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Sample records for lysine-derived antifibrinolytic drugs

  1. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

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    Jalpa Makwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA and tranexamic acid (TA] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indications and correct dose, is still insufficient. Antifibrinolytics behave like a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are benefits of less transfusion requirements but on the other hand there is potential complication like thromboembolism, which has been reported in several studies. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Cochrane Library, and we included studies wherein antifibrinolytic drugs (EACA, TA, or aprotinin were compared with each other or with controls/placebo. We analysed factors like intraoperative red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma requirements, the perioperative incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis, venous thromboembolic events and mortality. Among the three drugs, EACA is least studied. Use of extensively studied drug like aprotinin has been restricted because of its side effects. Haemostatic effect of aprotinin and tranexamic acid has been comparable. However, proper patient selection and individualized treatment for each of them is required. Purpose of this review is to study various clinical trials on antifibrinolytic drugs and address the related issues like benefits claimed and associated potential complications.

  2. Effect of antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement and blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation: Results from a single center

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    Devi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, activation of the fibrinolytic system can contribute significantly to perioperative bleeding. Prophylactic administration of antifibrinolytic agents has been shown to reduce blood loss and the need for allogenic transfusion. Objective: To study the effect of antifibrinolytics on requirement of blood components, blood loss and operative time during OLT in patients with end stage liver disease, reporting to a single centre. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent OLT at this centre during the period February 2003-October 2007 were the subjects of this study. Based on the individual anesthesiologist′s preference, patients were assigned to receive either two million units of aprotinin (AP as a bolus followed by 5,00,000 units/hour or 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid (TAas a bolus followed by 10 mg/kg every six to eight hours, administered from the induction till the end of the surgery. Transfusion policy was standardized in all patients. Intraoperative red cell salvage was done wherever possible. The effect of these two antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement was evaluated as a whole and in a sub group of patients from each treatment group and compared with a concurrent control group that did not receive antifibrinolytic drugs. Results: Fifty patients (40 M / 10 F, 44 adults, 6 pediatric patients underwent OLT in the study period. Fourteen patients were given AP, 25 patients were given TA and 11 patients did not receive any of the agents(control group. The median volume of total blood components transfused in antifibrinolytic group (n=39 was 4540 ml(0-19,200ml, blood loss 5 l(0.7-35l and operative time 9h (4.5-17h and that of control group(n=11 was 5700 ml(0-15,500ml, 10 l(0.6-25 l and 9h (6.4-15.8h respectively. The median volume of blood transfusions, blood loss and operative time was lesser in AP group(n=14 than that of TA group(n=25. Conclusion: There is definite

  3. Determinants of Bleeding Risk in Patients on Antithrombotic and Antifibrinolytic Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Karina; Schulman, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The risk of bleeding associated with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic therapy depends on factors that are specific for the drugs and the patients. In this narrative review, we describe the most important risk factors for bleeding for each class of drugs. Pertinent examples are recent initiation of th

  4. Determinants of Bleeding Risk in Patients on Antithrombotic and Antifibrinolytic Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Karina; Schulman, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The risk of bleeding associated with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic therapy depends on factors that are specific for the drugs and the patients. In this narrative review, we describe the most important risk factors for bleeding for each class of drugs. Pertinent examples are recent initiation of

  5. Excited-State Dynamics of Melamine and Its Lysine Derivative Investigated by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

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    Yuyuan Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melamine may have been an important prebiotic information carrier, but its excited-state dynamics, which determine its stability under UV radiation, have never been characterized. The ability of melamine to withstand the strong UV radiation present on the surface of the early Earth is likely to have affected its abundance in the primordial soup. Here, we studied the excited-state dynamics of melamine (a proto-nucleobase and its lysine derivative (a proto-nucleoside using the transient absorption technique with a UV pump, and UV and infrared probe pulses. For melamine, the excited-state population decays by internal conversion with a lifetime of 13 ps without coupling significantly to any photochemical channels. The excited-state lifetime of the lysine derivative is slightly longer (18 ps, but the dominant deactivation pathway is otherwise the same as for melamine. In both cases, the vast majority of excited molecules return to the electronic ground state on the aforementioned time scales, but a minor population is trapped in a long-lived triplet state.

  6. Excited-State Dynamics of Melamine and Its Lysine Derivative Investigated by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

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    Zhang, Yuyuan; Beckstead, Ashley A; Hu, Yuesong; Piao, Xijun; Bong, Dennis; Kohler, Bern

    2016-11-30

    Melamine may have been an important prebiotic information carrier, but its excited-state dynamics, which determine its stability under UV radiation, have never been characterized. The ability of melamine to withstand the strong UV radiation present on the surface of the early Earth is likely to have affected its abundance in the primordial soup. Here, we studied the excited-state dynamics of melamine (a proto-nucleobase) and its lysine derivative (a proto-nucleoside) using the transient absorption technique with a UV pump, and UV and infrared probe pulses. For melamine, the excited-state population decays by internal conversion with a lifetime of 13 ps without coupling significantly to any photochemical channels. The excited-state lifetime of the lysine derivative is slightly longer (18 ps), but the dominant deactivation pathway is otherwise the same as for melamine. In both cases, the vast majority of excited molecules return to the electronic ground state on the aforementioned time scales, but a minor population is trapped in a long-lived triplet state.

  7. Structural basis for the site-specific incorporation of lysine derivatives into proteins.

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    Veronika Flügel

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins determine their structure-function relationships, interaction partners, as well as their fate in the cell and are crucial for many cellular key processes. For instance chromatin structure and hence gene expression is epigenetically regulated by acetylation or methylation of lysine residues in histones, a phenomenon known as the 'histone code'. Recently it was shown that these lysine residues can furthermore be malonylated, succinylated, butyrylated, propionylated and crotonylated, resulting in significant alteration of gene expression patterns. However the functional implications of these PTMs, which only differ marginally in their chemical structure, is not yet understood. Therefore generation of proteins containing these modified amino acids site specifically is an important tool. In the last decade methods for the translational incorporation of non-natural amino acids using orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS:tRNAaaCUA pairs were developed. A number of studies show that aaRS can be evolved to use non-natural amino acids and expand the genetic code. Nevertheless the wild type pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS from Methanosarcina mazei readily accepts a number of lysine derivatives as substrates. This enzyme can further be engineered by mutagenesis to utilize a range of non-natural amino acids. Here we present structural data on the wild type enzyme in complex with adenylated ε-N-alkynyl-, ε-N-butyryl-, ε-N-crotonyl- and ε-N-propionyl-lysine providing insights into the plasticity of the PylRS active site. This shows that given certain key features in the non-natural amino acid to be incorporated, directed evolution of this enzyme is not necessary for substrate tolerance.

  8. Antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease.

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    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2015-06-09

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. People with liver disease frequently have haemostatic abnormalities such as hyperfibrinolysis. Therefore, antifibrinolytic amino acids have been proposed to be used as supplementary interventions alongside any of the primary treatments for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. This is an update of this Cochrane review. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register (February 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to February 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to February 2015), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to February 2015), LILACS (1982 to February 2015), World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal (accessed 26 February 2015), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (accessed 26 February 2015). We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. Observational studies for assessment of harms. We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using standard Cochrane methodologies and assessed according to the GRADE approach. We found no randomised clinical trials assessing antifibrinolytic amino acids for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We did not identify quasi-randomised, historically controlled, or observational studies in which we could assess harms. This updated Cochrane review identified no randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits and harms of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or

  9. The Effect of Antifibrinolytic Prophylaxis on Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Operations

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    Koul, Abhinav; Ferraris, Victor; Davenport, Daniel L; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2012-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin and epsilon aminocaproic acid limit postoperative bleeding and blood transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac operations using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Recent evidence suggests that these agents have adverse side effects that influence operative mortality and morbidity. We studied postoperative bleeding, transfusion rates, and operative outcomes in our patients in order to assess the efficacy of these agents during cardiac operations requiring CPB. We reviewed records of 520 patients undergoing a variety of cardiac operations between January 2005 and May 2009. We measured multiple variables including pre-operative risk factors, antifibrinolytic agent used, and outcomes of operation, such as measures of bleeding and blood transfusion, as well as serious operative morbidity and mortality. Postoperative bleeding rates varied significantly between patients receiving aprotinin and those receiving aminocaproic acid (P 0.05), though individuals in the aprotinin group did receive FFP more frequently than patients in the aminocaproic acid group (P 0.05). Our study shows that aprotinin is more effective at controlling operative site bleeding than aminocaproic acid. Reduced operative site bleeding did not portend better outcome or differences in transfusion requirements. Aminocaproic acid remains a safe and cost-effective option for antifibrinolytic prophylaxis because of unavailability of aprotinin. PMID:23101999

  10. The safety and efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in neonatal cardiac surgery.

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    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Shuhaiber, Jeffery H; Loyola, Hugo; Liu, Hua; Del Nido, Pedro; DiNardo, James A; Pigula, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Neonates undergoing open-heart surgery are particularly at risk of postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Aprotinin has attained high efficacy in reducing the requirement for a blood transfusion following a cardiopulmonary bypass, but is seldom studied in the neonatal age group. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid in neonates undergoing open-heart surgery at a single centre. Between October 2003 and March 2008, perioperative data of 552 consecutive neonatal patients undergoing open-heart surgery in Children's Hospital Boston were reviewed. Among them, 177 did not receive antifibrinolytic therapy (Group A); 100 were treated with tranexamic acid only (Group B); and 275 patients received aprotinin with or without tranexamic acid (Group C). Except for antifibrinolytic therapy, the anaesthesiological and surgical protocols remained identical. Postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were the primary study endpoints. Body weight and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) scores were statistically comparable among the three groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the duration of hospitalization, chest tube drainage, reexploration for bleeding, and kidney function impairment. In Group C, less blood was transfused within 24 hours than in GroupB. Operative mortality was similar among the three groups. No further risk and kidney injury were observed in the use of aprotinin in neonatal cardiac surgery, aprotinin demonstrated a reduced requirement for blood transfusion compared with tranexamic acid. Our data provide reasonable evidence that aprotinin and tranexamic acid are safe and efficacious as antifibrinolytic modalities in neonatal patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Meng Wang; Xin-Feng Zheng; Lei-Sheng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrosp...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects of thrombomodulin alfa through carboxypeptidase B2 in the presence of thrombin.

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    Tawara, Shunsuke; Sakai, Takumi; Matsuzaki, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) alfa, a recombinant human soluble TM, enhances activation of pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) by thrombin. Activated pro-CPB2 (CPB2) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic activities. Therefore, TM alfa may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2. However, these effects of TM alfa have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TM alfa on inactivation of complement component C5a as an anti-inflammatory effect and prolongation of clot lysis time as an anti-fibrinolytic effect via CPB2 in vitro. CPB2 activity and tissue factor-induced thrombin generation was examined by a chromogenic assay. C5a inactivation was evaluated by C-terminal cleavage of C5a and inhibition of C5a-induced human neutrophil migration. Clot lysis time prolongation was examined by a tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced clot lysis assay. CPB2 activity in human plasma was increased by TM alfa and thrombin in a concentration-dependent manner. TM alfa inhibited tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and enhanced pro-CPB2 activation in human plasma simultaneously. The mass spectrum of C5a treated with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2 was decreased at 156m/z, indicating that TM alfa enhanced the processing of C5a to C-terminal-cleaved C5a, an inactive form of C5a. C5a-induced human neutrophil migration was decreased after C5a treatment with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2. TM alfa prolonged the clot lysis time in human plasma, and this effect was completely abolished by addition of a CPB2 inhibitor. TM alfa exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2 in the presence of thrombin in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal malaria induces a procoagulant and antifibrinolytic state that is embryotoxic but responsive to anticoagulant therapy.

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    John W Avery

    Full Text Available Low birth weight and fetal loss are commonly attributed to malaria in endemic areas, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these poor birth outcomes are incompletely understood. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulated hemostasis is important in malaria pathogenesis, but its role in placental malaria (PM, characterized by intervillous sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum, proinflammatory responses, and excessive fibrin deposition is not known. To address this question, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were assessed in placentae from malaria-exposed primigravid women. PM was associated with significantly elevated placental monocyte and proinflammatory marker levels, enhanced perivillous fibrin deposition, and increased markers of activated coagulation and suppressed fibrinolysis in placental plasma. Submicroscopic PM was not proinflammatory but tended to be procoagulant and antifibrinolytic. Birth weight trended downward in association with placental parasitemia and high fibrin score. To directly assess the importance of coagulation in malaria-induced compromise of pregnancy, Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected pregnant C57BL/6 mice were treated with the anticoagulant, low molecular weight heparin. Treatment rescued pregnancy at midgestation, with substantially decreased rates of active abortion and reduced placental and embryonic hemorrhage and necrosis relative to untreated animals. Together, the results suggest that dysregulated hemostasis may represent a novel therapeutic target in malaria-compromised pregnancies.

  14. Antifibrinolytic agents reduce blood loss during pediatric vertebral column resection procedures.

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    Newton, Peter O; Bastrom, Tracey P; Emans, John B; Shah, Suken A; Shufflebarger, Harry L; Sponseller, Paul D; Sucato, Daniel J; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2012-11-01

    Retrospective multicenter review. To evaluate the effect of intraoperative antifibrinolytic (AF) agents on blood loss associated with vertebral column resection (VCR) procedures for pediatric patients. VCR procedures may be associated with substantial blood loss. A multicenter review of 147 patients (aged EBL) was calculated as percentage of blood volume (BV) (EBL/BV × 100), which was normalized on the basis of the number of vertebral levels removed (%BV/level). The use of AF agents was noted (tranexamic acid [TXA], aminocaproic acid, aprotinin, none) and based on surgeons' choice. EBL was compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for deformity magnitude) (P EBL averaged 1317 mL (range, 50-6026 mL). Eleven patients were excluded: 7 with incomplete data and 4 who received aminocaproic acid (too few to compare). This resulted in 136 cases; 64 with no AF, 42 received TXA, and 30 received aprotinin. Overall %BV/level EBL was 41% ± 39% (range, 6%-162%) and was significantly higher in the no-AF group (52% ± 37%) than the TXA (30% ± 34%; P EBL associated with VCR was highly variable and in many cases exceeded the patient's BV. AF agents were not routinely used and we had insufficient data to assess the efficacy of aminocaproic acid. Both aprotinin and TXA resulted in less EBL than when no AF was used; however, the effect of the reduction varied by site. Aprotinin has since been removed from the market. When normalized to patient size and levels excised, the use of TXA resulted in a reduction in intraoperative EBL.

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors attenuate propofol-induced pro-oxidative and antifibrinolytic effect in human endothelial cells.

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    Wojewodzka-Zelezniakowicz, Marzena; Gromotowicz-Poplawska, Anna; Kisiel, Wioleta; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szemraj, Janusz; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Chabielska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) against propofol-induced endothelial dysfunction and to elucidate the involved mechanisms in vitro. We examined the effects of propofol (50 μM), quinaprilat and enalaprilat (10(-5) M) on fibrinolysis (t-PA, PAI-1, TAFI antigen levels), oxidative stress parameters (H2O2 and MDA antigen levels and SOD and NADPH oxidase mRNA levels) and nitric oxide bioavailability (NO2/NO3 concentration and NOS expression at the level of mRNA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that both ACE-Is promoted similar endothelial fibrinolytic properties and decreased oxidative stress in vitro. Propofol alone increased the release of antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative factors from the endothelium and increased mRNA iNOS expression. We also found that the incubation of HUVECs in the presence of propofol following ACE-Is pre-incubation caused weakness of the antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative potential of propofol and this effect was similar after both ACE-Is. This observation suggests that the studied ACE-Is exerted protective effects against endothelial cell dysfunction caused by propofol, independently of hemodynamics.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors attenuate propofol-induced pro-oxidative and antifibrinolytic effect in human endothelial cells

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    Marzena Wojewodzka-Zelezniakowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is against propofol-induced endothelial dysfunction and to elucidate the involved mechanisms in vitro. Materials and methods: We examined the effects of propofol (50 μM, quinaprilat and enalaprilat (10−5 M on fibrinolysis (t-PA, PAI-1, TAFI antigen levels, oxidative stress parameters (H2O2 and MDA antigen levels and SOD and NADPH oxidase mRNA levels and nitric oxide bioavailability (NO2/NO3 concentration and NOS expression at the level of mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Results: We found that both ACE-Is promoted similar endothelial fibrinolytic properties and decreased oxidative stress in vitro. Propofol alone increased the release of antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative factors from the endothelium and increased mRNA iNOS expression. We also found that the incubation of HUVECs in the presence of propofol following ACE-Is pre-incubation caused weakness of the antifibrinolytic and pro-oxidative potential of propofol and this effect was similar after both ACE-Is. Conclusions: This observation suggests that the studied ACE-Is exerted protective effects against endothelial cell dysfunction caused by propofol, independently of hemodynamics.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Meng Wang

    Full Text Available Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate.To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs, retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs.Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data. Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57-621.94 ml, 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31-465.30, and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64-896.16 ml. The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30-754.67 ml. The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242 in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208 in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25-0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%. All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group.The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements

  18. 抗纤溶治疗对急性早幼粒细胞白血病合并DIC患者脏器功能影响的研究%Analysis of effect of antifibrinolytic therapy on organ function of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with DIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁凯锋; 唐君灵; 张建; 王建英

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨抗纤溶治疗对急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)合并弥漫性血管内凝血(DIC)患者脏器功能的影响.方法:将满足入选标准的21例APL合并DIC患者采用自身前后对照研究的方法进行研究,均给予全反式维A酸(ATRA)诱导分化治疗,同时给予0.9%NS 250ml+止血芳酸3.0g ivgtt抗纤溶治疗,观察抗纤溶治疗1周对患者肝功、肾功、呼吸频率的影响.结果:抗纤溶治疗前后,满足入选标准的APL合并DIC患者的ALT、总胆红素、血肌酐和呼吸频率经配对t检验比较P值均>0.20,差异没有统计学意义,提示抗纤溶治疗对这类患者肝肾功能和呼吸频率影响没有差异.结论:APL合并DIC患者,在存在明显纤溶亢进的条件下,抗纤溶治疗对这类患者脏器功能的影响并不明显.%  Objective: To evaluate the effect of antifibrinolytic therapy on organ function of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with DIC. Methods:21 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia with DIC who met the test standard were given all-trans-retinoic A acid (ATRA) for inducing differentiation therapy, at the same time, for antifibrinolytic therapy,0.9% NS 250ml + aminomethylbenzoic acid 3.0g ivgtt qd were given. After one week, the effects of antifibrinolytic therapy on liver function, renal function, and respiratory rate were observed. Results:Before and after the antifibrinolytic therapy, the ALT, total bilirubin, serum creatinine, and respiratory rate of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with DIC had no significant difference(P>0.20). Conclusion: When the condition of the significant hyperfibrinolysis existed, antifibrinolytic therapy has no obvious effect on organ function of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with DIC.

  19. Alloantibodies and Drug-Induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia in Liver Transplantation

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    Surekha Devi Allanki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell alloantibodies can cause severe delayed hemolysis, despite immunosuppression which they receive posttransplantation. A female patient with Hepatitis C-related chronic liver disease reported to our center for liver transplantation. During preoperative evaluation, she was found to have significant red blood cell alloantibodies which gave rise to problems during pre transfusion compatibility test. Stringent measures were taken by the transplant team to minimize blood loss during surgery. It was decided to have lower transfusion trigger for red cell transfusion, and blood conservation was done by intraoperative red cell salvage and use of antifibrinolytic agent. During immediate postoperative period, she developed drug-related immune hemolytic anemia. Presence of both warm autoantibodies and alloantibodies posed a big challenge for us to get cross-match compatible blood. She received 22 units of crossmatch compatible red cell transfusions during her hospital stay, which was uneventful. Hence, we reported this case.

  20. Drug Facts

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  7. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

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    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  8. Drug allergies

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    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

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  15. Drug Resistance

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    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  17. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  1. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  4. Drugs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs for fever, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, diarrhea, and allergies are common drugs which are especially helpful during times of illness. All medications should be kept out of the reach of children.

  5. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to ...

  7. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Formation of lysine-derived oxidation products and loss of tryptophan during processing of porcine patties with added avocado byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera, Mariana; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-04-18

    The effects of the addition of avocado oil and a phenolic-rich avocado peel extract on protein oxidation were studied in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chilled storage. Protein oxidation was assessed by means of tryptophan loss and the formation of specific lysine oxidation products, such as α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS), α-aminoadipic acid (AAA), and Schiff bases. In the present paper, quantitative data of AAA are reported for the first time on a food matrix. The addition of the avocado extract inhibited the formation of AAS, AAA, and Schiff bases in patties during cooking and subsequent chilled storage. The antioxidant effect may respond to the protecting effect of phenolic compounds, mainly procyanidins, found on the avocado extract. Apparently, the combination of both strategies (back-fat replacement and addition of avocado extract) does not lead to an enhanced advantage on the oxidative stability of the product. The novel methodologies used in the present study enable a better comprehension of the mechanisms and consequences of protein oxidation in food systems.

  9. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  10. Modified hydrotalcite-like compounds as active fillers of biodegradable polymers for drug release and food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena; Tammaro, Loredana; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-11-01

    This review treats the recent patents and related literature, mainly from the Authors laboratories, on biomedical and food packaging applications of nano-composites constituted of biodegradable polymers filled with micro or nano crystals of organically modified Layered Double Hydroxides of Hydrotalcite type. After a brief outline of the chemical and structural aspects of Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) and of their manipulation via intercalation of functional molecular anions to obtain materials for numerous, sometime unexpected applications, the review approaches the theme in three separated parts. Part 1 deals with the synthetic method used to prepare the pristine Mg-Al and Zn-Al HTlc and with the procedures of their functionalization with anti-inflammatory (diclofenac), antibacterial (chloramphenicol hemisuccinate), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid) drugs and with benzoates with antimicrobial activity. Procedures used to form (nano) composites of polycaprolactone, used as an example of biodegradable polymer, and functionalized HTlc are also reported. Part 2 discusses a patent and related papers on the preparation and biomedical use of a controlled delivery system of the above mentioned pharmacologically active substances. After an introduction dealing with the recent progress in the field of local drug delivery systems, the chemical and structural aspects of the patented system constituted of a biodegradable polymer and HTlc loaded with the active substances will be presented together with an extensive discussion of the drug release in physiological medium. Part 3 deals with a recent patent and related papers on chemical, structural and release property of antimicrobial species of polymeric films containing antimicrobial loaded HTlc able to act as active packaging for food products prolonging their shelf life.

  11. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  12. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  13. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  14. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  15. Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Raj K.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of such drugs as marijuana and LSD, with emphasis on drug abuse. It is suggested that it can be used in science classes at the middle level of school. No prerequisites are suggested. The teacher's guide lists the behavioral objectives, the equipment needed to complete the experience and suggests…

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery What is Treatment? Why Does a Person Need ... Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? What Is a Relapse? How Can Friends and ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  2. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  5. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jackets, Yellows, and Zombie Pills Stimulants: Bennies, Black Beauties, Hearts, Roses, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Speed, and ... used to relieve anxiety or help a person sleep, such as Valium or Xanax Stimulants — used for ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  7. Drug-drug interactions: antiretroviral drugs and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Leporini, Christian; Caroleo, Benedetto; Russo, Emilio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are living longer, however, some patients encounter co- morbidities which sometimes require treatment. Therefore, during the treatment with ARV drugs these patients could take several recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, hallucinogenes, opiates, or alcohol) with a possible development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In particular, Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) are mainly excreted through the kidney and are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein, therefore the DDIs during this treatment are minimal. In contrast, the other ARV drugs (i.e. non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, chemokine receptor 5 antagonists and HIV-fusion inhibitors) are an important class of antiretroviral medications that are frequent components of HAART regimens but show several DDIs related to interaction with the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein. In this paper we will review data concerning the possibility of DDI in HIV patients treated with ARV and taking recreational drugs.

  8. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  9. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  10. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  12. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  14. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  15. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  16. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects.

  17. Drug resistance and antiretroviral drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W.; Jonathan M Schapiro

    2005-01-01

    As more drugs for treating HIV have become available, drug resistance profiles within antiretroviral drug classes have become increasingly important for researchers developing new drugs and for clinicians integrating new drugs into their clinical practice. In vitro passage experiments and comprehensive phenotypic susceptibility testing are used for the pre-clinical evaluation of drug resistance. Clinical studies are required, however, to delineate the full spectrum of mutations responsible fo...

  18. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insurance Find health & drug plans Drug coverage (Part D) How to get drug coverage Get Medicare prescription drug coverage either from a Part D plan or a Medicare Advantage Plan offering Medicare ...

  19. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  20. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  6. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  7. DrugCentral: online drug compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Oleg; Holmes, Jayme; Knockel, Jeffrey; Bologa, Cristian G; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L; Nelson, Stuart J; Oprea, Tudor I

    2017-01-04

    DrugCentral (http://drugcentral.org) is an open-access online drug compendium. DrugCentral integrates structure, bioactivity, regulatory, pharmacologic actions and indications for active pharmaceutical ingredients approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies. Monitoring of regulatory agencies for new drugs approvals ensures the resource is up-to-date. DrugCentral integrates content for active ingredients with pharmaceutical formulations, indexing drugs and drug label annotations, complementing similar resources available online. Its complementarity with other online resources is facilitated by cross referencing to external resources. At the molecular level, DrugCentral bridges drug-target interactions with pharmacological action and indications. The integration with FDA drug labels enables text mining applications for drug adverse events and clinical trial information. Chemical structure overlap between DrugCentral and five online drug resources, and the overlap between DrugCentral FDA-approved drugs and their presence in four different chemical collections, are discussed. DrugCentral can be accessed via the web application or downloaded in relational database format. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  9. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  10. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  11. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z All Drugs Drug News Thursday, February 2, 2017 Sustiva Drug Label Updated ... Drug Label Updated Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Stribild Drug Label Updated More News Mobile Apps iPhone/iPad App Android App Back ...

  12. Drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and novel cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Gaudio, Carlo; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-10-15

    The combination of aspirin and the thienopyridine clopidogrel is a cornerstone in the prevention of atherothrombotic events. These two agents act in concert to ameliorate the prothrombotic processes stimulated by plaque rupture and vessel injury complicating cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend the use of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and the drug remains the most utilized P2Y12 receptor inhibitor despite the fact that newer antiplatelet agents are now available. In recent years, numerous studies have shown inconsistency in the efficacy of clopidogrel to prevent atherothrombotic events. Studies of platelet function testing have shown variability in the response to clopidogrel. One of the major reason for this phenomenon lies in the interaction between clopidogrel and other drugs that may affect clopidogrel absorption, metabolism, and ultimately its antiplatelet action. Importantly, these drug-drug interactions have prognostic implications, since patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity associated with reduced clopidogrel metabolism have an increased risk of ischemia. Previous systematic reviews have focused on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and specific pharmacologic classes, such as proton pump inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and statins. However, more recent pieces of scientific evidence show that clopidogrel may also interact with newer drugs that are now available for the treatment of cardiovascular patients. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight and discuss recent data on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and third-generation proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole and lansoprazole, statins, pitavastatin, and antianginal drug, ranolazine.

  13. KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) [KEGG DRUG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUG: D06027 Entry D06027Drug Name Technetium Tc 99m apcitide (USP); Acutect (TN) F... 1 838085 1 848586 1 857781 1 868182 1 878280 1 888687 1 898288 2 908689 2 918390 1 929091 2 939092 1 949495 2 KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) ...

  14. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  15. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  16. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  17. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  18. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  19. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  1. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  3. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  4. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  5. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  6. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranthes bidentata root Major component: Ecdysterone [CPD:C02633] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06...ude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude drugs

  7. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceae (buckwheat family) Polygonum tuber Major component: Chrysophanol [CPD:C10315] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06697 Polygonum root Crude drugs [BR

  8. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  9. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  10. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully developed. As a result, the brains of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs include Amphetamines Anabolic ... better to prevent drug abuse in the first place. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  11. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  12. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available component: Zizyphus saponin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese m...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06758 Jujub...e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Crude drugs

  13. New drug update: 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2010-10-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  14. 2016 New Drug Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Six new drugs marketed within the last year, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include a hypnotic, an anticoagulant, two drugs for heart failure, and two drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  15. New drug update: 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  16. Food and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of d...

  17. New drug update: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2013-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  18. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  19. A new lysine derived glyoxal inhibitor of trypsin, its properties and utilization for studying the stabilization of tetrahedral adducts by trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Cleary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New trypsin inhibitors Z-Lys-COCHO and Z-Lys-H have been synthesised. Ki values for Z-Lys-COCHO, Z-Lys-COOH, Z-Lys-H and Z-Arg-COOH have been determined. The glyoxal group (–COCHO of Z-Lys-COCHO increases binding ~300 fold compared to Z-Lys-H. The α-carboxylate of Z-Lys-COOH has no significant effect on inhibitor binding. Z-Arg-COOH is shown to bind ~2 times more tightly than Z-Lys-COOH. Both Z-Lys-13COCHO and Z-Lys-CO13CHO have been synthesized. Using Z-Lys-13COCHO we have observed a signal at 107.4 ppm by 13C NMR which is assigned to a terahedral adduct formed between the hydroxyl group of the catalytic serine residue and the 13C-enriched keto-carbon of the inhibitor glyoxal group. Z-Lys-CO13CHO has been used to show that in this tetrahedral adduct the glyoxal aldehyde carbon is not hydrated and has a chemical shift of 205.3 ppm. Hemiketal stabilization is similar for trypsin, chymotrypsin and subtilisin Carlsberg. For trypsin hemiketal formation is optimal at pH 7.2 but decreases at pHs 5.0 and 10.3. The effective molarity of the active site serine hydroxyl group of trypsin is shown to be 25300 M. At pH 10.3 the free glyoxal inhibitor rapidly (t1/2=0.15 h forms a Schiff base while at pH 7 Schiff base formation is much slower (t1/2=23 h. Subsequently a free enol species is formed which breaks down to form an alcohol product. These reactions are prevented in the presence of trypsin and when the inhibitor is bound to trypsin it undergoes an internal Cannizzaro reaction via a C2 to C1 alkyl shift producing an α-hydroxycarboxylic acid.

  20. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  1. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2017-07-14

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  2. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  3. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  4. Drug: D06736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ehmannia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs... for replenishing Ying D06736 *Rehmannia root; Rehmannia root Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishin

  5. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  6. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  7. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  9. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  10. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06732 Cornus fruit; Sanshuyu Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06732 Cornus fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medic

  11. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  12. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  13. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  14. Drug development, radiolabelled drugs and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalburg, W; Hendrikse, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information on novel and established drugs. Because only very low amounts of the (potential) drug have to be administered, far below toxicity levels, human studies can be carried out even

  15. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  16. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  17. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Drug Abuse Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of Abuse Screen Related tests: Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing ; Ethanol ; Nicotine ; Phenobarbital ; Testosterone ; Growth Hormone ; Erythropoietin ; IGF- ...

  18. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  19. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  20. Drug use first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis drugs such as marijuana may cause relaxation, impaired motor skills, and increased appetite. When prescription drugs are taken in higher than normal amounts, serious side effects may occur.

  1. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctrl+c to copy Additional Drug Facts Other Articles of Interest NIDA Notes Prevention Program Reduces Substance Use By Participants' Friends Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year Nora's ...

  2. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  3. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 National Drug IQ Challenge ...

  4. Life after Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDONGPING

    2004-01-01

    THE famous Kunming Drug Rehabilitation Center, founded in 1989, is located in the suburbs of Kunming City. Yunnan Province. It is the first drug rehabilitation center in China and the biggest in Asia.Covering 200 hectares, the center is

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  6. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  7. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, many infectious ...

  8. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  9. Aleister Crowley on drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Christopher Hugh

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written about the life, work and influence of Aleister Crowley, relatively little attention has been directed to his drug use. This is a little surprising because, not only did he become addicted to heroin, but he incorporated psychoactive substances into his occult work, discussed their psychological effects, commented on drug-related social issues, critiqued contemporary drug legislation, published drug literature, and even translated Charles Baudelaire’s “Poem of Hashis...

  10. Drug: D06798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...06798 Coix seed (JP16); Powdered coix seed (JP16) 59 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...tions 590 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 5900 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula

  11. Drug: D04705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D:C17412] Boraginaceae (borage family) Macrotomia euchroma root Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D047... for external use Drugs for external use D04705 *Lithospermum root; Lithospermum root Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  12. Drug: D06680 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drug...s 5100 Crude drugs D06680 Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16); Powdered sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16) Crude drugs

  13. Drug: D06907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s family) Bambusa tuldoides, Phyllostachys nigra, Phyllostachys bambusoides culm; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06907 Bamboo culm (no...nd expectorants D06907 Bambusae caulis; Phyllostachysis caulis; Tikujyo Crude drugs

  14. Drug: D06718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ied) Major component: Ginsenoside [CPD:C08944 C08945] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06718 Red ginseng (JP16) Crude drugs

  15. Drug: D06688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06688 *Scute...eal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; Scutellaria root Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; S

  16. Drug: D06911 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06911 Lilium bulb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06911 *Lilii bulbus; Lily bulb; Byakugo Drugs

  17. Drug: D06695 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in [CPD:C10443] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regula...ting Qi D06695 *Termeric; Turmeric rhizome Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06695 *Termeric; Turmeric rhizome Drugs... for external use Drugs for external use D06695 *Termeric;

  18. Drug: D06780 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06780 Crude, Drug Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes rhizome (JP16... drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06780 Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powder...pness Diuretic drugs D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma Drug...s for resolving dampness D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma

  19. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics, the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index, have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.

  20. [Fluoroquinolones. Drug interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, G; Dănilă, G

    2000-01-01

    This review summarizes clinically relevant drug-drug interactions for fluoroquinolones: antiacids containing aluminum and magnesium salts, iron or zinc preparations, sucralfate, cimetidine, ranitidine, warfarina, cyclosporin, rifampin, oral contraceptive steroids, benzodiazepine, probenecid, beta-lactam antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, metronidazole, theophylline, caffeine.

  1. Teenage Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    W 4. 0 10 n Used Sws Oduor Nick Drug Note "Other illcilt" drugs includes cocaine, halucinogens, heroin, and the nonmedical use of psycho- therapeutics...Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, May 1988. Strasburger, Victor . "Sex, Drugs, Rock ’n’ Roll: An Introduction." Pediat- rics, 76:4 (Oct. 1985

  2. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...

  3. Drug: D06741 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C17056] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06741 Plantago herb (JP16) Trad...itional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06741 Plantago... herb; Plantago herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D06741 Plantago herb PubChem: 47208392 ...

  4. Drug: D06803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotusine [CPD:C17567] Nelumbonaceae (lotus family) Nelumbo mature fruit Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06803 Nelumbo seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304...] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06803 Nelumbo seed Crude drugs

  5. Drug: D06734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available buckthorn family) Jujube seed Major component: Zizybeoside [CPD:C17564 C17565] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06734 Jujube seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) D06734 Jujube seed PubChem: 47208385 ...

  6. Drug: D06707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Apiaceae (carrot family) Notopterygium rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06707 ...rude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06707 Notopterygium rhizome Crude drugs...Notopterygium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] C

  7. Drug: D06782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 5100 Arecaceae (palm family) Areca seed Major component: Arecoline [CPD:C10129] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06782 Areca (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medici...ne in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for expelling parasites Anthelmintic drugs D06782 Areca; Areca Crude drugs

  8. Drug: D06756 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Sennoside [CPD:C10404 C13526 C16797 C16798] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06756 Rhubarb (JP16...); Powdered rhubarb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06756 Rhubarb; Powdered rhubarb; Rhubarb Crude drugs [BR:br08305

  9. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  10. Drug: D06715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory family) Pharbitis seed Major component: Pharbitin Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06715 Pharbitis seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06715 Pharbitis seed; Pharbitis seed Crude drugs [B

  11. Drug: D06783 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [CPD:C14495] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06783 Poria sclerotium (JP1...6); Powdered poria sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06783 Poria sclerotium; Powdered poria sclerotium; Hoelen Crude drugs

  12. 2015 new drug update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2015-04-01

    Six new drugs approved within the last two years, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include two antidiabetic agents, one bronchodilator, one antidepressant, one for erectile dysfunction, and one for menopause-associated conditions.

  13. Rational drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soma; Moudgil, Mee'nal; Mandal, Sanat K

    2009-12-25

    In this article, current knowledge of drug design is reviewed and an approach of rational drug design is presented. The process of drug development is challenging, expensive, and time consuming, although this process has been accelerated due to the development of computational tools and methodologies. The current target based drug design approach is incomplete because most of the drugs developed by structure guided approaches have been shown to have serious toxic side effects. Otherwise these drugs would have been an ideal choice for the treatment of diseases. Hence, rational drug design would require a multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, incorporation of gene expression technology and bioinformatics tools would be indispensable in the structure based drug design. Global gene expression data and analysis of such data using bioinformatics tools will have numerous benefits such as efficiency, cost effectiveness, time saving, and will provide strategies for combination therapy in addition to overcoming toxic side effects. As a result of incorporation of gene expression data, partial benefit of the structure based drug design is slowly emerging and rapidly changing the approach of the drug development process. To achieve the full benefit of developing a successful drug, multidisciplinary approaches (approaches such as computational chemistry and gene expression analysis, as discussed in this article) would be necessary. In the future, there is adequate room for the development of more sophisticated methodologies.

  14. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  15. Incidence of potential drug-drug interactions with antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, I; Bacic-Vrca, V

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to achieve normoglycemia more than one antidiabetic agent is usually needed. Diabetes is associated with several comorbidities and patients with diabetes are often treated with multiple medications. Therefore, patients with diabetes are especially exposed to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and type of potential DDIs of antidiabetic drugs in patients with diabetes. This retrospective study analyzed pharmacy record data of 225 patients with diabetes mellitus. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients who were taking at least one antidiabetic agent during the period of six months were included. We investigated associated therapy in that period in order to identify potential DDIs with antidiabetic therapy. Potential interactions were identified by Lexicomp Lexi-Interat Online (Lexi-Comp, Inc., Hudson, USA) software which categorizes potential DDIs according to clinical significance in five types (A, B, C, D and X). Categories C, D and X are of clinical concern and always require medical attention (therapy monitoring, therapy modification or avoiding combination). We found that 80.9% of patients had at least one potential category C interaction while there were no D and X interactions. Most frequently encountered potential DDI (n = 176) included antidiabetic drugs and thiazide or thiazide like diuretics. Patients with diabetes are exposed to a large number of potential clinically significant DDIs that may require appropriate monitoring. Using databases of DDIs could be helpful in reducing the risk of potential clinically significant DDIs.

  16. Drug: D08761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory: 4300 ATC code: V09GA06 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08

  17. Drug: D08765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 4300 ATC code: V09BA03 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  18. Drug: D08766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08766 Sodium phytate hydrate - technetium (99mTc)

  19. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis ( ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  1. Drug: D06799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06799 Longgu; Fossilized mammal bones Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06799 Longgu PubChem: 47208450 ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin ... Misuse Mental Health Military Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities ...

  3. Drug: D06772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Sto...machic and antidiarrheal drugs D06772 *Ginseng; Powdered ginseng; Ginseng Drugs for

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  5. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Use and Addiction Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  6. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approaches for Drug Addiction Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health ...

  14. Drug: D01729 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioacti...ve drugs D01729 3-Iodobenzylguanidine (123I) (JAN) Anato

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  16. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  17. Drug: D09520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nensis carapace; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D09520 A

  18. Drug: D06794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06794 Akebia stem; Akebiae caulis Crude drugs...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06794 Akebia stem (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  19. Drug: D09127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D09127 Scrophularia root; Ningpo figwort root Crude dr

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug abuse ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  5. Drug: D06686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06686 Crude, Drug Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16); Corydal...ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06686 Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16) Tr

  6. Drug: D04163 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available THER DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES, INHALANTS R03BX Other drugs for obstructive airway...MIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DX Other systemic drugs for obstructive airway diseases R03DX03

  7. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  8. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  9. Drug: D06702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06702 Crude, Drug Processed ginger (JP16) [6]-Shogaol [CPD:C10494], [6]-Gingerol [...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06702 Processed ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06702 Processed ginger Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06702 Processed ginger PubChem: 47208353 ...

  10. Drug: D06730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bin [CPD:C17449] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06730 Smilax rhizome (J...izome; Smilax rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Smilacaceae (catbrier famly) D06730 Smilax rhizome PubChem: 47208381 ...

  11. Drug: D06691 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Prunellin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06691 Prunella s... clearing heat D06691 Prunella spike; Prunella spike Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dic

  12. Drug: D04360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raniaceae (geranium family) Geranium thunbergii aerial part Major component: Geraniin [CPD:C10230] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04360 Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium herb (JP16) Crude drugs

  13. Drug: D06716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae (gentian family) Gentiana lutea root and rhizome Major component: Gentiopicrin [CPD:C09782] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06716 Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16) Crude drugs

  14. Drug: D04388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monene [CPD:C06078] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04388 Bitter orange peel (JP16) Crude drugs

  15. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] Therapeutic category of drugs i...n Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06760 Panax rhizome (JP16); Powdered panax rhizome (JP16) Crude drugs [

  16. Drug: D06777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent: Imperatorin [CPD:C09269] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06777 Glehnia root (JP16) Crude dru...gs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06777 Glehnia root PubChem: 47208428 ...

  17. Drug: D06701 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omponent: Trichosanic acid [CPD:C08364] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...pness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06701 Trichosanthes root; Trichosanthes root Crude drugs [BR:br08

  18. Drug: D06683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06683 Crude, Drug Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16); Fennel (TN) Anethole [CPD... drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06683 Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16) Traditional ...Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06683 Fennel; Powde

  19. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  20. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  1. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  2. Drug-induced diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Michaux, A; Bergmann, J F

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a relatively frequent adverse event, accounting for about 7% of all drug adverse effects. More than 700 drugs have been implicated in causing diarrhoea; those most frequently involved are antimicrobials, laxatives, magnesium-containing antacids, lactose- or sorbitol-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, colchicine, antineoplastics, antiarrhythmic drugs and cholinergic agents. Certain new drugs are likely to induce diarrhoea because of their pharmacodynamic properties; examples include anthraquinone-related agents, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, lipase inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors. Antimicrobials are responsible for 25% of drug-induced diarrhoea. The disease spectrum of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea ranges from benign diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in drug-induced diarrhoea: osmotic diarrhoea, secretory diarrhoea, shortened transit time, exudative diarrhoea and protein-losing enteropathy, and malabsorption or maldigestion of fat and carbohydrates. Often 2 or more mechanisms are present simultaneously. In clinical practice, 2 major types of diarrhoea are seen: acute diarrhoea, which usually appears during the first few days of treatment, and chronic diarrhoea, lasting more than 3 or 4 weeks and which can appear a long time after the start of drug therapy. Both can be severe and poorly tolerated. In a patient presenting with diarrhoea, the medical history is very important, especially the drug history, as it can suggest a diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea and thereby avoid multiple diagnostic tests. The clinical examination should cover severity criteria such as fever, rectal emission of blood and mucus, dehydration and bodyweight loss. Establishing a relationship between drug consumption and diarrhoea or colitis can be difficult when the time elapsed between the start of the drug and the onset of symptoms is long, sometimes up to several

  3. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  4. New Drugs for CML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0232 TITLE: New Drugs for CML PRINCIPAL...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Feb 2006– 31 Jan 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER New Drugs for CML 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...Deisseroth A. Use of combinatorial structural variation of top design new drugs for CML. Mol Cancer Ther, 6: 655-666, 2007. Novel compounds with

  5. Taking drugs very seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, J Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Neither anti-illegal drug proponents nor their detractors have wholly plausible arguments for their positions, because neither takes responsibility for drug use sufficiently seriously. Instead, only a policy that places users' responsibility at the forefront of the problem is acceptable, one that is sufficiently respectful of actual or potential nonusers' rights not to be wrongfully harmed, directly or indirectly, by drug use, or coerced to support it in any way.

  6. Pharmacogenomics of drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Carolina Augusta Azevedo Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biotecnologia Farmacêutica, apresentada à Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Coimbra Drug addiction is a chronic disease which affects millions of people worldwide with critical social and economical impact, besides the health burden. Repetitive exposure to drugs of abuse induces long-lasting neuroadaptative changes that promote drug-seeking behaviors. The causes of vulnerability to addiction, although its complexity, have been pointed to be in ...

  7. Single compartment drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modi...

  8. Drug-drug co-crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation and drug development.

  9. State Drug Control and Illicit Drug Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirical model is based on a demand and supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting shifts in the two functions and the demand price elasticity. A reduced form of the demand and supply model is also estimated. The data e...

  10. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  11. Intracellular drug release nanosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Meng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elicit therapeutic effects, many drugs including small molecule anticancer drugs, proteins, siRNA, and DNA have to be delivered and released into the specific cellular compartments typically the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells. Intracellular environment-responsive nanosystems that exhibit good extracellular stability while rapidly releasing drugs inside cancer cells have been actively pursued for effective cancer therapy. Here, we highlight novel designs of smart nanosystems that release drugs in response to an intracellular biological signal of cancer cells such as acidic pH in endo/lysosomal compartments, enzymes in lysosomes, and redox potential in cytoplasm and the cell nucleus.

  12. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...

  13. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  14. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for separation of free cisplatin from liposome-encapsulated cisplatin and protein-bound cisplatin was developed. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin based on PEGylated liposomes was used as model drug formulation...... to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before...... and will improve characterization of liposomal drugs during drug development and in studies on kinetics....

  15. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  16. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Drugs used to treat heartburn and stomach ulcers, such as omeprazole (Prilosec), esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (AcipHex), pantoprazole (Protonix), cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine ( ...

  17. How to Misuse Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Edwards

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of us, during our training, are taught about the actions of drugs and their side-effects, but very few of us are taught how to misuse drugs. However, this is an art that seems to be acquired through practice in handling drugs, by various members of the medical and nursing professions, as well as by the general population. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a few of the ways in which drugs can be, and are, misused.

  18. Drug: D06721 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attle family) Oriental bezoar Major component: Bile acid [CPD:C01558] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06721 Oriental ...bezoar (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Drugs for resuscita...tion D06721 Oriental bezoar Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06721 Oriental bezoar PubChem: 47208372 ...

  19. Drug: D06785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available menium stem and rhizome Major component: Sinomenine [CPD:C09643] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06785 Sinomenium ste...m (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D0...6785 Sinomenium stem; Fangji Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Menispermaceae (moonseed family) D06785 Sinomenium stem PubChem: 47208436 ...

  20. Drug: D06743 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06743 Crude, Drug Amomum seed (JP16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16); Amomum seed (TN...rneol [CPD:C01411] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06743 Amomum seed (JP...16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Dr...ugs for resolving dampness D06743 Amomum seed; Powdered amomum seed; Amomum seed Crude drugs [BR:br

  1. Drug: D01728 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01728 Crude, Drug Gypsum (JP16); Gypsum fibrosum (TN) Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201],...ponent: Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0172...8 Gypsum (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... for clearing heat D01728 Gypsum; Calcium sulfate; Gypsum fibrosum Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D01728 Gypsum PubChem: 7848791 ...

  2. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...D06909 Crude, Drug Aralia rhizome (JP16); Dokkatsu Essential oil, Triterpenoid [CPD...data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  3. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  4. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  5. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  6. Drugs and brain death: drug assay perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R G

    1996-08-01

    The ability to make any meaningful interpretation of a drug assay result is very dependent upon a knowledge of the limitations of the method(s) used (sensitivity, specificity etc.), and the concentration that may be measured in plasma and its relationship to CNS effects. We need more information about 'critical' concentrations for each drug and sedation in the setting of the brain-injured patient before meaningful interpretation can be applied to such data. While the above discussion is critical of screen-type assays, the alternative specific assays are not easily provided for, as obviously the resourcing of laboratories to be able to deliver such specialized services for a range of therapeutic drugs, in addition to 'social' drugs or other toxins (e.g. glues, pesticides, solvents, environmental substances etc), becomes an increasingly complex issue in the current economic climate. Hence, the analytical laboratory can offer valuable support to the clinical team however, the interpretation of such results must be assessed in the light of many limitations of such assay methods and not seen as the 'gold standard' for assessment of brain function.

  7. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....

  8. Drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  9. Drug signs and teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new school, puberty, or going through their parents' divorce. To ease pain and anxiety. Teens may use drugs to deal with problems with family, friends, school, mental health, or self-esteem. TALKING WITH YOUR TEEN ABOUT DRUGS It is ...

  10. Prescription drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monheit, Benny

    2010-08-01

    Recognising and dealing with patients who seek drugs for nonmedical purposes can be a difficult problem in general practice. 'Prescription shoppers' and patients with chronic nonmalignant pain problems are the main people who constitute this small but problematic group. The main drugs they seek are benzodiazepines and opioids. To provide data on current trends in prescription drug abuse and to discuss different strategies on how to deal with this issue in the clinic setting. Misuse of prescription drugs can take the form of injecting oral drugs, selling them on the street, or simply overusing the prescribed amount so that patients run short before the due date and then request extra prescriptions from the doctor. Currently oxycontin and alprazolam are the most abused drugs in Australia. Adequate prescription monitoring mechanisms at the systems level are lacking so we need to rely on our clinical skills and the patient's behaviour pattern over time to detect problematic prescription drug misuse. Management strategies may include saying 'no' to patients, having a treatment plan, and adopting a universal precaution approach toward all patients prescribed drugs of addiction. Among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain, requests for increasing opioid doses need careful assessment to elucidate any nonmedical factors that may be at play.

  11. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  12. Interoception and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an "embodied" experience of drug uses together with the individual's predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  13. The Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrosta, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The role of teachers in helping fight against drug abuse is discussed stressing the teacher's ability to see changes in the students and the potential for positive influence. A vital school role involves teaching life skills and wellness principles. Information on commonly abused drugs and their effects is presented. (SM)

  14. Ayurvedic drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Premalatha; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2007-12-01

    Ayurveda is a major traditional system of Indian medicine that is still being successfully used in many countries. Recapitulation and adaptation of the older science to modern drug discovery processes can bring renewed interest to the pharmaceutical world and offer unique therapeutic solutions for a wide range of human disorders. Eventhough time-tested evidences vouch immense therapeutic benefits for ayurvedic herbs and formulations, several important issues are required to be resolved for successful implementation of ayurvedic principles to present drug discovery methodologies. Additionally, clinical examination in the extent of efficacy, safety and drug interactions of newly developed ayurvedic drugs and formulations are required to be carefully evaluated. Ayurvedic experts suggest a reverse-pharmacology approach focusing on the potential targets for which ayurvedic herbs and herbal products could bring tremendous leads to ayurvedic drug discovery. Although several novel leads and drug molecules have already been discovered from ayurvedic medicinal herbs, further scientific explorations in this arena along with customization of present technologies to ayurvedic drug manufacturing principles would greatly facilitate a standardized ayurvedic drug discovery.

  15. Newer antithrombotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Thromboembolic disorders are one of the disorders for which we are still on the look out for a safe and efficient drug. Despite the widespread use of antithrombotic drugs for the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis, thromboembolic diseases continue to be a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This shows our inefficiency in searching efficacious and safe antithrombotic drugs. We have reached the basic mechanism of thrombus formation and by interrupting various steps of this mechanism, we can prevent as well as treat thromboembolic disorders. In continuation of Aspirin, now, we are using Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors (Abciximab, Tirofiban and Eptifibatide). Warfarin is an old antithrombotic drug which is still being used; but due to various side effects and drug interactions, we are bound to use newer drugs. Newer antiplatelet drugs include Prasugrel, Ticagrelor and Cangrelor, whereas newer thrombin inhibitors are Ximelgatran and Dabigatran. Apixaban is also a newer entry in this category as factor Xa inhibitor. Idrabiotaparinux is an indirect inhibitor of Xa as it accelerates the activity of antithrombin. Moreover, researches and trials for better and safe drugs are ongoing. PMID:21572750

  16. The Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrosta, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The role of teachers in helping fight against drug abuse is discussed stressing the teacher's ability to see changes in the students and the potential for positive influence. A vital school role involves teaching life skills and wellness principles. Information on commonly abused drugs and their effects is presented. (SM)

  17. DRUG POISONING IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2008-01-01

    Poisoning by drugs for the nervous system, particularly benzodiazepines, is the most commonform of poisoning by drugs in Slovenia. It would be necessary to report all acutelypoisoned patients to the Register of Intoxications, since we need data about all poisoningin Slovenia to improve their prophylaxis and treatment

  18. Club Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person is thirsty, give him or her a sports drink (like Gatorade), not plain water. If the person doesn’t start feeling better, get medical help right away. PreventionHow can I prevent someone from giving me a club drug?Club drugs often are used as “date ...

  19. Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  20. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  1. Drug: D06766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Asparagine [CPD:C16438] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06766 Asparagus tuber (JP16) ...hing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06766 Asparagus tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Asparagaceae (asparagus family) D06766 Asparagus tuber PubChem: 47208417 ...

  2. Drug: D06764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available peel Major component: Hesperidin [CPD:C09755] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06764 Citrus unshiu peel (JP16) Tradit... Citrus unshiu peel Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06764 Citrus unshiu fruit peel PubChem: 47208415 ...

  3. Drug: D06774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rds for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and... Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...ss Cough suppressants and expectorants D06774 Fritillaria bulb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) D06774 Fritillaria bulb PubChem: 47208425 ...

  4. Drug: D06703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y) Platycodon root Major component: Platycodin [CPD:C17443 C17487 C17410] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06703 Platycodon root (JP16); Powdered platycodon root (JP16) Traditional ...scharge Drugs for pus discharge D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Crude drugs

  5. Drug: D06717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available afflower petal Major component: Carthamin [CPD:C16941] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...xternal use Drugs for external use D06717 *Safflower; Safflower Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) D06717 Safflower PubChem: 47208368 ...

  6. Drug: D06896 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory: 5100 Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) Trichosanthes seed; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs M...ajor component: Trichosanic acid [CPD:C08364] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06896 Trichosanthis semen; Karonin Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  7. Drug: D04365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s D04365 Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drug...rrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for Qi Drugs for replen...ishing Qi D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for... pus discharge D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for external use Drugs

  8. Effect of Drug Loading Method on Drug Content and Drug Release from Calcium Pectinate Gel Beads

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Drug-loaded calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads were prepared by either mixing, absorption, or swelling method. The effects of drug loading method as well as the drug loading factors (i.e., drug concentration, soaking time in drug solution, type of solvent) on drug content and drug release were investigated. The amount of drug uptake (i.e., drug content) into CaPG beads increased as the initial drug concentration increased and varied depending on the loading method. The in vitro release studie...

  9. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  10. Impact and Roles of Drug Information in Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstadt, Michael S.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented elucidating the role of knowledge about drugs in facilitating or impeding drug use. The issues considered include (1) the role of drug information in previous "education" programs, (2) the source and uses of drug information, (3) the impact of this information, and (4) the alternative roles for drug information. (Author)

  11. Drug: D05525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antain family) Plantago mature seed (dried) Major component: Aucubin [CPD:C09771] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D05525 Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (AT...Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D05525 Plantago seed; Ispaghula; Plantago seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D05525 Plantago seed PubChem: 17398302 ...

  12. Drug: D06763 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 5100 Polyporaceae (Polypore) Polyporus sclerotium Major component: Ergosterol [CPD:C01694] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06763 Polyporus sclerotium (JP16); Powdered pol...yporus sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06763 Polyporus sclerotium; Powdered polyporus sclerotium; Chuling Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Fungi Basidiomycetes D06763 Polyporus sclerotium PubChem: 47208414 ...

  13. Drug: D06793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mp fruit Major component: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs Purgative drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Cannabaceae (hop family) D06793 Hemp fruit PubChem: 47208444 ...

  14. Drug: D06786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Cylindrin [CPD:C17534] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese med...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06786 Imperat...a rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Hemostatic drugs... D06786 Imperata rhizome; Imperatae rhizoma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06786 Imperata rhizome PubChem: 47208437 ...

  15. Drug: D06790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medi...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06790 Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyste...r shell (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D0...6790 Oyster shell; Powdered oyster shell; Oyster shell Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks D06790 Oyster shell PubChem: 47208441 ... ...: E00159 Therapeutic category: 5100 Osteridae Oyster shell Major component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129] T

  16. Drug: D06694 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available root Major component: Anemonin [CPD:C16913] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06694 Clematis root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs...4 *Clematis root; Irei-sen Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) D06694 Clematis root PubChem: 47208345 ...

  17. Drug: D06738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mponent: Kaempferol [CPD:C05903] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chine...se medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06738 Tribulus fruit (JP16) Tradit...ional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06738 Tribulus fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Zygophyllaceae (creosote-bush family) D06738 Tribulus fruit PubChem: 47208389 ...

  18. Drug: D06693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5100 Fabaceae (pea family) Pueraria root Major component: Puerarin [CPD:C10524] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D06693 Puer...aria root; Pueraria root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D06693 Pueraria root PubChem: 47208344 ...

  19. Drug: D06796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06796 Crude, Drug Bitter cardamon (JP16); Alpiniae fructus (TN) Nootkatone [CPD:C1...Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06796 Bitter cardamon; Alpiniae fructus Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Mon...ocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06796 Bitter cardamon PubChem: 47208447 ... ...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06796 Bit...ter cardamon (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs

  20. Drug: D06787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06787 Crude, Drug Saposhnikovia root (JP16); Fangfeng (TN) Fraxidin [CPD:C17479], ... (carrot family) Saposhnikovia root Major component: Fraxidin [CPD:C17479] Therapeutic category of drugs in ...Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06787 Saposhnikovia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dr...ugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06787 Sapo

  1. Drug: D06727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06727 Bupleurum root; Bupleurum root Crude drugs [BR:br083...D06727 Crude, Drug Bupleurum root (JP16); Bupleurum root (TN) Saikosaponins [CPD:C0...um root Major component: Saikosaponin [CPD:C08975 C08976] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06727 Bupleurum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr

  2. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucreţia Udrescu; Laura Sbârcea; Alexandru Topîrceanu; Alexandru Iovanovici; Ludovic Kurunczi; Paul Bogdan; Mihai Udrescu

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences ... behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug ... and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... late 1980s, research has shown that treating drug abuse is an effective way to prevent the spread of HIV. Drug abusers in treatment stop or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug treatment programs also serve an important ...

  5. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssed aconite root See [DR:D06784] (Fibrous root) Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07152 Processed aconite root PubChem: 51091491 ...

  6. Drug: D07153 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Cinchona bark Major component: Quinine [CPD:C06526] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07153 Cinchona bark PubChem: 51091492 ...

  7. Drug: D06903 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heaceae (tea family) Tea leaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese ...medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06903 Theae folium PubChem: 51091245 ...

  8. Drug: D06910 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hordeum vulgare seed Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06910 Malt (JP16) PubChem: 51091252 ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drug: D06892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Yi...ng D06892 *Asini corii collas; Ass-hide glue; Donkey-hide glue; Akyo; Gelatin Drugs for blood Drugs for repl...dae Equus asinus hide glue; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  11. Drug: D06748 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6748 Cnidium rhizome (JP16); Powdered cnidium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06748 *Cnidium rhizome; Powdered cnidium rhizome; Cnidii rhizoma Dru...gs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06748 *Cni

  12. Drug: D06740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Dru...gs for external use Drugs for external use D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Crude dru

  13. Drug: D06739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing bl...ood D06739 *Peony root; Powdered peony root; Peony root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D067

  14. Drug: D06710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ); Powdered sophora root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... for clearing heat D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sophora root Drugs... for external use Drugs for external use D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sopho

  15. Drug: D00092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP16); Powdered coptis rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... rhizome; Powdered coptis rhizome; Coptis rhizome Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D00092 *Copt

  16. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drug: D03374 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03374 Crude, Drug Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powdered capsicum (JP16); Capsicum (TN) Cap...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03374 Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powder

  18. Drug: D04385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04385 Crude, Drug Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16); Swertia (TN) ...nts D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16) 5 Crude drugs and Ch...inese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powder

  19. Drug: D06800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06800 Crude, Drug Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16); Genti...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06800 Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16) Traditional Chinese Med...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06800 Japanese gentian; Powdered japan

  20. Preclinical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodniewicz, Teresa; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Life sciences provide reasonably sound prognosis for a number and nature of therapeutic targets on which drug design could be based, and search for new chemical entities--future new drugs, is now more than ever based on scientific principles. Nevertheless, current very long and incredibly costly drug discovery and development process is very inefficient, with attrition rate spanning from many thousands of new chemical structures, through a handful of validated drug leads, to single successful new drug launches, achieved in average after 13 years, with compounded cost estimates from hundreds of thousands to over one billion US dollars. Since radical pharmaceutical innovation is critically needed, number of new research projects concerning this area is steeply rising outside of big pharma industry--both in academic environment and in small private companies. Their prospective success will critically depend on project management, which requires combined knowledge of scientific, technical and legal matters, comprising regulations concerning admission of new drug candidates to be subjects of clinical studies. This paper attempts to explain basic rules and requirements of drug development within preclinical study period, in case of new chemical entities of natural or synthetic origin, which belong to low molecular weight category.

  1. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles.

  2. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  3. Intracerebroventricular administration of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Aaron M; Mieure, Katherine D; Owen, Robert D; Pesaturo, Adam B; Hatton, Jimmi

    2009-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular drug administration is a method that bypasses the blood-brain barrier and other mechanisms that limit drug distribution into the brain, allowing high drug concentrations to enter the central compartment. Instillation of drugs directly into the ventricles of the brain must be done carefully and with full consideration of factors affecting the efficacy and safety of this route of administration. These factors include the osmolarity, pH, volume, and presence of preservatives and diluents of the drug solution being administered. Very few studies have formally investigated intraventricular therapies, and dosing recommendations may vary widely depending on the agent and the patient. Many antimicrobials have been given intraventricularly, although very few prospective studies have evaluated this strategy. There are wide variations among the reports regarding dosage regimens and the pharmacokinetics of the antimicrobials used. Guidance on appropriate formulations and their use is lacking. Clinicians should be aware of their patients' ongoing disease processes and neurologic status, as well as pertinent physiochemical properties of drugs when formulating them for intracerebroventricular administration; a high index of suspicion should be maintained when monitoring patients for adverse drug events after instillation.

  4. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  5. Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT TEAM

    During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. ... drug products in the Kenyan market were imported ... Market authorization for pharmaceuticals in ..... sample size was very small, antibacterial drugs.

  6. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions in cardiac intensive care units of two tertiary care ... Keywords: Pharmacy service, Drug interactions, Critical/intensive care, Adverse outcomes. Tropical .... Standard error.

  7. Drug induced pseudolymphoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of pseudolymphoma syndrome (PS in children aged 6 to 12 years were observed after anticonvulsant drugs. In 2 cases PS was observed after 10 days and in 3 after 15 days therapy with offending drug. 3 cases of PS were due to carbamazepine and had morbilliform rash and 2 cases due to phenobarbitone had erythroderma. All had fever, generalised lymphadenopathy and 4/5 had hepatosplenomegaly. Therapy with 15 mg prednisolone daily and withdrawal of offending drug led to cure in 4/5 cases and 1 died due to congestive cardiac failure.

  8. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Ari; Dobs, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    Gynecomastia is caused by drugs in 10 - 25% of all cases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for some drugs includes exogenous estrogens exposure, medications that cause hypogonadism, anti-androgenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. This manuscript reviews common examples of drug-induced gynecomastia, discussing the mechanisms and possible treatments. Discontinuing the medication is always the best choice; however, if this is not possible, then testosterone replacement therapy may be needed for hypogonadism. When a man is euogonadal, a trial of the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor may be an option.

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/ ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) ...

  16. Drug: D06894 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06894 Crude, Drug Artemisia leaf (JP16); Artemisiae folium; Gaiyo Cineole [CPD:C09...daisy family) Artemisia leaf (dried) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs fo

  17. Drug: D04403 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04403 Drug Guar gum (NF) Pharmaceutic aid [tablet binder]; Pharmaceutic aid [table...NG DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BX Other blood glucose lowering drugs, excl. insulins A10BX01 Guar gum D04403

  18. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ...

  19. Drug: D06689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g heat Drugs for clearing heat D06689 *Phellodendron bark; Powdered phellodendron bark; Phellodendron bark Stomach...ic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06689 *Phellodendron bark; Powdered phel

  20. Drug: D08546 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ISM A02 DRUGS FOR ACID RELATED DISORDERS A02B DRUGS FOR PEPTIC ULCER AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (...GORD) A02BX Other drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (G

  1. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA ...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. Drug: D07379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 02 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES... R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DX Other systemic drugs

  6. Drug: D01828 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISE...ASES R03DX Other systemic drugs for obstructive airway diseases R03DX01 Amlexanox D

  7. Drug: D06754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06...5 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] Traditional Chinese Medicine in J

  8. Drug: D06905 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06905 Crude, Drug Peucedanum root (JP16); Peucedani radix; Zenko (Pd-Ia, II,III, I... Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06905 *Peucedani radix; Hogfennel root;

  9. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. Drug: D09125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rt Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Drugs for resolving dam...705] Pogostemon cablin [TAX:28511] Same as: E00188 Lamiaceae (mint family) Pogostemon cablin above ground pa

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  13. Drug: D00252 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available duction: ABCB1 [HSA:5243] map07033 Anticonvulsants map07231 Sodium channel blocking drugs map00982 Drug meta...mazepine D00252 Carbamazepine (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Anticonvulsants

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA ...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and controls used for the manufacturing, processing and packaging of the drug are adequate to preserve its ... have a complaints regarding veterinary standard of care issues? Complaints and questions about standard of care issues ...

  18. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  19. Professional thieves and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, J A; Russe, B R

    1977-12-01

    The "professional thief" is a highly specialized predatory offender with a history that dates back to Elizabethan England. Although this type of criminal is generally associated with narcotic addiction, his drug-taking typically involved the use of heroin, morphine, and cocaine on an intermittent basis. However, trafficking in drugs was common to the "professional" underworld, and as a result this deviant fraternity had a notable impact on the impressment of a criminal model of drug use on twentieth century conceptions of the addict. The concept of "professional" theft is reviewed, the use of drugs by professional thieves is discussed, and the interaction between this underworld group and the early Federal Bureau of Narcotics is examined.

  20. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors."

  1. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    ' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance......Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...

  2. Bugs, Drugs, and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilroy, John E.; Campbell, Bruce D.; Mathewson, Herbert O.; Scarafile, Peter D.; Solomon, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the development, implementation, and review of a daily reporting system using data from two modules of a hospital information system: Kirby-Bauer sensitivity results from Microbiology, and patient drug profiles from Pharmacy.

  3. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Others use them to boost their performance in sports. As street drugs, they come as pills. They ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors

  4. Drug-Food Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t stir medicine into your food or take capsules apart (unless your doctor tells you to) because this may change the way the drug works.Don’t take vitamin pills at the same time you take medicine ...

  5. Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials, Critical Path Initiative and more Icon for Business & Industry section. For Industry Guidance, registration and listing, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  6. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  7. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  8. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  9. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  10. Drug-induced catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Harpreet S; Singh, Ira

    2005-09-01

    Catatonia is a heterogeneous syndrome that varies in etiology, presentation, course and sequelae. Initially conceptualized as a subtype of schizophrenia, catatonia is now recognized to occur not only with other psychiatric conditions but also with medical conditions and drug-induced and toxic states. While drug-induced catatonia is now a recognized entity, most studies club it with catatonia due to general medical conditions or organic catatonia, thus precluding any meaningful interpretation of such cases. The literature on drug-induced catatonia mostly draws from scattered case reports. This article attempts to review the available literature in this realm and integrate the information in an attempt to explore the epidemiology, etiology, mechanism and treatment of drug-induced catatonia.

  11. Drug therapy for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, L B

    1991-09-01

    Drug therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin are components of diabetes management regimens that also include diet, exercise/activity, monitoring, and education. Major concerns for practitioners using drug therapy are selection of the appropriate therapy for a particular patient, and drug interactions and side effects. Drug therapy is based on knowledge of the medications' pharmacokinetics; glucose goals, as determined by practitioners and patients; common sense; and strong participatory relationships between practitioners and patients and, if indicated, families. When using insulin, practitioners need to consider the differences between insulin therapy for insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes; how to initiate, adjust, and supplement insulin; situations that require variations in insulin therapy; and injection mechanics.

  12. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  13. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising: Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Prescription Drug Advertisements Give Us Feedback Resources for You Report a ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Optimizing HIV drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of drugs used in HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since triple antiretroviral combinations were introduced, albeit at the expense of some severe adverse events, in 1996. Long term complications of antiretroviral drug exposure, such as HIV lipodystrophy, as well as organ-specific disease of heart and bone are, therefore, a critical issue when designing antiretroviral regimens. Because it is difficult to predict the occurrence of lipodystrophy, and because there is no...

  15. New drugs for migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Tronvik, Erling; Hagen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    After the triptans, a calcitonin gene-related peptide blocker (telcagepant) is the first acute medicine that has been developed primarily for treatment of acute migraine. Otherwise, the new drugs have been developed first for other purposes, like anticonvulsants, antihypertensives and antidepressants used for migraine prophylaxis. For acute attacks, a new way to administer a traditional drug like dihydroergotamine is under way, and documentation of efficacy in migraine has been gained for som...

  16. Transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...

  17. MUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Madan Jyotsana; Banode Sagar; Dangi Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    The process of mucoadhesion involving a polymeric drug delivery system is a complex one that includes processes such as wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains. The success and degree of mucoadhesion bonding is influenced by various polymer-based properties such as the degree of cross-linking, chain length and the presence of various functional groupings. The attractiveness of mucosal-targeted controlled drug delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients, has led formulatio...

  18. Chemoinformatics and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Hagler

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews current achievements in the field of chemoinformatics and their impact on modern drug discovery processes. The main data mining approaches used in cheminformatics, such as descriptor computations, structural similarity matrices, and classification algorithms, are outlined. The applications of cheminformatics in drug discovery, such as compound selection, virtual library generation, virtual high throughput screening, HTS data mining, and in silico ADMET are discussed. At the conclusion, future directions of chemoinformatics are suggested.

  19. Prediction of drug-drug interactions from chemogenomic and gene-gene interactions and analysis of drug-drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between multiple drugs administered to an organism concurrently, whether in the form of synergy or antagonism, are of clinical relevance. Moreover, un-derstanding the mechanisms and nature of drug-drug interactions is of great practical and theoretical interest. Work has previously been done on gene-gene and gene-drug interactions, but the prediction and rationalization of drug-drug interactions from this data is not straightforward. We present a strategy for attacking this p...

  20. Drug: D06778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Araceae (arum family) Pinellia tuber Major component: Homogentisic acid [CPD:C00544] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06778 Pinellia tuber (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...llia tuber; Pineliae tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) D06778 Pinellia tuber PubChem: 47208429 ...

  1. Drug: D06705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eeper family) Catalpa fruit Major component: Catalposide [CPD:C09775] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06705 Catalpa fruit (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family) D06705 Catalpa fruit PubChem: 47208356 ...

  2. Drug: D01033 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th stem exudation Major component: Tragacanthic acid Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01033 Tragacan...th (JP16/NF); Powdered tragacanth (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D01033 Tragacanth PubChem: 7848096 ...

  3. Drug: D06706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Naringin [CPD:C09789] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...gs for pus discharge D06706 *Immature orange; Kijitsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06706 Immature orange PubChem: 47208357 ...

  4. FDA relations during drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchel, Jules T.

    2000-01-01

    Working closely and cooperatively with regulatory authorities during drug development is vital to successful drug development programs. In the United States, the drug development team includes not only members of the key disciplines of drug discovery, clinical research, regulatory affairs, marketing, chemistry, toxicology, and legal aspects, but also the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). New regulations encourage meetings at the pre-investigational new drug (pre-IND), end-of-phase-2, and pr...

  5. Epigenetic Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Peedicayil, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Advances in epigenetics have given rise to a new class of drugs, epigenetic drugs. Although many classes of epigenetic drugs are being investigated, at present most attention is being paid to two classes of epigenetic drugs: drugs that inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMTi) and drugs that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDACi). This paper discusses ...

  6. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  7. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  8. Buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John D

    2005-05-01

    Buccal formulations have been developed to allow prolonged localised therapy and enhanced systemic delivery. The buccal mucosa, however, while avoiding first-pass effects, is a formidable barrier to drug absorption, especially for biopharmaceutical products (proteins and oligonucleotides) arising from the recent advances in genomics and proteomics. The buccal route is typically used for extended drug delivery, so formulations that can be attached to the buccal mucosa are favoured. The bioadhesive polymers used in buccal drug delivery to retain a formulation are typically hydrophilic macro-molecules containing numerous hydrogen bonding groups. Newer second-generation bioadhesives have been developed and these include modified or new polymers that allow enhanced adhesion and/or drug delivery, in addition to site-specific ligands such as lectins. Over the last 20 years a wide range of formulations has been developed for buccal drug delivery (tablet, patch, liquids and semisolids) but comparatively few have found their way onto the market. Currently, this route is restricted to the delivery of a limited number of small lipophilic molecules that readily cross the buccal mucosa. However, this route could become a significant means for the delivery of a range of active agents in the coming years, if the barriers to buccal drug delivery are overcome. In particular, patient acceptability and the successful systemic delivery of large molecules (proteins, oligonucleotides and polysaccharides) via this route remains both a significant opportunity and challenge, and new/improved technologies may be required to address these.

  9. [Drug use in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U

    2005-01-01

    Drug use in pregnancy is associated with a number of serious complications for mother and fetus. There are safe data on destructive effects of alcohol, cocain, marijuana and tobacco on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Of importance is the fact that for many drugs similar effects on pregnancy could be observed: vasoconstriction of the placental vessels resulting in placental abruption, preterm labour (mother), spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preterm delivery and stillbirth (fetus). Symptoms of withdrawal and neurodevelopmental disorders are the most important problems of the neonate. However, only small data exist about the effects of recently popular party drugs like ecstasy or LSD. In addition, from most drugs, with exception of alcohol, safe information about the risk of congenital malformations doesn't exist. Nevertheless they may be a useful guide in the diagnostic of potential malformations by ultrasound. Most of pregnant women using drugs are poly-drug users and are often in reduced general condition. They need therefore the intensive care of the obstetrician in cooperation with other specialists (internal medicine, psychiatry).

  10. A comparison of high-dose and low-dose tranexamic acid antifibrinolytic protocols for primary coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M McHugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tranexamic acid (TA is used for prophylactic antifibrinolysis in coronary artery bypass surgeries to reduce bleeding. We evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of TA for prophylactic antifibrinolysis in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery in this retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care referral centre. Methods: One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent primary CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB via sternotomy between January 2009 and June 2011 were evaluated. Pre-operative patient characteristics, intraoperative data, post-operative bleeding, transfusions, organ dysfunction and 30-day mortality were compared between high-dose TA (30 mg/kg loading dose followed by infusion of 15 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery along with 2 mg/kg priming dose in the bypass circuit and low-dose TA (15 mg/kg loading dose followed by infusion of 6 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery along with 1 mg/kg priming dose in the bypass circuit groups. Univariate comparative analysis of all categorical and continuous variables was performed between the two groups by appropriate statistical tests. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to control for the effect of confounding on the outcome variables. Results: Chest tube output, perioperative transfusion of blood products and incidence of re-exploration for bleeding did not differ significantly (P> 0.05 between groups. Post-operative complications and 30-day mortality were comparable between the groups. The presence of cardiogenic shock and increased pre-operative creatinine were found to be associated with increased chest tube output on the post-operative day 2 by multivariable linear regression model. Conclusions: Low-dose TA protocol is as effective as high-dose protocol for antifibrinolysis in patients undergoing primary CABG with CPB.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  12. Drug: D06759 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medic...ine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06759 Alisma rhizome (JP16); Powdered alis...ma rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06759 Alisma rhizome; Powdered alisma rhizome; Alisma rhizome Crude drugs...Alismataceae (water-plantain family) Thrumwort rhizome Major component: Alisol [CPD:C17459 C17460 C17461] Therapeutic category of dru

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts ...

  14. Drug: D06770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06770 Crude, Drug Eucommia bark (JP16) Eucommiol [CPD:C17878], Geniposidic acid [C...de [CPD:C09781], (Pinoresinole diglucoside | Eucominndol), Harpagide acetate, Ulmoside, Liridendrin Eucommia...ommia family) Eucommia bark (dried) Major component: Gutta-percha Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...6770 Eucommia bark (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Dr

  15. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  16. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  17. DRUGS AND SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Lukina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a well – known risk factor of many diseases. It influences the efficacy and safety of drug treatment by affecting the course of different physiological processes and modifying the metabolism of drugs. The number of researches showed decrease in efficacy of some cardiovascular drugs in smokers.Aim. To compare efficacy and safety of selective and non-selective beta–adrenoceptor blockers in smokers and nonsmokers with chronic ischemic disease.Material and Methods. Antianginal efficacy of drugs in patients of both groups was evaluated by burden tests on treadmill, effective doses of bisoprolol and propranolol were adjusted.Results. The result shows that smokers two times more often need prescription of double doses of drugs. Depressed antianginal activity of both beta-adrenoceptor blockers, especially of non-selective propranolol, in smokers was revealed. When evaluating the parameters of spirography, it was found that non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranol statistically significant decreases figures of bronchial passage, irrespective of the status of smoking. Moreover, with propranol treatment, bigger number of side effects is registered in both groups, demonstrating 30% more in smokers compared to nonsmokers.Conclusion. Smoking attenuates efficacy and safety of beta-blockers, especially these of non-selective ones.

  18. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  19. Drug Policy in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Charalambous

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of pharmaceutical drugs is of enormous significance in our lives. Notable progress made inthe domain of Public Health, combined with a general increase in the standard of living, has had a direct impact on thediscovery of new drugs and cures and has shifted pharmaceutical policies further in line with the current needs of boththe country’s health system and, its population.Aim: This research aims to both shed light on and analyse the current state of pharmaceutical policy in Cyprus, as well asto try to seek out its weaknesses, making suggestions, where possible, as to how to keep these to the minimum.Results, and Conclusions: The lack of both high level research and major industrial facilities relating to the discovery ofnew pharmaceutical drugs in Cyprus, has hindered the effectiveness of pharmaceutical policy in general domains such ascontrol over the circulation and production of pharmaceutical products in the country, their pricing and distribution andthe monitoring of our drug supplies. The lack of transparency in a number of pharmaceutical procedures, and ofinformation on drugs does not enhance the industry’s reliability, but rather exacerbates an underlying feeling of insecurityrelating to it among the population.

  20. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  1. Drug development and immunotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SugiY; IzumM

    2002-01-01

    Immunotoxicity of drugs has to be evaluated same as other kinds of toxicities,since the functions of the immune system are vital to human survival,consisting of the protection of the body from invading pathogens and to provide immune surveillance against arising tumor cells.A given drug's effect on the immune system can be classified as (1)immuno-suppression/activation.(2)antigenicity and hypersensitivity,(3)autoimmunity.The guidance of immumotoxicity has highlighted on immuno-suppression in Harmonizing Congress among EC,USA and Japan.In this paper,the strategy and methods to evaluate immunotoxicity,mainly immuno-suppression,of the drugs will be show.complexity and variety of immuno-systems make assessment of immumotoxicity complex.The testing in rats to assess immune function is thought to be the first choice for immunotoxicity evaluation in a drug development,and then other suitable testing should be added depending on the mature of drugs.

  2. New Drugs and Drug Resistance in Malaria: Molecular Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-26

    heterologous expressions system in yeast for potential drug target enzymes. The yeast expression system should allow rapid screening of new drugs , greatly...medication yet the world faces a crisis-drug resistance is emerging and spreading faster than drugs are being developed and the flow in the pipeline of new ... drugs has all but stopped. This represents a particular threat to the US Military. In a short time there may be parts of the world where no effective

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones ( ...

  4. Drug: D06723 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D06723 Burdock fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plan... Burdock fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaph

  5. Drug: D06791 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in flavor and warm in property D06791 Ephedra herb; Ephedrae Herba Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Naked-seed plants Ephedraceae (ephedra family) D06791 Ephedra herb PubChem: 47208442 ... ...) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent

  6. Drug: D05189 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Meditec (TN) TcO4. Na 185.8757 185.8936 D05189.gif Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V...09FX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D05189 Sodium pertechnetate

  7. Drug: D02006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ron (TN) SrCl2 158.8452 158.526 D02006.gif Antineoplastic; Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC ...code: V10BX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D02006 Strontium (89

  8. Drug: D08758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08758 Technetium (99mTc) N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan PubChem: 96025441 ...

  9. Drug: D06339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06339 Drug Xenon Xe 133 (JAN/USP/INN); Xenon (133Xe); Xenon Xe 133 (TN) Xe 132.9059 131.293 D06339.gif Radi...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  10. Drug: D08764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08764 Technetium (99mTc) hydroxymethylene diphosphonate PubChem: 96025447 ...

  11. Drug: D04526 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USP); Indium oxine In 111 (TN) (C9H6NO)3. In 543.0399 547.2681 D04526.gif Diagnostic aid; Radioactive agent... Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D04526

  12. Drug: D08669 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N07 OTHER NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BA Drugs used in nicotine dependen...ce N07BA03 Varenicline D08669 Varenicline (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302

  13. Drug: D02102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N07 OTHER NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BC Drugs used in opioid depende...nce N07BC02 Methadone D02102 Methadone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) USP drug classificat

  14. Drug: D08757 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neurolite (TN) C12H21N2O5S2. Tc. 433.9956 436.3417 Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  15. Drug: D08760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:...br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08760 Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid - diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025443 ...

  16. Drug: D08767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japa...n [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08767 Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine - mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025450 ...

  17. Drug: D07520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07520 Drug Bepridil (INN); Bepadin (TN) C24H34N2O 366.2671 366.5396 D07520.gif Antiarrhythmic...; Calcium antagonist; Coronary vasodilator Same as: C06847 ATC code: C08EA02 Class IV antiarrhythmic...36 Calcium channel blocking drugs map07037 Antiarrhythmic drugs map07231 Sodium channel blocking drugs Anato

  18. Reinforcing stimulus properties of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van

    1979-01-01

    The reinforcing efficacy of psychoactive drugs can reliably be studied in experimental animals by using procedures for drug self-administration. This property of drugs is used to predict qualitatively and quantitatively their abuse potential in humans. External factors like the dose of the drug, the

  19. Drug: D06696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (laurel family) Lindera root Major component: Linderol [CPD:C01766] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06696 Lindera root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Ot

  20. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07154 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  1. Drug: D06752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06752 Crude, Drug Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea...D06752 Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06752 *Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powder...Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome; Atractylodis l

  2. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Ginty

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2 has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number of unique properties that make it possible to process both bioactive molecules and amorphous polymers without using toxic organic solvents or elevated temperatures. Here, we review the positive impact that supercritical fluids have had on the micronization, encapsulation, and impregnation of molecules of interest to both the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  3. Storytelling in drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Professionals who provide drug treatment to young people regularly encounter what they conceive to be inauthentic client claims, that is, claims not in accordance with reality. Earlier research demonstrates how authenticity remains a key concern within drug treatment, but it has not sufficiently...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...... professionals assert narrative control through storytelling and how specific stories carry specific consequences and may ultimately contribute to the exclusion of some clients from treatment....

  4. [Chirality and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, B; Reist, M; Carrupt, P A

    2000-07-01

    The two enantiomers of a chiral drug may have vastly different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. As a result, the research and development of chiral drugs raises specific problems some of which are discussed here. Thus, various pharmacokinetic interactions may involve two enantiomers, as seen for example when one enantiomer inhibits the metabolism of the other and modifies its effects. A different situation occurs when a third compound stereoselectively inhibits the metabolism of one of the two enantiomers. Another problem examined here results from the lack of configurational stability of some chiral drugs, a little known phenomenon whose consequences can be of pharmacological or pharmaceutical significance depending on the rate of the reaction of racemization or epimerisation. In-depth investigations are needed before choosing between a eutomer or a racemate.

  5. Genomics and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, W A

    2001-09-01

    Genomics, the systematic study of all the genes of an organism, offers a new and much-needed source of systematic productivity for the pharmaceutical industry. The isolation of the majority of human genes in their most useful form is leading to the creation of new drugs based on human proteins, antibodies, peptides, and genes. Human Genome Sciences, Inc, was the first company to use the systematic, genomics approach to discovering drugs, and we have placed 4 of these in clinical trials. Two are described: repifermin (keratinocyte growth factor-2, KGF-2) for wound healing and treatment of mucositis caused by cancer therapy, and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) for stimulation of the immune system. An anti-BLyS antibody drug is in advanced preclinical development for treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  6. Drug: D06731 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06731 Crude, Drug Gardenia fruit (JP16); Powdered gardenia fruit (JP16); Gerenia fruit...tic category: 5100 Rubiaceae (madder family) Gardenia fruit Major component: Geniposide [CPD:C09781] Therape...ormulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06731 Gardenia fruit (JP16); Powdered gardenia fruit...r clearing heat D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Dr...ugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Drugs for external

  7. Drug: D03868 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Rubiaceae (madder family) D03868 Ipecac CAS: 8012-96-2 PubChem: 17397952 ... ...D03868 Crude, Drug Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16); Ipsatol (TN) Emetine ...ry: 5100 ATC code: R05CA04 V03AB01 Rubiaceae (madder family) Cephaelis root Major component: Emetine [CPD:C0...9421] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Cru...de drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03868 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered

  8. Drug: D06724 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06724 Crude, Drug Schisandra fruit (JP16); Schisandra fruit (TN) Schizandrin [CPD:...[CPD:C09635], beta-Chamigrene [CPD:C09637], Chamigrenal, Fumarate [CPD:C00122], Schizandrel A, B Schisandra ...chinensis [TAX:50507] Same as: E00096 Therapeutic category: 5100 Schisandraceae (schisand...in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06724 Schisand...R:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06724 Schisandra fruit; Schisand

  9. Drug abuse among the students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  10. Drug: D01032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01032 Crude, Drug Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16); Agar (TN) Agarose [CPD:C01...100 Gelidiaceae Gelidium amansii mucous (freeze dry) Major component: Agarose [CPD:C01399] Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01032 Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D01032 Agar PubChem: 7848095 ...

  11. Drug: D06749 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06749 Crude, Drug Nuphar rhizome (JP16); Nuphar rhizome (TN) Nupharidine [CPD:C174...63], Nupharamine [CPD:C17464], Deoxynupharidine [CPD:C09945], Tannin, Nuphamine, Anhydronuphamine, Dehydrode...amily) Nuphar rhizome Major component: Nupharidine [CPD:C17463] Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06749 Nuphar rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr

  12. Anesthetics drug pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, P; Schneider, G; Kochs, E

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesia cannot be defined in an unambiguous manner. The essential components of general anesthesia are absence of consciousness and pain. This translates into two particular qualities: (1) sedation and hypnosis, i.e., mental blockade and (2) analgesia/antinociception, i.e., sensory blockade. Anesthetic actions on these two subcomponents are difficult to separate. On the one hand, very few anesthetics act exclusively on one of these components. On the other hand, these components are closely related to each other. Unconsciousness prevents (conscious) perception of pain, and nociception may serve as an arousal stimulus and change the level of sedation and hypnosis. The art of anesthesia lies in adequate dosing of drugs to reach both mental and sensory blockade. Drug administration can be based on pharmacokinetic considerations. Pharmacokinetic models allow an estimation of what happens to the administered drug in the body. Models with an effect site compartment may facilitate a tailored administration of anesthetic drugs. Finally, the quantification of pharmacodynamic effects allows a precise titration of drugs. Clinical assessment of mental blockade is often dichotomous, and therefore not very helpful to guide drug administration. Several scoring systems exist, but once consciousness is lost they become less reliable, in particular because reaction to stimuli is assessed, which mixes assessment of mental blockade with assessment of sensory blockade. Clinical assessment of analgesia requires a conscious patient, so antinociception is difficult to measure. Several methods of objective quantification on the basis of electrical brain activity are discussed including EEG and evoked potentials. Despite numerous indexes of the hypnotic component of anesthesia, there is no parameter that unambiguously quantifies the level of mental or sensory blockade.

  13. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  14. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Mintzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications.

  15. Thoughts on Drug Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兴宁

    2013-01-01

    Through the book“The economics of Public Issues”,in chapter 6,the author discussed why the government could not easily get spectacular success in the il egal commodity such as sex,booze,and drugs in economic way.In normal market, according to the law of demand,when the price of good is rising,the consumed amount wil decrease.However,the government has executed a lot of policies to reduce supply of drugs, but the consequence is not as good as they expected. Economics can help to find the answer to the phenomenon and improve the government's decision.

  16. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  17. Metrology for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter; Klein, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    In various recently published studies, it is argued that there are underestimated risks with infusion technology, i.e., adverse incidents believed to be caused by inadequate administration of the drugs. This is particularly the case for applications involving very low-flow rates, i.e., metrological infrastructure for low-flow rates. Technical challenges such as these were the reason a European research project "Metrology for Drug Delivery" was started in 2011. In this special issue of Biomedical Engineering, the results of that project are discussed.

  18. Drugs and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, E

    1993-01-01

    Naturopathy has received considerable interest all over the world recently. The use of its methods and its consequences have raised legal and ethical problems. This article reports on the use of two 'oncolytic' drugs. Neither of them was produced by cancer researchers and neither passed the analytic examination required in pharmaceutical research. During their use--they were prescribed and applied by physicians--conventional treatment was withdrawn. The ethical responsibility of doctors using fringe medicine drugs is dealt with. Naturopathy may, however, have a role in official medicine in certain cases.

  19. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  20. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  1. Drug: D06050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kit (TN) map04976 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D...trofosmin 99mTc-complex Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V09GA02 Component of Myoview ...D06050 Drug Technetium Tc 99m tetrofosmin (USP); Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin; Te

  2. Drug: D05157 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05157 Drug Nicotine polacrilex (USAN); Nicorette (TN) Smoking cessation adjunct AT... NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BA Drugs used in nicotine dependence N07BA01 Nicotine D05157 Nicotine...Anti-Addiction/Substance Abuse Treatment Agents Smoking Cessation Agents Nicotine D05157 Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) CAS: 96055-45-7 PubChem: 47206881 DrugBank: DB00184 ...

  3. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  4. Drug: D06699 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06699 Crude, Drug Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16); Val... hypnotics and sedatives N05CM09 Valerian radix D06699 Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian ... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06699 Japanese val...erian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0

  5. Drug: D06895 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06895 Crude, Drug Aluminum silicate hydrate with silicon dioxide (JP16); Hydrated ... for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr...Same as: E00192 Clay mineral comprised of natural hydrated aluminium silicate and silicon dioxide; Standards...ugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06895 Talcum crystallinum; Kadinum; Kasseki Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D06895 Hydrated halloysite PubChem: 51091237 ...

  6. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Zachary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2, epirubicin (MCF-7EPI, paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2, or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT. During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. Results In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. Conclusion This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does

  7. Ingestion of drugs by "parachuting": a unique drug delivery technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenerson, Katherine L; Lear-Kaul, Kelly C

    2012-06-01

    "Parachuting" is a technique of drug delivery where medications or illicit drugs are ingested by wrapping the drug of choice in a covering, which then will dissolve or unravel in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby releasing the drug for absorption. Parachuting of drugs can entail crushing of a pill prior to packaging to theoretically increase the surface area for absorption or may involve the packaging of a higher than usual dose of a drug in attempts to attain a sustained-release effect as the "parachute" dissolves or unravels. A case is presented in which a prescription drug abuser known to parachute his medications dies from obstruction of his airway by the inhaled packet. Risks of parachuting any drug would include overdose and fatal toxic effect from the drug itself and adverse effects from the packaging including bowel obstruction or perforation, or airway obstruction.

  8. The metaphorical nature of drugs and drug taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, M

    1988-01-01

    An inquiry into the role metaphor plays in personal and societal conceptions of drugs and drug taking reveals that drug metaphors and symbols are quite pervasive in individual thinking, social discourse, and the cultural media. They appear to influence beliefs and attitudes regarding drugs, the nature and meaning of drug experiences, and the reasons behind drug-taking behaviors. Some drug metaphors are common to different cultures and historical periods, while others are specific and exclusive to particular individuals and groups or drug-taking situations. These metaphors can carry positive as well as negative connotations. Further study is needed to delineate the metaphorical structuring of our thinking about drugs, and the process whereby these metaphors are generated and spread throughout society.

  9. Clinical Drug-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction Potential of Sucralfate with Other Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulochana, Suresh P; Syed, Muzeeb; Chandrasekar, Devaraj V

    2016-01-01

    of drugs. This review covers several category of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, histamine H2-receptor blockers, macrolides, anti-fungals, anti-diabetics, salicylic acid derivatives, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and provides pharmacokinetic data summary along...

  10. 77 FR 43337 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Certain Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ..., functional diarrhea, drug- induced diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, urinary bladder spasm, and urethral spasm... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-1975-N-0336 (Formerly 75N-0184), FDA-1975-N... Hydrocortisone Acetate and Pramoxine Hydrochloride] Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study...

  11. Clinically relevant drug interactions with anti-Alzheimer's drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraci, Filippo; Sultana, Janet; Drago, Filippo; Spina, Edoardo

    2017-03-03

    The aging world population had led to an increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drugs used to slow down the onset of AD, galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine and memantine, are generally well-tolerated. However, drug interactions between these drugs and other drugs are an important aspect of patient safety that should be borne in mind, particularly given the high burden of polypharmacy in the elderly. The aim of this review is to provide an updated review of clinically significant drug-drug interactions concerning drugs approved for AD. PubMed was searched for relevant keywords. No time limit was imposed but only articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals were selected. Relevant literature was also identified from the references of identified articles. Further information was obtained from drug summary of product characteristics. The major pharmacokinetic interactions identified concerned fluoxetine, paroxetine and ketoconazole when used with galantamine or donepezil. On the other hand, the major potential pharmacodynamic interactions concerned anti-dementia drugs and general anesthesia agents, anti-cholinergic drugs, conventional antipsychotics and bradycardia-inducing drugs. In clinical practice memantine shows a lower potential for pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) compared to other drug classes. In conclusion, the concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with other drugs can have variable clinical effects, making appropriate prescribing of these drugs very challenging. A simple and coherent way of presenting evidence on complex drug interaction information from heterogenous sources to clinicians is needed in order for the voluminous data available to have an impact on clinical practice.

  12. Drug-mineral interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids and thyroid extract on calcium metabolism is unknown. However, several other medications affect the excretion and intestinal absorption of calcium. A controlled study was carried out to investigate these aspects. Urinary calcium was determined for 3 months during the long-term intake of the antituberculous drug isoniazid (INH) and of the antibiotic tetracycline. The effect of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide, of several aluminum-containing antacids, of thyroid extract and of corticosteroids was also studied. Metabolic balances of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc were determined, as well as the intestinal absorption of calcium using Ca 47. Plasma levels, urinary and fecal excretions of Ca 47 were determined. All drugs tested increased urinary calcium except for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Regarding the effect of corticosteroids: the intestinal absorption of calcium was unchanged after the short-term use and was very high after long-term use. The studies have shown that several commonly used drugs induce an increase in urinary calcium excretion which may contribute to calcium loss, if this increase persists for prolonged periods of time. Urinary excretions of phosphorus, magnesium and zinc increased in some of the studies.

  13. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  14. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  15. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Departments of Paediatrics & Child. Health ... a few hours to days after the exposure to the antibiotic and include ... specific drug- thus posing a diagnostic and management myth. ... day history of persistent fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and poor .... intrathecal agents including steroids, vaccines and a.

  16. Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the epidemic of prescription drug overdose, especially in women, and what can be done about it.  Created: 7/2/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  17. Prevention and Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…

  18. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for futu

  19. [Anticancer drug adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despas, Fabien; Roche, Henri; Laurent, Guy

    2013-05-01

    A large number of anticancer drugs have been introduced during the two last decades with significant impact for survival, making cancer a chronic disease in a growing number of indications. However, these drugs are costly, induce adverse effects and their efficacy frequently depends on the dose. For all these reasons, adherence in cancer therapy is critical for an optimal benefit-risk ratio. Patient adherence remains virtually unexplored in many cancers, such as malignant blood diseases. When measured, adherence is poor, especially when the drug is administered as oral and prolonged therapy (hormonotherapy in breast cancer, imatinib). Physician nonadherence represents another form of drug misadministration; poorly documented, its mechanism remains obscure. Adherence may be measured by a panel of methods, each of them displaying limits and pitfalls, suggesting that several complementary methods should be used in the context of prospective studies. Risk factors are age, socio-educative profile, disease stage and physician profile. This review emphasizes some methods to prevent nonadherence. Finally, this review argues for prospective studies, which should integrate a social pharmacology approach, including medicine, psycho-sociology and economics.

  20. Drug development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic. Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted and become resistant to previous antimicrobial agents. In view of certain side effects caused due to usage of modern antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics scientists have made some attempts to screen some of the Ayurvedic herbs, which possess broader spectrum of safety. Some selected herbs which are used by tribal and rural people for curing various infective diseases caused due to bacteria, virus and fungi have been reported to possess anti-microbial properties. In the present paper and attempt is made to review about the indigenous medicinal plant which exhibited antimicrobial properties.

  2. Drug-induced uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  3. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  4. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Use for Addicts .................................................... 34 Figures Figure 1. Map of World Drug Majors in FY2009...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD ,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). 3 LSD is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide. 4 The most recent international effort to estimate the value of

  5. Want Drugs? Use Python

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotka, Michał; Papadatos, George; Davies, Mark; Dedman, Nathan; Hersey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We describe how Python can be leveraged to streamline the curation, modelling and dissemination of drug discovery data as well as the development of innovative, freely available tools for the related scientific community. We look at various examples, such as chemistry toolkits, machine-learning applications and web frameworks and show how Python can glue it all together to create efficient data science pipelines.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms and drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Dolžan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is estimated that genetic factors account for 15–30 % of variability in drug response, however for some drugs this may be the major determinant in drug response. Pharmacogenetics aims to identify genetic sources of variability in response to drugs by studying genetic variations affecting drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and drug targets thus causing interindividual variability in drug levels (pharmacokinetics, drug response (pharmacodynamics and side effects. Extensive information on genetic variability in drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and targets is available from public databases. Drugs are metabolized in two phases. In Phase I drug is metabolically activated to reactive electrophilic form, mostly by cytochromes P450 (CYPs, to be conjugated to some endogenous compound by Phase II enzymes: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, N-acetyl-transferases (NATs, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, or others. Genetic polymorphism of many enzymes involved in this process leads to inter-individual variations in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of drugs and could therefore influence drug response. Genetic polymorphism is the occurrence of two or more alleles at a given locus of which the rare allele has a frequency of at least 1 % or more in a given population. The understanding of a patient’s genotype and its corresponding effect on drug response could help distinguish between responders and non-responders of a specific drug treatment and help to choose the most effective drug and optimal dose. A large number of different methodologies have been developed for genotyping, however at present predictive genotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes does not occur routinely in the clinical practice.Conclusions: There is increasing evidence that genotyping for polymorphic drug metabolizing enzymes, in particular CYPs has potential to improve drug therapy and achieve higher response rates and reduced adverse effects. Open questions

  7. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  8. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carrabba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced lupus is a syndrome which share symptoms and laboratory characteristics with the idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The list of medications implicated as etiologic agents in drug-induced lupus continues to grow. The terms used for this condition are lupus-like syndrome, drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE and drug related lupus. More than 80 drugs have been associated with DILE. The first case of DILE was reported in 1945 and associated with sulfadiazin. In 1953 it was reported that DILE was related to the use of hydralazine. Drugs responsible for the development of DILE can divided into three groups, but the list of these drugs is quite long because new drugs are included yearly in the list. The syndrome is characterised by arthralgia, myalgia, pleurisy, rash and fever in association with antinuclear antibodies in the serum. Recognition of DILE is important because it usually reverts within a few weeks after stopping the drug.

  9. Epigenetic Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedicayil, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Advances in epigenetics have given rise to a new class of drugs, epigenetic drugs. Although many classes of epigenetic drugs are being investigated, at present most attention is being paid to two classes of epigenetic drugs: drugs that inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMTi) and drugs that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDACi). This paper discusses the potential use of epigenetic drugs in the treatment of MS, focusing on DNMTi and HDACi. Preclinical drug trials of DNMTi and HDACi for the treatment of MS are showing promising results. Epigenetic drugs could improve the clinical management of patients with MS.

  10. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  11. Discrimination of approved drugs from experimental drugs by learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yixue

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether a compound is druglike or not as early as possible is always critical in drug discovery process. There have been many efforts made to create sets of 'rules' or 'filters' which, it is hoped, will help chemists to identify 'drug-like' molecules from 'non-drug' molecules. However, among the chemical space of the druglike molecules, the minority will be approved drugs. Classifying approved drugs from experimental drugs may be more helpful to obtain future approved drugs. Therefore, discrimination of approved drugs from experimental ones has been done in this paper by analyzing the compounds in terms of existing drugs features and machine learning methods. Results Four methodologies were compared by their performance to classify approved drugs from experimental ones. The best results were obtained by SVM, in which the accuracy is 0.7911, the sensitivity is 0.5929, and the specificity is 0.8743. Based on the results, consensus model was developed to effectively discriminate drugs, which further pushed the correct classification rate up to 0.8517, sensitivity up to 0.7242, specificity up to 0.9352. The applications on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients Database (TCM-ID tested the methods. Therefore this model has been proven to be a potent tool for identifying drug molecules. Conclusion The studies would have potential applications in the research of combinatorial library design and virtual high throughput screening for drug discovery.

  12. Drug related hospital admissions. Results from an intervention program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, J.; Harvald, B.; Worm, J.

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, drug education, hospital admission, adverse drug reactions, drug utilisation, intervention......Farmakologi, drug education, hospital admission, adverse drug reactions, drug utilisation, intervention...

  13. [Hereditary angioedema. Control and treatment in 7 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués, L; Dordal, T; Baltasar, M; Guspi, R; Nogueiras, C; Cadahia, A

    1992-03-14

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is due to a deficit of the C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) of a dominant autosomic inheritance. Seven patients are presented from a family with HAE, four of whom with poor prognosis due to the frequency and site of the angioedema. Prophylaxis was obtained with long-term danazol since antifibrinolytic drugs are not efficient in the prevention of outbreaks of angioedema. In three cases a concentrate of C1 INH was administered and in another as short term prophylaxis prior to surgery. C1 INH was more efficient under these indications than fresh plasma or antifibrinolytic drugs.

  14. 76 FR 13880 - Investigational New Drug Applications and Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 312 and 314 Investigational New Drug Applications and Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... amending its investigational new drug application (IND) regulations and abbreviated new drug...

  15. 77 FR 71802 - Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for... ``Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' The guidance is intended to assist manufacturers of PET drugs in submitting investigational new drug applications (INDs)....

  16. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed.

  17. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  18. DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH DIAZEPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bojanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with anxyolitic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, antitremor, and amnestic activity. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P (CYP 450 enzyme system. Diazepam is N-demethylated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 to the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam, and is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite temazepam. N-desmethyl-diazepam and temazepam are both further metabolized to oxazepam. Concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diazepam may alter plasma concentrations of this drug, although this effect is unlikely to be associated with clinically relevant interactions.The goal of this article was to review the current literature on clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with diazepam.A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for original research and review articles published in English between January 1971. and May 2011. Among the search terms were drug interactions, diazepam, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and cytochrome P450. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, and meeting abstracts were excluded. The reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional publications.Diazepam is substantially sorbed by the plastics in flexible containers, volume control set chambers, and tubings of intravenous administration sets. Manufacturers recommend not mixing with any other drug or solution in syringe or solution, although diazepam is compatible in syringe with cimetidine and ranitidine, and in Y-site with cisatracurium, dobutamine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, nafcillin, quinidine gluconate, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Diazepam is compatible with: dextrose 5% in water, Ringers injection, Ringers injection lactated and sodium chloride 0.9%. Emulsified diazepam is compatible with Intralipid and Nutralipid.Diazepam has low potential

  19. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, G.; Fischer, K. E.; Borch-Johnsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Methods Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany ...

  20. Drug resistance mechanisms and novel drug targets for tuberculosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mahmudul; Hameed, H M Adnan; Mugweru, Julius; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Wang, Changwei; Tan, Yaoju; Liu, Jianxiong; Li, Xinjie; Tan, Shouyong; Ojima, Iwao; Yew, Wing Wai; Nuermberger, Eric; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-20

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant challenge to the successful treatment and control of TB worldwide. Resistance to anti-TB drugs has existed since the beginning of the chemotherapy era. New insights into the resistant mechanisms of anti-TB drugs have been provided. Better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms helps in the development of new tools for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB. There is also a pressing need in the development of new drugs with novel targets to improve the current treatment of TB and to prevent the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review summarizes the anti-TB drug resistance mechanisms, furnishes some possible novel drug targets in the development of new agents for TB therapy and discusses the usefulness using known targets to develop new anti-TB drugs. Whole genome sequencing is currently an advanced technology to uncover drug resistance mechanisms in M. tuberculosis. However, further research is required to unravel the significance of some newly discovered gene mutations in their contribution to drug resistance.

  1. Drug-drug interactions with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Sander; de Vries, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In their Review, Roelof van Leeuwen and colleagues1 recommend various dose adjustments during concomitant use of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and drugs that inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4).1 Most information is taken from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s drug label or the Eur

  2. Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Nichols, Charles D; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Nichols, David E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-09-22

    Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain. Here, we summarize recent preclinical and clinical data in this field, discuss their pharmacological mechanisms of action, and outline critical areas for future studies of psychedelic drugs, with the goal of maximizing the potential benefits of translational psychedelic biomedicine to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhythmomimetic drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing

    2015-01-01

    We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...

  4. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed.

  5. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered.

  6. Drug models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeds, Hannah; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains. Approximately one third of patients are resistant to currently available medication. New therapeutic targets and a better understanding of the basic biological processes that drive pathogenesis are needed in order to develop therapies that will improve quality of life for these patients. Several drugs that act on neurotransmitter systems in the brain have been suggested to model aspects of schizophrenia in animals and in man. In this paper, we selectively review findings from dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, cannabinoid, GABA, cholinergic and kappa opioid pharmacological drug models to evaluate their similarity to schizophrenia. Understanding the interactions between these different neurotransmitter systems and their relationship with symptoms will be an important step towards building a coherent hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25653831

  7. [Visceral leishmaniasis: new drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Robert, S; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2003-12-01

    The standard treatment of visceral leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony (meglumine antimoniate or sodium stibogluconate), but toxicity is frequent with this drug. Moreover, antimony unresponsiveness is increasing, both in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. Amphotericin B is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that binds to sterols in cell membranes. It is the most active antileishmanial agent in use. Its infusion-related and renal toxicity may be reduced by lipid-based delivery. Liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) seems to be less toxic than other amphotericin B lipid formulations (Amphocil, Amphotec). Optimal drug regimens of Ambisome vary from one geographical area to another. In the Mediterranean Basin, a total dose of 18 to 24 mg/kg is safe and effective. Shortening the duration of treatment without decreasing the total dose (i.e., 10 mg/kg/day for 2 days) seems promising to reduce the global cost of the therapy.

  8. Chronicles in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Shelley L; Moral, Maria Angels; Bozzo, Jordi

    2007-03-01

    Chronicles in Drug Discovery features special interest reports on advances in drug discovery. This month we highlight agents that target and deplete immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which are produced by tumor cells to hinder innate immunity against, or chemotherapies targeting, tumor-associated antigens. Antiviral treatments for respiratory syncytial virus, a severe and prevalent infection in children, are limited due to their side effect profiles and cost. New strategies currently under clinical development include monoclonal antibodies, siRNAs, vaccines and oral small molecule inhibitors. Recent therapeutic lines for Huntington's disease include gene therapies that target the mutated human huntingtin gene or deliver neuroprotective growth factors and cellular transplantation in apoptotic regions of the brain. Finally, we highlight the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties of new compounds targeting the somatostatin receptor subtype sst4, which warrant further study for their potential application as clinical analgesics.

  9. [Drug control of appetite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoundou, V; Golay, A

    2011-01-12

    The control of the appetite by drugs (sensation of hunger, satiation and satiety) is crucial in the management of obesity. Numerous drugs in this domain were forbidden these last years because of serious side effects. New researches allow the development of new substances presenting fewer side effects either by better specificity on receptors (locarserin), or by new mechanism of action (GLP-1, leptin, anti Ghrelin). The appetite is settled by a complex neurohormonal mechanism. To act on some systems at the same time, the development of products "polypill" combining naltroxone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate or amylin-leptine give encouraging results. However the dominant mechanism of the appetite dysregulation needs to be better understood.

  10. Tranexamsyre reducerer blodtabet efter større elektive ortopædkirurgiske operationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Camilla Tofte; Tengberg, Peter Toft; Husted, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    surgery as an antifibrinolytic agent. Several studies within the orthopaedic fields have underlined the effect of the drug in reducing blood loss and need for transfusions. However, more studies are needed to examine the optimal dosage and administration along with the risks associated with the drug....

  11. Simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence method for the quantification of tranexamic acid in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Huertas-Perez; M. Heger; H. Dekker; H. Krabbe; J. Lankelma; F. Ariese

    2007-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (TA) is a synthetic antifibrinolytic agent that is being considered as a candidate adjuvant drug for site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy of port wine stains. For drug utility studies, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence method was developed for the quantific

  12. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Melatonergic drugs in development

    OpenAIRE

    Carocci A; Catalano A; Sinicropi MS

    2014-01-01

    Alessia Carocci,1 Alessia Catalano,1 Maria Stefania Sinicropi2 1Department of Pharmacy–Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, 2Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy Abstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is widely known as "the darkness hormone". It is a major chronobiological regulator involved in circadian phasing and sleep-wake cycle in humans. Numerous other functions, including ...

  14. High throughput drug profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie

    2000-01-01

    High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.

  15. New Antiplatelet Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2011-01-01

    @@ ADP- receptor antagonist Prasugrel is a thienopyridine of the third generation and needs conversion into an active drug metabolite (R138727).Preclinical and clinical studies showed a more rapid,potent and consistent inhibition of patelet function for prasugrel compared to clopidogrel.Prasugrel has been shown to be of particular benefit in patients with diabetes,especially those on insulin [30% relative risk reduction (RRR) in cardiovascular death, MI,or stroke (P <0.001 ) and 37% RRR,respectively] .

  16. Drug addiction in art

    OpenAIRE

    MATĚJKOVÁ, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Annotation The thesis is focused on tracing typical moments in art production of drug addicts. The theoretical part focuses on depth psychology oriented psychological movement of Sigmund Freud that is a mutual theoretical resource for both the Art Therapy management in Psychiatric Hospital Cerveny dvur and the Therapeutic Community Vrsicek. I am devoted to the concept of personality and I also describe the various stages of personal development. In addition, I try to define addiction, the per...

  17. Headache, drugs and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Alexander D; Leschziner, Guy D; Peatfield, Richard C

    2014-09-01

    Headache and sleep mechanisms share multiple levels of physiological interaction. Pharmacological treatment of headache syndromes may be associated with a broad range of sleep disturbances, either as a direct result of the pharmacology of the drug used, or by unmasking physiological alterations in sleep propensity seen as part of the headache symptom complex. This review summarises known sleep and circadian effects of various drugs commonly used in the management of headache disorders, with particular attention paid to abnormal sleep function emerging as a result of treatment. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane database using search terms and strings relating to generic drug names of commonly used compounds in the treatment of headache and their effect on sleep in humans with review of additional pre-clinical evidence where theoretically appropriate. Medications used to treat headache disorders may have a considerable impact on sleep physiology. However, greater attention is needed to characterise the direction of the changes of these effects on sleep, particularly to avoid exacerbating detrimental sleep complaints, but also to potentially capitalise on homeostatically useful properties of sleep which may reduce the individual burden of headache disorders on patients. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-11-01

    Being the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are also crucial for various cellular processes including intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA which encodes not only proteins, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAs but also non-coding RNAs. The most recent line of evidence indicates the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, the level of gene expression - in a way similar to nuclear DNA - can be regulated by direct epigenetic modifications. Up to now, very little data shows the possibility of epigenetic regulation of mtDNA. Mitochondria and mtDNA are particularly important in the nervous system and may participate in the initiation of drug addiction. In fact, some addictive drugs enhance ROS production and generate oxidative stress that in turn alters mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. This review summarizes recent findings on mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and epigenetics in drug addiction.

  19. Drug: D05431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entha haplocalyx [TAX:447096] Pharmaceutic aid [flavor]; Pharmaceutic aid [perfume] Same as: E00045 Therapeu...rugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D05431 *Peppermint; Peppermint Drugs for exter

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival ...