after melphalan administration with a satisfactory renal function and white blood cell count. After one year of follow up, she maintains a good glomerular filtration rate, a proteinuria of less than, 1 g/day and normal hematological values.

  9. Studies on nonidet P40 lysis of murine lymphoid cells. I. Use of cholera toxin and cell surface Ig to determine degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D A

    1975-09-01

    Lymphoid cells from A/J mice were iodinated (125I) by the lactoperoxidase lysed with the non-ionic detergent NP-40. The plasma membrane glycolipid receptor for cholera toxin and cell surface immunoglobulin were utilized in immune precipitation systems to characterize the degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane under various conditions. It was found that at 0.1% NP-40 and at cell concentration from 5 to 10 times 10(7) cells/ml, lipid-protein and protein-lipid-protein complexes formed in NP-40 which were soluble after centrifugation at 10(5) times G. Column chromatography of 125I-cell lysates on agarose A-0.5 M in 0.1% or 0.5% NP-40/PBS indicated that the majority of iodinated cell surface material existed as aggregates in detergent micelles. The availability of the oligosaccharide moiety of the glycolipid to interact with the cholera toxin was dependent on both the detergent concentration and the cell concentration used for cell lysis. However, the cell surface immunoglobulin was immunoprecipitable under all conditions of lysis tested.

  10. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  11. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  12. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  13. The solubilisation of boar sperm membranes by different detergents - a microscopic, MALDI-TOF MS, 31P NMR and PAGE study on membrane lysis, extraction efficiency, lipid and protein composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Karin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detergents are often used to isolate proteins, lipids as well as "detergent-resistant membrane domains" (DRMs from cells. Different detergents affect different membrane structures according to their physico-chemical properties. However, the effects of different detergents on membrane lysis of boar spermatozoa and the lipid composition of DRMs prepared from the affected sperm membranes have not been investigated so far. Results Spermatozoa were treated with the selected detergents Pluronic F-127, sodium cholate, CHAPS, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Brij 96V. Different patterns of membrane disintegration were observed by light and electron microscopy. In accordance with microscopic data, different amounts of lipids and proteins were released from the cells by the different detergents. The biochemical methods to assay the phosphorus and cholesterol contents as well as 31P NMR to determine the phospholipids were not influenced by the presence of detergents since comparable amounts of lipids were detected in the organic extracts from whole cell suspensions after exposure to each detergent. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to identify phospholipids was essentially disturbed by the presence of detergents which exerted particular suppression effects on signal intensities. After separation of the membrane fractions released by detergents on a sucrose gradient only Triton X-100 and sodium cholate produced sharp turbid DRM bands. Only membrane solubilisation by Triton X-100 leads to an enrichment of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine in a visible DRM band accompanied by a selective accumulation of proteins. Conclusion The boar sperm membranes are solubilised to a different extent by the used detergents. Particularly, the very unique DRMs isolated after Triton X-100 exposure are interesting candidates for further studies regarding the

  14. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D.; Becich, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Musen, Mark A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  16. PDA对我国外文电子期刊资源联合采购的影响研究%Study on the Inlfuence of Patron Driven Acquisition(PDA)on the Joint Purchase of the Foreign Electronic Periodical Resources Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴进琼

    2016-01-01

    Patron driven Acquisition,PDA(读者决策采购)在国外图书馆电子图书联合采购中效益非常明显。如果把它引进我国高校图书馆电子期刊文献资源特别是外文电子期刊联合采购中,将会对我国的电子期刊文献资源建设起到非常重要的作用。本文主要对把读者决策采购PDA模式对我国高校图书馆外文电子期刊文献资源联合采购的影响进行论述。%The Benefit of Patron-driven Acquisition(PDA)is very obvious in the foreign library electronic book purchase.PDA will play an very important role to our country's electronic resources construction especially foreign electronic journal if it is introduced into the electronic journal literature resources joint purchase in our country university libraries.This article mainly discusses the influence of the PDA mode on the purchase of the foreign electronic journals of University Libraries in China.

  17. Open Educational Resources (1): Wat hebben we nodig?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Westera, W. (2010). Open Educational Resources (1): Wat hebben we nodig? Electronic article on SURFspace. SURF foundation: Utrecht. Retrieved december 14 at http://www.surfspace.nl/nl/Artikelen/Pages/OpenEducationalResources(1)Wathebbenwenodig.aspx

  18. Open Educational Resources (2): Hoe dekken we de kosten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Westera, W. (2010). Open Educational Resources (2): Hoe dekken we de kosten? Electronic article on SURFspace. SURF foundation: Utrecht. Retrieved december 14 at http://www.surfspace.nl/nl/Artikelen/Pages/OpenEducationalResources(2)Hoedekkenwedekosten.aspx

  19. The Use of Resources in Resource Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Wernerfelt, Birger

    2010-01-01

    The author considers the processes through which a firm can acquire resources and argues that its current stock of resources create asymmetries in competition for new resources. Two simple models illustrate how this can work through linkages on the demand and/or cost side. The normative implication is that firms should expand their resource portfolios by building on their existing resources; different firms will then acquire different new resources, and small initial heterogeneities will ampl...

  20. Rapid method for DNA extraction from the honey bee Apis mellifera and the parasitic bee mite Varroa destructor using lysis buffer and proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, M R C; Figueiredo, V L C; De Jong, D; Sakamoto, C H; Simões, Z L P

    2013-10-22

    We developed a rapid method for extraction of DNA from honey bees, Apis mellifera, and from the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The advantages include fast processing and low toxicity of the substances that are utilized. We used lysis buffer with nonionic detergents to lyse cell walls and proteinase K to digest proteins. We tested whole thorax, thoracic muscle mass, legs, and antennae from individual bees; the mites were processed whole (1 mite/sample). Each thorax was incubated whole, without cutting, because exocuticle color pigment darkened the extraction solution, interfering with PCR results. The procedure was performed with autoclaved equipment and laboratory gloves. For each sample, we used 100 µL lysis buffer (2 mL stock solution of 0.5 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.5, 10 mL stock solution of 2 M KCl, 500 µL solution of 1 M MgCl2, 2 mL NP40, and 27.6 g sucrose, completed to 200 mL with bidistilled water and autoclaved) and 2 µL proteinase K (10 mg/mL in bidistilled water previously autoclaved, as proteinase K cannot be autoclaved). Tissues were incubated in the solutions for 1-2 h in a water bath (62°-68 °C) or overnight at 37 °C. After incubation, the tissues were removed from the extraction solution (lysis buffer + proteinase K) and the solution heated to 92 °C for 10 min, for proteinase K inactivation. Then, the solution with the extracted DNA was stored in a refrigerator (4°-8 °C) or a freezer (-20 °C). This method does not require centrifugation or phenol/chloroform extraction. The reduced number of steps allowed us to sample many individuals/day. Whole mites and bee antennae were the most rapidly processed. All bee tissues gave the same quality DNA. This method, even using a single bee antenna or a single mite, was adequate for extraction and analysis of bee genomic and mitochondrial DNA and mite genomic DNA.

  1. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

  2. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Lysis to Kill: Evaluation of the Lytic Abilities, and Genomics of Nine Bacteriophages Infective for Gordonia spp. and Their Potential Use in Activated Sludge Foam Biocontrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe A Dyson

    Full Text Available Nine bacteriophages (phages infective for members of the genus Gordonia were isolated from wastewater and other natural water environments using standard enrichment techniques. The majority were broad host range phages targeting more than one Gordonia species. When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time. Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements. Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700. TEM sample preparation techniques were developed to view both attachment and replication stages of phage infection.

  4. Simple and Efficient Method for Measuring Anti-Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin Antibodies in Human Sera Using Complement-Mediated Lysis of Transgenic Tachyzoites Expressing β-Galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Caroline; Gabriel, Katie E.; Remington, Jack S.; Parmley, Stephen F.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method using transgenic Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites expressing β-galactosidase was developed for detection of specific antibodies against the parasite in sera of patients. The titers obtained with the new test were similar to those obtained with the Sabin-Feldman dye test run in parallel. Although significant changes in endpoint titers were not observed when sera drawn sequentially at 2- to 3-week intervals were tested with both procedures, apparent differences in antibody affinity were observed with the new test which were not perceptible with the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Like the Sabin-Feldman dye test, the new test is based on complement lysis of tachyzoites, but it is much easier to perform and the reaction is read colorimetrically instead of visually. PMID:11376045

  5. Factors involved in the regulation of early enzyme synthesis and lysis of Escherichia coli B infected with bacteriophage T4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of T4/sup +/-infected Escherichia coli cells to display handling-induced lysis may implicate the activity of a known, untested gene, or a heretofore undiscovered gene. This gene product may be involved in the normal lytic process; it may be a new phage-induced phospholipase or a late function that activates a latent E. coli phospholipase. Another possibility is that the late function is involved in membrane biosynthesis or modification. Alternatively, the required late protein(s) may have some other role that only secondarily affects the cell's permeability barrier. Whatever the case may be, this work is of practical interest since chilling and centrifugation of infected cells are very common procedures and researchers should be aware of any handling-induced damage.

  6. Toll recognition signal activates oenocytoid cell lysis via a crosstalk between plasmatocyte-spreading peptide and eicosanoids in response to a fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-A; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-10-01

    Plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP) activates hemocyte-spreading behavior in response to various microbial pathogens. Its homolog, growth-blocking peptide, has several functions that activate immune cells and induce oenocytoid cell lysis (OCL). OCL is required for release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Injection of PSP to S. exigua larvae significantly induced in vivo OCL and resulted in significant increase of phenoloxidase (PO) activity. A fungal infection induced PSP expression and also significantly increased OCL. RNA interference (RNAi) of PSP expression significantly suppressed OCL induction and subsequently inhibited PO activation. Interestingly, an addition of dexamethasone (a specific phospholipase A₂ inhibitor) inhibited the PSP activity to induce OCL. Toll signal pathway was associated with PSP action on inducing OCL because RNAi of Toll expression suppressed PSP expression and subsequent OCL induction. However, an addition of PSP to the larvae under RNAi of Toll expression rescued the progress of OCL.

  7. Vitamin D₃ and monomethyl fumarate enhance natural killer cell lysis of dendritic cells and ameliorate the clinical score in mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaderi, Zaidoon; Maghazachi, Azzam A

    2015-11-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4⁺ T cell mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease that is induced in mice by administration of peptides derived from myelin proteins. We developed EAE in SJL mice by administration of PLP139-151 peptide. The effect of treating these mice with 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (vitamin D₃), or with monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was then examined. We observed that both vitamin D₃ and MMF inhibited and/or prevented EAE in these mice. These findings were corroborated with isolating natural killer (NK) cells from vitamin D₃-treated or MMF-treated EAE mice that lysed immature or mature dendritic cells. The results support and extend other findings indicating that an important mechanism of action for drugs used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) is to enhance NK cell lysis of dendritic cells.

  8. Contaminating coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated in a lysis-centrifugation (Isolator) blood culture system. Application of different epidemiological markers for deduction of mode of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpi, M; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Rosdahl, V T

    1988-07-01

    The lysis-centrifugation blood culture system, Isolator, is a promising system with respect to detection of many significant microorganisms, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae, as compared with conventional systems. A drawback of the Isolator system is a disturbingly high rate of clinically insignificant, supposedly contaminating coagulase-negative staphylococci, which leads to considerable waste of time and materials in the laboratory. Several sources of these isolates have been proposed (viz. the patient, the ward environment, the laboratory handling, and the plate media). The aim of this study was to pinpoint the origin of these clinically doubtful coagulase-negative staphylococci, using different epidemiological markers, such as species identification, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, phage-types, and plasmid profiles. Plasmid profile analysis proved to be more discriminating than the other techniques and made it possible to conclude that the laboratory handling of the Isolator system was a major source of coagulase-negative staphylococci in this system.

  9. Role of serum sodium in assessing hospital mortality in cancer patients with spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome inducing acute uric acid nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-H; Chen, Y-C; Tian, Y-C; Chan, Y-L; Kuo, M-C; Tang, C-C; Fang, J-T; Lee, S-Y; Yang, C-W

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome (STLS) inducing acute uric acid nephropathy, a rare and neglected disease, presents more insidiously than conventional post-treatment tumour lysis syndrome. Although STLS is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with neoplastic disorders, few investigations have addressed the relevance of clinical and laboratory features in assessing prognosis. A retrospective study was conducted, reviewing the records of all patients who developed acute renal failure (ARF) at Chang Gung memorial hospital between 1 July 1999 and 30 June 2003. STLS-induced acute uric acid nephropathy was identified in 12 of 1072 ARF patients (1.1%) during the study period. All patients had advanced stage tumours with large tumour burden, and 66.7% of cases had abdominal organ involvement. All 12 hyperuricemic patients became oliguric despite conservative therapy, and remained hyperuricemic (21.6 +/- 5.2 mg/dl) before dialysis therapy. Diuresis developed in eight patients (66.7%), with associated resolution of hyperuricemia, azotemia and metabolic derangements following dialysis initiation. Overall hospital mortality was 58.3%. Death in most patients was related to hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on admission. The serum sodium was found to have the best Youden index (0.86) and highest overall prediction accuracy (93%). Moreover, serum sodium and serum albumin for individual patients were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.617, p = 0.032). This investigation confirms a grave prognosis for cancer patients with STLS inducing acute uric acid nephropathy. Hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on the first day of admission indicate poor prognosis in such patients.

  10. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  11. [Lysis of the incus long process and incudostapedial rebridging ossiculoplasty: comparative study of titanium-gold angle prosthesis Plester-type versus Martin Incudo prosthesis hydroxylapatite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M B; Martin, C; Schmerber, S

    2013-01-01

    We report two surgical techniques devised to restore a disrupted incudostapedial joint. Thirty patients underwent rebridging of distal portion of incus long process in the ENT Department of University of Grenoble and Saint-Etienne, between October 1998 and September 2002. Two types of ossicular prostheses were used: A titanium-gold angle prosthesis according to Plester Winkel Kurz (n = 16 patients), and a hydroxylapatite prosthesis as Martin Incudo Prosthesis (n = 14 patients). The average hearing gain in short term is of 8.30 dB for the Martin-Incudo group. It is of 5.23 dB in the Winkel group. Seven and three cases of failures (Residual Rinne > 20 dB) were noticed respectively in the groups Martin-Incudo and Winkel. Seven and four cases of labyrinthisation were observed respectively in the groups Martin-Incudo and Winkel. The average hearing gain in long term is 3.43 dB in the Martin-Incudo group; and 2.85 dB among patients with Winkel Kurz prosthesis. Average residual Rinne is higher than 20 dB in the Winkel group. The hearing gain is not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). The titanium partial prosthesis did not give good functional results. In the case of a limited lysis (< 2 mm) of the distal portion of incus, we use the cement or cartilage interposition. When ossicular chain cannot be preserved entirely, we privilege incus transposition or a titanium PORP. The Martin-Incudo prosthesis seems interesting in the event of lysis of 2 mm of the long process of incus, nevertheless engineering changes are necessary in order to make rigid the incudostapedial joint.

  12. Redirected lysis of human melanoma cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody that engages patient-derived T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Morton, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors were cocultured with melanoma cells at effector:target ratios of 1:1, 1:5, or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose-dependent and effector:target ratio-dependent manner, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we cocultured unstimulated PBMCs with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8 T cells were prestimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT-3 and interleukin-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. As MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation.

  13. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  14. T4噬菌体的组装、感染及细胞裂解%Assembly, Infection and Cell Lysis of Bacteriophage T4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晨; 逯凯; 任慧英

    2011-01-01

    To further develop and utilize T4 phage display and phage therapy, and open the broader prospect for the progress in study of T4 phage, the important components of T4 phage particles was analyzed by molecular biology techniques, such as the head, the tail and the basement. The protein composition of these structure were confirmed. DNA packing which was an important part in the assembly of T4 phage particle was described in detail. Not only the phenomenon of infection and lysis, but also the superinfection exclusion and lysis inhibition in T4 life cycles introduced with molecular mechanism and impact factor. The assembly and infection mechanism of T4 phage would be known much better by these research.%为深入开发利用T4噬菌体展示系统及T4噬菌体的临床细菌病治疗,应用现代各种分子生物学手段,在蛋白分子和组成结构上对T4噬菌体颗粒的各个重要组成部分进行分析,例如头部、尾部和尾板,描述了其蛋白构成和各种影响因子,并着重介绍了在噬菌体装配中最为重要的DNA的包装.同时针对噬菌体T4的感染与超感染免疫性和感染所导致的细胞裂解和裂解抑制等方面,介绍了这些现象发生的分子机制和影响因素.以期对T4噬菌体的分子装配和侵染机制有更为深刻的了解.

  15. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia R; Malamas, Anthony S; Tsang, Kwong Y; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W

    2016-02-16

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  17. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  18. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 25 residues of phage MS2 coded lysis protein dissipates the protonmotive force in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles by generating hydrophilic pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, Wil H.F.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Wilschut, Jan; Duin, Jan van

    1988-01-01

    The RNA phage MS2 encodes a protein, 75 amino acids long, that is necessary and sufficient for lysis of the host cell. DNA deletion analysis has shown that the lytic activity is confined to the C-terminal half of the protein. We have examined the effects of a synthetic peptide, covering the C-termin

  19. Bacteriophage cell lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli for top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 1 & 2 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-light mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Analysis of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) often relies upon sample preparation methods that result in cell lysis, e.g. bead-beating. However, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can undergo bacteriophage...

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Tull

    2005-01-01

    .... This article focuses on one aspect of ERM, the integration of the module with the Web OPAC, and describes how the Ohio State University Libraries replaced a back-end database with ERM to support...

  2. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  3. Optimization of cell lysis conditions of soybean dregs in the process of DNA extraction by response surface methodology%响应面法优化豆渣DNA提取中的细胞裂解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴菜建; 李娜; 江秀霞; 樊星; 邵美丽

    2012-01-01

    采用响应面法对豆渣DNA提取中的细胞裂解工艺进行优化。在单因素实验基础上.选取SDS(十二烷基硫酸钠)浓度、裂解液pH、裂解温度为影响因子,利用Box-Behnken中心组合进行三因素三水平的实验设计,以DNA提取率为响应值,进行响应面分析。结果表明,裂解时间70min时,豆渣细胞裂解的最优条件为:SDS浓度1.84%、裂解液pH5.95、裂解温度81℃。在此条件下,DNA提取率的理论值为0.63%,实测值为0.625%。%Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the cell lysis conditions of soybean dregs in the process of DNA extraction. Based on single-factor experiment,three independent variables, namely the concentration of Sodium dodecy sulfate(SDS),pH and lysis temperature,were selected as affecting factors during lysis. The experiment was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite design. The results showed that the optimum lysis conditions for soybean dregs were as follows.concentration of SDS was 1.84% ,pH was 5.95,1ysis temperature was 81℃ when lysis time was 70min. The predicted DNA extraction yield was 0.63% ,while the actual extraction yield was 0.625%.

  4. Hammurabi and the Electronic Age: Documenting Electronic Collecting Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedunok, Suzanne

    1996-01-01

    Presents a list of commonly used elements found in a number of electronic information collection development policy statements collected by an American Library Association committee. The article concludes with a selected annotated bibliography of 14 sources relating to collection development policies for electronic information resources.…

  5. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  6. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  7. Preliminary Clinical Application of Massage Lysis on Posterior Atlantooccipital Membrane%寰枕后膜推拿松解术的初步临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于高潞; 英健民; 李茵; 史华敬; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of massage lysis on posterior atlantooccipital membrane (PAM) for treating contracture syndrome of PAM. Methods: All 60 patients in our division from October 2008 to May 2010 were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. The patients of treatment group were treated with massage lysis on PAM, and the patients of control group were treated with dexamethasone and chlorzoxazone tablets. Ten days was a course of treatment, and observed for two courses. All the patients were followed up. Results: The atlantooccipital space in the treatment group was significantly improved than control group (P<0. 01). All the CDFI index of vertebral artery in the treatment group were improved obviously than the control group (P<0. 05). The total effective rate of the treatment group and control group was 93. 33% and 56. 70% respectively (P<0. 05). Conclusion: The method of massage lysis of PAM, as a new way to treat contracture syndrome of PAM, is used feasibly and practically in clinic for its advantages of safe, convenient, and cheap.%目的:观察寰枕后膜推拿松解术治疗寰枕后膜挛缩症的临床疗效.方法:对2008年10月~2010年5月我科收治寰枕后膜挛缩症患者60例,运用SPSS16.0随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例.治疗组采用寰枕后膜松解术;对照组给予地塞米松和氯唑沙宗口服,10d为1个疗程,观察2个疗程.所有患者均进行随访.结果:治疗组寰枕后间隙间距改善情况明显高于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组椎动脉各项指标(CDFI)改善情况明显高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组总有效率为93.33%,对照组总有效率56.70%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:寰枕后膜推拿松解术作为治疗寰枕后膜挛缩症的新方法,具有安全、简便、廉验的特点,具有一定临床实用及推广价值.

  8. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  9. Attachment of an anti-receptor antibody to non-target cells renders them susceptible to lysis by a clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, D M; Tonegawa, S; Eisen, H N

    1984-12-01

    The molecular basis for the dependence of antigen recognition by T cells on products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is unknown, and the antigenic structures that are actually bound by T-cell receptors are ill-defined. In this study, we asked whether a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that reacts with the T-cell receptor of a clone of murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and not with the receptors of other CTL clones can substitute for that clone's natural ligand in specific cytolytic reactions. To answer the question, a mAb (1B2) to the receptor of a CTL clone (2C) was attached covalently to 51Cr-labeled cells that were not otherwise susceptible to lysis by clone 2C, and the cells thus modified were then tested as targets for clone 2C and other CTL clones of similar specificity. All labeled cells modified in this way, including a murine cell line that expresses no cell-surface MHC class I molecules and a human cell line, were lysed by clone 2C but not by other CTL clones. If, however, instead of attaching the mAb to the receptor of clone 2C, the cells were modified by attaching to them mAbs to other surface antigens on CTL [lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1), Thy-1.2], they were not lysed. In cytolytic titrations, the cells that had been converted by attachment of mAb 1B2 into specific targets for clone 2C were just as susceptible to lysis by that clone as the clone's natural H-2d targets (e.g., P815 cells). However, some accessory surface molecules (LFA-1, Lyt-2) that are required for clone 2C to lyse its natural H-2d targets seemed not to be required for this clone to lyse the mAb-converted target cells. By demonstrating that a variety of different cell types can be thus converted into target cells for CTL, the approach described in this study may provide opportunities to analyze further the mechanisms by which CTL destroy target cells.

  10. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  11. Negotiating for Critical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Frank P.

    1994-01-01

    School districts dependent on outside resources must develop skills for securing educational resources, including competencies in collaborative, creative, and principled resource management. Constructive negotiations between local and provincial levels of government can improve relationships and support the development of collaborative…

  12. Phospholipid bilayer-perturbing properties underlying lysis induced by pH-sensitive cationic lysine-based surfactants in biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Daniele Rubert; Mitjans, Montserrat; Busquets, M Antonia; Pérez, Lourdes; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2012-08-14

    Amino acid-based surfactants constitute an important class of natural surface-active biomolecules with an unpredictable number of industrial applications. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of surfactant-induced membrane destabilization, we assessed the phospholipid bilayer-perturbing properties of new cationic lysine-based surfactants. We used erythrocytes as biomembrane models to study the hemolytic activity of surfactants and their effects on cells' osmotic resistance and morphology, as well as on membrane fluidity and membrane protein profile with varying pH. The antihemolytic capacity of amphiphiles correlated negatively with the length of the alkyl chain. Anisotropy measurements showed that the pH-sensitive surfactants, with the positive charge on the α-amino group of lysine, significantly increased membrane fluidity at acidic conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that surfactants induced significant degradation of membrane proteins in hypo-osmotic medium and at pH 5.4. By scanning electron microscopy examinations, we corroborated the interaction of surfactants with lipid bilayer. We found that varying the surfactant chemical structure is a way to modulate the positioning of the molecule inside bilayer and, thus, the overall effect on the membrane. Our work showed that pH-sensitive lysine-based surfactants significantly disturb the lipid bilayer of biomembranes especially at acidic conditions, which suggests that these compounds are promising as a new class of multifunctional bioactive excipients for active intracellular drug delivery.

  13. Kinetics of cell lysis for Microcystis aeruginosa and Nitzschia palea in the exposure to {beta}-cyclocitral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, De-Wei; Hsieh, Meng-Ling [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yan-Min [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tsair-Fuh, E-mail: tflin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-30

    The effect of an algal metabolite, {beta}-cyclocitral, on the cell integrity of two cyanobacteria and one diatom was investigated. The cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7005 and PCC 7820, and the diatom, Nitzschia palea, were exposed to various concentrations of {beta}-cyclocitral. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results indicate that the cells of tested species were greatly altered after being exposed to {beta}-cyclocitral. A flow cytometer coupled with the SYTOX stain and chlorophyll-a auto-fluorescence was used to quantify the effect of {beta}-cyclocitral on cell integrity for the tested cyanobacteria and diatom. Kinetic experiments show that about 5-10 mg L{sup -1} of {beta}-cyclocitral for the two M. aeruginosa strains and a much lower concentration, 0.1-0.5 mg L{sup -1}, for N. palea were needed to cause 15-20% of cells to rupture. When the {beta}-cyclocitral concentration was increased to 200-1000 mg L{sup -1} for M. aeruginosa and 5-10 mg L{sup -1} for N. palea, almost all the cells ruptured between 8 and 24 h. A first-order kinetic model is able to describe the data of cell integrity over time. The extracted rate constant values well correlate with the applied {beta}-cyclocitral dosages. The obtained kinetic parameters may be used to estimate {beta}-cyclocitral dosage and contact time required for the control of cyanobacteria and diatoms in water bodies.

  14. Digital Knowledge Resources Sharing Through Online Distance Education Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josephine; Yu; Chen; Sche

    2002-01-01

    Since the electronic resources and Internet Web sites became popular, distance education courses offered via the Internet could play an important role in providing global digital resources and teaching the knowledge of international library and information standards for bibliographic databases with electronic and web resources.This paper uses the example of the author's new online course: ILS 608 Cataloging and Development of a Digital Union Catalog for Ancient Chinese Books to demonstrate the global re...

  15. Cell lysis and DNA extraction of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from whole blood in a disposable microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Al-Muayad, Hussam; Kulinski, M Dominika; Altman, Dave; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2009-10-07

    Sepsis caused by gram positive and gram negative bacteria is the leading cause of death in noncoronary ICUs and the tenth leading cause of death in the United States. We have developed a microfluidic sample preparation platform for rapid on-chip detection of infectious organisms for point-of-care diagnostics. The microfluidic chips are made of a robust thermoplastic and can be easily multiplexed for high throughput applications. Bacteria are lysed on-chip via hybrid chemical/mechanical method. Once lysed, the bacterial DNA is isolated using a microscale silica bead/polymer composite solid-phase-extraction (SPE) column. Lysis was confirmed using off-chip real time PCR. We isolated and detected both gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Bacillussubtilis and Enterococcus faecalis) bacterial genomic DNA from microliter scale spiked whole human blood samples. The system performs better for gram-negative bacteria than it does for gram-positive bacteria, with limits of detection at 10(2) CFU/ml and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/ml, respectively. Total extraction times are less than one hour and can be further decreased by altering the channel geometry and pumping configuration.

  16. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Impair Natural Killer Cell Function and Exhibit Low Susceptibility to Natural Killer-Mediated Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelaRosa, Olga; Sánchez-Correa, Beatriz; Morgado, Sara; Ramírez, Cristina; del Río, Borja; Menta, Ramón; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2012-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been successfully used in treating numerous diseases. However, several aspects need to be considered, particularly in the context of allogeneic cell therapy. To better understand hASCs-host interactions, we studied the phenotype of hASCs and their modulatory effect on natural killer (NK) cells by using bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) as a reference. The hASCs displayed a lower susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis and a lower expression of ligands for DNAM-1 when compared with hBM-MSCs. Moreover, here we demonstrated that hASCs and hBM-MSCs can modulate NK cells through the action of soluble factors such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Altogether, these results suggest that for an adoptive cell therapy based on the transfer of allogeneic hASCs, the NK-hASCs crosstalk will not result in an immediate recognition of the transferred cells. Thus, hASCs may remain in the tissue long enough to balance the immune response before being cleared. PMID:21867426

  17. Peptidomic profiling of secreted products from pancreatic islet culture results in a higher yield of full-length peptide hormones than found using cell lysis procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven W; Nikoulina, Svetlana E; Andon, Nancy L; Lowe, Carolyn

    2013-08-02

    Peptide Hormone Acquisition through Smart Sampling Technique-Mass Spectrometry (PHASST-MS) is a peptidomics platform that employs high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques to identify peptide hormones secreted from in vitro or ex vivo cultures enriched in endocrine cells. Application of the methodology to the study of murine pancreatic islets has permitted evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach, as well as comparison of our results with published islet studies that employed traditional cellular lysis procedures. We found that, while our PHASST-MS approach identified fewer peptides in total, we had greater representation of intact peptide hormones. The technique was further refined to improve coverage of hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic peptides and subsequently applied to human pancreatic islet cultures derived from normal donors or donors with type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, in addition to the expected islet hormones, we identified alpha-cell-derived bioactive GLP-1, consistent with recent reports of paracrine effects of this hormone on beta-cell function. We also identified many novel peptides derived from neurohormonal precursors and proteins related to the cell secretory system. Taken together, these results suggest the PHASST-MS strategy of focusing on cellular secreted products rather than the total tissue peptidome may improve the probability of discovering novel bioactive peptides and also has the potential to offer important new insights into the secretion and function of known hormones.

  18. Neutralization of (NK-cell-derived) B-cell activating factor by Belimumab restores sensitivity of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells to direct and Rituximab-induced NK lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J; Schmiedel, B J; Maurer, A; Raab, S; Prokop, L; Stevanović, S; Dörfel, D; Schneider, P; Salih, H R

    2015-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that substantially contribute to the therapeutic benefit of antitumor antibodies like Rituximab, a crucial component in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the ability of NK cells to lyse the malignant cells and to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity upon Fc receptor stimulation is compromised, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. We report here that NK-cells activation-dependently produce the tumor necrosis factor family member 'B-cell activating factor' (BAFF) in soluble form with no detectable surface expression, also in response to Fc receptor triggering by therapeutic CD20-antibodies. BAFF in turn enhanced the metabolic activity of primary CLL cells and impaired direct and Rituximab-induced lysis of CLL cells without affecting NK reactivity per se. The neutralizing BAFF antibody Belimumab, which is approved for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, prevented the effects of BAFF on the metabolism of CLL cells and restored their susceptibility to direct and Rituximab-induced NK-cell killing in allogeneic and autologous experimental systems. Our findings unravel the involvement of BAFF in the resistance of CLL cells to NK-cell antitumor immunity and Rituximab treatment and point to a benefit of combinatory approaches employing BAFF-neutralizing drugs in B-cell malignancies.

  19. The challenges of treating paraganglioma patients with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE PRRT: Catecholamine crises, tumor lysis syndrome and the need for modification of treatment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William; Mccann, Karey; Mcewan, Alexander J. B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta (China)

    2015-09-15

    A high percentage of paragangliomas express somatostatin receptors that can be utilized for targeted radioisotope therapy. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the challenges of treating these tumors with {sup 177}Lu-[DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) radioisotope therapy using established protocols. Three paraganglioma patients were treated with 4–5 cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and were evaluated for side effects and response to therapy. Two of the three patients developed severe adverse reactions following their first {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. One patient developed a catecholamine crisis and tumor lysis syndrome within hours of treatment, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support, and another developed a catecholamine crisis 3 days after treatment, requiring hospitalization. The treatment protocols at our institution were subsequently modified by increasing the radioisotope infusion time from 15 to 30 min, as recommended in the literature, to 2–4 h and by reducing the administered dose of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Subsequent {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatments utilizing the modified protocols were well tolerated, and response to therapy was achieved in all three patients, resulting in significantly improved quality of life. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE is an exciting new therapeutic option in the management of paragangliomas; however, current treatment protocols described in the literature may need to be modified by lengthening the infusion time and/or lowering the initial treatment dose to prevent or reduce the severity of adverse reactions.

  20. Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes reprograms M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages in ovarian cancer leading to iNOS-mediated tumor cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Patrick H; Baird, Jason R; Stevens, Cynthia A; Lauer, Peter; Green, William R; Brockstedt, Dirk G; Fiering, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    A principal mechanism by which tumors evade immune-mediated elimination is through immunosuppression. Previous approaches to tumor immunotherapy have focused on modifying the immunosuppressive environment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, cytokine therapy, and other modalities with the intent to generate T-cell based anti-tumor immunity. We hypothesized that transformation of the suppressive ovarian cancer microenvironment could be achieved by introduction of the attenuated ΔactA/ΔinlB strain of Listeria monocytogenes. ΔactA/ΔinlB introduced into the microenvironment of the aggressive ID8-Defb29/Vegf-A murine ovarian carcinoma is preferentially phagocytosed by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and reprograms that population from one of suppression to immunostimulation. TAMs in the peritoneum upregulated their co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines, and downregulated transcription of suppressive effector molecules. Surprisingly, therapeutic benefit was not mediated by T- or NK-cell activity. ΔactA/ΔinlB-induced repolarization of TAMs activated direct tumor cell lysis via Nos2 production of nitric oxide. Modulation of the immunosuppressive nature of the ID8-Defb29/Vegf-A microenvironment, specifically by reprogramming of the TAM suppressive population from M2 to M1 polarization, is critical for our observed immune-mediated survival benefit.