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Sample records for lysimeter investigation low-level

  1. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Jastrow, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, T.M.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included.

  2. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  3. UGT low level signal conditioning investigation

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    Barrett, W.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Cole, E. (Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Low level signal conditioning instrumentation and test configuration was the subject of an experiment test matrix fielded on Event DISKO ELM by Sandia National Laboratories. The test matrix consisted of forty strain gages and noise measurement channels that were nominally identical in both the HLOS pipe and instrumentation alcove. The intervening signal conditioning instrumentation and cables were the controlled variables. This paper presents results from the DISKO ELM investigation which directly compared RF-21, TSP and Sandia's special low noise cable (LNC). Other parametric studies show comparisons of 120 versus 350 {Omega} gages, effects of forward amplification, passive diode clippers and the KSC Active Clipper adapted for single channel integration into SANDUS, the Sandia 0-10 MHz, modular data acquisition system. The fastest recovery times from prompt noise effects were in the 20 to 30 microseconds range. Voltage measurements were also made to compare noise from instrumentation in the pipe with induced noise from the cable plant between the cross-cut and the instrumentation alcove. 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Soil Lysimeter Excavation for Coupled Hydrological, Geochemical, and Microbiological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aditi; Wang, Yadi; Meira Neto, Antonio A; Matos, Katarena A; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Rob; Neilson, Julie W; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon; Troch, Peter A

    2016-09-11

    Studying co-evolution of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the subsurface of natural landscapes can enhance the understanding of coupled Earth-system processes. Such knowledge is imperative in improving predictions of hydro-biogeochemical cycles, especially under climate change scenarios. We present an experimental method, designed to capture sub-surface heterogeneity of an initially homogeneous soil system. This method is based on destructive sampling of a soil lysimeter designed to simulate a small-scale hillslope. A weighing lysimeter of one cubic meter capacity was divided into sections (voxels) and was excavated layer-by-layer, with sub samples being collected from each voxel. The excavation procedure was aimed at detecting the incipient heterogeneity of the system by focusing on the spatial assessment of hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological properties of the soil. Representative results of a few physicochemical variables tested show the development of heterogeneity. Additional work to test interactions between hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological signatures is planned to interpret the observed patterns. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of carrying out similar excavations in order to observe and quantify different aspects of soil-development under varying environmental conditions and scale.

  5. Lysimeter Soil Retriever (LSR) - A tool for investigation on heterogeneity of the migration and structural changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reth, S.; Gierig, M.; Winkler, J. B.; Mueller, C. W.; Nitsche, C.; Seyfarth, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally research fields of lysimeter studies scheduled as long term experiments. In the course of the studies, the lysimeters act more or less as a "black box". Usually the soil material is identified and analysed at the beginning of the experiments. But there is also a strong need to analyze the soil without disturbance of the soil structure after the experiments in order to obtain information about spatial and structural changes within the soil profile. The new technique of the Lysimeter Soil Retriever for the first time enables studies on the heterogeneous migration of percolating water, and changes of soil structure as well as soil organic matter (SOM) and biomass distribution, as well as the distribution of mycorrhiza and microbes in different depths on intact soil profiles. The main target by using the LSR is the preparation of an intact soil monolith from the field lysimeter and the immediate dissection into slices to enable a direct sampling of its soil environment at several depths. Distribution and composition of SOM, pF-values, soil porosity, as well as degradation of PAH were only a few parameters, which are determined at the different soil depths. In this presentation we give some examples for the different application of the LSR and the advantage for the experiments: - The soil of 8 lysimeters, planted with young beeches was retrieved after several years of fumigation with doubled atmospheric ozone concentrations and application of fungi. Due to the accurate sectioning of the soil monoliths a very dense and intensive soil sampling was possible. As the whole soil space of 8 lysimeters could be sampled, precise spatial information were obtained about the rapid formation of SOM depth gradients within the experiment duration. - After the investigation on the mobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the seepage water, the lysimeter soil was retrieved. Investigations on the microbiological degradation of the PAH were possible in the whole

  6. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  7. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    mixtures and c) transformation of pesticides in lysimeters during the year 2014. 1 Elsner, M. Stable isotope fractionation to investigate natural transformation mechanisms of organic contaminants: principles, prospects and limitations. J. Environ. Monit. 12, 2005-2031 (2010). 2 Hofstetter, T. B. & Berg, M. Assessing transformation processes of organic contaminants by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30, 618-627 (2011). 3 Elsner, M. et al. Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 403, 2471-2491, doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5683-y (2012).

  8. Investigations of pollutant migration using lysimeters; Untersuchungen zur Schadstoff-Migration in Lysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    The third GSF Lysimeter Workshop focused on pollutant migration in underground strata, i.e. the dispersion of water constituents as referred to water transport on the basis of ideal tracer investigations. [German] Der am 29./30.04.2002 stattgefundene Workshop 'Untersuchungen zur Schadstoffmigration in Lysimetern' war der dritte GSF-Lysimeterworkshop nach denen in den Jahren 1998 und 2000 veranstalteten. Nachdem in den Jahren 1998 und 2000 der Wassertransport und die Bestimmung der Sickerwassergeschwindigkeit in Lysimetern im Mittelpunkt standen, war 2002 die Schadstoffmigration im Untergrund der Schwerpunkt der Vortraege und Poster. Unter Migration wird das Ausbreitungsverhalten von Wasserinhalts-(Fremd-, Schad-)Stoffen bezogen auf den Wassertransport, bestimmt mit idealen Tracern, verstanden. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of precipitation using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    wind speeds and the measured outliers of lysimeter mass. Moreover, the influence of wind seems to be varying for different lysimeters. At the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, two precipitation gauges in high temporal resolution (weighing-recording gauge and tipping-bucket gauge; both 200 cm² surface; measuring height 1.5 m) are installed. Furthermore, mass time series of various lysimeters cultivated with different vegetation is also available for the same location. Appropriate methods to compensate the influence of wind on measuring precipitation using lysimeters are investigated and results between the different measuring devices are compared. Results show that precipitation measured with lysimeters is generally higher, especially compared to the weighing-recording gauge. In addition it is detected that also the data interval of lysimeter mass time series used for quantifying precipitation (e.g., 1 day, 1 hour, 30 minutes, 10 minutes) is a crucial factor and influences the result. Summarizing, the potential of using highly precise weighable lysimeters for measuring precipitation at the point scale is rather high. However, methods used to compensate external effects on lysimeter weighing have to be enhanced for a global application of using lysimeters as precipitation gauges. Meissner, R., J. Seeger, H. Rupp, M. Seyfarth & H. Borg, 2007: Measurement of dew, fog, and rime with a high-precision gravitation Lysimeter. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2007, 170, p. 335-344. WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 2008. Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. WMO-No. 8, 140 pp.

  10. A lysimeter experiment to investigate the leaching of veterinary antibiotics through a clay soil and comparison with field data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Paul [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul.kay@adas.co.uk; Blackwell, Paul A. [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom); Boxall, Alistair B.A. [Cranfield Centre for EcoChemistry, Cranfield University, Shardlow Hall, Shardlow, Derby DE72 2GN (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in livestock production may be present in manure and slurry as the parent compound and/or metabolites. The environment may therefore be exposed to these substances due to the application of organic fertilisers to agricultural land or deposition by grazing livestock. For other groups of substances that are applied to land (e.g. pesticides), preferential flow in clay soils has been identified as an extremely important mechanism by which surface water pollution can occur. This lysimeter study was therefore performed to investigate the fate of three antibiotics from the sulphonamide, tetracycline and macrolide groups in a clay soil. Only sulphachloropyridazine was detected in leachate and soil analysis at the end of the experiment showed that almost no antibiotic residues remained. These data were analysed alongside field data for the same compounds to show that soil tillage which breaks the connectivity of macropores formed over the summer months, prior to slurry application, significantly reduces chemical mobility. - This paper describes one of the first studies to investigate the fate of veterinary medicines in cracking clay soils.

  11. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  12. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaie, Kazem; Hamedi, Roya; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mahdian, Mina; Bayat, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain. In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 orthodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar extraction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (GA-AL-AS diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm(2), 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode) or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr) was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups. There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05). Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth movement or reducing the associated pain.

  13. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of rainfall data with regard to low-level wind flow regime for east central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joni

    1992-01-01

    Previous research has been conducted to investigate the effect of the low-level wind region on summertime convective storms in the east central Florida area. These effects were described by analyzing the distribution of lightning flashes within classifications based on the low-level wind regime for the months June through September of 1987 to 1990. The present research utilizes the same classification strategy to study rainfall patterns for data gathered for the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The CaPE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.

  15. Epidemiological investigations of aircrew: an occupational group with low-level cosmic radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Hajo; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far.

  16. Cytomorphometric and clinical investigation of the gingiva before and after low-level laser therapy of gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Marija; Mihailovic, Dragan; Kesic, Ljiljana; Milasin, Jelena; Apostolovic, Mirjana; Kostadinovic, Ljiljana; Janjic, Olivera Trickovic

    2012-07-01

    Gingival epithelial cells are the first physical barrier against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial products may penetrate the epithelium and directly disturb its integrity. We investigated the clinical and cytomorphological status of the gingiva in children with gingivitis before and after low-level laser therapy. The study enrolled 130 children divided into three groups: group 1 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received basic treatment, group 2 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received low-level laser treatment in addition to basic treatment, and group 3 comprised 30 children with healthy gingiva as controls. Oral hygiene and the status of the gingiva were assessed using the appropriate indexes before and after treatment. Inflammation of the gingiva was monitored by cytomorphometric evaluation. Cytomorphometric analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (p gingivitis. Evaluation using clinical parameters showed that treatment of gingivitis with basic treatment was successful. Cytomorphometric analysis showed that after basic treatment the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the gingiva were reduced in size, although not to the size found in healthy gingiva. However, after adjuvant low-level laser therapy, the size of the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells in the gingiva matched the size of the nuclei in the cells in healthy gingiva.

  17. Isooctane transport and remediation in soil using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarieti, M. L.; Toscano, G.; Greco, G.

    2009-04-01

    The AMRA lysimeter station (near Piana di Monte Verna, Caserta, Italy) consists of eight weighable monolithic groundwater lysimeters fully equipped with sensors to provide continuous monitoring of temperature, humidity, water tension and weight, as well as ports for soil, liquid and gas sampling. An air-injection system allows to perform venting or sparging actions into contaminated soils and groundwater. A meteo station provides the indispensable data to evaluate the interactions between lysimeters and the meteorological phenomena on site. A preliminary experiment was performed last year to investigate the reactive transport of a NAPL-type contaminant under passive transport conditions and during an air-venting remediation action. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) was chosen as a representative contaminant from gasoline fuels. Four lysimeters containing undisturbed soil extracted from a former industrial site were used. Surface vegetation was cut to avoid leaves interference during contamination phase. Two lysimeters were contaminated by distributing a fixed amount of isooctane onto the soil surface, while two more lysimeters were left uncontaminated for reference. Only for one of the two contaminated lysimeters air was vented through a port at 150 cm depth. Air injection started 30 min after the contamination, lasted all the experiment time, and was applied also to one of the reference lysimeters. Gas samples were drawn periodically at different depths of the two contaminated lysimeters and analysed for isooctane content. Evolution of isooctane concentration profiles was different in the two contaminated lysimeters. In case of air-venting the contaminant maximum concentration was lower and the maximum depth reached by the contaminant was reduced. The time needed for a complete remediation action was compared with theoretical estimates computed according to normative procedures.

  18. Paramecium tetraurelia growth stimulation under low-level chronic irradiation: investigations on a possible mechanism. [/sup 60/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effects of low-level chronic irradiation on Paramecium tetraurelia proliferation. Biological effects were strongly dependent on the bacterial density of culture medium and more exactly on the catalase content of the medium. Significant growth stimulation was found under /sup 60/Co chronic irradiation at a dose rate of 2 rad/year when paramecia were grown in a medium containing a high bacterial concentration (2.5 x 10/sup 2/ cells/m) or supplemented with catalase (300 U/ml). In a medium with a low bacterial density (1 x 10/sup 6/ cell/ml) or supplemented with a catalase activity inhibitor, growth simulation was preceded by a transitory inhibiting effect which could be correlated with extracellularly radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ addition appeared to be able to simulate the biological effects of chronic irradiation. A possible mechanism is discussed.We proposed that the stimulating effects were the result of intracellular enzymatic scavenging of radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  19. An investigation into the depth of penetration of low level laser therapy through the equine tendon in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low level laser therapy (LLLT is frequently used in the treatment of wounds, soft tissue injury and in pain management. The exact penetration depth of LLLT in human tissue remains unspecified. Similar uncertainty regarding penetration depth arises in treating animals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that transmission of LLLT in horses is increased by clipping the hair and/or by cleaning the area to be treated with alcohol, but is unaffected by coat colour. A LLLT probe (810 nm, 500 mW was applied to the medial aspect of the superficial flexor tendon of seventeen equine forelimbs in vivo. A light sensor was applied to the lateral aspect, directly opposite the laser probe to measure the amount of light transmitted. Light transmission was not affected by individual horse, coat colour or leg. However, it was associated with leg condition (F = 4.42, p = 0.0032. Tendons clipped dry and clipped and cleaned with alcohol, were both associated with greater transmission of light than the unprepared state. Use of alcohol without clipping was not associated with an increase in light transmission. These results suggest that, when applying laser to a subcutaneous structure in the horse, the area should be clipped and cleaned beforehand.

  20. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  1. Developing Present-day Proxy Cases Based on NARVAL Data for Investigating Low Level Cloud Responses to Future Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of the entire global climate is significantly influenced by the presence of boundary layer clouds. The main aim of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) project is to improve climate model predictions by means of process studies of clouds and precipitation. This study makes use of observed elevated moisture layers as a proxy of future changes in tropospheric humidity. The associated impact on radiative transfer triggers fast responses in boundary layer clouds, providing a framework for investigating this phenomenon. The investigation will be carried out using data gathered during the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for VALidation (NARVAL) South campaigns. Observational data will be combined with ECMWF reanalysis data to derive the large scale forcings for the Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Simulations will be generated for a range of elevated moisture layers, spanning a multi-dimensional phase space in depth, amplitude, elevation, and cloudiness. The NARVAL locations will function as anchor-points. The results of the large eddy simulations and the observations will be studied and compared in an attempt to determine how simulated boundary layer clouds react to changes in radiative transfer from the free troposphere. Preliminary LES results will be presented and discussed.

  2. Atomic force microscopy investigation of the interaction of low-level laser irradiation of collagen thin films in correlation with fibroblast response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Andreas; Yova, Dido

    2015-12-01

    Low-level red laser (LLRL)-tissue interactions have a wide range of medical applications and are garnering increased attention. Although the positive effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) have frequently been reported and enhanced collagen accumulation has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms involved, little is known about LLRL-collagen interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of LLRL irradiation on collagen, in correlation with fibroblast response. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize surfaces and identify conformational changes in collagen before and after LLRL irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated collagen thin films were used as culturing substrates to investigate fibroblast response with fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated that LLRL induced small alterations in fluorescence emission and had a negligible effect on the topography of collagen thin films. However, fibroblasts cultured on LLRL-irradiated collagen thin films responded to LRLL. The results of this study show for the first time the effect of LLRL irradiation on pure collagen. Although irradiation did not affect the nanotopography of collagen, it influenced cell behavior. The role of collagen appears to be crucial in the LLLT mechanism, and our results demonstrated that LLRL directly affects collagen and indirectly affects cell behavior.

  3. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  4. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  5. Lysimeter Kleče Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Ljubljana field aquifer is the main source of drinking water for Ljubljana. About 35% of the recharge area is used for agriculture, predominantly for intensive vegetable production therefore two lysimeters were built in 1991 at the area of the water pumping station Klece in order to study natural nitrate percolation through the unsaturated zone. The lysimeters consist of two concrete pipes (radius: 0,9 m, depth: 2,0 m), filled with autochthon soil, sandy (pebbles of 2-4 cm diameter) gravel and drainage material, each 50 cm thick. Both lysimeters are connected with control shaft. The mean porosity of the lysimeter is 22 %. At the bottom of the lysimeter outflow a drain pipe leads into adjacent control shaft where outflow is measured with tipping bucket. The measurements of percolating water indicated that the southern lysimeter is damaged, because the part of the percolating water is lost through the bottom of the container. This was the reason for the removal of the southern lysimeter and replacing it with hydro-lysimeter. The monolith of 2 m height and 1,1m diameter will be cut from sandy gravel sediments on the area of the water pumping station. Inside the monolith tensiometers, TDR probes and suction cups will be installed in three levels in depths of 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Additionally 2 tensiometers for temperature and tension in the depths 190 cm to transfer field matrix potential into the lysimeter will be installed. Long term observations of water balance and nitrate percolation are very important in order to assess trends in groundwater recharge and nitrate content. Measurements and monitoring of NO3-N in percolated water from non-fertilised area give information about nitrate natural background, which helps to determine the correct use of plant fertilizers and enables prompt reactions to negative trends on the groundwater quality.

  6. Investigation of boundary-layer wind predictions during nocturnal low-level jet events using the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirocha, Jeff D.; Simpson, Matthew D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Baskett, R.

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of two periods featuring three consecutive low level jet (LLJ) events in the US Upper Great Plains during the autumn of 2011 were conducted to explore the impacts of various setup configurations and physical process models on simulated flow parameters within the lowest 200 m above the surface, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Sensitivities of simulated flow parameters to the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model (LSM) physics options, were assessed. Data from a Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system, deployed to the Weather Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP; Finley et al. 2013) were used to evaluate the accuracy of simulated wind speed and direction at 80 m above the surface, as well as their vertical distributions between 120 and 40 m, covering the typical span of contemporary tall wind turbines. All of the simulations qualitatively captured the overall diurnal cycle of wind speed and stratification, producing LLJs during each overnight period, however large discrepancies occurred at certain times for each simulation in relation to the observations. 54-member ensembles encompassing changes of the above discussed configuration parameters displayed a wide range of simulated vertical distributions of wind speed and direction, and potential temperature, reflecting highly variable representations of stratification during the weakly stable overnight conditions. Root mean square error (RMSE) statistics show that different ensemble members performed better and worse in various simulated parameters at different times, with no clearly superior configuration . Simulations using a PBL parameterization designed specifically for the stable conditions investigated herein provided superior overall simulations of wind speed at 80 m, demonstrating the efficacy of targeting improvements of physical process models in areas of known deficiencies. However, the considerable magnitudes of the

  7. Long-term lysimeter experiment to analyze the influence of the climate change on matter fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Thomas; Groh, Jannis; Wollschläger, Ute; Gerke, Horst; Priesack, Eckart; Kiese, Ralf; Borg, Erik; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Based on the TERENO SoilCan infrastructure, a long-term large-scale experiment was designed to study the effects of climate change on terrestrial systems. The water and matter fluxes in soil are the main focuses of SoilCan. In the frame of SoilCan, fully automated lysimeter systems were installed on several highly equipped experimental field sites of the TERENO-observatories and the relevant status variables of each ecosystem were monitored (e.g. climate, hydrology, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, biodiversity, etc.). In total, 90 lysimeters (1.5 m depth, 1m2 surface) were filled with soil monoliths at the four TERENO-observatories and were instrumented with TDRs, tensiometers, temperature sensors, soil heat flux plates, and CO2 sensors. For the controlling of the lower boundary condition, suction candle rakes were installed into the lysimeter bottoms. In combination with bi-directional pumps and tanks, the water content of the lysimeters was adjusted to the surrounded original field sites. To simulate the expected climate change, 48 lysimeters were transferred along temperature and rainfall gradients within the respective observatories and between the observatories, based on the principle 'Space for Time'. In case of the "Rur" observatory, three intensively instrumented field sites ("Wüstebach", "Rollesbroich" und "Selhausen") were equipped with lysimeter stations. These three field sites include different land uses, "Wüstebach" as a forest site, "Rollesbroich" as a grassland and "Selhausen" as an arable site. In order to standardize the agronomic management, the crop rotation at the arable lysimeters comprised winter wheat - winter rye - winter barley - oats. For investigation of the matter flux, soil solutions and leachates were regularly sampled. The water balances and the dynamics of the carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the first two years of the experiment will be presented.

  8. Using long-term lysimeter data to analyze hydrological trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, Thomas; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Roesseler, Anne-Kathrin; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    actual evapotranspiration derived from lysimeter measurements at specific locations. Observed water storage changes, and evaporative and drainage fluxes in lysimeter systems combined with mathematical modeling of the soil water balance may help to separate climate forcing from management. Evett, S.R., et al., 2012. Can weighing lysimeter et represent surrounding field et well enough to test flux station measurements of daily and sub-daily et? Adv. Water Resour. 50:79-90. Jung, M., et al., 2010. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467:951-954. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004. Sheffield, J., et al., 2012. Little change in global drought over the past 60 years. Nature, 491, 435-438. Teuling, A.J., et al., 2009: A regional perspective on trends in continental evaporation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02404, doi:10.1029/2008GL036584.

  9. High-resolution estimation of the water balance components from high-precision lysimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysimeters offer the opportunity to determine precipitation, evapotranspiration and groundwater-recharge with high accuracy. In contrast to other techniques, like Eddy-flux systems or evaporation pans, lysimeters provide a direct measurement of evapotranspiration from a clearly defined surface area at the scale of a soil profile via the built-in weighing system. In particular the estimation of precipitation can benefit from the much higher surface area compared to typical raingauge systems. Nevertheless, lysimeters are exposed to several external influences that could falsify the calculated fluxes. Therefore, the estimation of the relevant fluxes requires an appropriate data processing with respect to various error sources. Most lysimeter studies account for noise in the data by averaging. However, the effects of smoothing by averaging on the accuracy of the estimated water balance is rarely investigated. In this study, we present a filtering scheme, which is designed to deal with the various kinds of possible errors. We analyze the influence of averaging times and thresholds on the calculated water balance. We further investigate the ability of two adaptive filtering methods (the Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold filter (AWAT-filter (Peters et al., 2014 and the consecutively described synchro-filter in further reducing the filtering error. On the basis of the data sets of 18 simultanously running lysimeters of the TERENO SoilCan research site in Bad Lauchstädt, we show that the estimation of the water balance with high temporal resolution and good accuracy is possible.

  10. Investigation of low-level laser therapy potentiality on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in the absence/presence of osteogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Nora; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Minzioni, Paolo; Vercellino, Marco; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has beneficial effects on bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of LLLI on proliferation and differentiation of a human osteoblast-like cell line (Saos-2 cell line). Cultured cells were exposed to different doses of LLLI with a semiconductor diode laser (659 nm 10 mW power output). The effects of laser on proliferation were assessed daily up to seven days of culture in cells irradiated once or for three consecutive days with laser doses of 1 or 3 J/cm2. The obtained results showed that laser stimulation enhances the proliferation potential of Saos-2 cells without changing their telomerase pattern or morphological characteristics. The effects on cell differentiation were assessed after three consecutive laser irradiation treatments in the presence or absence of osteo-inductive factors on day 14. Enhanced secretion of proteins specific for differentiation toward bone as well as calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in irradiated cells cultured in a medium not supplemented with osteogenic factors. Taken together these findings indicate that laser treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and also influences their osteogenic maturation, which suggest it is a helpful application for bone tissue regeneration.

  11. Effect of rice husk gasification residue application on herbicide behavior in micro paddy lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Junghun; Pisith, Sok; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Boulange, Julien; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Effects of rice husk gasification residues (RHGR) application on the fate of herbicides, butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, in paddy water were investigated using micro paddy lysimeters (MPLs). The dissipation of both herbicides in paddy water was faster in the RHGR treated MPL than in the control MPL. The average concentrations of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water in the lysimeter treated with RHGR during 21 days were significantly reduced by 51% and 48%, respectively, as compared to those in the lysimeter without RHGR application. The half-lives (DT50) of butachlor in paddy water for control and treatment were 3.1 and 2.3 days respectively, and these values of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl were 3.0 and 2.2 days, respectively. Based on this study, RHGR application in rice paddy environment is an alternative method to reduce the concentration of herbicide in paddy field water and consequently to reduce potential pollution to aquatic environment.

  12. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  13. An overview of the geochemical code MINTEQ: Applications to performance assessment for low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Graham, M.J.; Eary, L.E.

    1987-03-01

    The MINTEQ geochemical computer code, developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), integrates many of the capabilities of its two immediate predecessors, MINEQL and WATEQ3. The MINTEQ code will be used in the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program to perform the calculations necessary to simulate (model) the contact of low-level waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments of the interaction of ground water with solidified low-level wastes. The code can calculate ion speciation/solubilitya, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Under the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program, the composition of effluents (leachates) from column and batch experiments, using laboratory-scale waste forms, will be used to develop a geochemical model of the interaction of ground water with commercial, solidified low-level wastes. The wastes being evaluated include power-reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen. The thermodynamic database for the code was upgraded preparatory to performing the geochemical modeling. Thermodynamic data for solid phases and aqueous species containing Sb, Ce, Cs, or Co were added to the MINTEQ database. The need to add these data was identified from the characterization of the waste streams. The geochemical model developed from the laboratory data will then be applied to predict the release from a field-lysimeter facility that contains full-scale waste samples. The contaminant concentrations migrating from the waste forms predicted using MINTEQ will be compared to the long-term lysimeter data. This comparison will constitute a partial field validation of the geochemical model.

  14. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EVOLUTION AND NOCTURNAL LOW-LEVEL JETS: LOCAL VERSUS NON-LOCAL PBL SCHEMES. (R826373)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  17. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  18. Can low-level ethanol exposure during pregnancy influence maternal care? An investigation using two strains of rat across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Daniel O; Borrow, Amanda P; Sanders, Julia E; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Cameron, Nicole M

    2015-09-01

    Gestational alcohol use is well documented as detrimental to both maternal and fetal health, producing an increase in offspring's tendency for alcoholism, as well as in behavioral and neuropsychological disorders. In both rodents and in humans, parental care can influence the development of offspring physiology and behavior. Animal studies that have investigated gestational alcohol use on parental care and/or their interaction mostly employ heavy alcohol use and single strains. This study aimed at investigating the effects of low gestational ethanol dose on parental behavior and its transgenerational transmission, with comparison between two rat strains. Pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) and Long Evans (LE) progenitor dams (F0) received 1g/kg ethanol or water through gestational days 17-20 via gavage, or remained untreated in their home cages. At maturity, F1 female offspring were mated with males of the same strain and treatment and were left undisturbed through gestation. Maternal behavior was scored in both generations during the first six postnatal days. Arch-back nursing (ABN) was categorized as: 1, when the dam demonstrated minimal kyphosis; 2, when the dam demonstrated moderate kyphosis; and 3, when the dam displayed maximal kyphosis. Overall, SD showed greater amounts of ABN than LE dams and spent more time in contact with their pups. In the F0 generation, water and ethanol gavage increased ABN1 and contact with pups in SD, behaviors which decreased in treated LE. For ABN2, ethanol-treated SD dams showed more ABN2 than water-treated dams, with no effect of treatment on LE animals. In the F1 generation, prenatal exposure affected retrieval. Transgenerational transmission of LG was observed only in the untreated LE group. Strain-specific differences in maternal behavior were also observed. This study provides evidence that gestational gavage can influence maternal behavior in a strain-specific manner. Our results also suggest that the experimental procedure during

  19. Ecotoxicity and fate of a silver nanomaterial in an outdoor lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Karsten; Hoppe, Martin; Kraas, Marco; Fries, Elke; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Sewage sludge is repeatedly applied as fertilizer on farmland due to its high nutrient content. This may lead to a significant increase of silver nanomaterials (AgNM) in soil over years. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ecotoxicity and fate of AgNM under environmentally relevant conditions in outdoor lysimeters over 25 months. Two AgNM concentrations (1.7 and 8.0 mg/kg dry matter soil) were applied via sewage sludge into soil. In subsamples of the soil, incubated under laboratory conditions for 180 days, the comparability of outdoor and laboratory results regarding ecotoxicity was determined. The results from our long term lysimeter experiments show no detectable horizontal displacement in combination with very low remobilization to the percolate water. Thus, indicate that the sludge applied AgNM remains nearly immobile in the pathway between soils and leachate. However, Ag uptake to the roots of wheat and canola suggests that the chemical conditions in the rhizosphere induce AgNM remobilization from the incorporated sewage sludge even after two harvesting cycles. At the higher AgNM concentration a steady inhibition of the soil microflora was observed over 25 month in the lysimeter study, while there was no effect at the lower AgNM concentration. The results of the laboratory experiment reflect the findings of the lysimeter study and indicate that a risk assessment for AgNM based on data from laboratory tests is acceptable.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION HANFORD GROUT LYSIMETER FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G. A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hanford Grout Lysimeter Facility (HGLF) will be constructed to test the leaching and migration of radioactive and nonradioactive tracers embedded in a solidification agent (grout) under actual burial conditions in Hanford soil. Three different water treatment rates will be used: natural precipitation, 4 times and 8 times natural precipitation. Six lysimeters will be assembled. Each unit will measure 6 feet in diameter, 25 feet deep. Their construction and instrumentation will be performed during June-July, 1984 by J. A. Jones Construction Company and/or their subcontractor. The routine monitoring will be performed by Battelle staff over a 5.5 year period beginning in November 1984. The total estimated project cost will be approximately $200,000. The only anticipated environmental impact from this project will be a temporary nuisance-type local dust problem during the construction phase. This will not be a detriment to the environment. The results of dose calculations indicate that dose rates from the grouted waste cans will be quite low when the cans are covered by a meter or more of earth. Dose rates at or near the surface of the individual cans are not high enough to preclude their handling. The facility area will be fenced, posted as a radiation zone and operated under a radiation work procedure.

  1. Variably-saturated flow in large weighing lysimeters under dry conditions: inverse and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Sascha; Reineke, Daniela; Koonce, Jeremy; Berli, Markus; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    A reliable quantification of the soil water balance in semi-arid regions requires an accurate determination of bare soil evaporation. Modeling of soil water movement in relatively dry soils and the quantitative prediction of evaporation rates and groundwater recharge pose considerable challenges in these regions. Actual evaporation from dry soil cannot be predicted without detailed knowledge of the complex interplay between liquid, vapor and heat flow and soil hydraulic properties exert a strong influence on evaporation rates during stage-two evaporation. We have analyzed data from the SEPHAS lysimeter facility in Boulder City (NV) which was installed to investigate the near-surface processes of water and energy exchange in desert environments. The scientific instrumentation consists of 152 sensors per Lysimeter which measured soil temperature, soil water content, and soil water potential. Data from three weighing lysimeters (3 m long, surface area 4 m2) were used to identifiy effective soil hydraulic properties of the disturbed soil monoliths by inverse modeling with the Richards equation assuming isothermal flow conditions. Results indicate that the observed soil water content in 8 different soil depths can be well matched for all three lysimeters and that the effective soil hydraulic properties of the three lysimeters agree well. These results could only be obtained with a flexible model of the soil hydraulic properties which guaranteed physical plausibility of water retention towards complete dryness and accounted for capillary, film and isothermal vapor flow. Conversely, flow models using traditional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties were not able to match the observed evaporation fluxes and water contents. After identifying the system properties by inverse modeling, we checked the possibility to forecast evaporation rates by running a fully coupled water, heat and vapor flow model which solved the energy balance of the soil surface. In these

  2. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Protective barrier test results (FY 1990, the third year)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) was constructed to test protective barriers for isolating low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes from the biosphere. Protective barriers are specially configured earth materials placed over near-surface wastes to prevent intrusion of water, plants, and animals. Low-level radioactive waste is stored in near-surface repositories at the Hanford Site and can be transported into the biosphere by water, plants, and animals. The purpose of the FLTF is to measure water balance within barriers as precipitation is partitioned to evaporation (including transpiration), storage, and drainage. Runoff was prevented by raised edges on the lysimeters. Water balance in protective barriers depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, the gradient of a potential, and the conductivity of the underlying capillary barrier. Current barrier design uses soil with a high water storage capacity and a capillary barrier underlying the soil to increase its water storage capacity. This increased storage capacity is to hold water, which would normally drain, near the the surface where evaporation can cycle it back to the atmosphere. 7 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  4. A lysimeter-based approach to quantify the impact of climate change on soil hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawitsch, Veronika; Steffen, Birk; Herndl, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The predicted climate change involving increasing CO2 concentrations and increasing temperatures will have effects on both vegetation and soil properties and thus on the soil water balance. The aim of this work is to quantify the effects of changes in these climatic factors on soil hydrological processes and parameters. For this purpose data of six high precision weighable lysimeters will be used. The lysimeters are part of a Lysi-T-FACE concept, where free-air will be enriched with CO2 (FACE-Technique) and infrared heaters heat the plots for investigation on effects of increasing temperatures (T-FACE-Technique). The Lysi-T-FACE concept was developed on the „Clim Grass Site" at the HBLFA Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria) in 2011 and 2012 with a total of 54 experimental plots. These include six plots with lysimeters where the two climatic factors are varied in different combinations. On the basis of these grass land lysimeters the soil hydraulic parameters under different experimental conditions will be investigated. The lysimeters are equipped with TDR-Trime sensors and temperature sensors combined with tensiometers in different depths. In addition, a mechanical separation snow cover system is implemented to obtain a correct water balance in winter. To be able to infer differences between the lysimeters reliably a verification of functionalities and a plausibility check of the data from the lysimeters as well as adequate data corrections are needed. Both an automatic and a user-defined control including the recently developed filter method AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold Filter) are combined with a visualisation tool using the software NI DIAdem. For each lysimeter the raw data is classified in groups of matric potentials, soil water contents and lysimeter weights. Values exceeding technical thresholds are eliminated and marked automatically. The manual data control is employed every day to obtain high precision seepage water weights. The

  5. Whole Genome Sequencing Investigation of a Tuberculosis Outbreak in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Caused by a Strain with a "Low-Level" rpoB Mutation L511P - Insights into a Mechanism of Resistance Escalation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends diagnosing Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB in high burden countries by detection of mutations in Rifampin (RIF Resistance Determining Region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene with rapid molecular tests GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Hain MTBDRplus. Such mutations are found in >95% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to RIF by conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. However routine diagnostic screening with molecular tests uncovered specific "low level" rpoB mutations conferring resistance to RIF below the critical concentration of 1 μg/ml in some phenotypically susceptible strains. Cases with discrepant phenotypic (susceptible and genotypic (resistant results for resistance to RIF account for at least 10% of resistant diagnoses by molecular tests and urgently require new guidelines to inform therapeutic decision making. Eight strains with a "low level" rpoB mutation L511P were isolated by GHESKIO laboratory between 2008 and 2012 from 6 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive patients during routine molecular testing. Five isolates with a single L511P mutation and two isolates with double mutation L511P&M515T had MICs for RIF between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml and tested susceptible in culture-based DST. The eighth isolate carried a double mutation L511P&D516C and was phenotypically resistant to RIF. All eight strains shared the same spoligotype SIT 53 commonly found in Haiti but classic epidemiological investigation failed to uncover direct contacts between the patients. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS revealed that L511P cluster isolates resulted from a clonal expansion of an ancestral strain resistant to Isoniazid and to a very low level of RIF. Under the selective pressure of RIF-based therapy the strain acquired mutation in the M306 codon of embB followed by secondary mutations in rpoB and escalation of resistance level. This scenario highlights the importance of subcritical

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing Investigation of a Tuberculosis Outbreak in Port-au-Prince, Haiti Caused by a Strain with a "Low-Level" rpoB Mutation L511P - Insights into a Mechanism of Resistance Escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheretina, Oksana; Shen, Lishuang; Escuyer, Vincent E; Mabou, Marie-Marcelle; Royal-Mardi, Gertrude; Collins, Sean E; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends diagnosing Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high burden countries by detection of mutations in Rifampin (RIF) Resistance Determining Region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene with rapid molecular tests GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Hain MTBDRplus. Such mutations are found in >95% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to RIF by conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST). However routine diagnostic screening with molecular tests uncovered specific "low level" rpoB mutations conferring resistance to RIF below the critical concentration of 1 μg/ml in some phenotypically susceptible strains. Cases with discrepant phenotypic (susceptible) and genotypic (resistant) results for resistance to RIF account for at least 10% of resistant diagnoses by molecular tests and urgently require new guidelines to inform therapeutic decision making. Eight strains with a "low level" rpoB mutation L511P were isolated by GHESKIO laboratory between 2008 and 2012 from 6 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive patients during routine molecular testing. Five isolates with a single L511P mutation and two isolates with double mutation L511P&M515T had MICs for RIF between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml and tested susceptible in culture-based DST. The eighth isolate carried a double mutation L511P&D516C and was phenotypically resistant to RIF. All eight strains shared the same spoligotype SIT 53 commonly found in Haiti but classic epidemiological investigation failed to uncover direct contacts between the patients. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) revealed that L511P cluster isolates resulted from a clonal expansion of an ancestral strain resistant to Isoniazid and to a very low level of RIF. Under the selective pressure of RIF-based therapy the strain acquired mutation in the M306 codon of embB followed by secondary mutations in rpoB and escalation of resistance level. This scenario highlights the importance of subcritical resistance to RIF

  7. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  8. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  9. Corticomuscular Coherence with Low-Level Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakarov V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the corticomuscular synchronization in beta- (15-30 Hz and gamma-range (30-45 Hz during isometric compensation of low-level forces. It is still unknown to what extent the synchronization processes in these frequency ranges can coexist or influence each other when the static component only is modulated in a dynamic stimulation pattern. We investigated the corticomuscular coherence (CMC, as well as the cortical spectral power (SP during a visuomotor task, where 8%, 16% and 24% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were used. Seven healthy right-handed female subjects compensated isometrically the different dynamic forces with their right index finger. EEG was recorded from 52 scalp positions and belly-tendon bipolar EMG from the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI. Under the three conditions investigated, the beta- and gamma-range CMC existed in parallel. They behaved in a different manner: while the beta-range coherence increased linearly during higher force application, the gamma-range CMC was not significantly modulated by the force levels. Our results suggest that although gamma-range CMC is functionally associated to the isometric compensation of dynamic forces, broad beta-range CMC can fulfill functions of motor control simultaneously different when low-level forces are applied.

  10. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  11. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  12. Spatial extrapolation of lysimeter results using thermal infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, B. R.; Bosveld, F. C.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring evaporation (E) with lysimeters is costly and prone to numerous errors. By comparing the energy balance and the remotely sensed surface temperature of lysimeters with those of the undisturbed surroundings, we were able to assess the representativeness of lysimeter measurements and to quantify differences in evaporation caused by spatial variations in soil moisture content. We used an algorithm (the so called 3T model) to spatially extrapolate the measured E of a reference lysimeter based on differences in surface temperature, net radiation and soil heat flux. We tested the performance of the 3T model on measurements with multiple lysimeters (47.5 cm inner diameter) and micro lysimeters (19.2 cm inner diameter) installed in bare sand, moss and natural dry grass. We developed different scaling procedures using in situ measurements and remotely sensed surface temperatures to derive spatially distributed estimates of Rn and G and explored the physical soundness of the 3T model. Scaling of Rn and G considerably improved the performance of the 3T model for the bare sand and moss experiments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) increasing from 0.45 to 0.89 and from 0.81 to 0.94, respectively). For the grass surface, the scaling procedures resulted in a poorer performance of the 3T model (NSE decreasing from 0.74 to 0.70), which was attributed to effects of shading and the difficulty to correct for differences in emissivity between dead and living biomass. The 3T model is physically unsound if the field scale average air temperature, measured at an arbitrarily chosen reference height, is used as input to the model. The proposed measurement system is relatively cheap, since it uses a zero tension (freely draining) lysimeter which results are extrapolated by the 3T model to the unaffected surroundings. The system is promising for bridging the gap between ground observations and satellite based estimates of E.

  13. Planning of low-level radioactive waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Yoneya, Masayuki; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Koakutsu, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Yasuaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    In order to treat and dispose of the low-level radioactive waste generated from JNC sites safely and rationally, a comprehensive plan managing the generation, treatment, storage and disposal of waste, was formulated. The plan is called ''Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program''. Taking into consideration an institutionalization of disposal and based on an investigation of waste properties (type, amount, activity concentration), the appropriate treatment method for disposal was studied, and a fundamental plan for conducting the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program was presented. To achieve disposal of low-level radioactive waste, concrete measures will be taken according to the Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Management Program. The plan will be improved suitably by the result of technical development, and will be reconsidered flexibly after institutionalization by the government. (author)

  14. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  15. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  16. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  17. Modeling of field lysimeter release data using the computer code dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Fitzgerald, I.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted to match the experimentally measured mass release data collected over a period of seven years by investigators from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from the lysimeters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory using the computer code DUST. The influence of the dispersion coefficient and distribution coefficient on mass release was investigated. Both were found to significantly influence mass release over the seven year period. It is recommended that these parameters be measured on a site specific basis to enhance the understanding of the system.

  18. Modeling of field lysimeter release data using the computer code dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Fitzgerald, I.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In this study, it was attempted to match the experimentally measured mass release data collected over a period of seven years by investigators from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from the lysimeters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory using the computer code DUST. The influence of the dispersion coefficient and distribution coefficient on mass release was investigated. Both were found to significantly influence mass release over the seven year period. It is recommended that these parameters be measured on a site specific basis to enhance the understanding of the system.

  19. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  20. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  2. Reporting low-level analytical data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer

    negative, or zero, as the best estimate of the measured characteristic, usually concentration. ... This manner of reporting data near the limits of measurement can be independent ... Some common practices for reporting low-level results include:.

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

  4. 4D GPR Experiments--Towards the Virtual Lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Drasdis, J. B.; Kruse, S. E.; Or, D.

    2006-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of infiltration, water flow and retention in the vadose zone currently rely primarily on invasive methods, which irreversibly disturb original soil structure and alter its hydrologic behavior in the vicinity of the measurement. For example, use of lysimeters requires extraction and repacking of soil samples, and time- domain reflectometry (TDR) requires insertion of probes into the soil profile. This study investigates the use of repeated high-density 3D ground penetrating radar surveys (also known as 4D GPR) as a non-invasive alternative for detailed visualization and quantification of water flow in the vadose zone. Evaluation of the 4D GPR method was based on a series of controlled point-source water injection experiments into undisturbed beach sand deposits at Crandon Park in Miami, Florida. The goal of the GPR surveys was to image the shape and evolution of a wet-bulb as it propagates from the injection points (~0.5 m) towards the water table at 2.2 m depth. The experimental design was guided by predictive modeling using Hydrus 2D and finite-difference GPR waveform codes. Input parameters for the modeling were derived from hydrologic and electromagnetic characterization of representative sand samples. Guided by modeling results, we injected 30 to 40 liters of tap water through plastic-cased boreholes with slotted bottom sections (0.1 m) located 0.4 to 0.6 m below the surface. During and after injection, an area of 25 m2 was surveyed every 20 minutes using 250 and 500 MHz antennas with a grid spacing of 0.05 x 0.025 m. A total of 20 3D GPR surveys were completed over 3 infiltration sites. To confirm wet-bulb shapes measured by GPR, we injected 2 liters of "brilliant blue" dye (~100 mg/l) along with a saline water tracer towards the end of one experiment. After completion of GPR scanning, a trench was excavated to examine the distribution of the saltwater and dye using TDR and visual inspection, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the 4D GPR

  5. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  6. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  7. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance of iron on this process, as some MOB isolates were able to oxidize manganese independently from the iron content, whereas some are not. The latter isolates are only able to oxidize manganese if iron is present in the media. In the lysimeter, SEM-EDX data showed

  8. Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

    2013-04-01

    Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kleče. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it

  9. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  10. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  11. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...

  12. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc; Kirthi Machireddy; Michelle Petri MD, MPH

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  13. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  14. Investigation on the analytical methods of plutonium in low-level radioactive waste water%低水平放射性废水中钚的分析方法研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 史克亮; 叶高阳; 郭治军; 吴王锁; 王一鸥; 郭建锋; 梁勇

    2015-01-01

    Plutonium is an important nuclear fuel, also an extremely toxic radionuclide. It plays an important role in the field of nuclear fuel cycling and radioactive waste disposal. In recent years, attention has been turned to the content and distribution of plutonium in low level radioactive waste water of nuclear facilities and natural water. Some analytical methods have been established for plutonium determination in low level radioactive waste water of nuclear facilities, natural water around nuclear facilities as well as the natural water contaminated by nuclear accident. In this paper, the reported analytical methods have been reviewed and compared, and a new method for the separation of plutonium from other actinides and metal ions using TEVA resin vacuum micro column and determination of plutonium using liquid scintillation counter was proposed. The developed method is expected to be used in the daily and emergency monitoring of plutonium in the future.%钚是重要的核燃料,也是一种极毒的放射性核素,在核燃料循环和放射性废物处置过程中占有重要地位。近些年来,钚在自然水体中的含量、分布引起人们的关注。科研工作者针对低水平放射性废水,核设施周围自然水体,核试验、核事故情况下可能污染的自然水体等,建立了一些钚的分析方法。作者在对这些方法进行了比较的基础上,提出了一种在盐酸体系中用TEVA树脂负压微色谱柱液闪法将水溶液中钚与其他锕系元素及金属离子分离并测量的新方法。该方法有望在日常和应急监测中的得到应用。

  15. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  16. Concepts and data-collection techniques used in a study of the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water and radionuclide movement through the unsaturated zone is being conducted at the low level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Included in the study are detailed investigations of evapotranspiration, movement of water through waste trench covers, and movement of water and radionuclides (dissolved and gaseous) from the trenches. An energy balance/Bowen ratio approach is used to determine evapotranspiration. Precipitation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, air temperature and water vapor content gradients, wind speed, and wind direction are measured. Soil water tension is measured with tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers are monitored with automatic data loggers. Soil moisture contents are measured through small-diameter access tubes with neutron and gamma-ray attenuation gages. Data beneath the trenches are obtained through a 130-meter-long tunnel which extends under four of the trenches. Water samples are obtained with suction lysimeters, and samples of the geologic material are obtained with core tubes. These samples are analyzed for radiometric and inorganic chemistry. Gas samples are obtained from gas piezometers and analyzed for partial pressures of major constituents, Radon-222, tritiated water vapor, and carbon-14 dioxide. (USGS)

  17. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R. [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  18. Water balance measurements and simulations of maize plants on lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Florian; Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2016-04-01

    In Central Europe expected major aspects of climate change are a shift of precipitation events and amounts towards winter months, and the general increase of extreme weather events like heat waves or summer droughts. This will lead to strongly changing regional water availability and will have an impact on future crop growth, water use efficiency and yields. Therefore, to estimate future crop yields by growth models accurate descriptions of transpiration as part of the water balance is important. In this study, maize was grown on weighing lysimeters (sowdate: 24 April 2013). Transpiration was determined by sap flow measurement devices (ICT International Pty Ltd, Australia) using the Heat-Ratio-Method: two temperature probes, 0.5 cm above and below a heater, detect a heat pulse and its speed which allows the calculation of sap flow. Water balance simulations were executed with different applications of the model framework Expert-N. The same pedotransfer and hydraulic functions and the same modules to simulate soil water flow, soil heat and nitrogen transport, nitrification, denitrification and mineralization were used. Differences occur in the chosen potential evapotranspiration ETpot (Penman-Monteith ASCE, Penman-Monteith FAO, Haude) and plant modules (SPASS, CERES). In all simulations ETpot is separated into a soil and a plant part using the leaf are index (LAI). In a next step, these parts are reduced by soil water availability. The sum of these parts is the actual evapotranspiration ETact which is compared to the lysimeter measurements. The results were analyzed from Mid-August to Mid-September 2013. The measured sap flow rates show clear diurnal cycles except on rainy days. The SPASS model is able to simulate these diurnal cycles, overestimates the measurements on rainy days and at the beginning of the analyzed period, and underestimates transpiration on the other days. The main reason is an overestimation of potential transpiration Tpot due to too high

  19. Hydraulic considerations in sampling the unsaturated zone with inclined gravity lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Inclined gravity lysimeters as deep as 5.39 meters below land surface designed for sampling soil water in coarse sand under continuous ponding conditions, were shown to be capable of collecting 10 liters per hour at an infiltration rate of 0.5 meter per hour. This represents a capture efficiency of approximately 50%, a value observed in two similar but shallower lysimeters. When lysimeters are installed from a trench or observation manhole, soil-water samples can be taken under virtually undisturbed conditions, avoiding the soil disturbance and filtration associated with porous-cup vacuum lysimeters. Successful operation requires that the sampler be designed for the hydraulic characteristics of the soil from which the water sample is to be extracted. Criteria for lysimeter dimensions can be established on the basis of pressure heads experienced during sampling, can be induced to flow into the lysimeter by gradient manipulation. Observed head gradients outside the lysimeter ranged between 1.7 and 2.2 times those across the lysimeter, which would seem to explain the observed capture efficiency. (USGS)

  20. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  1. Draft low level waste technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information.

  2. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  3. Mechanisms of low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova, Tatiana N.

    2006-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and

  4. Mineralization and Transfer Processes of {sup 14}C-labeled Pesticides in Outdoor Lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, Sabine; Doerfler, Ulrike, E-mail: doerfler@gsf.de; Ruth, Bernhard; Loos, Christine [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology (Germany); Wagner, Tobias [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology (Germany); Karl, Heidrun; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    A recently designed two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system allows the detailed investigation of degradation, transport and transfer processes of {sup 14}C-labeled substances in soil-plant-atmosphere-systems under outdoor conditions. With this test system it is feasible to distinguish between {sup 14}C-emissions from soil surfaces and {sup 14}C-emissions from plant surfaces in soil monoliths under real environmental conditions. Special soil humidity sensors allow the measurement of soil water content near to the soil surface, in 1 and 5 cm depth. The behavior of organic chemicals can be followed for a whole vegetation period and a mass balance for the applied chemical can be established. Some selected results of the herbicides isoproturon and glyphosate - using the two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system - are presented to demonstrate its applicability for the identification and quantification of the processes that govern pesticide behavior in soil-plant-systems. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-isoproturon was very different in four different soils; the mineralization capacity of the soils ranged from 2 to 60%. Leaching of isoproturon in general was very low, but depending on the soil type and environmental conditions isoproturon and its metabolites could be leached via preferential flow, especially shortly after application. For the herbicide {sup 14}C-glyphosate no accumulation of residues in the soil and no leaching of the residues to deeper soil layers could be observed after three applications. Glyphosate was rapidly degraded to AMPA in the soil. Glyphosate and AMPA were accumulated in soy bean nodules.

  5. MESERAN Calibration for Low Level Organic Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2004-04-08

    Precision cleaning studies done at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), the Kansas City Plant (KCP), and at other locations within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons complex over the last 30 years have depended upon results from MESERAN Evaporative Rate Analysis for detecting low levels of organic contamination. The characterization of the surface being analyzed is carried out by depositing a Carbon-14 tagged radiochemical onto the test surface and monitoring the rate at which the radiochemical disappears from the surface with a Geiger-Mueller counter. In the past, the total number of counts over a 2-minute span have been used to judge whether a surface is contaminated or not and semi-quantitatively to what extent. This technique is very sensitive but has not enjoyed the broad acceptance of a purely quantitative analysis. The work on this project developed calibrations of various organic contaminants typically encountered in KCP operations. In addition, a new analysis method was developed to enhance the ability of MESERAN Analyzers to detect organic contamination and yield quantitative data in the microgram and nanogram levels.

  6. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  7. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  8. Integrating lysimeter drainage and eddy covariance flux measurements in a groundwater recharge model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    2015-01-01

    Field scale water balance is difficult to characterize because controls exerted by soils and vegetation are mostly inferred from local scale measurements with relatively small support volumes. Eddy covariance flux and lysimeters have been used to infer and evaluate field scale water balances...... because they have larger footprint areas than local soil moisture measurements.. This study quantifies heterogeneity of soil deep drainage (D) in four 12.5 m2 repacked lysimeters, compares evapotranspiration from eddy covariance (ETEC) and mass balance residuals of lysimeters (ETwbLys), and models D...

  9. Investigation of environmental samples by low-level gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Niese, S. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The average sample number in our laboratory is about 200 per month (12% technical solid state, 30% geological solid state, 6% geological solid state with low mass, 12% biological, 11% water directly, 25% water after chemical separation, 4% others). In 54% of the measurements the background continuum, and though the detection limit, is determined only by the detector himself and not by the compton continuum from high energy lines in the sample. Some examples in the presented work aim to prove the advantages of gamma ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory Felsenkeller. (orig./DG)

  10. Studying water budget of paved urban sites using weighable lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Yong-Nam; Nehls, Thomas; Litz, Norbert; Trinks, Steffen; Wessolek, Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Our lysimeter study addresses high-resolution analysis of the water balance of permeable pavements used for sidewalks and streets. Berlin's typical pavers, "Bernburg cobble stone" and "concrete paver" are analysed for actual evaporation, runoff and groundwater recharge. To achieve the reasonable boundary condition realistic seam material were bed in surface construction. The lysimeter bodies, filled with construction sand, stand in 1.5 m deep stainless cave on a scale with a 100g/sec resolution. The seepage water is captured by four suction plates with a suction of 63 hPa. To measure the run-off separately, special gutters are set up directly along the surface edge. This gutter leads the run-off water immediately to a separate discharge pipe and the run-off will be measured with a resolution of 0.0005 mm/sec; no water gets lost within this procedure. A dynamic runoff coefficient could be gained for a span of typical rainfall intensities. We will present runoff coefficients (RC) from both pavements as functions of the rainfall intensity, based on about 40 individual precipitation events. We could show that the rainfall intensity is the best predictor for the runoff behaviour. Concrete pavers can cause runoff with higher RC at lower intensity. However, for intensities > 0.1 mm/min their RCs tend to increase slower than those of mosaic cobble stone pavements. RCs might not be dependent on pavements during strong precipitation events. The measured RC are typical for the rainfall characteristic of Berlin, Germany and should not be used for other climate regions. First, the controlling variable must be identified and incorporated into process based models. Such models are essential for the prediction of urban evaporation so as to develop new urban water and climate management strategies.

  11. Swiss prealpine Rietholzbach research catchment and lysimeter: 32 year time series and 2003 drought event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seneviratne, S.I.; Lehner, I.; Gurtz, J.; Teuling, A.J.; Lang, H.; Moser, U.; Grebner, D.; Menzel, L.; Schroff, K.; Vitvar, T.; Zappa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prealpine Rietholzbach research catchment provides long-term continuous hydroclimatological measurements in northeastern Switzerland, including lysimeter evapotranspiration measurements since 1976, and soil moisture measurements since 1994. We analyze here the monthly data record over 32 years (

  12. Effecten van olieverontreinging op de vegetatie van een twaalftal lysimeters te Katwijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmers, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Door het Contactcentrum Olie-industrie en Openbare Watervoorziening wordt op een twaalftal lysimeters in de duinen nabij Katwijk onderzoek verricht naar de afbraaksnelheid van olie in de bodem onder invloed van micro-organismen.

  13. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  14. Using Multiple FPGA Architectures for Real-time Processing of Low-level Machine Vision Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Drayer; William E. King; Philip A. Araman; Joseph G. Tront; Richard W. Conners

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architectures for real-time machine vision processing. The use of FPGAs for low-level processing represents an excellent tradeoff between software and special purpose hardware implementations. A library of modules that implement common low-level machine vision operations is presented...

  15. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  16. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  17. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  18. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  19. Reconsider an element: F budgets for field lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, R.; Keller, K.; April, R. A.; Keller, D.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical budgets of Fluorine (F) can be relatively simple in ecosystems due to the presence of only one anionic form at circumneutral pH values (F-) and relatively few potential sources and/or sinks. In many cases, F may serve as a tracer of primary mineral weathering. We constructed annual water and fluoride budgets for experimental lysimeters ("sandboxes") with 3 different types of plant cover. The sandboxes were constructed in 1982 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest; these systems have identical substrate material and are fully lined to collect all water and solute exports. Aqueous fluoride export from a sandbox covered with moss and lichen was 330 Eq/ha/yr; plant uptake decreased both water and fluoride exports from sandboxes with bunchgrass and pine cover. Microprobe analysis of the sand has identified fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) as the dominant F-bearing mineral phase. Modal analysis of the sand, coupled with actual mineral formulae, provide an inventory of the existing mass of F in primary minerals. Thus, fluorine budgets for these systems may be useful for estimating weathering rates of fluorapatite as well as release rates and long-term availability of phosphorus to ecosystems.

  20. Radon problem in an underground low-level laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovicic, V., E-mail: udovicic@phy.bg.ac.y [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Grabez, B.; Dragic, A.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D.; Panic, B.; Joksimovic, D. [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Puzovic, J. [Faculty of Physics, PO Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Anicin, I. [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-10-15

    The low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy as well as the investigation of rare nuclear processes require not only low, but also constant levels of relevant background radiations. In underground laboratories dedicated to this type of measurements, one of the main and hard to control sources of unwanted radiation is the radioactive gas radon. It is well-known that radon concentration varies daily and seasonally, primarily due to the variation of atmospheric parameters. This introduces unwanted and hard to evaluate systematic uncertainties in long-term low-level measurements. In this paper, the system for radon reduction in the underground Low-Background Laboratory for Nuclear Physics at the Institute of Physics in Belgrade is presented in some detail. The laboratory exists for ten years and different measurements of radon concentration were carried out during this period. The indoor radon measurements are performed using nuclear track detectors (type CR-39 and LR-115) for long-term measurements and the commercially available radon monitor for short-term measurements. In this work we present the results of these measurements for the period 2003-2008.

  1. Southern hemisphere low level wind circulation statisticsfrom the Seasat scatterometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Levy

    Full Text Available Analyses of remotely sensed low-level wind vector data over the Southern Ocean are performed. Five-day averages and monthly means are created and the month-to-month variability during the winter (July-September of 1978 is investigated. The remotely sensed winds are compared to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM and the National Meteorological Center (NMC surface analyses. In southern latitudes the remotely sensed winds are stronger than what the weather services' analyses suggest, indicating underestimation by ABM and NMC in these regions. The evolution of the low-level jet and the major stormtracks during the season are studied and different flow regimes are identified. The large-scale variability of the meridional flow is studied with the aid of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The dominance of quasi-stationary wave numbers 3, 4, and 5 in the winter flow is evident in both the EOF analysis and the mean flow. The signature of an exceptionally strong blocking situation is evident in July and the special conditions leading to it are discussed. A very large intraseasonal variability with different flow regimes at different months is documented.

  2. Electrolytic decontamination of metal low level waste (LLW) and mixed low level waste (MLLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Metal objects resulting from ER activities were decontaminated using electrolytic methods. The project involved about 500 kg of ballistic test projectiles, 23 augers and drill heads, and 50 pieces of shrapnel containing lead. All objects were free-released and either reclaimed as scrap metal or reused. Electrolytic decontamination was proven to be an effective method to decontaminate metal waste objects to free-release standards. A cost analysis showed the process to be economical, especially when applied to decontamination of mixed waste, TRU waste, or when the recovered materials could be reused or recycled. The cost of decontamination of scrap iron is approximately equal to the cost of its land disposal as low level waste.

  3. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens.

  4. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  5. Soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes at the Wagna - lysimeter: Workflow, models, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann

    2014-05-01

    A precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Weighing lysimeters are precise tools to allow the determination of the hydrological cycle components in very short time intervals. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise and deep water percolation on short time scales. Evapotranspiration, rainfall, and irrigation can be computed from weight changes. In the last decades resolution and precision of the weighing systems have been substantially improved, so that modern lysimeters, resting on weighing cells can reach resolutions of up to 0.01 mm. Nevertheless, a lot of external effects (e.g. from maintenance, surface treatment) and small mechanical disturbances (e.g. caused by wind) became visible in the data. Seepage mass data are affected by water sampling and the emptying process of the seepage water container. Increasing parts of corrected seepage mass data show deep water percolation, decreasing parts in dry weather periods can be interpreted as capillary rise. In the evaluation process of corrected lysimeter mass data every increase in system weight (lysimeter mass + cumulative seepage mass) might be interpreted as rainfall or irrigation, whereas every decrease in system weight is interpreted as evapotranspiration. To apply this concept correctly, the noise in both data sets has to be separated from signals using a filtering routine (e.g. Peters et al., 2013) which is appropriate for any event, including events with low disturbances as well as strong wind and heavy precipitation in small time intervals. Based on the data set from the "Wagna" lysimeter in Austria with a high resolution of the scale (~ 0,015 mm) and very low noise due to low wind velocities for the year 2010 a lysimeter data preparation workflow will be executed: (a) correction of the

  6. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  7. Quantifying soil evaporation and transpiration at the scale of a remote sensing pixel by extrapolating mini-lysimeter results with the aid of remote sensed surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, B.; Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lysimeters are often used to measure evapotranspiration (Et) by changes in mass of a volume of soil. Precision lysimeters generate data of Et at a high resolution in the order of 0.02 to 0.05 mm. This resolution is often reported as the accuracy of the lysimeter, which is in fact the accuracy of the weighing device. Improper installation or design of lysimeters is often not accounted for when assessing their accuracy. In general, measurement errors due to improper environmental conditions will decrease with increasing surface area and depth of the lysimeter. This is primarily because a larger part of the lysimeter is unaffected by its boundaries and because heterogeneities in soil hydraulic properties and micro-climate are more averaged out. However, the cost of large systems make them unattractive and scientists often choose for more economical solutions, optimizing between lysimeter dimensions and costs. One of the difficulties when designing a lysimeter is controlling the boundary condition at the base of the lysimeter. In case of a freely draining lysimeter (atmospheric pressure at the bottom), the lower portion of the lysimeter must saturate to generate a hydraulic gradient in downward direction, after which the lysimeter starts to drain. In groundwater independent sites this will lead to a higher soil moisture content in the lysimeter in comparison with the surrounding soil. One could overcome this problem by using suction plates and vacuum pumps to set a suction level at the base of the lysimeter equal to the surrounding soil., In dry soils, however, suction plates may dry out beyond the air entry value of the ceramic material, which neutralizes the suction pressure. Furthermore, a sophisticated drainage system will increase the maintenance and construction cost of the lysimeter. Moisture conditions in lysimeters are difficult to control and whenever this affects the available water for rooting plants this will lead to erroneous measurements of Et. We

  8. ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY LOW LEVELS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN WEANED PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ELIZA MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly induced a dose dependent increase of cellular immune response (lymphocytes proliferation and leucocytes numbers. The 0.5 and 1.5 mg/day of DON modulated also the humoral immune response by increasing the immunoglobulin A synthesis with 7.32 % and 37.98 % and by decreasing that of immunoglubulin G with 11.15 % and 36.87 %, respectively when compared with the control. DON produced also alterations in the hemodynamic parameters of intoxicated piglets; the activity of lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased while the activity of L-glutamate, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine significantly decreased. Both doses of the toxin induced microscopic alterations of the internal organ structure. By contrast, ingestion of the contaminated material had no effect on the performance (weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, organ weights, and total serum concentration of cholesterol, calcium, sodium and potassium. Taken together these results suggest that even when present at low level DON can affect blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune response in weaned piglets with a significant importance for the swine health.

  9. 77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY... to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 61, ``Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These...

  10. 77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues... possible revisions to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste... Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These regulations were published in the Federal Register on December 27...

  11. Application of Low level Lasers in Dentistry (Endodontic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Low level lasers, cold or soft lasers: These lasers do not produce thermal effects on tissues and induce photoreactions in cells through light stimulation which is called photobiostimulation. Power of these lasers is usually under 250mW. The main point differentiating low level lasers and high power ones is the activation of photochemical reactions without heat formation. The most important factor to achieve this light characteristic in lasers is not their power, but their power density for each surfa ceunit (i.e cm2). Density lower than 670mW/cm2, can induce the stimulatory effects of low level lasers without thermal effects. Low level lasers (therapeutic) used today as treatment adjunctive devices in medicine and dentistry. Numerous studies have been performed on the applications of low level lasers in patient pain reduction. Mechanisms of pain reduction with therapeutic lasers and their application are expressed, and the studies realized in this field are presented. PMID:25606308

  12. The influence of the lysimeter filling on the soil monolith inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, T.; Schilling, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-04-01

    In general, lysimeters are vessels containing disturbed or undisturbed soil blocks, for the most realistic scenario with regard to real outdoor conditions an undisturbed soil block so called soil monolith is preferable. The lower boundary condition was realized in two different ways: as a zero-tension lysimeter with a perforated bottom plate or as controlled lower boundary condition with a suction plate. The optimal surface area and the lysimeter length depend mainly on the scientific question. For cropped lysimeter experiments the lysimeter length has to reflect to a maximum root length. The base area is strongly connected to the scale of observation, whereby small-scale heterogeneity will be averaged using large base areas. For our experiments lysimeters with 2.5 m length, 2 m2 base area and with a wall thickness of the round vessel of 10 mm were used. A base frame weighted down by 120 t of concrete weights is necessary to press a lysimeter cylinder into the ground by the aid of a hydraulic press. The hydraulic press is connected with the base frame via chains. Because of the control of the four hydraulic cylinders a very precise vertical pressing process is guaranteed. To visualize the impact of the lysimeter filling on the intactness of the soil monolith a finite element computation was conducted. The finite element package ANSYS Release 11 was used to execute a nonlinear static analysis on a 2D-axisymmetric finite element model, to simulate the pressing process starting from a soil initial stress state and ending with the full length of the vessel driven into the soil, after which the hydraulic press and the concrete weights are deactivated and the vessel-surrounding soil is excavated. The numerical model of the pressing process considers among other things, a cap non-associative plasticity model with shear and volumetric hardening, soil to soil contact with cohesive zone modelling, soil to vessel contact with high friction, soil excavation using element birth

  13. Modelling the water balance of a precise weighable lysimeter for short time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Precise knowledge of the water fluxes between the atmosphere and the soil-plant system and the percolation to the groundwater system is of great importance for understanding and modeling water, solute and energy transfer in the atmosphere-plant-soil-groundwater system. Weighable lysimeters yield the most precise and realistic measures for the change of stored water volume (ΔS), Precipitation (P) which can be rain, irrigation, snow and dewfall and evapotranspiration (ET) as the sum of soil evaporation, evaporation of intercepted water and transpiration. They avoid systematic errors of standard gauges and class-A pans. Lysimeters with controlled suction at the lower boundary allow estimation of capillary rise (C) and leachate (L) on short time scales. Precise weighable large scale (surface >= 1 m2) monolithic lysimeters avoiding oasis effects allow to solve the water balance equation (P - ET - L + C ± ΔS = 0) for a 3D-section of a natural atmosphere-plant-soil-system for a certain time period. Precision and accuracy of the lysimeter measurements depend not only on the precision of the weighing device but also on external conditions, which cannot be controlled or turned off. To separate the noise in measured data sets from signals the adaptive window and adaptive threshold (AWAT) filter (Peters et al., 2014) is used. The data set for the years 2010 and 2011 from the HYDRO-lysimeter (surface = 1 m2, depth = 1 m) in Wagna, Austria (Klammler and Fank, 2014) with a resolution of 0,01 mm for the lysimeter scale and of 0,001 mm for the leachate tank scale is used to evaluate the water balance. The mass of the lysimeter and the mass of the leachate tank is measured every two seconds. The measurements are stored as one minute arithmetic means. Based on calculations in a calibration period from January to May 2010 with different widths of moving window the wmax - Parameter for the AWAT filter was set to 41 minutes. A time series for the system mass ('upper boundary') of the

  14. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs; Multitracer-Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung in vier Bodenformen bei Lysimetern unterschiedlicher Nutzung und Bauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung; Seeger, J. [Lysimeterstation Falkenberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [{sup 15}N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers. [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der komplexen Zusammenhaenge des Wasser- und Stofftransportes im Boden bieten sich Lysimeterversuche unter Nutzung der stabilisotopen Tracertechnik an. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird zunaechst ueber die direkte Verfolgung der Wasser- und Nitrat-Bewegung in tiefengestaffelten Lysimetern durch Pulsmarkierung mit Deuteriumwasser und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat berichtet. Im Rahmen von umfangreichen Untersuchungen bei der Zerlegung von langjaehrig in Lysimetern genutzten Bodenmonolithen bestand des weiteren die Moeglichkeit, stabilisotope Traceruntersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung an ungestoerten Boeden durchzufuehren und nach der Zerlegung der Lysimeter ueber entsprechende Analysen des Bodens Aussagen zum Verbleib der nicht perkolierten Tracer in verschiedenen Bodentiefen zu treffen. Zusaetzlich wurde dabei das von anderen Autoren bereits genutzte Bromid-Anion als sogenannter konservativer Tracer eingesetzt. (orig.)

  15. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  16. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  17. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  18. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.

    2003-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  19. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan – ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-04-04

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date.

  20. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  1. Ontwikkeling in de tijd van de vegetatie op lysimeters met olieverontreinging te Katwijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmers, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Deze nota vormt een verslag van floristisch onderzoek van een twaalftal lysimeters in de duinen nabij Katwijk en vormt een onderdeel van het onderzoek naar de afbraaksnelheid van olie in de bodem onder invloed van miçro-organismen, dat door het Contactcentrum Olie-industrie en Openbare Watervoorzien

  2. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  3. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inderpreet Kaur; S K Deb; C M Kishtawal; P K Pal; Raj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Till now low-level winds were retrieved using Kalpana-1 infrared (IR) images only. In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR images due to poor thermal contrast. The tracers are taken to be 15 × 15 pixel templates and hence each wind corresponds to about 120km × 120km at sub-satellite point. Multiplet based wind retrieval technique is followed for VIS wind derivation. However, for height assignment of VIS winds, collocated IR image is used. Due to better contrast between cloud and ocean surface, the low level atmospheric flow is captured better as compared to IR winds. The validation of the derived VIS winds is done with Global Forecast System (GFS) model winds and Oceansat-II scatterometer (OSCAT) winds.

  4. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made. (DLC)

  5. Study of the Low Level Wind Shear using AMDAR reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlea, Ana-Denisa; Pietrisi, Mirela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effects of the wind shear on aircraft flights, in particularly when it appears on path of take-off or landing phase which is the most troublesome phase. This phenomenon has a lot of generating sources as: convection, frontal surfaces, strong surface wind coupled with local topography, breezes (either sea or mountain originated), mountain waves or low level temperature inversions. Low Level Jet is also a most frequent cause of Low Level Wind Shear. It has a lot of generating causes, but in Romania the most encountered is the presence of a Mediterranean low in southeastern part of Europe mainly in winter, sometimes in the first days of spring or the last days of autumn. It generates Low Level Wind Shear between surface and up to 600m, affecting approaching, landing or take-off phases of an aircraft flight. Diagnosis of meteorological general and local conditions and presence of Low Level Jet- generating Low Level Wind Shear is made using Meteo-France ARPEGE products model and ALARO high resolution model dedicated to Romanian area. The study is focused on use of real-time and in situ data as AMDAR (Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay) registrations with verification of a mobile Doppler SODAR registrations-("SOnic Detection And Ranging" system -PCS.2000- Metek manufactured by Meteorologische Messtechnik GMBH) in the processes of estimation of the quantitative and qualitative manifestation of Low Level Wind Shear. The results will be used to improve the timing and the accuracy of the Low Level Wind Shear forecasting for the aerodrome area.

  6. Do the Low Levels of Reading Course Material Continue? An Examination in a Forensic Psychology Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clump, Michael A.; Doll, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Clump, Bauer, and Bradley (2004) and Burchfield and Sappington (2000) previously found extremely low levels of reading in undergraduate psychology courses. The current study investigated whether these low levels of reading are also found with graduate students, or if this value is altered by only investigating individuals who show continued…

  7. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  8. Determining water balance components at a lysimeter site in north-eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Kammerer, Gerhard; Cepuder, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The water balance of a certain soil profile in a certain time interval is subjected to changes of soil water content within the respective profile, and fluxes at its upper and lower boundary such as evapotranspiration and percolation, respectively. Weighing lysimeters are valuable instruments for water balance studies. Typically, mass changes - thus, changes of soil profile water content - are detected by a weighing system, while percolating water is measured by a tipping bucket or a weighed storage tank, and precipitation is measured by a rain gauge. Consequently, evapotranspiration can be determined by solving a simple water balance equation. However, a typical problem is that using separately measured precipitation data may cause implausible (negative) evapotranspiration. As a solution, the quantities can be determined directly from lysimeter mass changes, which are assumed to be positive due to precipitation and negative due to evapotranspiration. This method requires short measuring intervals and precise data. In this regard, data management of primarily older lysimeter facilities may be improved to fulfil these criteria. At an experimental site in north-eastern Austria hourly water balance components were determined using a reference lysimeter that was installed 1983 and equipped with lever-arm-counterbalance weighing system. A disadvantage of such systems is their sensitivity to external disturbances, mainly forces exerted by wind, which can significantly decrease measuring accuracy. Hence, we firstly studied the mechanical performance of the system regarding wind effects and oscillation behavior, and tested averaging procedures on noisy raw data to enhance measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy for a wind velocity dew formation was measured, though its total amount was small. Evapotranspiration calculated on daily and hourly base according to ASCE standards indicated good correlation with measured data, but measured values were considerably smaller

  9. Behavior of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water using micro paddy lysimeters under different temperature conditions in spring and summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Junghun; Doan, Nguyen Hai; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Boulange, Julien

    2012-08-01

    The behavior of butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in paddy water was investigated using micro paddy lysimeters with prescribed hydrological conditions under ambient temperature in spring and summer for simulating two rice crop seasons. Although they were not significantly different, the dissipation of both herbicides in paddy water in the summer experiment was faster than in the spring experiment. The half-lives (DT(50)) in paddy water for spring and summer experiments were 3.2 and 2.5 days for butachlor, and 3.1 and 1.6 days for pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively.

  10. Numerical study on the potential impact of different bottom boundary conditions on the water balance of lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Jannis; Vanderborght, Jan; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    The SOILCan lysimeter network is a large scale climate feedback experiment and is embedded in the four long term observatories of TERENO (TERestrial ENvironmental Observatories). The focus of the SOILCan-project is to observe the impact of climate change on water and matter budgets in different grass- and arable-land lysimeters. The monitoring infrastructure was established across a rainfall and temperature transect along which lysimeters were transported from wetter to drier conditions. The lysimeters in SOILCan have a controlled bottom boundary condition using a rack of suction candles that enables upward and downward flow of water. This pressure head at the bottom is controlled by measured soil water potentials in undisturbed soil in the close vicinity of the bottom of the lysimeter. For transported lysimeters this controlling approach no longer works as the surrounding soil profile and both its upper climatic boundary conditions and lower boundary conditions related to its hydrogeological setting differ from the place where the lysimeter was taken from. In order to evaluate these artefacts and to derive a suited approach to control the lower boundary of transported lysimeters, water balance simulations were run. We analyzed three different approaches to impose bottom boundary conditions for transported lysimeters. A 'zeroth-order' approach is to define the bottom boundary at the bottom of the lysimeter and use the pressure heads measured at the location from which the soil lysimeter was taken. However, this approach is prone to artefacts since these bottom boundary conditions are determined by the climate at the site where the lysimeter was taken from. A 'first-order' approach is to define a bottom boundary condition at a certain hydrogeological boundary that can be defined deeper in the soil profile such as a seepage face or a groundwater table. However, for shallow groundwater tables, this approach may also lead to artefacts since the depth of the groundwater

  11. Multiobjective Optimization of Effective Soil Hydraulic Properties on a Lysimeter from a Layered, Gravelly Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of effective soil hydraulic parameters for characterization of the vadose zone properties is important for many applications from prediction of solute and pesticide transport to water balance modeling in small catchments. Inverse modeling has become a common approach to infer the parameters of the water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions from dynamic experiments under varying boundary conditions. To gain further inside into to the water transport behavior of an agricultural field site with a layered, gravelly vadose zone, a lysimeter was taken and equipped with a total of 48 sensors (24 tensiometers and 24 water content probes). The sensors were arranged in 6 vertical arrays consisting of 4 sensor pairs, respectively. Pressure heads and water contents were measured in four depths in each of the arrays allowing for the estimation of the soil hydraulic properties of the three individual soil layers by inverse modeling. For each of the soil horizons, a separate objective function was defined to fit the model to the observation. We used the global multiobjective multimethod search algorithm AMALGAM (Vrugt et al., 2007) in combination with the water flow and solute transport model Hydrus1D (Šimúnek et al., 2008) to estimate the soil hydraulic properties of the Mualem van Genuchten model (van Genuchten, 1980). This experimental design served for the investigation of two important questions: a) do effective soil hydraulic properties at the lysimeter scale exist, more specifically: can a single representative parameter set be found which describes the hydraulic behavior in each of the arrays with acceptable performance? And b) which degree of freedom is necessary or required for an accurate description of the one dimensional water flow at each of the arrays? Effective soil hydraulic parameters were obtained for each of the sensor arrays individually, resulting in good agreement between the model predictions and the observations for the individual

  12. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  14. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.

  15. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  16. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  17. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  18. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  19. Low Level Laser Irradiation of Nerve Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    significant difference reported. Rochkind et al. has published a series of articles on the effects of the HeNe low level laser on induced nerve injuries...been inconclusive. An example of all this relative confusion can be seen in articles on nerve regeneration subsequent to crush injury in the rat model...findings. Lasers Surg Med, 9(1): 1-5, 1989. 20. Kitchen, S.S., Partridge, C.J.: A review of low level laser therapy Part I, 11, and III. Physiotherapy

  20. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. A Multicounter System for Scanning Ultra-Low-Level Radiochromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Theodorsson, P.

    1977-01-01

    A multicounter system consisting of an integrated array of flow counters for the scanning of ultra-low-level radioactivity on paper and thin-layer chromatograms was developed. Experience with routine measurements over a prolonged period has proved the advantages of this system over other systems...

  3. Integrating detector for measuring low levels of gamma rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, D.M.; Bos, A.J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1001913 (C2) The integrating detector (1) for measuring low levels of ~c-rays, added (9) to the natural background radiation, is provided with a screen (4) placed between at least two thermo-luminescent dosimeters (5-7). It is covered with a housing. Also claimed is the measuremen

  4. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  5. Biomedical Cost of Low Level Flight in a Hot Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    orining almilistrative duties oil the ground. Flights were nected , ia breakawkay plug to a signal conditioner in the classified as low% level if they had...bsr\\L1101gW0 dinlo Edgar Williams and ’I’Sgi David 1-reeze assisted with) the chemi- itdtsc obcrscd intng \\’ ~s lurng ot cal airlyses Mr kiehard Mc.Nee

  6. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  8. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  9. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 4 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics about iodine-129. This report also includes discussions about waste streams that contain iodine-129, waste forms that contain iodine-129, and iodine-129's behavior in the environment, as well as in the human body.

  10. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component 'fingerprints' stemming from both phonemes and speaker. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... 'voiceprints' are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  11. Conversion of organic carbon in the decomposable organic wastes in anaerobic lysimeters under different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative fractions of conversion of organic carbon in the decomposable organic wastes with initial moisture of 70% sorted from municipal solid wastes(MSW) in lysimeters into biogas, leachate and solid residue were characterized, under temperatures of 25, 30 and 41℃, respectively, and circulation of leachate generated within the lysimeters. It is found that 27% of organic carbon in the wastes are conversed into gases, 0.8% into leachate, and the other 72% remained in the decomposable solid residues, after 180 days' degradation at 41℃. Higher temperature will lead to more rapid degradation and result to higher conversion of the organic carbon to biogas and lower to both solid residues and leachate, while the pollutant concentrations in leachate will be lower at a higher temperature and the values of COD are quite consistent with TOC.

  12. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  13. Central nervous system transplantation benefited by low-level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochkind, S.; Lubart, Rachel; Wollman, Yoram; Simantov, Rabi; Nissan, Moshe; Barr-Nea, Lilian

    1990-06-01

    Effect of low-level laser irradiation on the central nervous system transplantation is reported. Ernbryonal brain allografts were transplanted into the brain of 20 adult rats and peripheral nerve graft transplanted into the severely injured spinal cord of 16 dogs. The operated wound of 10 rats and 8 dogs were exposed daily for 21 days to lowpower laser irradiation CW HeNe laser (35 mW, 632.8 run, energy density of 30 J/cm2 at each point for rats and 70 J/cm2 at each point for dogs). This study shows that (i) the low-level laser irradiation prevents extensive glial scar formation (a limiting factor in CNS regeneration) between embryonal transplants and host brain; (ii) Dogs made paraplegic by spinal cord injury were able to walk 3-6 months later. Recovery of these dogs was effected by the implantation of a fragment of autologous sciatic nerve at the site of injury and subsequently exposing the dogs to low-level laser irradiation. The effect of laser irradiation on the embryonal nerve cells grown in tissue culture was also observed. We found that low-level laser irradiation induced intensive migration of neurites outward of the aggregates 15-22 The results of the present study and our previous investigations suggest that low-level laser irradiation is a novel tool for treatment of peripheral and central nervous system injuries.

  14. Effect of photon energy in collagen generation by interstitial low level laser stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eunkwon; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Radfar, Edalat; Park, Jihoon; Jung, Byungjo

    2015-03-01

    Although the mechanism of low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unclear, many studies demonstrated the positive clinical performance of LLLT for skin rejuvenation. An increase in dermal collagen plays an important role in skin rejuvenation and wound healing. This study aimed to investigate collagen generation after interstitial low level laser stimulation (ILLS). Rabbits were divided into two groups: surfacing irradiation and minimally invasive irradiation. 660nm diode laser of 20mW with 10J, 13J and 15J was applied to the backside of rabbits. Collagen formation was evaluated with ultrasound skin scanner every 12 hours. Results shows that ILLS groups have denser collagen density than surfacing groups.

  15. Evaluation of water movement and nitrate dynamics in a lysimeter planted with an orange tree

    OpenAIRE

    Phogat, V; Skewes, MA; Cox, JW; Alam, J; Grigson, G; J. Šimůnek

    2013-01-01

    Adoption of high input irrigation management systems for South Australian horticultural crops seeks to provide greater control over timing of irrigation and fertilizer applications. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model was used to simulate water movement in the soil under an orange tree planted in a field lysimeter supplied with 68.6mm of irrigation water over 29 days. Simulated volumetric water contents statistically matched those measured using a capacitance soil water probe. Statistical measures (MAE, R...

  16. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm "Alameda del Obispo" in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ET c). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of...

  17. Closing the Water Balance for Arid Soils - First Results from a Large Lysimeter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarakavi, N.; Chief, K.; Berli, M.; Caldwell, T. G.; Daniels, J.; Young, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many ecological and hydrological processes cannot be fully assessed without full closure of the water balance. The weighing lysimeter facility in Boulder City, NV provides an excellent opportunity to study water infiltration, redistribution, storage and evaporation of bare soils at the intermediate (meter) scale under well-defined boundary conditions. Each of three lysimeters is weighed on separate balances, with a resolution of roughly 100 g or 0.025 mm of water. Each lysimeter contains 12 m3 of repacked homogenized and layered desert soil (dimensions: 2.26 m diameter and 3 m deep) and is instrumented with 13 different sensor technologies to measure state variables including water content, matric potential, and thermal properties at 15 depth planes. An angled rhizotron tube visually monitors movement the infiltration front. Between July 2008 and 2011, 15 storm events were recorded, with the largest storm total from 19-22 December 2010 yielding 62 mm of precipitation (originally in the form of snow). By July 2011, nearly 350 mm of cumulative precipitation was recorded, and the wetting front had reached 150 cm depth. This presentation analyzes storm events over the past three years with respect to changes in total soil mass to determine the amount of infiltration, storage, and evaporation; alterations in soil moisture and matric potential profiles determined by in situ sensors; and wetting front movement observed by the rhizotron. This lysimeter facility fills a critical gap in the vadose zone hydrology of arid environments by closing the total water balance and providing discrete data on soil moisture redistribution in a 3 meter deep soil profile to evaluate and improve infiltration models.

  18. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  19. Formation of low-level meso-scale southwest jet during seasonal rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 周秀骥

    2001-01-01

    The meso-scale feature and energy budget of a low-level southwest jet were analyzed using the data collected during the heavy rainfall events that occurred between July 20 ~ 27, 1998 over the basin of the Changjiang.And the dynamic mechanism for the formation and maintenance of the meso-scale low-level jet under the condition of the low-level heterogeneous large-scale south wind was investigated using a shallow water model. The results can explain the mechanism of the formation of the meso-scale jet in this event and the importance of the heterogeneous large-scale horizontal motion in the formation of the meso-scale jet.

  20. Towards an unbiased filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andre; Groh, Jannis; Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Vereecken, Harry; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters are considered to be the best means for a precise measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. Any decrease of the net mass of the lysimeter can be interpreted as evapotranspiration (ET), any increase as precipitation (P). However, the measured raw data need to be filtered to separate real mass changes from noise. Such filter routines typically apply two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which smooths noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter that separates significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have identified and solved some problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution, we analyze this systematic effect and show that the absolute underestimation is independent of the magnitude of a flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is high and can reach the same magnitude as the flux itself. We develop a heuristic solution to the problem by introducing a so-called ;snap routine;. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real measurements obtained with a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  1. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with sampling surface dimensions of 31 cm width * 91 cm long and 87 cm in height were placed 90 cm below the soil surface in a Lihen sandy loam. Our state-of-the-art design incorporated Bluetooth wireless technology to enable an automated datalogger to transmit drainage water data simultaneously every 15 minutes to a remote host and had a greater efficiency than other types of lysimeters. It also offered a significantly larger coverage area (2700 cm2) than similarly designed vadose zone lysimeters. The cumulative manually extracted drainage water was compared with the cumulative volume of drainage water recorded by the datalogger from the tipping bucket using several statistical methods. Our results indicated that our automated PCAPs are accurate and provided convenient means for estimating water drainage in the vadose zone without the need for costly and manually time-consuming supportive systems.

  2. Extremely low-level microwaves attenuate immune imbalance induced by inhalation exposure to low-level toluene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, Elena G; Glushkova, Olga V; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E

    2017-05-01

    To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8.15-18 GHz, 1μW/cm(2), 1 Hz swinging frequency) or combined action of these two factors. A single exposure to air-delivered low-level toluene induced activation of NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IFR-3, p38 MAPK and TLR4 pathways. Furthermore, air toluene induced the expression of Hsp72 and enhanced IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in blood plasma, which is indicative of a pro-inflammatory response. Exposure to MW alone also resulted in the enhancement of the plasma cytokine values (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and activation of the NF-κB, MAPK p38, and especially the TLR4 pathways in splenic lymphocytes. Paradoxically, pre-exposure to MW partially recovered or normalized the lymphocyte parameters in the toluene-exposed mice, while the p38 inhibitor XI additionally increased protective activity of microwaves by down regulating MAPKs (JNK and p38), IKK, as well as expression of TLR4 and Hsp90-α. The results suggest that exposure to low-intensity MW at specific conditions may recover immune parameters in mice undergoing inhalation exposure to low-level toluene via mechanisms involving cellular signaling.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  4. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  5. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  6. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

    1999-02-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

    1999-03-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  8. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, W. L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. It is concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA.

  9. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process.

  10. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  11. Passive Infrared Detection of Microburst Induced Low Level Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    airborne microburst detector is needed. A low cost, low maintenance system that will provide real-time, accurate detection of this LLWS hazard. Having the...R.L. Kurkowski, and F. Caracena, 1983: Airborne operation of an infrared low-level windshear predicition system, J. Aircraft,20, 170-173. , and R.L...and App. Meteor., Vol. 23, 898-915. Appendix A PREDICITION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMISSION AND RADIANCE Over the past 50 years various computer codes

  12. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  13. Hormesis [Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (Belle)] and Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Haw-Yueh; Maibach, Howard I.

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis, or biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE), is characterized by nonmonotonic dose response which is biphasic, displaying opposite effects at low and high dose. Its occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models and diverse type of exposure. Since hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon in many areas, the objective of this review is to explore its occurrence related to dermatology and its public health and risk assessment implication....

  14. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  15. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. The Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    known overshooting problems of cup -type anemometers such as the model F-420, the NWS sensor has far more severe damping characteristics than the LLWSAS...the Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS) field test and evalua- tion are reported. The system is a computer controlled anemometer mesonetwork...Hardware 17 LLWSAS Software 46 Anemometer Siting Criteria 64 LLWSAS Data Collection and Analysis 88 Airport Sensor Configurations, Special Siting Factors

  17. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component ‘fingerprints’ stemming from both phonemes and speakers. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... ‘voiceprints’ are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  18. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls.

  19. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  1. The effects of low level laser therapy (Ga- Al- As on myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebjamei M

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscular pain is one of the most common causes for facial pain. Myofacial pain dysfunction"nsyndrome (MPDS is one of the most important disorders of facial area that affected patients suffer from"npain, tenderness of one or more masticatory muscles and limitation of movements. Lack of specific and"neffective therapeutic method, makes it necessary to find a treatment to decrease pain. Considering the"nanalgesic and anti- inflammatory effects of low-level laser, some investigators have recommended it for"nMPDS patient's treatment. In this study, the effects of low level laser (Ga-Al-As on MPDS patients"nreferred to dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were investigated. Twenty- two"nMPDS patents, with mean age 33.32 years, were treated for 4 weeks (12 visits. Clinical examinations"nwere performed in 6 stages. The results of this study showed that variables such as pain severity, cheek"npain, pain frequency and tenderness of masseter, temporal, internal and external pterygoid muscles, had a"nstatistically significant improvement at the end of treatment with low level laser (GA-A1-AS which"nlasted for three months, (follow- up period. Results of this study showed that, low-level laser therapy"nhas a sedative effect on the pain and tenderness of masticatory muscles in MPDS. Patients and having an"naccurate and regular program to complete treatment period, has an important role in MPDS"nimprovement.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  3. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  4. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P 95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that low-level laser improve hand grip, VAS, and SNAP after 3 months of follow-up for mild to moderate CTS. More high-quality studies using the same laser intervention protocol are needed to

  5. Low level communication management for e-health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Guillermo; Zerbini, Carlos; Voos, Javier; Centeno, Carlos; González, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The heterogeneity of e-health systems encourages the use of standards such as Health Level 7 (HL7v3) to ensure interoperability. Many actual implementations address this problem by unoptimized high level programming of top-range portable computing platforms. However, this approach could pose excessive demands on battery-powered mid-range terminals. In this work, we propose low-level support for portable HL7v3-compatible embedded systems in order to better exploit their limited processing and communications capabilities. In particular, we present our experience in mobile communication management through two different approaches, which proves the feasibility of this proposal.

  6. Low-Level Waste Overview of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Carilli; M. G. Skougard; S. K. Krenzien; J.K Wrapp; C. Ramirez; V. Yucel; G.J. Shott; S.J. Gordon; K.C. Enockson; L.T. Desotell

    2008-02-01

    This paper provides an overview and the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the Nevada Test Site. Operational changes have been implemented, such as larger trench sizes and more efficient soil management as have administrative processes to address U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Code of Federal Regulation analyses. Some adverse conditions have prompted changes in transportation and mixed low-level waste polices, and a new funding mechanism was developed. This year has seen many changes to the Nevada Test Site disposal family.

  7. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K. [CH2M Hill Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Slate, J.L. [Associated Western Universities Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  8. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  9. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  10. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  11. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm-2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  12. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  13. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  14. The effect of low-level laser therapy on hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Shawn S; Bentler, Ruth A; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was given LLLT, which consisted of shining low-level lasers onto the outer ear, head, and neck. Each laser treatment lasted approximately five minutes. Three treatments were applied within the course of one week. A battery of auditory tests was administered immediately before the first treatment and immediately after the third treatment. The battery consisted of pure-tone audiometry, the Connected Speech Test, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Data were analyzed by comparing pre- and posttest results. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the auditory tests. Additionally, no clinically significant differences were found in any individual subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01820416).

  15. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  16. Effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana do Socorro da Silva Dias Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To gather and clarify the actual effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing and its most effective ways of application in human and veterinary medicine.METHODS: We searched original articles published in journals between the years 2000 and 2011, in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese languages, belonging to the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Bireme; Tey should contain the methodological description of the experimental design and parameters used.RESULTS: doses ranging from 3 to 6 J/cm2 appear to be more effective and doses 10 above J/cm2 are associated with deleterious effects. The wavelengths ranging from 632.8 to 1000 nm remain as those that provide more satisfactory results in the wound healing process.CONCLUSION: Low-level laser can be safely applied to accelerate the resolution of cutaneous wounds, although this fact is closely related to the election of parameters such as dose, time of exposure and wavelength.

  17. Design, manufacture and evaluation of a hydraulically installed, multi-sampling lysimeter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroppo, J.A.; Scroppo, G.L. [Bladon International, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Chaimberg, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Timmons, R.D.; O`Donnell, M. [Timco Mfg., Inc., Prairie du Sac, WI (United States)

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for a quick, simple, reliable, and inexpensive on-site method for sampling soil pollutants before they reach the groundwater. Vadose zone monitoring is an important aspect of sound groundwater management. In the vadose zone, where water moves via percolation, this water medium possesses the ability to transfer hazardous wastes to the nation`s groundwater system. Obtaining samples of moisture and contaminants from the vadose zone is necessary if potential problems are to be identified before they reach the water table. Accurate determination of spatial distribution, movement, and concentrations of contaminants is essential to the selection of remediation technologies. There is a need for three-dimentional subsurface characterization technologies to identify the location of hazardous plumes and their migration. Current subsurface characterization methods for dispersed contaminants primarily involve a time consuming, expensive process for drilling wells and taking samples. With no major water flow in the vadose zone, conventional monitoring wells will not function as designed. The multi-sampling lysimeter can be readily linked with physical and chemical sensors for on-site screening. The hydraulically-installed suction lysimeter was capable of extracting soil pore liquid samples from unsaturated test soils without the need to predrill a well. Test results verified that the lysimeters installed with a hydraulic or mechanical ram were able to collect soil pore liquid samples in excess of the amount typically required for monitoring and analysis on a daily basis. Modifications to the prototype design eliminated moving parts and the need for inflatable packers. The elimination of the packer system and the use of porous nickel contributed to increased system ruggedness.

  18. Flow through in situ reactors with suction lysimeter sampling capability and methods of using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey W [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwelder, D Brad [Blackfoot, ID; Hubbell, Joel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and a sampling conduit received within the passageway. The sampling conduit may be used to receive a geological speciment derived from geological strata therein and a lysimeter is disposed within the sampling conduit in communication with the geological specimen. Fluid may be added to the geological specimen through the passageway defined by the liner, between an inside surface of the liner and an outside surface of the sampling conduit. A distal portion of the sampling conduit may be in fluid communication with the passageway.

  19. Verification SEBAL and Hargreaves –Samani Models to Estimate Evapotranspiration by Lysimeter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Morshedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the hydrological cycle, energy equations at the surface and water balance. ET estimation is needed in various fields of science, such as hydrology, agriculture, forestry and pasture, and water resources management. Conventional methods used to estimate evapotranspiration from point measurements. Remote sensing models have the capability to estimate ET using surface albedo, surface temperature and vegetation indices in larger scales. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL estimate ET at the moment of satellite path as a residual of energy balance equation for each pixel. In this study Hargreaves-Samani (HS and SEBAL models ET compared to an alfalfa lysimeter data’s, located in Shahrekord plain within the Karun basin. Satellite imageries were based on Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor data’s in seven satellite passes for path 164 and row 38 in the World Reference System, similar to lysimeter sampling data period, from April to October 2011. SEBAL uses the energy balance equation to estimate evapotranspiration. Equation No. 1 shows the energy balance equation for an evaporative surface: λET=Rn–G–H [1] In this equation Rn, H, G and λET represent the net radiation flux input to the surface (W/m2, Sensible heat flux (W/m2, soil heat flux (W/m2, and latent heat of vaporization (W/m2, respectively. In this equation the vertical flux considered and the horizontal fluxes of energy are neglected. The above equation must be used for large surfaces and uniformly full cover plant area. SEBAL is provided for estimating ET, using the minimum data measured by ground equipment. This model is applied and tested in more than 30 countries with an accuracy of about 85% at field scale, and 95 percent in the daily and seasonal scales. In Borkhar watershed (East of Isfahan, IRAN ASTER and MODIS satellite imageries were used for SEBAL to compare Penman-Monteith model. Results showed that estimated

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  1. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  2. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects.

  3. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  4. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  5. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  6. Low-Level Hierarchical Multiscale Segmentation Statistics of Natural Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Emre; Ahuja, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    This paper is aimed at obtaining the statistics as a probabilistic model pertaining to the geometric, topological and photometric structure of natural images. The image structure is represented by its segmentation graph derived from the low-level hierarchical multiscale image segmentation. We first estimate the statistics of a number of segmentation graph properties from a large number of images. Our estimates confirm some findings reported in the past work, as well as provide some new ones. We then obtain a Markov random field based model of the segmentation graph which subsumes the observed statistics. To demonstrate the value of the model and the statistics, we show how its use as a prior impacts three applications: image classification, semantic image segmentation and object detection.

  7. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT doses, using continuous illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We verified that all applied doses produce an effect on reducing the number of inflammatory cells and the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines. The best results were obtained for 40 mW. The results may suggest a biphasic dose response curve.

  8. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensrud, D.J. [NOAA/ERL/National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, OK (United States); Pfeifer, S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  9. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  10. Vegetative cover for low level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, S. Keith (USDA Soil Conservation Service, Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW), hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the soil cover cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation down into the waste material. Turf type grasses are normally used as the principal vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this 5 year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on LLRW sites that can be quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap.The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and Phyllostachys rubromarginata) could be utilized to quickly establish a long lived, low maintenance, final vegetative cover for the waste sites.

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  12. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  14. A Film Classifier Based on Low-level Visual Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to classify the film classes by using low level features and visual features. This approach aims to classify the films into genres. Our current domain of study is using the movie preview. A movie preview often emphasizes the theme of a film and hence provides suitable information for classifying process. In our approach, we categorize films into three broad categories: action, dramas, and thriller films. Four computable video features (average shot length, color variance, motion content and lighting key and visual features (show and fast moving effects are combined in our approach to provide the advantage information to demonstrate the movie category. The experimental results present that visual features are the useful messages for processing the film classification. On the other hand, our approach can also be extended for other potential applications, including the browsing and retrieval of videos on the internet, video-on-demand, and video libraries.

  15. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system.

  16. Transport of europium colloids in vadose zone lysimeters at the semiarid Hanford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z Fred; Harsh, James B; Gee, Glendon W; Strickland, Chris E; Clayton, Ray E

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  17. Device for applying organic chemicals to lysimeter surfaces; Applikationsvorrichtung fuer organische Chemikalien auf Lysimeteroberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenoekologie

    1999-02-01

    One of the aims of environmental research at the GSF Research Centre for the Environment and Health is to determine the behaviour of environmentally consequential chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems under as natural conditions as possible. The GSF lysimeter plant in Neuherberg permits studying the environmental behaviour of organic chemicals in different soils. Collaborators at GSF have developed a means of applying -14-marked substances in field lysimeters so as to be able to refind released chemicals, identify their conversion products and set up mass balances for the chemicals. [Deutsch] Ein Ziel der Umweltforschung im GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit ist es, das Verhalten von Umweltchemikalien in terrestrischen Oekosystemen unter moeglichst natuerlichen Bedingungen zu bestimmen. In der GSF-Lysimeteranlage Neuherberg kann das Umweltverhalten von Organika in verschiedenen Boeden untersucht werden. Zur Wiedererkennung der ausgebrachten Chemikalie bzw. zur Identifizierung aus ihr entstandener Umwandlungsprodukte und letztendlich auch zur Erstellung einer Massenbilanz fuer das ausgebrachte Praeparat wurde in der GSF die Moeglichkeit geschaffen, {sup 14}C-markierte Substanzen in Freilandlysimetern applizieren zu koennen. (orig.)

  18. Mathematical modelling of deuterium transport in field lysimeters; Mathematische Modellierung des Deuteriumtransports in Freilandlysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloszewski, P.; Klotz, D.; Trimborn, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie; Maciejewski, S. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk (Poland). Inst. of Hydroengineering

    1999-02-01

    The results yielded by the Variable Flow Model (VFDM) permitted determining water flow velocities and degrees of dispersiveness. It transpired that it is not possible to isolate immobile water, which is to say that the available measuring and modelling data permit no conclusion as to whether or not the system contains immobile water. Comparison with the results obtained with the Dispersion Model (DM) showed that the simpler DM model yields tracer concentration curves in the system output that are almost as good as those of the more complicated VFDM model while entailing less work. The two models yield very similar calculations of lysimeter water content. [Deutsch] Die Ergebnisse der Modellierung mit dem Variable-Flow-Modell (VFDM) ermoeglichten die Bestimmung von Wassergeschwindigkeiten des Wassers und Dispersivitaeten. Es wurde dabei festgestellt, dass eine Abtrennung des immobilen Wassers nicht moeglich ist. D.h. es kann nicht auf Grund vorhandener Messdaten und der Modellierung entschieden werden, ob das System immobiles Wasser beinhaltet oder nicht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse nach dem Variable-Flow- und dem Dispersions-Modell (DM) zeigte, dass das einfache Modell DM mit weniger Aufwand fast so gute Tracerkonzentrationskurven im Output aus dem System liefert wie das komplizierte Modell mit VFDM. Die berechneten Wassergehalte der Lysimeter nach beiden Modellierungen sind sehr aehnlich. (orig.)

  19. Numerical simulation of water flow in lysimeters; Numerische Simulation des Wasserflusses in Lysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honisch, M.; Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    A small-scale lysimeter plant on the premises of GSF has been dedicated to the study of water movement in sediments of Quaternary and Tertiary origin. The purpose of the present study was to describe water transport and non-reactive transport in the lysimeters under transient conditions and test the suitability of the numerical simulation programme Hydrus-2D for the unsaturated zone. The hydraulic characteristics and dispersiveness parameters were derived from earlier studies. The validity of these values was determined on the basis of a tracer experiment using the ideal tracer tritium water. [Deutsch] Zur Charakterisierung der Wasserbewegung in Sedimenten quartaeren und tertiaeren Ursprungs wird auf dem Gelaende der GSF eine Kleinlysimeteranlage betrieben. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Wasserfluss und nicht-reaktiven Transport in den Saeulen unter transienten Bedingungen zu beschreiben und hierbei die Eignung des numerischen Simulationsprogramms Hydrus-2D fuer die ungesaettigte Zone zu ueberpruefen. Die hydraulischen Kenngroessen und Dispersivitaetsparameter waren aus frueheren Untersuchungen abzuleiten. Die offene Frage hinsichtlich der Validitaet dieser Werte sollte auf der Grundlage eines Tracerexperiments mit tritiiertem Wasser als idealem Tracer ueberprueft werden. (orig.)

  20. Impact of paper mill wastewater on soil properties and crop yield through lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Ladwani, K; Ladwani, K; Deshbhratar, P B; Ramteke, D S

    2013-01-01

    Paper and pulp industries produce large quantities of wastewater which can have adverse effects on the receiving water systems. In the present study lysimeters were used and filled with different soils replicating natural soil horizons and provided with a leachate collection system. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in each lysimeter and the quality of wastewater before leaching were assessed. Treated wastewater was evaluated for crop irrigation, and was categorized according to the irrigation water class 'Increasing Problem to Severe Problem' with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity. Sandy loam soils showed 96% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal while clay loam soils removed 99% of COD, and the colour removal in both the cases was found to be 100%. Application of wastewater resulted in an increase of pH value, ranging from 6.2-7.6; the electrical conductivity (ECe) of saturated extracts was found to be 0.6-1.7 dS m(-1), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 7.8-11.1% in soils. Similarly, an increase in the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soils was observed when irrigated with wastewater. Wastewater irrigation showed increased grain and straw yield of jowar, wheat and moong. These results permit successful utilization of pulp and paper mill wastewater for crop production without damaging the soils.

  1. LYSIMETER - A UNIQUE TOOL FOR MONITORING THE INTERACTIONS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Matušek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern lysimeter facilities in connection with meteorological stations allow monitoring and evaluation of mutual basic components of the environment, such as water, air, soil and vegetation. Water is the most important component of the ecosystem and the component which connects all the other components. Therefore, we need to know the basic distribution and water balance in the different components of the environment to be able to interpret some processes in nature. Rainfall, which is the primary source of vital processes in the soil, is formed in the air. The amount of precipitation that gets into the soil and into the groundwater is affected by weather conditions. Primary distribution of rainwater is divided between infiltration, surface runoff, transpiration and evapotranspiration. The amount of water infiltrated into the soil and then evaporated by solar activity or activities of plants can be identified primarily by monitoring changes in weight. For this monitoring we use weighable lysimeter. This equipment with the monolith size of surface area 1 m2 and the depth of 1.5 m is able to follow online updates of weight of the 2 ton body with an accuracy of 100 g. When we add to quantification of leakages through the bottom layer, we obtain a comprehensive record of rainfall at the time in the natural environment of the individual components. The obtained data can be further interpreted in terms of the needs of hydrology, agriculture, and environmental studies, and according to the purpose and objectives for which we want to use them.

  2. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  3. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  4. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J. [ed.] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  5. Treating cognitive impairment with transcranial low level laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2017-03-01

    This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans. The rationale for this approach, as indicated in this report, is supported by growing evidence that neurodegenerative damage and cognitive impairment during advanced aging is accelerated or triggered by a neuronal energy crisis generated by brain hypoperfusion. We have previously proposed that chronic brain hypoperfusion in the elderly can worsen in the presence of one or more vascular risk factors, including hypertension, cardiac disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes type 2. Although many unanswered questions remain, boosting neurometabolic activity through non-invasive transcranial laser biostimulation of neuronal mitochondria may be a valuable tool in preventing or delaying age-related cognitive decline that can lead to dementia, including its two major subtypes, Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The technology to achieve significant improvement of cognitive dysfunction using LLLT or variations of this technique is moving fast and may signal a new chapter in the treatment and prevention of neurocognitive disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-03-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  7. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Tracey, E.M.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock & Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM).

  8. Towards Smart Homes Using Low Level Sensory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Koo Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Life Care (u-Life care is receiving attention because it provides high quality and low cost care services. To provide spontaneous and robust healthcare services, knowledge of a patient’s real-time daily life activities is required. Context information with real-time daily life activities can help to provide better services and to improve healthcare delivery. The performance and accuracy of existing life care systems is not reliable, even with a limited number of services. This paper presents a Human Activity Recognition Engine (HARE that monitors human health as well as activities using heterogeneous sensor technology and processes these activities intelligently on a Cloud platform for providing improved care at low cost. We focus on activity recognition using video-based, wearable sensor-based, and location-based activity recognition engines and then use intelligent processing to analyze the context of the activities performed. The experimental results of all the components showed good accuracy against existing techniques. The system is deployed on Cloud for Alzheimer’s disease patients (as a case study with four activity recognition engines to identify low level activity from the raw data captured by sensors. These are then manipulated using ontology to infer higher level activities and make decisions about a patient’s activity using patient profile information and customized rules.

  9. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  10. Advances in Low-Level Jet Research and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongbo; HE Mingyang; WANG Bin; ZHANG Qinghong

    2014-01-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fi re, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made signifi cant achievements during the past fi ve or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classifi cation, defi nition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fi elds. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse defi nitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fi elds. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  11. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  12. Low-level waste minimization at the Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koger, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Y-12 Development Waste Minimization Program is used as a basis for defining new technologies and processes that produce minimum low-level wastes (hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and industrial) for the Y-12 Plant in the future and for Complex-21 and that aid in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts throughout the complex. In the past, the strategy at the Y-12 Plant was to treat the residues from the production processes using chemical treatment, incineration, compaction, and other technologies, which often generated copious quantities of additional wastes and, with the exception of highly valuable materials such as enriched uranium, incorporated very little recycle in the process. Recycle, in this context, is defined as material that is put back into the process before it enters a waste stream. Additionally, there are several new technology drivers that have recently emerged with the changing climate in the Nuclear Weapons Complex such as Complex 21 and D and D technologies and an increasing number of disassemblies. The hierarchies of concern in the waste minimization effort are source reduction, recycle capability, treatment simplicity, and final disposal difficulty with regard to Complex 21, disassembly efforts, D and D, and, to a lesser extent, weapons production. Source reduction can be achieved through substitution of hazardous substances for nonhazardous materials, and process changes that result in less generated waste.

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  14. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammendola Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  15. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  16. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cretaro, Paolo; Di Lorenzo, Stefano; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-11-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  17. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  18. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  19. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Carroll, James; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been known since 1967 but still remains controversial due to incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms and the selection of inappropriate dosimetric parameters that led to negative studies. The biphasic dose-response or Arndt-Schulz curve in LLLT has been shown both in vitro studies and in animal experiments. This review will provide an update to our previous (Huang et al. 2009) coverage of this topic. In vitro mediators of LLLT such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential show biphasic patterns, while others such as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species show a triphasic dose-response with two distinct peaks. The Janus nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may act as a beneficial signaling molecule at low concentrations and a harmful cytotoxic agent at high concentrations, may partly explain the observed responses in vivo. Transcranial LLLT for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice shows a distinct biphasic pattern with peaks in beneficial neurological effects observed when the number of treatments is varied, and when the energy density of an individual treatment is varied. Further understanding of the extent to which biphasic dose responses apply in LLLT will be necessary to optimize clinical treatments.

  20. Ultra-low level radon assays in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin Ran [University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νβ β) to T{sub 1{sub /{sub 2}}}(0ν) > 10{sup 26} years, this corresponds to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The extremely rare event rate means the minimisation of background is of critical concern. The stringent strategy instigated to ensure detector radiopurity is outlined here for all construction materials. In particular the large R&D programme undertaken to reach the challengingly low level of radon, < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}, required inside the SuperNEMO gaseous tracker will be detailed. This includes an experiment designed to measure radon diffusion through various materials. A “Radon Concentration Line” (RnCL) was developed to be used in conjunction with a state-of-the-art radon detector in order to achieve world leading sensitivity to {sup 222}Rn content in large gas volumes at the level of a few µBq/m{sup 3}. A radon purification system was developed and installed which has demonstrated radon suppression by several orders of magnitude depending on the carrier gas. This apparatus has now been commissioned and measurements of cylindered gas have been made to confirm radon suppression by a factor 20 when using nitrogen as the carrier gas. The results from measurements of radon content in various gases, used inside SuperNEMO, using the RnCL will be presented.

  1. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Hills, R.G. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  3. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  4. Low-level radioactive wastes. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them.

  5. Low-level radioactive wastes. AMA Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Under a federal law, each state by January 1, 1993, must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the wastes are from using nuclear power to produce electricity, but 25% to 30% are from medical diagnosis, therapy, and research. Exposures to radioactivity from the wastes are much smaller than those from natural sources, and federal standards limit public exposure. Currently operating disposal facilities are in Beatty, Nev, Barnwell, SC, and Richland, Wash. National policy encourages the development of regional facilities. Planning a regional facility, selecting a site, and building, monitoring, and closing the facility will be a complex project lasting decades that involves legislation, public participation, local and state governments, financing, quality control, and surveillance. The facilities will utilize geological factors, structural designs, packaging, and other approaches to isolate the wastes. Those providing medical care can reduce wastes by storing them until they are less radioactive, substituting nonradioactive compounds, reducing volumes, and incinerating. Physicians have an important role in informing and advising the public and public officials about risks involved with the wastes and about effective methods of dealing with them.

  6. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  7. Effect of low-level laser therapy on tooth sensitivity induced by in-office bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Arjmand, Nooshin; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Zakeri, Majid; Maleknejad, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on tooth sensitivity induced by in-office bleaching. Sixty-six patients enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Following the in-office procedure with 40% hydrogen peroxide, the participants were randomly divided into three groups. The patients in group 1 received irradiation from a low-level red laser (LLRL; 660 nm, 200 mW, 15 s, 12 J/cm(2)), whereas participants in group 2 were subjected to a low-level infrared laser (LLIL; 810 nm) under similar conditions as in group 1. In group 3 (placebo), the laser treatment was the same as that in groups 1 and 2, but without energy output. The degree of tooth sensitivity was recorded at 1, 24, and 48 h after bleaching using a visual analog scale (VAS). The change in tooth shade was measured 30 days after tooth whitening. The intensity of tooth sensitivity was not significantly different between groups at 1 h after bleaching (p > 0.05). At 24 h after therapy, pain level was significantly lower in the LLIL group compared to the LLRL and placebo groups (p  0.05) and both were significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p  0.05). LLLT with an infrared diode laser could be recommended as a suitable strategy to reduce the intensity of tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching.

  8. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  9. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2015-01-01

    describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg-1TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se...

  10. The impact of multiple low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations on response to ponatinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, David T. O.; Yeoman, Alexandra L.; Altamura, Haley K.; Jamison, Bronte A.; Field, Chani R.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Lustgarten, Stephanie; Rivera, Victor M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Branford, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ponatinib shows activity against all common BCR-ABL1 single mutants, including the highly resistant BCR-ABL1-T315I mutant, improving outcome for patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, responses are variable, and causal baseline factors have not been well-studied. The type and number of low-level BCR-ABL1 mutations present after imatinib resistance has prognostic significance for subsequent treatment with nilotinib or dasatinib as second-line therapy. We therefore investigated the impact of low-level mutations detected by sensitive mass-spectrometry before ponatinib initiation (baseline) on treatment response in 363 TKI-resistant patients enrolled in the PONATINIB for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Evaluation and Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia trial, including 231 patients in chronic phase (CP-CML). Low-level mutations were detected in 53 patients (15%, including low-level T315I in 14 patients); most, however, did not undergo clonal expansion during ponatinib treatment and, moreover, no specific individual mutations were associated with inferior outcome. We demonstrate however, that the number of mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance is associated with response to ponatinib treatment and could be used to refine the therapeutic approach. Although CP-CML patients with T315I (63/231, 27%) had superior responses overall, those with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry (20, 32%) had substantially inferior responses compared with those with T315I as the sole mutation detected (43, 68%). In contrast, for CP-CML patients without T315I, the inferior responses previously observed with nilotinib/dasatinib therapy for imatinib-resistant patients with multiple mutations were not seen with ponatinib treatment, suggesting that ponatinib may prove to be particularly advantageous for patients with multiple mutations detectable by mass spectrometry after TKI resistance

  11. Clinical effectiveness of low-level laser treatment on peripheral somatosensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Alireza; Mirzaei, Alireza; Gutknecht, Norbert; Demneh, Amir Saberi

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral sensory neuropathy treatment is one of the common treatment problems and causes morbidity and mortality in people suffering from that. Although treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, nevertheless, in some cases, there is no cure for it, and it requires palliative and symptomatic treatment. In laboratory studies, low-level laser has been effective in the nerves protection and restoration. The aim of this article is to investigate the clinical efficacy of low-level laser on improvement of the peripheral somatosensory neuropathy. Search in the articles published up to 30 October 2015 (full text and abstracts) in databases PubMed (Medline), Cochrane library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database was performed. The studies of low-level laser trials on patients with peripheral neuropathy were carried out and evaluated in terms of the exclusion criteria. There are 35 articles among which 10 articles had the intended and required criteria. 1, 3, and 6 articles study the patients with diabetes, neuropathy caused by trauma, and carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. In six studies, laser led to a reduction in sensory impairment and improvement of the physiological function of the sensory nerves. In these articles, lasers (Diode, GaAlAs, He-Ne) had wavelength range 660-860 nm, radiation power 20-250 mW, energy density 0.45-70 J/cm(2). The intervention sessions range was 6-21 times and patient follow-up was 0-6 months. According to the results of these studies, low-level laser therapy can improve sensory function in patients with peripheral somatosensory neuropathy, although little research have not been done, laser treatment regimens are varied and do not recommend a specific treatment protocol. It seems it requires more research to sum up better, particularly in relation to diabetes.

  12. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  13. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  14. In vitro transdentinal effect of low-level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; dos Reis, R. I.; Parreiras-e-Silva, L. T.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. However, the specific LLL dose and the response mechanisms of these cells to transdentinal irradiation have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, this study evaluated the transdentinal effects of different LLL doses on stressed odontoblast-like pulp cells MDPC-23 seeded onto the pulpal side of dentin discs obtained from human third molars. The discs were placed in devices simulating in vitro pulp chambers and the whole set was placed in 24-well plates containing plain culture medium (DMEM). After 24 h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with either 5% (simulating a nutritional stress condition) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were irradiated with doses of 15 and 25 J cm-2 every 24 h, totaling three applications over three consecutive days. The cells in the control groups were removed from the incubator for the same times as used in their respective experimental groups for irradiation, though without activating the laser source (sham irradiation). After 72 h of the last active or sham irradiation, the cells were evaluated with respect to succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme production (MTT assay), total protein (TP) expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) synthesis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for collagen type 1 (Col-I) and ALP, and morphology (SEM). For both tests, significantly higher values were obtained for the 25 J cm-2 dose. Regarding SDH production, supplementation of the culture medium with 5% FBS provided better results. For TP and ALP expression, the 25 J cm-2 presented higher values, especially for the 5% FBS concentration (Mann-Whitney p laser irradiation at 25 J cm-2 caused transdentinal biostimulation of odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells.

  15. The Dose That Works: Low Level Laser Treatment of Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Steve; Munn, Joanne; McDonough, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A.; Basford, Jeffrey R.; David Baxter, G.

    2010-05-01

    Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is used in the treatment of tendon injuries. However, the clinical effectiveness of this modality remains controversial with limited agreement on the most efficacious dosage and parameter choices. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy and the validity of current dosage recommendations for treatment. Method: Medical databases were searched from inception to 1st August 2008. Controlled clinical trials evaluating LLLT as a primary intervention for any tendinopathy were included in the review. Methodological quality was classified using the PEDro scale. Appropriateness of treatment parameters were assessed using established guidelines. Results: Twenty five trials met the inclusion criteria. There was conflicting findings from multiple trials: 12 showed positive effects and 13 were inconclusive or showed no effect. Dosages used in the 12 positive studies support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current guidelines. Where pooling of data was possible, LLLT showed a positive effect size; in high quality studies of lateral epicondylitis, participants' grip strength was 9.59 Kg higher than the control group; for participants with Achilles tendinopathy, the effect was 13.6 mm less pain on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Conclusion: This study found conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of tendinopathy. However, an effective dosage window emerged showing benefit in the treatment of tendinopathy. Strong evidence exists from the 12 positive studies that positive outcomes are associated with the use of current dosage recommendations for the treatment of tendinopathy.

  16. Counting people with low-level features and Bayesian regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-04-01

    An approach to the problem of estimating the size of inhomogeneous crowds, which are composed of pedestrians that travel in different directions, without using explicit object segmentation or tracking is proposed. Instead, the crowd is segmented into components of homogeneous motion, using the mixture of dynamic-texture motion model. A set of holistic low-level features is extracted from each segmented region, and a function that maps features into estimates of the number of people per segment is learned with Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian regression models are examined. The first is a combination of Gaussian process regression with a compound kernel, which accounts for both the global and local trends of the count mapping but is limited by the real-valued outputs that do not match the discrete counts. We address this limitation with a second model, which is based on a Bayesian treatment of Poisson regression that introduces a prior distribution on the linear weights of the model. Since exact inference is analytically intractable, a closed-form approximation is derived that is computationally efficient and kernelizable, enabling the representation of nonlinear functions. An approximate marginal likelihood is also derived for kernel hyperparameter learning. The two regression-based crowd counting methods are evaluated on a large pedestrian data set, containing very distinct camera views, pedestrian traffic, and outliers, such as bikes or skateboarders. Experimental results show that regression-based counts are accurate regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors. Results on 2 h of video demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the regression-based crowd size estimation over long periods of time.

  17. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  18. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  19. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a safe and effective in the farm biological treatment for low level agricultural pesticide wastewater. The degradation of the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch and continuous modes of operation with a retention time of 15 days. The initial cell number (30.1ח106 cells/mL in the soil water mixture first declined with time during the 24 h reaching 15.6ח106 and 11.1ח106 cells/mL in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. This was due to the inhibitory effect of pesticide on some of the soil microbial species that had less tolerance to captan at the initial concentration of 144 mg L-1. Then, the microbial population started growing, reaching its maximum after 5 and 12 days from the start in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. The lag period and the specific growth rate for the batch bioreactor were 22 h and 0.096 h-1, respectively. A captan degradation efficiency of 89.6% was achieved after 10 days in the continuous bioreactor compared to a degradation efficiency of 100% after 5 d in the batch bioreactor. This study showed that the effluent from the continuous bioreactor has a captan concentration of 12 mg L-1 which is not acceptable for livestock water according to Health Canada Guidelines. A half life of 52 h is observed in the batch bioreactor.

  20. Asthma and low level air pollution in Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenkae A5 (Department of Environmental Health, Helsinki City Health Department (Finland))

    1991-09-01

    The effects of relatively low levels of air pollution and weather conditions on the number of patients who had asthma attacks and who were admitted to a hospital were studied in Helsinki during a 3-y period. The number of admissions increased during cold weather (n = 4,209), especially among persons who were of working age but not among children. Even after standardization for temperature, all admissions, including emergency ward admissions, were significantly correlated with ambient air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and total suspended particulates (TSP). Regression analysis revealed that NO and O3 were most strongly associated with asthma problems. Effects of air pollutants and cold were maximal if they occurred on the same day, except for O3, which had a more pronounced effect after a 1-d lag. The associations between pollutants, low temperature, and admissions were most significant among adults of working age, followed by the elderly. Among children, only O3 and NO were significantly correlated with admissions. Levels of pollutants were fairly low, the long-term mean being 19.2 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 38.6 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 22.0 micrograms/m3 or O3, and 1.3 mg/m3 for CO. In contrast, the mean concentration of TSP was high (76.3 micrograms/m3), and the mean temperature was low (+ 4.7 degrees C). These results suggest that concentrations of pollutants lower than those given as guidelines in many countries may increase the incidence of asthma attacks.

  1. Eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes over supraglacial debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Supraglacial debris covers have the potential to evaporate large quantities of water derived from either sub-debris ice melt or precipitation. Currently, knowledge of evaporation and condensation rates in supraglacial debris is limited due to the difficulty of making direct measurements. This paper presents eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes made over a 0.2 m debris layer at Miage debris covered glacier, Italian Alps, during the 2013 ablation season. The meteorological data are complimented by reflectometer measurements of volumetric water fraction in the saturated and vadose zones of the debris layer. The lysimeters were designed specifically to mimic the debris cover and were embedded within the debris matrix, level with the surface. Over the ablation season, the latent heat flux is dominated by evaporation, and the flux magnitude closely follows the daily cycle of daytime solar heating and night time radiative cooling of debris. Mean flux values are of the order of 1 kg m-2 day-1, but often higher for short periods following rainfall. Condensation rates are relatively small and restricted to night time and humid conditions when the debris-atmosphere vapour pressure gradient reverses due to relatively warm air overlying cold debris. The reflectometer measurements provide evidence of vertical water movement through capillary rise in the upper part of the fine-grained debris layer, just above the saturated horizon, and demonstrate how debris bulk water content increases after rainfall. The latent heat flux responds directly to changes in wind speed, indicating that atmospheric turbulence can penetrate porous upper debris layers to the saturated horizon. Hence, vertical sorting of debris sediments and antecedent rainfall are important in determining evaporation rates, in addition to current meteorological conditions. Comparison of lysimeter measurements with rainfall data provides an estimate that between 45% and 89% of rainfall is

  2. Monitoring the fate and transport of deicing chemicals in lysimeter experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lißner, H.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K. U.

    2012-04-01

    Large amounts of the deicing chemicals (DIC) propylene glycol (PG) and formate are spread for removal of snow and ice on the aircrafts and airfields every winter. A considerable amount of these chemicals are carried into surrounding areas, where they mix with snow and infiltrate in the soil during snowmelt. Even though DIC are easily degradable, the high mobility and the high biological oxygen demand of PG in particular can influence the hydrogeochemistry of the unsaturated and saturated zone. The aims of the study were to evaluate and quantify transport of deicing chemicals during snowmelt under field conditions, and to study effects of DIC degradation on the hydrogeochemistry of the unsaturated zone. Eight undisturbed soil cores (0.3 m x 1 m, 0.071 m3) were retrieved at the Gardermoen Airport, Norway, and installed as non-weighable small scale lysimeters at a nearby field site. Before snowmelt in March 2010, a mix of snow containing 350 g/m2 PG, 71 g/m2 formate, and 17 g/m2 of bromide were added to the lysimeters. To determine the fate and transport of PG we monitored PG and its metabolites, bromide, manganese, and iron in the seepage water. High cumulative infiltration and marginal degradation of PG during the snowmelt period allowed up to 50 % of the PG to leave the upper, microbially most active, region of the soil. Only marginal concentrations of formate were analysed in all lysimeters, indicating fast degradation and favoured metabolism by soil bacteria compared to PG. Low contents of metabolites and the concurrent breakthrough of PG and Br in the seepage water even imply that PG was not significantly degraded before June. Redox values down to 200 mV in April, the detection of propionate and manganese, as well as a rise in pH, suggest partially anearobic localities in the soil, not only during high soil water saturation in April and May but also during summer when PG degradation was very efficient. In the longterm, the intense depletion of electron acceptors

  3. Managing Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil with hydrated lime - An outdoor study in lysimeters and field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Karin A; Vinnerås, Björn; Albihn, Ann

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 among domestic animals can have great financial consequences for an animal enterprise but also be a threat for public health as there is a risk for transmission of the infection through the environment. In order to minimize disease transmission, it is important to treat not only the affected animals but also the areas on which they have been kept. In the present study, the effect of hydrated lime as a treatment for Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil was investigated. The study was performed outdoors, in a lysimeter system and in field plots. The soils were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and/or E. coli O157:H7 and hydrated lime was added at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%). Sampling was performed over one month, and the levels of bacteria were analyzed by standard culture methods. In addition, the soil pH was monitored throughout the study. The results showed that application of 0.5-1 kg hydrated lime per m(2) reduced both Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below the detection limit (2 log10 CFU g-1 soil) in 3-7 days. Lower application rates of hydrated lime did not reduce pathogen numbers in the lysimeter study, but in the field plots no E. coli O157:H7 was detected at the end of the four-week study period regardless of hydrated lime application. A recommended strategy for treating a Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil could therefore be to monitor the pH over the time of treatment and to repeat hydrated lime application if a decrease in pH is observed.

  4. Integral Study of Atrazine Behaviour in Field Lysimeters in Argentinean Humid Pampas Soils Estudio Integral del Comportamiento de Atrazina en Lisímetros de Campo en Suelos de la Pampa Húmeda Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Hang; Adrián Andriulo; Carolina Sasal; Mirtha M Nassetta; Silvina Portela; Ana I Cañas

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine behavior during crop maize (Zea mays L.) production in soils of Argentine humid pampas was investigated. Lysimeters (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m) with a Typic Argiudoll (Pergamino) and others with a Typic Hapludoll (Junín) were monitored for drainage water content and atrazine concentrations in soil and water. Soil profiles were sampled in four depths in three dates, and water drainage pooled in four periods. Most of atrazine loss in drainage occurred within 30 d of atrazine application being ...

  5. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  6. SECONDARY LOW-LEVEL WASTE GENERATION RATE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. LaRue

    1999-05-10

    The objective of this design analysis is -to update the assessment of estimated annual secondary low-level waste (LLW) generation rates resulting from the repackaging of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) for disposal at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis supports the preparation of documentation necessary for license application (LA) for the MGR. For the purposes of this analysis, secondary LLW is defined, in brief terms, as LLW generated as a direct result of processing SNF/HLW through the receiving and repackaging operations. The current Waste Handling Building (WHB) design is based on the predominant movement of fuel assemblies through the wet handling lines within the WHB. Dry handling lines are also included in the current WHB design to accommodate canistered waste (i.e., SNF and/or HLW packages). Major input changes to this analysis in comparison to previous analyses include: (1) changes in the SNF/HLW arrival schedules; (2) changes to the WHB and the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) dimensions; and (3) changes in operational staff sizes within the WHB and WTB. The rates generated in this analysis can be utilized to define necessary waste processes, waste flow rates, and equipment sizes for the processing of secondary LLW for proper disposal. This analysis is based on the present reference design, i.e., Viability Assessment (VA) design, and present projections on spent fuel delivery and processing. LLW generation rates, for both liquids and solids, are a direct function of square footages in radiological areas, and a direct function of spent fuel throughput. Future changes in the approved reference design or spent fuel throughput will directly impact the LLW generation rates defined in this analysis. Small amounts of wastes other than LLW may be generated on a non-routine basis. These wastes may include transuranic (TRU), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although the objective of this analysis is to define LLW waste generation

  7. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  8. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  9. An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine waterbalance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schwaerzel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the installation of groundwater lysimeters in peat soils was developed which reduces both time and financial effort significantly. The method was applied on several sites in the Rhinluch, a fen peat land 60 km northwest of Berlin, Germany. Over a two-year period, upward capillary flow and evapotranspiration rates under grassland with different groundwater levels were measured. The installation of tensiometers and TDR probes additionally allowed the in situ determination of the soil hydraulic properties (water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The results of the measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity demonstrate that more than one single method has to be applied if the whole range of the conductivity function from saturation to highly unsaturated is to be covered. Measuring the unsaturated conductivity can be done only in the lab for an adequately wide range of soil moisture conditions. Keywords: peat soils, soil hydraulic properties, evapotranspiration, capillary flow, root distribution, unsaturated zone

  10. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth.

  11. Large-scale lysimeter site St. Arnold, Germany: analysis of 40 years of precipitation, leachate and evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Harsch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a lysimetrical-meteorological data series collected on the large-scale lysimeter site "St. Arnold", Germany, from November 1965 to April 2007. The particular relevance of this data rests both upon its perdurability and upon the fact that the site is comprised of a grassland basin, an oak/beech and a pine basin.

    Apart from analyzing long term trends of the meteorological measurements, the primary objective of this study is to investigate the water balance in grassland and forested basins, in particular comparing the precipitation term to leachate quantities and potential and actual evapotranspiration. The latter are based upon the Penman and the Penman-Monteith approaches, respectively.

    The main results of this survey are that, on a long-term average, the grassland basin turns more than half (53% of its annually incoming precipitation into leachate and only 36% into water vapour, while the deciduous forest exhibits a ratio of 37% for leachate and 56% for evapotranspiration, and the evergreen coniferous forest shows the highest evaporation rate (65% and the lowest leachate rate (26%.

    Concerning these water balances, considerable differences both between basins and between seasons stand out. While summer periods exhibit high evapotranspiration rates for the forests and moderate ones for the grassland, winter periods are characterised by considerable leachate quantities for grassland and the deciduous forest and moderate ones for the coniferous forest. Following the analysis of the climatic development in St. Arnold, trends towards a milder and more humid regional climate were detected.

  12. Sorption and distribution of aged atrazine residues in the drainage system of an outdoor lysimeter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Schäffer, A.; Burauel, P.

    2009-04-01

    Even though the environmental impact of the herbicide atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] is a matter of controversy, it is still extensively applied for agricultural purposes. Particularly in the US, atrazine has been applied to approximately 70% of all corn acreages in the last 18 years. Atrazine is banned in the EU but its use is increasing in countries like China, Brazil and India. Therefore, the worldwide soil burden of this compound must be enormous. Atrazine has been found to be highly persistent in the environment and it has been suggested that it is moderately mobile in the soil profile. As a result, it is found in most groundwater aquifers and surface waters in agricultural areas in the US. Even in Germany, where it was prohibited in 1991, it is still found in groundwater wells below agriculturally used land where it was formerly applied. For a long-term outdoor lysimeter experiment with a disturbed soil column, a drainage system of fine gravel was originally embedded at the bottom of the lysimeter. In this drainage system, atrazine and its metabolite 2-hydroxy-atrazine were extracted as long as 22 years after the last atrazine application. Due to the radiolabelling, the spatial distribution of the atrazine residues can be evaluated in fractions like fine clay particles attached to the gravel or in the gravel itself. Approximately 2% of the total gravel consisted of carbonaceous, slag-like particles which might retain most of the atrazine and its residues. The latest data will be presented at the session.

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  14. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    represent a common type of locality for a repository, given that siting criteria are fulfilled. There is also a site that was selected without any association to existing nuclear sites or mines. This is the case for the French L'Aube repository. National repositories for disposal of all waste arising in that country are common, e.g. El Cabril in Spain and Low Level Repository close to Drigg in United Kingdom. The depth of the repositories varies from being on the surface to down to 650 metres below ground. The geological conditions of the different repositories are described as well as engineered barriers, geographical location and, if available, information on safety analysis. It can be noted that in the safety analysis of repositories located close to the coast (such as in Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom), the effect of post-glacial land rise or coastal erosion is taken into special consideration. In general, the size of the repository reflects the size of the nuclear programmes in the respective country. The activity content of the facility, both the total and normalised figures against the volume capacities, are compared for groups of radionuclides

  15. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.

  16. Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on- site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rain water or snowmelt changed to an ionic canposition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The

  17. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  18. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY... Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management that updates the 1981 Policy... are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The public comment period closed on...

  20. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion...

  1. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission) is revising its 1981 Policy Statement on Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction..., ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML090410531), and referenced the Policy...

  2. A low-level diode laser therapy reduces the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontal ligament cell inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. H.; Chen, C. C.; Liu, S. L.; Lu, Y. C.; Kao, C. T.

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytologic effects of inflammatory periodontal ligament cells in vitro after low-level laser therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured, exposed to lipopolysaccharide and subjected to low-level laser treatment of 5 J cm-2 or 10 J cm-2 using a 920 nm diode laser. A periodontal ligament cell attachment was observed under a microscope, and the cell viability was quantified by a mitochondrial colorimetric assay. Lipopolysaccharide-treated periodontal ligament cells were irradiated with the low-level laser, and the expression levels of several inflammatory markers, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1, and pErk kinase, were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The data were collected and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance; p low-level laser treatment of periodontal ligament cells increased their ability to attach and survive. After irradiation, the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1 in lipopolysaccharide-exposed periodontal ligament cells decreased over time (p low-level diode laser treatment increased the cells’ proliferative ability and decreased the expression of the examined inflammatory mediators.

  3. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Tsai

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2. Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  4. Influence of nutrients on oxidation of low level methane by mixed methanotrophic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Nadarajan, Saravanan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    Low-level methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air (CMV-CH4; i.e., 1 % CH4) can significantly contribute to global climate change, and therefore, treatment is important to reduce impacts. To investigate CMV-CH4 abatement potential, five different mixed methanotrohic consortia (MMCs) were established from soil/sediment sources, i.e., landfill top cover soil, bio-solid compost, vegetated humus soil, estuarine and marine sediments. Enrichment conditions for MMCs were as follows: nitrate mineral salt (NMS) medium, pH ~ 6.8; 25 °C; 20-25 % CH4; agitation 200 rpm; and culture period 20 days, in mini-bench-top bioreactors. The enriched cultures were supplemented with extra carbon (methanol 0.5-1.5 %, formate 5-15 mM, and acetate 5-15 mM), nitrogen (nitrate 0.5-1.5 g L(-1), ammonium 0.1-0.5 g L(-1), or urea: 0.1-0.5 g L(-1)), and trace elements (copper 1-5 μM, iron 1-5 μM, and zinc 1-5 μM) in different batch experiments to improve low-level CH4 abatement. Average CH4 oxidation capacities (MOCs) of MMCs varied between 1.712 ± 0.032 and 1.963 ± 0.057 mg g(-1)DWbiomass h(-1). Addition of formate improved the MOCs of MMCs, but the dose-response varied for different MMCs. Acetate, nitrate and copper had no significant effect on MOCs, while addition of methanol, ammonium, urea, iron and zinc impacted negatively. Overall, MMCs enriched from marine sediments and landfill top cover soil showed high MOCs which were largely resilient to nutrient supplementation, suggesting a strong potential for biofilter development for industrial low-level CH4 abatement, such as those present in CMV.

  5. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  6. Brief Report: Can You See What is Not There? Low-level Auditory–visual Integration in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smagt, M.J. van der; Engeland, H. van; Kemner, C.

    2007-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, show impaired integration of information across different senses. The processing-level from which this impairment originates, however, remains unclear. We investigated low-level integration of auditory and visual stimuli in subjects with Autism Spect

  7. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently decrease

  8. A down-valley low-level jet event during T-REX 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Sen; Dumais, Robert

    2013-10-01

    nocturnal down-valley low-level jet. Since the cold-start simulations spanned 36 h (including a 12-h spin-up period), it was suspected that the lateral boundary conditions imposed on the outermost 4.5 km nest might negatively impact the interior model solutions in the Owens Valley. To investigate this possibility, an additional simulation was executed by adding two extra nests to the control configuration: an outer 13.5 km and an inner 500 m. This simulation produced a better evolution of the nocturnal low-level jet and especially the speed max. The addition of the larger 13.5 km nest appears more critical to this improvement than that of the extra spatial resolution provided by the inner 500 m nest, which supports the idea that accurate capturing of the large-scale synoptic condition was critical in reproducing important details of this down-valley low-level jet event. The extra 500-m resolution did seem to improve the morning valley cold pool forecast.

  9. Routes to improving the reliability of low level DNA analysis using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Malcolm J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate quantification of DNA using quantitative real-time PCR at low levels is increasingly important for clinical, environmental and forensic applications. At low concentration levels (here referring to under 100 target copies DNA quantification is sensitive to losses during preparation, and suffers from appreciable valid non-detection rates for sampling reasons. This paper reports studies on a real-time quantitative PCR assay targeting a region of the human SRY gene over a concentration range of 0.5 to 1000 target copies. The effects of different sample preparation and calibration methods on quantitative accuracy were investigated. Results At very low target concentrations of 0.5–10 genome equivalents (g.e. eliminating any replicates within each DNA standard concentration with no measurable signal (non-detects compromised calibration. Improved calibration could be achieved by eliminating all calibration replicates for any calibration standard concentration with non-detects ('elimination by sample'. Test samples also showed positive bias if non-detects were removed prior to averaging; less biased results were obtained by converting to concentration, including non-detects as zero concentration, and averaging all values. Tube plastic proved to have a strongly significant effect on DNA quantitation at low levels (p = 1.8 × 10-4. At low concentrations (under 10 g.e., results for assays prepared in standard plastic were reduced by about 50% compared to the low-retention plastic. Preparation solution (carrier DNA or stabiliser was not found to have a significant effect in this study. Detection probabilities were calculated using logistic regression. Logistic regression over large concentration ranges proved sensitive to non-detected replicate reactions due to amplification failure at high concentrations; the effect could be reduced by regression against log (concentration or, better, by eliminating invalid responses

  10. Fine resolution soil water fluxes measured with a small Smart Field Lysimeter: The noise removal and further interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Frantisek; Bekere Mekonnen, Getu; Matula, Svatopluk; Mihalikova, Marketa; Fisak, Jaroslav; Teressa Chala, Ayele; Hrkalova, Marketa; Moreira Barradas, Joao Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A weighable Smart Field Lysimeter (30 cm diameter, 30 cm depth) with an adaptively regulated suction at its bottom was used to measure soil water fluxes at the surface and at the 30 cm depth of a short grass stand. No overland flow or accumulation of water at the surface were observed and there was no groundwater table within the soil profile. Appropriate distinction between the fluxes of different directions made it possible to separately estimate actual evapotranspiration (upward surface flux), precipitation and condensation (downward surface flux and dew on grass leaves), percolation (downward flux at 30 cm) and capillary rise (upward flux at 30 cm). The primary data were collected at 1 minute intervals but required digital filtering to remove the information noise. Various methods of filtering were tested, with a special regard to intensive rain events. The resulting data have a 10-minute resolution. The lysimeter is capable of self-recovery after a period of drought but the noise of percolation and capillary rise estimates is enhanced for some time during, before and after this period. In these situations, it is important that a porous matrix sensor measures the suction in parallel to the reference tensiometer. Both the precipitation and the actual evapotranspiration derived from the lysimeter data alone are in absolute values higher than the analogous quantities obtained with the help of the directly measured tipping bucket precipitation. These discrepancies are probably due to the rain gauge underestimating true precipitation, but partly also due to numerical noise, however smoothed. If the rain gauge data are used only to distinguish the periods of rain from the rainless periods, than the condensation of water in the soil and on the grass leaves can be estimated. The actual evapotranspiration measured by the lysimeter has a diurnal patterns depending on actual weather. The maximum occurs, on average, shortly after the noon. The percolation curves after rain

  11. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  12. Retrofits for improved heat rate and availability: Low-level heat recovery economizer retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubow, L.N.; Borden, M.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Granger, J.F.; Horazak, D.A.; Phillips, N.A. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The subject of this report, involves the recovery of heat from the flue gas to preheat combustion air and protect the air heater. Flue gas is a large potential source of heat, but this mode of heat recovery has seen limited application due to the corrosive environment created in plant tail-end systems by condensation in sulfur-laden flue gases. Several installations of low-level economizers'' (LLEs) have experienced varied degrees of success using cast iron-type heat exchangers. Alternate materials that may be suitable for this application were investigated in this project. The cost of various types of installations with regard to equipment arrangement, remaining plant life, plant capacity factor, plant operating modes, ambient temperature characteristics, fuel costs, utility cost evaluation methods, and external economic factors were investigated.

  13. Continuous, low-level, topical heat wrap therapy as compared to acetaminophen for primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mark; Price, William; Rodriguez, Gonzalo; Erasala, Geetha; Hurley, George; Smith, Roger P

    2004-09-01

    To determine if pain relief provided by a wearable heat wrap (continuous, low-level, topical heat therapy) is superior to oral acetaminophen for primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized, active-controlled, multisite, single-blind (investigator), parallel-design study compared an abdominal wrap to an oral medication (acetaminophen, 1000 mg) over I day. Pain relief (0-5) and abdominal muscle tightness/cramping (0-100) were recorded at 12 time points. At 24 and 48 hours, menstrual symptom-based quality of life was assessed. Three hundred sixty-seven subjects entered the study, with 344 subjects evaluable. The heat wrap was superior to acetaminophen for pain relief over an 8-hour period (means of 2.48 and 2.17, p = 0.015) and at t hours 3, 4, 5 and 6 (p means of 40.4 and 44.5, p = 0.04) and at hours 4, 5 and 6 (p lower abdominal cramping (p < or = 0.05) with heat therapy. Continuous, low-level, topical heat therapy was superior to acetaminophen for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.

  14. Low-level motor inhibition in children:Evidence from the negative compatibility effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Schlaghecken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The masked prime task was used to investigate low-level inhibitory motor control processes in two groups of children (7-8 years and 11-12 years and in older adolescents/young adults (16-23 years. Masked prime stimuli, presented below the level of conscious awareness, systematically affected reaction times (RTs to subsequent supraliminal target stimuli: RTs were longer when prime and target were mapped to the same response than when they were mapped to different responses. This negative compatibility effect did not differ significantly between age groups, consistent with the hypothesis that the underlying low-level inhibition processes are already fully developed in children as young as seven years of age. In contrast, performance differences between response repetition and response alternation trials were significantly larger in children, consistent with the hypothesis that higher-level control processes are less effective in children. Results provide converging evidence that whereas the latter processes are mediated by late-maturing (prefrontal cortical areas, the former processes are mediated by earlier-maturing (possibly subcortical structures.

  15. Structure and dynamics of the Benguela low-level coastal jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Chang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Generations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models have been plagued by persistent warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the southeastern tropical Atlantic. The SST biases are most severe in the eastern boundary coastal upwelling region and are sensitive to surface wind stress and wind stress curl associated with the Benguela low-level coastal jet (BLLCJ), a southerly jet parallel to the Angola-Namibia coast. However, little has been documented about this atmospheric source of oceanic bias. Here we investigate the characteristics and dynamics of the BLLCJ using observations, reanalyses, and atmospheric model simulations. Satellite wind products and high-resolution reanalyses and models represent the BLLCJ with two near-shore maxima, one near the Angola-Benguela front (ABF) at 17.5°S, and the other near 25-27.5°S, whereas coarse resolution reanalyses and models represent the BLLCJ poorly with a single, broad, more offshore maximum. Model experiments indicate that convex coastal geometry near the ABF supports the preferred location of the BLLCJ northern maximum by supporting conditions for a hydraulic expansion fan. Intraseasonal variability of the BLLCJ is associated with large-scale variability in intensity and location of the South Atlantic subtropical high through modulation of the low-level zonal pressure gradient.

  16. How low-level laser therapy can change mechanical properties of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Martinez, Diana; Ferreira, Marcia Z. J.; Yoshimura, Ellisabeth M.; Alencar, Adriano M.; Chavantes, Maria Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Low level laser therapy is used as a treatment of several conditions, including inflammatory processes and wound healing. Possible changes in mechanical properties of cells, caused by illumination, are investigated with optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC), which is a technique used to evaluate mechanical properties in cell culture. Ferromagnetic micro beads are bound to cell cytoskeleton, the beads are magnetized vertically and a horizontal twisting magnetic field is applied causing a torque that moves the beads and deforms the cell, the beads rotate and displace. Based on the lateral displacement of the beads, elastic shear and loss moduli are obtained. Samples of human bronchial epithelial cell culture were divided in two groups: one was illuminated with a 660 nm red laser, 30 mW power, 0.75 W/cm2 irradiance, during different time intervals, and the other one, the control group, was not illuminated. The values of the mechanical constants of the cells of the control group showed a tendency of increasing with the time out of the incubator. On the other hand, the illuminated group showed constancy on the behavior of both moduli, keeping the normal conditions of the cell culture. Those results indicate that illumination can induce cells to homeostasis, and OMTC is sensitive to observe departures from the steady conditions. Hence, OMTC is an important technique which can be used to aggregate knowledge on the light effect in cell cytoskeleton and even on the low level laser therapy mechanisms in inflammatory processes and/or wound healing.

  17. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  18. Low level of galacto-oligosaccharide in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben; Juan Li; Zong-Tai Feng; Sheng-Yun Shi; Ya-Dong Lu; Rui Chen; Xiao-Yu Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a new infant formula supplemented with a low level (0.24 g/100 mL) of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal micro-fiord (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and E. coli) and fermentation characteristics in term infants, compared with human milk and a standard infant formula without GOS. METHODS: Term infants (n = 371) were approached in this study in three hospitals of China. All infants started breast-feeding. Those who changed to formula-feeding within 4 wk after birth were randomly assigned to one of the two formula groups. Growth and stool characteristics, and side effects that occurred in recruited infants were recorded in a 3-mo follow-up period. Fecal samples were collected from a subpopulation of recruited infants for analysis of intestinal bacteria (culture technique), acetic acid (gas chromatography) and pH (indicator strip). RESULTS: After 3 mo, the intestinal Bifidobacteria, Lactobac////, acetic acid and stool frequency were significantly increased, and fecal pH was decreased in infants fed with the GOS-formula or human milk, compared with those fed with the formula without GOS. No significant differences were observed between the GOS formula and human milk groups. Supplementation with GOS did not influence the incidence of crying, regurgitation and vomiting. CONCLUSION: A low level of GOS (0.24 g/100 mL) in infant formula can improve stool frequency, decrease fecal pH, and stimulate intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli as in those fed with human milk.

  19. Accuracy of Low-level Surface in Hierarchical Construction of Potential Energy Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-rui Wang; Dong H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-level PES on the overall accuracy of the final surface constructed by using hierarchical construction were investigated with the constructions of a number of global surfaces for the H3 system at UHF (UMP2,DFT-B3LYP,UCCSD(T))/vtz,and UCCSD(T)/avqz levels of theory.The total reaction probabilities for the H+H2 reaction calculated on these surfaces revealed that the accuracy of UCCSD(T)/avqz surface is very close to the well-known BKMP2 surface,while the UCCSD(T)/vtz PES has a slightly higher barrier.In contrast,the low-level theories (UHF,UMP2,DFT-B3LYP) with vtz basis set can only provide a qualitative description of this simplest reaction despite the fact that they are widely used to study reactions in complex systems.On the other hand,although these theories are not accurate on describing the reaction,they can be used to provide the lowlevel PESs for hierarchical construction of the UCCSD(T)/avqz PES with the number of UCCSD(T)/avqz energies substantially reduced.

  20. Combining geoelectrical and advanced lysimeter methods to characterize heterogeneous flow and transport under unsaturated transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, M.; Skowronski, J.; Binley, A. M.; Slater, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    Our ability to predict flow and transport processes in the unsaturated critical zone is considerably limited by two characteristics: heterogeneity of flow and transience of boundary conditions. The causes of heterogeneous - or preferential - flow and transport are fairly well understood, yet the characterization and quantification of such processes in natural profiles remains challenging. This is due to current methods of observation, such as staining and isotope tracers, being unable to observe multiple events on the same profile and offering limited spatial information. In our study we demonstrate an approach to characterize preferential flow and transport processes applying a combination of geoelectrical methods and advanced lysimeter techniques. On an agricultural soil profile, which was transferred undisturbed into a lysimeter container, we applied systematically varied input flow boundary conditions, resembling natural precipitation events. We simultaneously measured the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Flow and transport in the soil column were observed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), tensiometers, water content probes and a multicompartment suction plate (MSP). These techniques allowed a direct ground-truthing of soil moisture and pore fluid resistivity changes estimated noninvasively using ERT. We were able to image both the advancing infiltration front and the advancing tracer front using time lapse ERT. Water content changes associated with the advancing infiltration front dominated over pore fluid conductivity changes during short term precipitation events. Conversely, long term displacement of the solute front was monitored during periods of constant water content in between infiltration events. We observed preferential flow phenomena through ERT and through the MSP, which agreed in general terms. The preferential flow fraction was observed to be independent of precipitation rate. This suggests the presence of a fingering process

  1. High-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes proliferation and migration of primary cultured human gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Kenichiro; Aoki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    In periodontal therapy, the use of low-level diode lasers has recently been considered to improve wound healing of the gingival tissue. However, its effects on human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation stimulates key cell responses in wound healing, proliferation and migration, in primary cultured HGECs in vitro. HGECs were derived from seven independent gingival tissue specimens. Cultured HGECs were exposed to a single session of high-frequency (30 kHz) low-level diode laser irradiation with various irradiation time periods (fluence 5.7-56.7 J/cm(2)). After 20-24 h, cell proliferation was evaluated by WST-8 assay and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay, and cell migration was monitored by in vitro wound healing assay. Further, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after irradiation was investigated by Western blotting. The high-frequency low-level irradiation significantly increased cell proliferation and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation at various irradiation time periods. Migration of the irradiated cells was significantly accelerated compared with the nonirradiated control. Further, the low-level diode laser irradiation induced phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) at 5, 15, 60, and 120 min after irradiation. Stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK remained un-phosphorylated. The results show that high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes HGEC proliferation and migration in association with the activation of MAPK/ERK, suggesting that laser irradiation may accelerate gingival wound healing.

  2. Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, M.; Rojas, F.; Escarre, J.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Fonrodona, M. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord - Modul C4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The optical absorption of n-type (C{sub 60} and PTCDA) and p-type (CuPc and pentacene) organic semiconductors is investigated by optical transmission and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The usual absorption bands related to HOMO-LUMO transitions are observed in the high absorption region of transmission spectra. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy also evidences exponential absorption shoulders with characteristic energies 47meV for CuPc, 38meV for pentacene, 50 meV for PTCDA and 87meV for C{sub 60}. In addition, broad bands in the low absorption level are observed for C{sub 60} and PTCDA. These bands have been attributed to contamination due to air exposure. On the other hand, in CuPc a clear absorption peak at 1.12eV is observed with smaller features at 1.04eV, 1.20eV and 1.33eV. These peaks are attributed to transitions between the Pc levels of CuPc ions. Finally, the optical absorption expected in blends of organic semiconductors is estimated by an effective media approximation. (author)

  3. Bistability and chaos at low levels of quanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, T V; Shahinyan, A R; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G Yu

    2013-08-01

    We study nonlinear phenomena of bistability and chaos at a level of few quanta. For this purpose, we consider a single-mode dissipative oscillator with strong Kerr nonlinearity with respect to the dissipation rate driven by a monochromatic force as well as by a train of Gaussian pulses. The quantum effects and decoherence in the oscillatory mode are investigated in the framework of the purity of states and the Wigner functions calculated from the master equation. We demonstrate the quantum chaotic regime by means of a comparison between the contour plots of the Wigner functions and the strange attractors on the classical Poincaré section. Considering bistability at a low limit of quanta, we analyze the minimal level of excitation numbers at which the bistable regime of the system is displayed. We also discuss the formation of an oscillatory chaotic regime by varying oscillatory excitation numbers at ranges of a few quanta. We demonstrate quantum-interference phenomena that are assisted hysteresis-cycle behavior and quantum chaos for the oscillator driven by a train of Gaussian pulses. We establish the border of quantum-classical correspondence for chaotic regimes in the case of strong nonlinearities.

  4. Accurate measurements of vadose zone fluxes using automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters: A synopsis of results from the Spydia research facility, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Barkle, Greg; Stenger, Roland; Moorhead, Brian; Wall, Aaron; Clague, Juliet

    2014-05-01

    Automated equilibrium tension plate lysimeters (AETLs) are arguably the most accurate method to measure unsaturated water and contaminant fluxes below the root zone at the scale of up to 1 m². The AETL technique utilizes a porous sintered stainless-steel plate to provide a comparatively large sampling area with a continuously controlled vacuum that is in "equilibrium" with the surrounding vadose zone matric pressure to ensure measured fluxes represent those under undisturbed conditions. This novel lysimeter technique was used at an intensive research site for investigations of contaminant pathways from the land surface to the groundwater on a sheep and beef farm under pastoral land use in the Tutaeuaua subcatchment, New Zealand. The Spydia research facility was constructed in 2005 and was fully operational between 2006 and 2011. Extending from a central access caisson, 15 separately controlled AETLs with 0.2 m² surface area were installed at five depths between 0.4 m and 5.1 m into the undisturbed volcanic vadose zone materials. The unique setup of the facility ensured minimum interference of the experimental equipment and external factors with the measurements. Over the period of more than five years, a comprehensive data set was collected at each of the 15 AETL locations which comprises of time series of soil water flux, pressure head, volumetric water contents, and soil temperature. The soil water was regularly analysed for EC, pH, dissolved carbon, various nitrogen compounds (including nitrate, ammonia, and organic N), phosphorus, bromide, chloride, sulphate, silica, and a range of other major ions, as well as for various metals. Climate data was measured directly at the site (rainfall) and a climate station at 500m distance. The shallow groundwater was sampled at three different depths directly from the Spydia caisson and at various observation wells surrounding the facility. Two tracer experiments were conducted at the site in 2009 and 2010. In the 2009

  5. Electrokinetics for removal of low-level radioactivity from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in situ soil decontamination in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic, are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. The work presented here describes part of the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentrations of a selected heavy-metal salt solution. These metals included surrogate radionuclides such as Sr, Cs and U, and an anionic species of Cr. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. Removals of some metal species up to 99% were achieved at the anode or cathode end of the soil upon 24 to 48 hours of treatment or a maximum of 1 pore volume of water displacement toward the cathode compartment. Transient pH change through the soil had an effect on the metal movement, as evidenced by accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens. This accumulation was attributed to the precipitation of the metal and increased cation retention capacity of the clay in high pH environment at the cathode end. In general, the reduced mobility and dissociation of the ionic species as they encounter areas of higher ionic concentration in their path of migration resulted in the accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens.

  6. A weighting lysimeter for a laboratory experiment on water and energy fluxes measurements and hydrological models verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; paleari, roberto; mantovani, federico; tarro, stefano; mancini, marco

    2017-04-01

    Weighting lysimeters allow a direct measurement of water loss from the soil, determining the soil water balance, and thus providing an interesting tool to validate hydrological models. Lysimeters, which world originates from the greek words "lysis" (movement) and "metron" (to measure) have been used to measure percolation of water through the soils for over 300 years. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to perform water and energy flux measurements under different meteorological conditions, irrigation practice (surface flood, drip and groundwater capillary rise), and soil coverage (bare soil and basil crop), 2) to verify hydrological model FEST-EWB parameterization at the lysimeter scale. A weighting lysimeter has been constructed in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. It consists of a steel box of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1 m containing reconstructed soil. The box is mounted on a scale with four load cells with a nominal weight of 6000 kg and a precision of 0,5 kg. The lysimeter is fully instrumented to measure all the main components of the hydrological cycle. Profiles of soil moisture and temperature are provided by 7 probes; ground heat flux is measured by a heat flux plate and two thermocouples; the drainage flux is measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge; the four components of radiation are provided by a net radiometer; air temperature and humidity are measured by a thermo-hygrometer. Data are collected every 10 minutes on a datalogger. A thermal camera is also installed to provide accurate maps of land surface temperature. The different instruments have been subjected to a rigorous calibration process. A low cost station is also installed based on an Arduino micro-controller measuring soil moisture and temperature, air humidity and temperature and solar radiation. The idea is to understand whether low cost instruments can be used to monitor the fundamental hydrological variables. The measured fluxes (e.g. evapotranspiration, soil moisture, land surface

  7. Modeling Hydrologic Transport through the Critical Zone: Lessons from Catchment-Scale and Lysimeter Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettin, P.; Queloz, P.; Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Rinaldo, A.; Botter, G.

    2015-12-01

    Water age distributions can be used to address a number of environmental challenges, such as modeling the dynamics of river water quality, quantifying the interactions between shallow and deep flow systems and understanding nutrient loading persistence. Moreover, as the travel time of a water particle is the time available for biogeochemical reactions, it can be explicitly used to predict the concentration of non-conservative solutes, as e.g. those derived by mineral weathering. In recent years, many studies acknowledged the dynamic nature of streamflow age and linked it to observed variations in stream water quality. In this new framework, water stored within a catchment can be seen as a pool that is selectively "sampled" by streams and vegetation, determining the chemical composition of discharge and evapotranspiration. We present results from a controlled lysimeter experiment and real-world catchments, where the theoretical framework has been used to reproduce water quality datasets including conservative tracers (e.g. chloride and water stable isotopes) and weathering-derived solutes (like silicon and sodium). The approach proves useful to estimate the catchment water storage involved in solute mixing and sheds light on how solutes and water of different ages are selectively removed by vegetation and soil drainage.

  8. Field-lysimeter and Column Studies As Complementary Survey Tools For Monitored Natural Attenuation (mna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsche, K. U.; Hensel, D.; Jann, S.; Jaesche, P.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Scheibke, R.

    The contamination of the unsaturated soil zone with organic pollutants (PAH, BTEX, PCB, Phenols, etc.) and pollutant mixtures, e.g. light/dense non-aqueous phase liq- uids (L/D-NAPLs), represents a specific challenge for sanitation and remediation of contaminated sites. Monitored natural attenuation as an alternative option for remedi- ation of such sites requires (1) the proof of an effective pollutant reduction potential and (2) the proof that a further spreading of the contaminants and their potentially toxic metabolites is minimized to an acceptable minimum concentration level. These demands apply equally likely to contaminated soil and groundwater environments. However, a major problem arises when the task is to monitor the release and transport of contaminants within the unsaturated soil zone over a longer period (> 10 years) of time at an expenditure as small as possible. The aim of our presentation is to employ and test a survey technique to monitor pollutant release and redistribution within the unsaturated soil zone in the context of MNA. The proposed technique is based on the combination of laboratory-column and field-lysimeter studies. The first is used to ac- quire knowledge on the governing processes, the latter is used to monitor release and transport of the contaminants.

  9. Plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Roland [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verkleij, Jos A.C. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jos.verkleij@falw.vu.nl; Nelissen, Hans J.M. [Department of Ecology and Physiology of Plants, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vink, Jos P.M. [Department of Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, RIZA, PO Box 17, NL-8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    The species Agrostis stolonifera, Brassica napus and Trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of Zn contamination on Zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. Parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of Zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. A significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot Zn concentration was observed for all species at increasing external Zn concentrations. However, shoot biomass production, Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation differed significantly among the tested species. The results in both experimental set-ups were quite similar concerning Zn tolerance and accumulation and improved the validity of the findings. The rather specific responses of the different plant species to Zn contamination interfere with the more generic approach used in risk assessment studies. Maximum amounts of Zn in shoot are not likely to cause a risk to herbivores. - Effects of Zn contamination showed different responses in uptake and accumulation patterns of site-specific plant species, which were similar in a semi-field experiment and under controlled conditions.

  10. Comparison of lysimeter based and calculated ASCE reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Cepuder, Peter; Eitzinger, Josef

    2016-04-01

    The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration (ET ref) and subsequently plant water requirements. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on environmental and weather conditions. Therefore, it seems generally advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. In this study, reference evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in northeastern Austria from 2005 to 2010 using a large weighing lysimeter (ET lys). The measured data were compared with ET ref calculations. Daily values differed slightly during a year, at which ET ref was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when ET was large, which is supported also by other studies. In our case, advection of sensible heat proved to have an impact, but it could not explain the differences exclusively. Obviously, there were also other influences, such as seasonal varying surface resistance or albedo. Generally, the ASCE-EWRI equation for daily time steps performed best at average weather conditions. The outcomes should help to correctly interpret ET ref data in the region and in similar environments and improve knowledge on the dynamics of influencing factors causing deviations.

  11. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-02-26

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil conditions of animal livestock.

  12. Investigation of the Effect of Low Level Maritime Haze on DMSP VHR and LF Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    P.O. BOX 1 736 WASHINGTON, DC 20013 SERVICIO METEOROLOGICO DE LA ARMADA EDIFICIO LIBERTAD , PISO 15 COMODORO PY Y CORBETA URUGUAY (1104) BUENOS...AIRES REPUBLICA ARGENTINA LIBRARIAN METEOROLOGY DEPT. UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE PARKVILLE, VICTORIA 3052 AUSTRALIA BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY ATTN

  13. Investigating Negotiation of Meaning in EFL Children with Very Low Levels of Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Amparo; Azpilicueta-Martinez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies hold that interaction has beneficial effects on second language acquisition among adults and children in second language contexts. However, data from children learning English as a foreign language are still unavailable. In order to fill this research niche, this study examines the conversational interactions of 8 pairs of young…

  14. Investigating Patterns of Automation and Growth Performance among Low Level Users of Manufacturing Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Kromann, Lene

    Literature on advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) promotes technology adoption as a means for achieving competitive advantages because adoption rates generally correlate positively with various aspects of operational and organizational performance and for SMEs also with annual sales turnover...

  15. Novel codon insert in HIV type 1 clade B reverse transcriptase associated with low-level viremia during antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Gianella, Sara; Vazquez, Homero; Ignacio, Caroline; Zweig, Adam C; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the pol genotype in two phylogenetically and epidemiologically linked partners, who were both experiencing persistent low-level viremia during antiretroviral therapy. In one partner we identified a new residue insertion between codon 248 and 249 of the HIV-1 RNA reverse transcriptase (RT) coding region (HXB2 numbering). We then investigated the potential impact of identified mutations in RT and antiretroviral binding affinity using a novel computational approach.

  16. Effects of Low-level Laser in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Lawaf

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Muscular pain in the facial region is the most common cause of facial pains. Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS is one of the most important facial muscle disorders comprising of signs and symptoms including pain during function, tenderness in the muscles of mastication and restricted jaw movement. Due to the lack of an accepted therapeutic approach, the purpose of this paper was to find an effective treatment to decrease the pain of such patients. Considering the analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of laser therapy, the effects of low level laser (Ga-Al-As in the treatment of MPDS patients referred to Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry, were investigated in the present study.

    Materials and methods. This study was a quasi-experimental research. Twenty-two MPDS patients were selected from those referred to Department of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry. Clinical examination was performed at six stages in the following order: prior to the treatment, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, and monthly thereafter for a 3-months follow-up. All patients underwent low-level laser therapy for 4 weeks (12 sessions. Variables such as pain severity, pain of cheek region, pain frequency, tenderness of masticatory muscles, click, and mouth opening were evaluated at each stage. Numerical variables were investigated using Analysis of Variance test for repeated measures whereas ranking variables were studied by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test.

    Results. At the end of treatment period, pain severity, pain of cheek region, pain frequency, tenderness of masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles showed significant improvement as compared with the commencement of any treatment which continued during the 3-months post-treatment (p< 0.05.

    Conclusion. It was

  17. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Fall meeting, October 20--22, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.

  18. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Summer meeting, July 21--23, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.

  19. Low-Level and Successive Large-Level Excursions of a Stationary Gaussian Process

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Van Minh

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates two properties of level crossings of a stationary Gaussian process $X(t)$ with autocorrelation function $R_X(\\tau)$. We show firstly that if $R_X(\\tau)$ admits finite second and fourth derivatives at the origin, the length of up-excursions above a low level $-\\gamma$ is asymptotically exponential as $-\\gamma \\to -\\infty$. Secondly, assume that $R_X(\\tau)$ admits a finite second derivative at the origin and some defined properties, we derive the mean number of crossings as well as the length of successive excursions above two adjacent large levels. The asymptotic results are showed to be effective even for practical values of crossing levels. An application of the developed results is proposed to derive the probability of successive excursions above adjacent levels during a time window.

  20. K/Th/U in photomultiplier tubes and improved low-level NaI detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsson, Pall

    2003-06-01

    The study presented here is the first step in a program aimed at reducing significantly the background count rate of NaI scintillation units. We have investigated: (1) the residual background of a large well type NaI detector, i.e., when shielded with 10 cm of lead and operated deep underground, (2) low concentrations of primordial radioactivity in glass used for photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and (3) the activity in whole tubes. The residual background of the NaI units is dominated by gamma radiation from potassium, thorium and uranium in the PMT, which severely limits their sensitivity. Activity in tubes made of new high purity glass was close to the detection level. The prospects of a new generation of low-level NaI detectors with these tubes are discussed.

  1. Low level exposures to lead and neurobehavioral development: the Sydney lead study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, G.H.; Bell, A.; McBride, W.; Carter, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Sydney lead study is a prospective five year study investigating the relationship between low level lead exposures and neurobehavioral development during the first five years of life. From an initial cohort of 318 children, 207 remained at the end of the fourth year. Average blood lead levels at 42 and 48 months were 10.6 ug/dL and 10.1 ug/dL respectively, with only a minority of the observations exceeding 15 ug/dL. The series of regression analyses reported in this paper support earlier findings from the study, that exposures to lead which give rise to the range of blood lead levels found in this cohort of children are not associated with cognitive or motor deficits in the preschool years.

  2. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  3. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  4. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  5. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  6. Effects of Low-level Laser in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Lawaf, Shirin; Jamalee, Fereydoon; Maroofi, Nader

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Muscular pain in the facial region is the most common cause of facial pains. Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is one of the most important facial muscle disorders comprising of signs and symptoms including pain during function, tenderness in the muscles of mastication and restricted jaw movement. Due to the lack of an accepted therapeutic approach, the purpose of this paper was to find an effective treatment to decrease the pain of such patients. Considering the analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of laser therapy, the effects of low level laser (Ga-Al-As) in the treatment of MPDS patients referred to Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry, were investigated in the present study. Materials and methods This study was a quasi-experimental research. Twenty-two MPDS patients were selected from those referred to Department of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry. Clinical examination was performed at six stages in the following order: prior to the treatment, at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, and monthly thereafter for a 3-months follow-up. All patients underwent low-level laser therapy for 4 weeks (12 sessions). Variables such as pain severity, pain of cheek region, pain frequency, tenderness of masticatory muscles, click, and mouth opening were evaluated at each stage. Numerical variables were investigated using Analysis of Variance test for repeated measures whereas ranking variables were studied by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Results At the end of treatment period, pain severity, pain of cheek region, pain frequency, tenderness of masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles showed significant improvement as compared with the commencement of any treatment which continued during the 3-months post-treatment (ppain and decrease the tenderness of masticatory muscles among MPDS patients through a continuous and regular therapeutic program. PMID

  7. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  8. Global Climatology of the Coastal Low-Level Wind Jets using different Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniela C. A.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Semedo, Alvaro; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2016-04-01

    System Reanalysis (NCEP CFSR). The CLLJ detection method proposed by Ranjha et al. (2013) was used for the reanalysis data. The criteria was applied sequentially to wind-speed and temperature vertical profiles to detect the location and frequency of CLLJ. The CLLJs spatio-temporal features and the seasonal synoptic configuration associated with the presence of coastal jets are studied for the period (1979-2008) using the ensemble. The present study will allow us to investigate thoroughly the global coastal low-level jets occurrence and main properties, following a new perspective and to assess the uncertainties in the representation of this jets by the available reanalysis. ublication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  9. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  10. Is there a stimulation of blood microcirculation at low level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatkin, Dmitry; Dunaev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    In 1980-2000 besides the laser surgery an intensive evolution of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) had started in medicine, especially in Russia as well as in several other East-European countries. At the same time the biophysical mechanisms of LLLT are still the subject of disputes. One of the most popular clinical effects at Low Level Laser Irradiation (LLLI) being mentioned in medical publications for justification of the LLLT healing outcome is a stimulation of blood microcirculation in irradiated area. It was declared a priori at a dawn of LLLT and is now a basis of medical interpretation of healing mechanisms of LLLT at least in Russia. But in past 20 years a lot of investigation was carried out on optical registration of microhaemodynamic parameters in vivo as well as a number of noninvasive diagnostic tools was created for that. So, today it is possible to experimentally check the blood microcirculation stimulation hypothesis. Our study was aimed on that during the past 10 years. The most precision and accurate experiments we have carried out recently using simultaneously three different noninvasive diagnostic techniques: Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Tissue Reflectance Oximetry and Infrared Thermography. All these methods didn't confirm the effect on the blood microcirculation stimulation in skin or mucosa at irradiation with the power density below 50 mW/cm2 and irradiation time up to 5-6 minutes. Above this threshold the heating on 0,8…1 °C of tissue in the field of irradiation and the corresponding synchronous increase of all parameters of microhemodynamics were observed.

  11. No enhancement in bioconcentration of organic contaminants by low levels of DOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Akkanen, J.; Steinberg, C.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to systematically study the effect of low concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioconcentration of organic contaminants, in order to show whether the phenomenon of enhanced bioconcentration factors (BCFs), that has been reported in the literature, is generally found at low levels of DOM or if BCF enhancements are more likely due to a random scatter in the experimental data. The first part of the study tested the hypothesis that low levels of DOM affect the uptake kinetics of organic contaminants, leading to transient enhancements of BCFs, relative to DOM-free controls, which could have been reported as BCF enhancements in short-term studies. We found that the presence of low concentrations of two different types of DOM consistently decreased the bioconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the water flea Daphnia magna at all exposure times (1-24 h), and that no transient BCF enhancements occurred. The second part of the study systematically investigated if low concentrations of DOM from a wide range of different aquatic systems can cause enhancements in the bioconcentration of organic contaminants. Water fleas were exposed to combinations of four different organic contaminants (BaP, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorophenol and naphthalene) with low concentrations of 12 different types of DOM that had been collected from various regions throughout Europe. In several of the DOM treatments, we found mean BCFs being higher than mean BCFs in the controls (especially for naphthalene). This shows that the experimental setup used in this study (and similarly in previous studies) can produce seeming BCF enhancements at low concentrations of DOM. However, statistical analyses showed that treatment means were not significantly different from control means. Thus, this systematic study suggests that the BCF enhancements that have been reported in the literature are more likely the result of random, experimental variations than the

  12. Dysregulation of immune responses in an allergic mouse model following low-level toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Kunugita, Naoki; Arashidani, Keiichi

    2011-08-15

    To investigate the effect of low-level toluene inhalation on immune regulation in an allergic mouse model, C3H/HeN mice were exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 500ppm of toluene for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 3 or 6 weeks. For allergic mouse model, half of the mice in each group were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA). Allergic mice exposed to toluene for 3 weeks did not exhibit any changes in their plasma, lung or spleen samples. Although exposure to toluene alone for 6 weeks did not increase the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, coexposure to 50ppm toluene and OVA increased the number of BAL cells. Histological changes and increased amounts of fibronectin were observed in the lungs of OVA-immunized, 50-ppm-toluene-exposed mice. Exposure to 500ppm significantly increased the expressions of transcription factors STAT3, STAT4 and STAT5a mRNAs in spleen. In spleens from the allergic mouse model, the expressions of STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT6, GATA3 and Foxp3 mRNAs were significantly enhanced following exposure to 50ppm toluene for 6 weeks, but the expression of T-bet mRNA was not increased. Regarding the Th1/Th2 balance, the expressions of IL-4 and IL-12 mRNAs were enhanced in the spleens of toluene-exposed mice. Total IgG1 antibody production in the plasma was significantly increased in the 50-ppm-toluene-exposed allergic mouse model. These results indicate that low-level toluene exposure might dysregulate the allergic responses to OVA in C3H/HeN mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-level jet characteristics over the Arctic Ocean in spring and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jakobson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level jets (LLJ are important for turbulence in the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer, but their occurrence, properties, and generation mechanisms in the Arctic are not well known. We analysed LLJs over the central Arctic Ocean in spring and summer 2007 on the bases of data collected in the drifting ice station Tara. Instead of traditional radiosonde soundings, data from tethersonde soundings with a high vertical resolution were used. The Tara results showed a lower occurrence of LLJs (46% than many previous studies over polar sea ice. Strong jet core winds contributed to growth of the turbulent layer. Complex relationship between the jet core height and the temperature inversion top height were detected: substantial correlation (r = 0.72; p < 0.01 occurred when the jet core was above the turbulent layer, but inside the turbulent layer there was no correlation. The most important forcing mechanism for LLJs was baroclinicity, which was responsible for generation of strong and warm LLJs, which on average occurred at lower altitudes than other jets. Baroclinic jets were mostly associated to transient cyclones instead of the climatological air temperature gradients. Besides baroclinicity, cases related to inertial oscillations, gusts, and fronts were detected. In approximately 50% of the observed LLJs the generation mechanism remained unclear, but in most of these cases the wind speed was strong in the whole vertical profile, the jet core representing only a weak maximum. Further research needs on LLJs in the Arctic include investigation of low-level jet streams and their effects on the sea ice drift and atmospheric moisture transport.

  14. Technical Note: Development of an automated lysimeter for the calculation of peat soil actual evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx-McInnis, S.; St-Hilaire, A.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Carrer, G.; Levrel, G.

    2011-05-01

    A limited number of publications in the literature deal with the measurement of actual evapotranspiration (AET) from a peat soil. AET is an important parameter in the description of water pathways of an ecosystem. In peatlands, where the water table is near the surface and the vegetation is composed of nonvascular plants without stomatal resistance, the AET measurement represents a challenge. This paper discusses the development of an automated lysimeter installed between 12 and 27 July 2010, at a 11-ha bog site, Pont-Rouge (42 km west of Quebec City, Canada). This system was made of an isolated block of peat, maintained at the same water level as the surrounding water table by a system of submersible pressure transmitters and pumps. The change in water level in millimetres in the isolated block of peat was used to calculate the water lost through evapotranspiration (ET) while accounting the precipitation. The rates of AET were calculated for each day of the study period. Temperature fluctuated between 17.2 and 23.3 °C and total rainfall was 43.76 mm. AET rates from 0.6 to 6.9 mm day-1 were recorded, with a ΣAET/ΣP ratio of 1.38. The estimated potential ET (PET) resulting from Thornthwaite's semi-empirical formula suggested values between 2.8 and 3.9 mm day-1. The average AET/PET ratio was 1.13. According to the literature, the results obtained are plausible. This system, relatively inexpensive and simple to install, may eventually be used to calculate AET on peaty soils in the years to come.

  15. 77 FR 40817 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Regulatory... associated with specifying a regulatory time of compliance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal... disposal of radioactive waste. DATES: The public meeting will be held on July 19, 2012, in Rockville...

  16. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  17. Origin of the low-level EMG during the silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Jane E; Petersen, Nicolas C; Herbert, Robert D;

    2012-01-01

    the motor cortex. The rate of flexion during shortening contractions reduced muscle lengthening caused by muscle relaxation. Surface EMG was recorded from biceps brachii and brachioradialis, and the low-level EMG during silent periods produced by TMS was measured. RESULTS: Low-level EMG activity was reduced...

  18. The effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia (mouth dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlić Verica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xerostomia is a subjective complaint of mouth/oral dryness, caused by a reduction in normal salivary secretion due to different causes. Even though there are many available treatment modalities to enhance salivary flow, the therapy often remains unsatisfactory. The low-level laser therapy (low-level laser irradiation, photo-biomodulation has been extensively used as a new, non-invasive approach and advantageous tool for reduction of xerostomia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to give a systematic overview on the effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia. Material and Methods. A systematic review of published articles in PubMed database was carried out using keywords: ”low-level laser therapy”, ”xerostomia”, ”mouth dryness”. Results. In all published articles, which were considered adequate for this overview, positive effects of low-level laser therapy were reported. Low-level laser therapy could significantly enhance salivary secretion and improve antimicrobial characteristics of secreted saliva (increased level of secretory immunoglobulin A; sIgA. Furthermore, low-level laser therapy could improve salivary flow and regeneration of salivary duct epithelial cells. Conclusion. The current literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be safely and effectively used as an advanced treatment modality for reduction of xerostomia. Further in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies using different irradiation parameters are suggested to determine the best laser parameters to be used.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy Toothbrush in Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghini, Jaber; Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mohamadi, Mehrnush; Ashtiju, Fahime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most common complications that affect patients after periodontal therapy. Recently low level laser therapy has been introduced as a new treatment modality and has produced beneficial results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrushes in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

  20. [The modulation of low-level laser on polarization of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chen; Song, Jiwei; Liang, Zhuowen; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Zhe; Hu, Xueyu

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of 810 nm low-level laser of different energy on the polarization of macrophages. Methods The macrophages were isolated from the bone borrow of BALB/c mice and cultured in macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) conditioned cultural medium. The expression of F4/80 was examined by flow cytometry for identification. After lipopolysaccharide-γ interferon (LPS-IFN-γ) induced polarization status in the macrophages, the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase 1 (Arg1) and CD86 were detected by reverse transcription PCR, and the protein expressions of iNOS and Arg1 were tested by Western blotting. Thereafter, the M1 macrophages were exposed to 810 nm low-level laser of (1, 2, 3, 4) J/cm(2), and then the cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay; the expressions of iNOS and Arg1 were observed by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining; the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and Arg1 were studied by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Results Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of F4/80 positive cells cultured with M-CSF conditioned medium was 99.9%. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and CD86 in macrophages were both significantly raised after induction by LPS-IFN-γ. Compared with the control cells, the viability of M1 cells significantly decreased when the energy of the low-level laser exposure was 4 J/cm(2), while the viability remained unchanged when the energy was 1, 2 or 3 J/cm(2). Immunocytochemistry revealed that the percentage of Arg1 positive cells that represent M2 macrophages was not significantly different from the control group when the irradiation dose was 1 or 2 J/cm(2), however, the Arg1 positive cells significantly increased and the iNOS positive cells that represent M1 macrophages significantly decreased when the irradiation dose was 3 or 4 J/cm(2). When the irradiation dose was 1 or 2 J/cm(2), the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and Arg1 remained unchanged

  1. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  2. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.

    1995-04-24

    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site.

  3. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies - Effects of macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were planted...... into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were determined under...

  4. Vertical migration of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra in agricultural soils as observed in lysimeters under crop rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, T. [Division of Environmental and Life Science, ARC Seibersdorf Research, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: t.shinonaga@iaea.org; Schimmack, W. [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerzabek, M.H. [Division of Environmental and Life Science, ARC Seibersdorf Research, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department for Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    In most studies quantifying the migration parameters - apparent migration velocity and apparent dispersion coefficient - of radionuclides in the soil by model calculations, these parameters are determined for undisturbed soils. For soils disturbed by ploughing, however, no such data are available in the literature. Therefore, in the present study, the migration parameters of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra were estimated for ploughed soils by means of a convection-dispersion model. The depth distributions of the radionuclides were determined in four lysimeters (area: 1 m{sup 2}, depth of soil monolith: 0.75 m) filled with artificially contaminated soils of different types in July 1990. The lysimeters were cropped with agricultural plants. The soil in each lysimeter was ploughed manually once a year until 1996 (plough depth 20 cm). In July 1999, soil samples were collected from three pits in each lysimeter. The depth distributions of all radionuclides proved to be very similar in each soil pit. The spatial variability of the depth distributions of a given radionuclide within the lysimeters was about the same as their variability between the four lysimeters. Evaluation of the migration parameters revealed that the convective transport of the radionuclides was always rather small or even zero, while the dispersive transport caused a 'melting' process of the initially sharp activity edge at the lower border of the Ap horizon. These results are explained by the high evapotranspiration (80-90% of the total precipitation plus irrigation) and the small amounts of seepage water during the observation period of 9 years.

  5. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents.METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23, adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11 and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81.CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength.

  6. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Pulpotomy Treatment of Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vahid Golpayegani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been increasingly in use over the last few decades in both medicine and dentistry. It has been suggested that LLLT may be helpful in pulpal wound healing following pulp exposure. The purpose of this study was to comparethe effectiveness of LLLT and formocresol (FC application in healing of remaining pulp following pulp amputation in primary molars.Materials and Methods: A total of 23 contralateral pairs of teeth from 11 children aged 4 to 7 years were selected and matched using clinical and radiographic criteria. One toothfrom each pair was randomly assigned to the LLLT pulpotomy and the to FC pulpotomy group. During a 6-month follow-up period, the teeth were examined clinically and radiographically.Eight patients (four in each group completed six-month and 6 patients (threein each group completed one-year follow-up.Results: Clinically, no complication was observed in the teeth. However, radiographic assessment revealed signs of periradicular radiolucency in two teeth in LLLT group.Conclusion: Findings of this investigation show that LLLT can be used successfully as a complementary step to pulpotomy procedure in order to help the healing of amputated pulp. Longer follow-up periods are recommended to investigate long-term effect of LLLTpulpotomy on pulp.

  7. In vivo and in vitro analysis of low level light therapy: a useful therapeutic approach for sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Kim, J E; Cho, K H; Lee, J H

    2013-11-01

    Sensitive skin is a relatively common dermatologic condition and no optimal treatments have been established so far. Low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) has been used for its biostimulative effect in various clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-level laser/light therapy can improve sensitive skin clinically and to evaluate the effects of LLLT on skin in vitro. Twenty-eight patients complaining of sensitive skin were treated with low-level polarized light, and clinical results were evaluated using subjective and objective method. To investigate possible working mechanism of LLLT on skin, cultured human keratinocytes pretreated with nontoxic concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used. Cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes after LLLT were analyzed. All patients showed subjective and objective improvement after treatment. No adverse effects were reported. The average number of LLLT sessions required to achieve clinical improvement was 9.9, and cumulative dose of LLLT was 71.3 J/cm(2) on the average. Erythema index decreased significantly after LLLT treatment (p = 0.017). In vitro assay showed that LLLT significantly reduced the release of VEGF from SLS-pretreated keratinocytes (p = 0.021). Our results suggest that LLLT could be a useful and safe treatment modality for sensitive skin, and modification of inflammatory cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes may be considered as one of plausible mechanisms in sensitive skin treated with LLLT.

  8. The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Sui-Yi; Chen, Bo-Yan; Huo, Ming-Xin; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-12-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results indicated that SD had higher ability to inactivate E. coli than the others, indicating there was a positive synergistic effect on chlorine disinfection by prior dosing with a low level of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The ONPG assay suggested that the permeability of cell wall rather than the viability of E. coli were changed under 0.02 mg/l ClO(2) treatment. The coexistence of residual ClO(2) and free chlorine also plays an active synergistic effect. Additionally, temperature had a positive effect on E. coli inactivation in SD, while inactivation was reduced in alkaline compared to neutral and acidic conditions.

  9. Impact of low level praseodymium substitution on the magnetic properties of YCrO{sub 3} orthochromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Surendra [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandarsindri 305817, Rajasthan (India); Coondoo, Indrani [Department of Physics & CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 39810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rao, Ashok [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka (India); Lu, Bo-Han [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yung-Kang, E-mail: ykkuo@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics & CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 39810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Panwar, Neeraj, E-mail: neeraj.panwar@curaj.ac.in [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandarsindri 305817, Rajasthan (India)

    2017-04-01

    Praseodymium (Pr) modified yttrium orthochromites (YCrO{sub 3} with Pr =0% and 5% at Y-sites) have been investigated with the aim of exploring the impact of low level Pr substitution on the magnetic properties including magnetization reversal, spin reorientation, and exchange bias of YCrO{sub 3} compound. The samples exhibit a distorted orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. A negative magnetization (or magnetization reversal) was observed under zero-field cooled (ZFC) mode for the pristine YCrO{sub 3} sample, whereas such a feature disappeared with a 5% Pr substitution. In addition, the Pr-doped samples exhibited a spin reorientation behaviour which was absent in the pristine sample. Most interestingly, the ZFC magnetic hysteresis loops revealed a left and upward shift, resembling a negative exchange bias effect. These results indicate the effectiveness of low level doping in tailoring the magnetic properties of orthochromites.

  10. Low-level counting techniques in the underground laboratory `Felsenkeller` in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, S. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Low radioactivity measurements are characterized by low detection limits. They are mainly determined by the background. The contribution of cosmic rays may be reduced drastically by installation of measurement devices in an underground laboratory. In 1982 we installed a chamber with a shield of ultramafic rock for low-level measurements within a cave of an old brewery named `Felsenkeller`. In this laboratory we used low-level {gamma}-spectrometry for the measurement of neutron activated samples of semiconductor silicon (Niese (1986)), of cosmic induced radioactivity in meteorites, chemically separated long-lived nuclides in low-level wastes, contaminated materials and of environmental samples. (orig./DG)

  11. Low-Level Color and Texture Feature Extraction of Coral Reef Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Sheila Angeli Marcos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-based classifier that automates coral reef assessmentfrom digitized underwater video. We extract low-level color and texture features from coral images toserve as input to a high-level classifier. Low-level features for color were labeled blue, green, yellow/brown/orange, and gray/white, which are described by the normalized chromaticity histograms of thesemajor colors. The color matching capability of these features was determined through a technique called“Histogram Backprojection”. The low-level texture feature marks a region as coarse or fine dependingon the gray-level variance of the region.

  12. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  14. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  15. Towards a bias-free filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ande; Durner, Wolfgang; Schrader, Frederik; Groh, Jannis; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Weighing lysimeters are known to be the best means for a precise and unbiased measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. The measured data need to be filtered to separate evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation (P) from noise. Such filter routines apply typically two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which is used to smooth noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter to separate significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have revealed and solved many problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution we show and analyze this systematic effect and propose a heuristic solution by introducing a so-called snap routine. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real data from a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. We show that the absolute systematic effect is independent of the magnitude of a certain flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is highest and can be in the same order of magnitude as the flux itself. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  16. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  17. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  18. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  19. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

  20. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  1. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  2. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  3. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  4. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  5. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  6. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  7. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  8. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  9. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  10. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  11. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  12. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  13. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  14. Disposal of Low-Level Waste (LLW) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none

    2014-05-14

    DOE Office of Environmental Management presentation at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Transportation Stakeholders Forum on the disposal of low-level waste at the Nevada National Security Site.

  15. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  16. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally complementar

  17. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  18. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  19. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  20. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  1. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  2. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut.

  3. LOW LEVEL OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT OF COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TWO LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES MSIL(MICROSOFT INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGEOR CIL AND JAVA BYTE CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Juyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the software were developed using high level languages such as Java, C#.NET,VB.NET etc. The main advantages of these languages are object oriented features .Which helps to developer to develop software with graphical user interface, portable, ease of use ,efficient and secure .Low level language like assembly language,machine languages are not user friendly ,hard to program but faster in execution than high level languages..In this paper we have done comparative study between two low level language MSIL(Micro Soft Intermediate languageor CIL and Java Byte Code. Both of these languages have object oriented features. This paper also includes brief introduction about programming languages, and translators.

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  5. Low-level arsenic in drinking water and risk of incident myocardial infarction: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Maria; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Mette; Baastrup, Rikke; Hansen, Birgitte; Gammelmark, Anders; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that intake of drinking water with high levels of arsenic (>100μg/L) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but studies on lower levels of arsenic show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to low level arsenic in drinking water and risk of myocardial infarction in Denmark. From the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2707 cases of incident myocardial infarction from enrolment to end of follow-up in February 2012. Cohort participants were enrolled in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. We geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas. Arsenic in tap water at each cohort members address from 1973 to 2012 was estimated for all cohort members. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for myocardial infarction after adjustment for lifestyle factors and educational level. Arsenic levels in drinking water at baseline addresses ranged from 0.03 to 25.34μg/L, with the highest concentrations in the Aarhus area. We found no overall association between 20-years average concentration of arsenic and risk of myocardial infarction. However, in the Aarhus area, fourth arsenic quartile (2.21-25.34μg/L) was associated with an IRR of 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.83) when compared with first quartile (0.05-1.83μg/L). An IRR of 1.26 (95% CI: 0.89-1.79) was found for ever (versus never) having lived at an address with 10μg/L or more arsenic in the drinking water. This study provides some support for an association between low levels of arsenic in drinking water and the risk of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on pressured human osteoblasts: A histomorphologic and quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, S. J.; Song, W. W.; Kim, I. R.; Park, B. S.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chung, I. K.; Kim, Y. D.

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has investigated the effects of LLLT during titanium implantation, tooth movement and bone graft using deproteinized bovine bone and recognized that these circumstances were nothing more than intentional controlled overpressure against static cells since this controlled trauma could affect cell function/malfunction, or cell recovery/apoptosis. The present preliminary study was conducted to prove if LLL would influence cell viability and cell function after excessive damage, which is enough to diminish cell numbers and distort the features of cells. Our aim is to evaluate whether low level laser irradiation (LLLi) could be helpful in the recovery of traumatized osteoblasts (pressure damaged cells) by observing the morphology and the survival rate of those cells. This model used bone cell cultures which were traumatized by a pressure with 250 G of centripetal force and observed their response to such trauma and low level laser irradiation. In this experiment, a Ga-Al-As diode LLL (IMPRA-ORT, NDLux, Seoul, KOREA) was used with a wavelength of 808 nm, a focus of 14 × 24 mm, which was wide enough to cover the whole dish surface or well within at least 2 times radiation, and an output of 100 mW. Statistical analysis showed a higher recovery rate of damaged osteoblasts in the radiation group than the non-radiation group ( p cell process branched variously around each cell. In contrast, compressed cells, these patterns were turned into thicker and shorter cytoskeletons. As time progressed, every living cell recovered from the severe stress and recovered both form and function. In summary, the present study showed the capacity of LLLT to aid the recovery of the cell skeleton and affect cell viability on overpressured osteoblasts. These results may contribute toward a better understanding of the effect of LLLT on the recovery of cells after trauma. In addition, our results demonstrated that LLLT could be used in the field of bone tissue engineering to

  7. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  8. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  9. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  12. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Machado de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. RESULTS Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (p<0.01. Regarding the Ankle-Brachial Index and Doppler Ultrasound, all groups remained stable. By analyzing lesion area reduction, Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential fatty acids group showed a significance of p=0.0032, and the Low-level laser therapy group showed p=0.0428. CONCLUSION Low-level laser therapy, performed alone or associated with the Calendula officinalis oil was effective in relieving pain and accelerating the tissue repair process of diabetic foot.

  13. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  14. Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy and Eccentric Exercises in the Treatment of Patellar Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate if low-level laser therapy (LLLT combined with eccentric exercises could more effectively treat patellar tendinopathy than LLLT alone and eccentric exercises alone. Twenty-one patients with patellar tendinopathy were randomized to three groups: laser alone, exercise alone, or laser plus exercise, with seven in each group. Laser irradiations were administered at the inferior pole of the patella and the two acupoints of Extra 36 (Xiyan with the intensity of 1592 mW/cm2. Eccentric training program consisted of three sets of 15 repetitions of unilateral squat on level ground. All patients received six treatments per week for four weeks. Knee pain and function and quadriceps muscle strength and endurance were evaluated at baseline and the end of treatment. After the 4-week intervention, all groups showed significant improvements in all the outcomes (P<0.01. The laser + exercise group had significantly greater improvements in all the outcomes than the other two groups (P<0.05, except nonsignificant difference in pain relief between the laser + exercise group and the laser group. In conclusion, LLLT combined with eccentric exercises is superior to LLLT alone and eccentric exercises alone to reduce pain and improve function in patients with patellar tendinopathy.

  15. The role of the US Great Plains low-level jet in nocturnal migrant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Horton, Kyle G.

    2016-10-01

    The movements of aerial animals are under the constant influence of atmospheric flows spanning a range of spatiotemporal scales. The Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet is a large-scale atmospheric phenomenon that provides frequent strong southerly winds through a shallow layer of the airspace. The jet can provide substantial tailwind assistance to spring migrants moving northward, while hindering southward migration during autumn. This atmospheric feature has been suspected to play a prominent role in defining migratory routes, but the flight strategies used with respect to these winds are yet to be examined. Using collocated vertically pointing radar and lidar, we investigate the altitudinal selection behavior of migrants over Oklahoma during two spring and two autumn migration seasons. In general, migrants choose to fly within the jet in spring, often concentrating in the favorable wind speed maximum. Autumn migrants typically fly below the jet, although some will rapidly climb to reach altitudes above the inhibiting winds. The intensity of migration was relatively constant throughout the spring due to the predominantly favorable southerly jet winds. Conversely, autumn migrants were more apt to delay departure to wait for the relatively infrequent northerly winds.

  16. AlN-based piezoelectric bimorph microgenerator utilizing low-level non-resonant excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Stefan; Cimalla, Volker; Polster, Tobias; Hoffmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    This work aims for utilizing human ocular motion for the self-sufficient power supply of a minimally invasive implantable monitoring system for intraocular pressure (IOP). With a proven piezoelectric functionality (d33>5 pm/V), nanocrystalline thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) provide a good capability for micromechanical energy harvesting (EH) in medical applications. Many d31-mode microcantilever architectures are poorly suited for human-induced EH: Resonant mass-spring-damper systems are tested under high, narrow-band excitation frequencies. However, human motions, e.g. vibrations of eyeballs are marked by their low frequency, unpredictable, mainly aperiodic and time-varying signature. Different vibration types and directions are 3-dimensionally superimposed. Saccadic eye movements are favorable for inertial microgenerators because of their high dynamic loading (ω<=1000°/s). Our generator concept (symmetric active/active-parallel-bimorph cantilever) enables a high structural compliance by maximizing the piezoactive volume at very low cantilever thicknesses (<1 μm). An increased length and seismic mass enable an effective excitation by low-level aperiodic vibrations such as saccadic acceleration impulses. Analytic calculations and FEA-simulations investigate the potential distribution and transient response of different bimorph structures (length 200- 1000 μm, width 20-200 μm) on broadband vibrations. First released monomorph and bimorph structures show very low resonant frequencies and an adequate robustness.

  17. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  18. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-25

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether {open_quotes}reasonable assurance{close_quotes} exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Weichao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhuying

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm2 and 12 J/cm2, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  20. Low-level laser therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-05-19

    Noninvasive low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense noise and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after noise exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.

  1. Identification of low level gamma-irradiation of meats by high sensitivity comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Saito, Akiko; Ito, Hitoshi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2002-03-01

    The detection of low levels of irradiation in meats (pork, beef, and chicken) using the new comet assay was investigated in order to assess the capability of the procedure. The new assay includes a process that improves its sensitivity to irradiation and a novel evaluation system for each slide (influence score and comet-type distribution). Samples used were purchased at retailers and were irradiated at 0.5 and 2kGy at 0°C. The samples were processed to obtain comets. Slides were evaluated by typing comets, calculating the influence score and analyzing the comet-type distribution chart of shown on the slide. Influence scores of beef, pork, and chicken at 0kGy were 287(SD=8.0), 305 (SD=12.9), and 320 (SD=21.0), respectively. Those at 500Gy, were 305 (SD=5.3), 347 (SD=10.6), and 364 (12.6), respectively. Irradiation levels in food were successfully determined. Sensitivity to irradiation differed among samples (chicken>pork>beef).

  2. Catalytic decomposition of low level ozone with gold nanoparticles supported on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengyi ZHANG; Bo ZHANG; Rui SHI

    2009-01-01

    Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles were supported on coal-based activated carbon (AC) by a sol immobilization method and were used to investigate their catalytic activity for low-level ozone decomposition at ambient temperature. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption,scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the catalysts before and after ozone decomposition. The results showed that the supported gold nanoparticles prepared with microwave heating were much smaller and more uniformly dispersed on the activated carbon than those prepared with traditional conduction heating, exhibiting higher catalytic activity for ozone decomposition. The pH values of gold precursor solution significantly influenced the catalytic activity of supported gold for ozone decomposition, and the best pH value was 8. In the case of space velocity of 120000 h-1, inlet ozone concentration of 50mg/m3, and relative humidity of 45%, the Au/AC catalyst maintained the ozone removal ratio at 90.7% after 2500 min. After being used for ozone decomposition, the surface carbon of the catalyst was partly oxidized and the oxygen content increased accordingly, while its specific surface area and pore volume only decreased a little.Ozone was mainly catalytically decomposed by the gold nanoparticles supported on the activated carbon.

  3. Low-level finite state control of knee joint in paraplegic standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, A J; Veltink, P H; Boom, H B; Zilvold, G

    1992-01-01

    Low-level finite state (locked-unlocked) control is compared with open-loop stimulation of the knee extensor muscles in functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced paraplegic standing. The parameters were: duration of standing, relative torque loss in knee extensor muscles, knee angle stability, average stimulus output and average arm effort during standing. To investigate the impact of external mechanical conditions on controller performance, experiments were performed both under the condition of a freely moving ankle joint and of a mechanically stabilized ankle joint. Finite state control resulted in a 2.5 to 12 times increase of standing duration or in a 1.5 to 5 times decrease of relative torque loss in comparison with open-loop stimulation. Finite state control induced a limit cycle oscillation in the knee joint. Average maximum knee flexion was 6.2 degrees without ankle bracing, and half that value with ankle bracing. Average arm support was 13.9 and 7.5% of the body weight without and with ankle bracing respectively.

  4. Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas D; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana S; Pagnoncelli, Rogério M

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy (RDT) is commonly used for cancer treatment, but high doses of ionizing radiation can directly affect healthy tissues. Positive biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair have been demonstrated; however, this effect on surgical defects of bone previously compromised by radiotherapy has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of LLLT (λ = 830 nm) in femur repair after ionizing radiation. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (GC, n = 5) creation of bone defects (BDs) only; laser group (GL), with BD and LLLT (n = 5); radiotherapy group (GR), submitted to RDT and BD (n = 5); and radiotherapy and laser group (GRL), submitted to RDT, BD, and LLLT (n = 5). GL and GRL received punctual laser application (DE = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.04 cm(2)) immediately after surgery, with 48-h interval during 7 days. Animals were euthanized at 7 days after surgery, and bone sections were evaluated morphometrically with conventional microscopy. Bone repair was only observed in nonirradiated bone, with significant improvement in GL in comparison to GC. GR and GRL did not present any bone neoformation. The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation.

  5. Effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on ouabain induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Bae, Sung Huyn; Chang, So-Young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Aim: to investigate effectiveness of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) in rescueing ouabain induced spiral ganglion cell damage using Mongolian gerbils. Methods: Animals were divided into 3 groups; Control, Ouabain, Ouabain + LLLT group. Auditory neuropathy was induced by topical application of ouabain (1 mmol/L, 3uL) on the round window membrane in gerbils. Transmeatal LLLT was irradiated into the right ear for 1h (200mW, 720 J) daily for 7d in Ouabain + LLLT group. Before and 7 days after ouabain application, hearing was evaluated using both ABR and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Seven days after ouabain application, animals were sacrificed to evaluate the morphological changes of cochlea using cochlear section image and whole mount Immunofluorescent staining. Results: DPOAE tests were normal in all animals after ouabain topical treatment indicating intact outer hair cells. Ouabain group showed ABR threshold increase compared with control group. Ouabain+LLLT group showed significant improvement of ABR threshold compared to ouabain only group. H and E stains of mid-modiolar section of cochlear showed spiral ganglion cells, neurofilaments, and post synaptic receptor counts were decreased while inner and outer hair cells were preserved in ouabain group. Ouabain +LLLT group showed higher numbers of spiral ganglion cells, density of neurofilaments and post synaptic receptor counts compared to ouabain group. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that LLLT was effective to rescue ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neuropathy.

  6. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  7. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  8. The effects of low level laser therapy on injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Muniz Renno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT used in two different fluencies on injured skeletal muscle after cryolesion by means of histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry for COX-2. A total of sixty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups: injured animals without any treatment; 808 nm laser treated group, at 10 J/cm² and 808 nm laser treated group, at 50 J/cm². Each group was divided into two different subgroups (n=10 on days 6 and 13 post-injury. The results showed that the animals irradiated with laser at 10 J/cm² or 50 J/cm² presented the areas with cell infiltrate and pointed out to minor and mild areas with destroyed zones compared with the control group. Also, a COX-2 downregulation was noticed in the groups exposed to laser at two fluences evaluated in this study. Significant statistically differences (p<0.05 were noticed to collagen deposition in the laser treated animals, with the fluence of 50 J/cm² when compared to the other groups on day 13 post-surgery. Taken together, these results suggested that laser therapy could have positive effects on muscle repair in the rats after cryolesion.

  9. High- and low-level pressure support during walking in people with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menadue, C; Alison, J A; Piper, A J; Wong, K K; Hollier, C; Ellis, E R

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the level of pressure support (PS) provided during exercise influences endurance time in people with severe kyphoscoliosis, a double-blind randomised crossover study was performed. We hypothesised that high-level PS would be required to enhance endurance time in this population with high impedance to inflation. 13 participants with severe kyphoscoliosis performed four endurance treadmill tests in random order: unassisted; with sham PS; low-level PS of 10 cmH(2)O (PS 10); and high-level PS of 20 cmH(2)O (PS 20). Participants and assessors were blinded to the level of PS delivered during exercise. Endurance time was greater with PS 20 (median (interquartile range) 217 (168-424) s) compared with unassisted exercise (139 (111-189) s), sham PS (103 (88-155) s) and PS 10 (159 (131-206) s). In addition, isotime respiratory rate was decreased by 8 breaths x min(-1) (95% CI -11- -5 breaths x min(-1)) and isotime oxygen saturation increased by 4% (95% CI 1-7%) with PS 20 compared with unassisted exercise. People with severe kyphoscoliosis require high-level PS during walking to improve exercise performance. Investigation of high-level PS as an adjunct to exercise training or to assist in the performance of daily activities is warranted.

  10. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Ase M; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-12-01

    The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5 seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force, performance, and ratings of perceived physical exertion (RPE), and perceived mental exertion. The urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol concentrations were higher during the repetitive task than on a reference day, but only the norepinephrine concentrations increased progressively during the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during the repetitive task. The variation in exerted force was higher during the repetitive task than during a force reference task without mental demands. The urinary biomarkers were increased during the repetitive task. However, only norepinephrine increased progressively during the 4 hours. Forearm muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force.

  11. Self-organizing phenomena at membrane level and low-level laser therapy of rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailioaie, Laura; Ailioaie, C.; Topoliceanu, Fl.

    2000-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease affecting many people worldwide. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied as monotherapy to 32 children, under placebo controlled conditions. There have been used two GaAlAs diode lasers. The density of energy and the frequency 2 sessions daily - were applied under a special experimental protocol of treatment, including endonasal regions treated with an optical fiber and the extrameridian acupuncture points for rhinitis, 10 days monthly, three months consecutively. The initial investigations with fiberoptic rhinoscope revealed a swollen, pale and edematous mucosa, with increased nasal sections, which may be watery to mucoid. At the end of LLLT, the symptoms of rhinitis like sneezing, nasal congestion, stuffy nose, mouth breathing, snoring - have disappeared and the aspect of nasal mucosa was normal. The results could be explained in the new scenario of self-organizing phenomena at membrane level. The physiological beneficial effects may be correlated and possibly explained by self-organizing paradigms. Our result warrant that LLL is a very good therapy modality for children suffering from allergic rhinitis.

  12. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  13. Radiological safety studies on ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Environmental simulation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Washio, Masakazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment)

    1982-03-01

    As the method of disposing low level radioactive wastes on land, the underground disposal method disposing the wastes in the structures constructed underground near the ground surface has been investigated as a feasible method. In order to contribute to the environmental safety assessment for this underground disposal method, environmental simulation test is planned at present, in which earth is sampled in the undisturbed state, and the behavior of radioactive nuclides is examined. The testing facilities are to be constructed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from fiscal 1981. First, the research made so far concerning the movement of radioactive nuclides in airing layer and aquifer which compose natural barrier is outlined. As for the environmental simulation test, the necessity and method of the test, earth sampling, the underground simulation facility and the contribution to environmental safety assessment are explained. By examining the movement of radioactive nuclides through natural barrier and making the effective mddel for the underground movement of radioactive nuclides, the environmental safety assessment for the disposal can be performed to obtain the national consensus.

  14. Fitness costs associated with low-level dimethoate resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, D D M; Fadini, M A M; Oliveira, H G; Oliveira, C M; Melo, J W S; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A

    2013-07-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of tetranychid mites, but there are no data on its response to pesticides. We investigated the resistance of the predatory mite P. macropilis to the acaricides abamectin and dimethoate, and we examined the fitness costs associated with resistance. Two populations were tested: one from conventional cultivation and another from an area not commercially exploited. After the application of acaricides to the predator, we determined the lethal effects of the acaricides, the instantaneous rate of population increase (r(i)), the predation on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its ability to locate prey in an olfactometer. P. macropilis exhibited resistance to dimethoate only. The low level of resistance (9.4x) of the predator did not affect their ability to locate prey. However, the dimethoate resistant population was not as effective in contatining prey population when in lower density and exhibited a more pronounced decrease of r(i) in the presence of this acaricide, due to the reduced oviposition of the predator, a likely consequence of the different genetic background of this population.

  15. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  16. 3D printing scaffold coupled with low level light therapy for neural tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; George, Jonathan; Sorger, Volker; Zhang, Lijie

    2017-03-28

    3D printing has shown promise for neural regeneration by providing customized nerve scaffolds to structurally support and bridge the defect gap as well as deliver cells or various bioactive substances. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) exhibits positive effects on rehabiliation of degenerative nerves and neural disorders. With this in mind, we postulate that 3D printed neural scaffold coupling with LLLT will generate a new strategy to repair neural degeneration. To achieve this goal, we applied red laser light to stimualte neural stem cells on 3D printed scaffolds and investigated the subsequent cell response with respect to cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we show that cell prolifeartion rate and intracellular reactive oxgen species synthesis were significantly increased after 15 s laser stimulation follwed by 1 day culture. Over culturing time of 14 day in vitro, the laser stimulation promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells, while the glial differentiation was suppressed based on results of both immunocytochemistry studies and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. These findings suggest that integration of 3D printing and LLLT might provide a powerful methodology for neural tissue engineering.

  17. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Peeler, D.K. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is being considered as a matrix encapsulant for the Hanford low-level (activity) waste glass. SPC is an elemental sulfur polymer-stabilized thermoplastic that is fluid at 120 {degrees}C to 140{degrees}C. The candidate process would encapsulate the waste glass by mixing the glass cullet with the SPC and casting it into the container. As the primary barrier to groundwater and a key factor in controlling the local environment of the disposal system after it has been compromised, SPC plays a key role in the waste form`s long-term performance assessment. Work in fiscal year 1995 targeted several technical areas of matrix encapsulation involving SPC. A literature review was performed to evaluate potential matrix-encapsulant materials. The dissolution and corrosion behavior of SPC under static conditions was determined as a function of temperature, pH, and sample surface area/solution volume. Preliminary dynamic flow-through testing was performed. SPC formulation and properties were investigated, including controlled crystallization, phase formation, modifying polymer effects on crystallization, and SPC processibility. The interface between SPC and simulated LLW glass was examined. Interfacial chemistry and stability, the effect of water on the glass/SPC interface, and the effect of molten sulfur on the glass surface chemistry were established. Preliminary scoping experiments, involving SPC`s Tc gettering capabilities were performed. Compressive strengths of SPC and SPC/glass composites, both before and after lifetime radiation dose exposure, were determined.

  18. Low levels of blood lipids are associated with etiology and lethal outcome in acute liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Manka

    Full Text Available Emerging data links different aspects of lipid metabolism to liver regeneration. In patients with acute liver failure (ALF, low levels of lipids may correlate with disease severity. Thus, we determined whether there is an etiology-specific link between lipid levels in patients suffering from ALF and aimed to investigate an effect of lipid levels on the prognosis of ALF.In this retrospective single center study, we reviewed 89 consecutive ALF patients, who met the criteria of the "Acute Liver Failure Study Group". Patient characteristics, clinical data and laboratory parameters were individually analyzed at admission and correlated with the patients' outcome after a four week follow up. Possible endpoints were either discharge, or death or liver transplantation.High-density lipoprotein (HDL, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients who died or required a liver transplant. HDL levels were significantly higher in patients with ALF caused by acetaminophen intoxication, compared to fulminant HBV infection or drug induced liver injury. HDL levels correlated with hepatic injury by ALT levels, and Albumin, and inversely correlated with the MELD score, INR, and bilirubin.In our cohort of patients with ALF, we could show that HDL and cholesterol are suppressed. In addition novel etiology specific patterns between acteminophen and non-acteminophen induced liver failure were detected for serum lipid components. Further studies are needed to address the role of cholesterol and lipid metabolism and the according pathways in different etiologies of ALF.

  19. Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the physiology of individually identifiable neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1983-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to lead has been correlated with a variety of behavioral and neurochemical deficits in humans and other mammals, little is known of the mechanisms of action of chronic lead at the level of the individual nerve cell. We have used the individually identifiable neurons of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system to investigate the effects of chronic low level (5 microM) lead exposure on neuronal physiology. Thirteen neuronal parameters were measured with intracellular microelectrode recording in each of six different identifiable neurons or homogeneous neuron clusters. Results were analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). MANOVA analysis indicates that there is a significant overall effect of lead exposure (p = 0.0001) and a significant interaction between lead and neuron type (p = 0.01). In most neuron types, chronic lead causes an increase in the resting potential, a slowing of recovery of the membrane potential after the undershoot of a spike, a decrease in spontaneous spiking activity, and a decrease in the input resistance. Lead also has differential effects on identifiable neurons, depressing excitability in some neuron types while not altering excitability in others.

  20. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin, E-mail: yingxinli2005@126.com; Liu, Weichao; Chen, Zhuying [Key Laboratory of Laser Medicine of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China); Wang, Chao [Biomedical Engineering and Technology College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm{sup 2} and 12 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  1. Modulation of human corticomuscular beta-range coherence with low-level static forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Matthias; Patino, Luis; Andrykiewicz, Agnieszka; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2007-12-01

    Although corticomuscular synchronization in the beta range (15-30 Hz) was shown to occur during weak steady-state contractions, an examination of low-level forces around 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) is still missing. We addressed this question by investigating coherence between electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) as well as cortical spectral power during a visuomotor task. Eight healthy right-handed subjects compensated isometrically static forces at a level of 4% and 16% of MVC with their right index finger. While 4% MVC was accompanied by low coherence values in the middle to high beta frequency range (25-30 Hz), a significant increase of coherence mainly confined to low beta frequencies (19-20 Hz) was observed with force of 16% MVC. Furthermore, this increase was associated with better performance, as reflected in decreased relative error in force during 16% MVC. We additionally show that periods of good motor performance within each condition were associated with higher values of EEG-EMG coherence and spectral power. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for beta-range corticomuscular coherence in effective sensorimotor integration, thus stabilizing corticospinal communication.

  2. Treatment of low level radioactive wastewater by means of NF process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ding; Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Fuzhi

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Nanofiltration can offer one of the approaches in optimizing membrane system. • Operation parameters especially the pressure affect nuclides’ removal efficiency. • Organic polyamide membrane shows radiation resistance. • A summary of DF and flux values can be taken as reference in designing the membrane system for LLRWs treatment. - Abstract: Membrane technology has been proved as an effective technology in the treatment of low level radioactive wastewaters (LLRWs). As ‘loose reverse osmosis’, nanofiltration can be integrated with RO and offers the high permeate flux at low pressure without obvious loss of decontamination efficiency. In the paper, three kinds of commercially available NF membrane materials were investigated by lab-scale experiment with respect to the nuclide rejection. The results demonstrate the efficient elimination. The membrane flux can be improved by the elevation of temperature and cross-flow velocity within the ranges of 20–30 °C and 0.4–1.0 m s{sup −1}. The radiation resistance test demonstrates no obvious loss of flux and nuclide rejection after a long term operation in the radioactive circumstance. A brief comparison of LLRWs treatment methods shows that NF can perform the pre-treatment of RO and optimize the entire membrane system with high flux and low pressure. In the paper, decontamination factor and flux values of the tested membranes at different operation condition are summarized as the reference for membrane selection and system design.

  3. Study on the neurotoxic effects of low-level lead exposure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-wei; YANG Ru-Lai; DONG Gui-juan; ZHAO Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of developmental lead exposure on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain regions and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats. On the basis of these observations, we explored possible mechanisms by which lead exposure leads to impaired learning and memorizing abilities in children. Methods: A series of rat animal models exposed to low levels of lead during the developing period was established (drinking water containing 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% lead acetate). NOS activities in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brain stem were determined with fluorescence measurement and levels of mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit and NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in the rat hippocampus were measured with Retro-translation (RT-PCR). Results: There were no differences in the body weight of rat pups between any of the groups at any given time (P>0.05). The blood lead level of Pb-exposed rat pups showed a systematic pattern of change: at 14 d of age, it was lower than that at 7 d of age, then rising to the peak level at 21 d and finally falling to lower levels at 28 d. The hippocampal NOS activities of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.01). NOS activities in the cerebellum of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.001) and the NOS activity of the 0.025% group was significantly lower than that of the 0.05% and 0.075% groups on the 28th day (P<0.05).NOS activity in the cerebral cortex of the 0.075% group was significantly lower than that of the control, 0.025% and 0.05% groups on the four day spans (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of NOS activity in the brain stem between any lead-exposed group and the control group on the four day spans. In the 0.05% and the 0.075% groups, the level of NR2A mRNA expression was

  4. Low-level 14C methane oxidation rate measurements modified for remote field settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, M. A.; Pohlman, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation limits atmospheric methane emissions from degraded subsea permafrost and dissociated methane hydrates in high latitude oceans. Methane oxidation rate measurements are a crucial tool for investigating the efficacy of this process, but are logistically challenging when working on small research vessels in remote settings. We modified a low-level 14C-CH4 oxidation rate measurement for use in the Beaufort Sea above hydrate bearing sediments during August 2012. Application of the more common 3H-CH4 rate measurement that uses 106 times more radioactivity was not practical because the R/V Ukpik cannot accommodate a radiation van. The low-level 14C measurement does not require a radiation van, but careful isolation of the 14C-label is essential to avoid contaminating natural abundance 14C measurements. We used 14C-CH4 with a total activity of 1.1 μCi, which is far below the 100 μCi permitting level. In addition, we modified field procedures to simplify and shorten sample processing. The original low-level 14C-CH4 method requires 6 steps in the field: (1) collect water samples in glass serum bottles, (2) inject 14C-CH4 into bottles, (3) incubate for 24 hours, (4) filter to separate the methanotrophic bacterial cells from the aqueous sample, (5) kill the filtrate with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and (6) purge with nitrogen to remove unused 14C-CH4. Onshore, the 14C-CH4 respired to carbon dioxide or incorporated into cell material by methanotrophic bacteria during incubation is quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We conducted an experiment to test the possibility of storing samples for purging and filtering back onshore (steps 4 and 6). We subjected a series of water samples to steps 1-3 & 5, and preserved with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) instead of NaOH because HgCl2 is less likely to break down cell material during storage. The 14C-content of the carbon dioxide in samples preserved with HgCl2 and stored for up to 2 weeks was stable

  5. Effectiveness of Low Level Laser Irradiation on Tinnitus and Parameters of Electrocochleography and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mahmoudian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is the consciousness of sound that arises in the ear or head without any external sound origin. The efficacies of transmeatal low-level laser irradiation for tinnitus treatment were reported before. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low level laser therapy on tinnitus and ECochG and DPOAEs parameters. Materials and Methods: The study design was prospective, quasi experimental. This investigation conducted on 16 ears (10 patients with disabling tinnitus. All patients underwent ENT examination, complete audiological evaluation, tinnitus study, ECochG and DPOAEs, and finally completing tinnitus data sheet. The results were compared before and after irradiation. Results: Means of tinnitus loudness (LMT and CAP amplitudes were significant different before and after irradiation (p<0.005. There was no any other significant difference before and after low level laser irradiation in subjective loudness, pitch matching annoyance grade of tinnitus and DPOAEs and other ECochG parameters.Conclusion: Transmeatal low-power laser irradiation with 200 mW seems not to be effective for treatment of tinnitus. This paper is the research brief report. In clinical point of view, this study should be repeated with a greater sample size although our results were statistically important.

  6. Effect of low-level helium-neon laser therapy on histological and ultrastructural features of immobilized rabbit articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Ansari, Enayatallah; Gholami, Narges; Bayat, Aghdas

    2007-05-25

    The present study investigates whether low-level helium-neon laser therapy can increase histological parameters of immobilized articular cartilage in rabbits or not. Twenty five rabbits were divided into three groups: the experiment group, which received low-level helium-neon laser therapy with 13J/cm(2) three times a week after immobilization of their right knees; the control group which did not receive laser therapy after immobilization of their knees; and the normal group which received neither immobilization nor laser therapy. Histological and electron microscopic examinations were performed at 4 and 7 weeks after immobilization. Depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized experiment group, and depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized experiment group were significantly higher than those of relevant control groups (exact Fisher test, p=0.001; student's t-test, p=0.031, respectively). The surfaces of articular cartilages of the experiment group were relatively smooth, while those of the control group were unsmooth. It is therefore concluded that low-level helium-neon laser therapy had significantly increased the depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized femoral articular cartilage and the depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized knee in comparison with control immobilized articular cartilage.

  7. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung Hee; Byun, Jin Hwan; Heo, Chan Yeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Choi, Hye Yeon; Pak, Chang Sik

    2015-10-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) continues to receive much attention in many clinical fields. Also, LLLT has been used to enhance the proliferation of various cell lines, including stem cells. This study investigated the effect of LLLT on human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) through in vitro and in vivo studies. Low-level laser irradiation of cultured ADSCs was performed using a 830 nm Ga-Al-As (gallium-aluminum-arsenide) laser. Then, proliferation of ADSCs was quantified by a cell counting kit-8. In the in vivo study, irradiated ADSCs or non-irradiated ADSCs were transplanted, and then, low-level laser irradiation of each rat was performed as per the protocol. Cell viability was quantified by immunofluorescent staining using the human mitochondria antibody. In the in vitro study, the laser-irradiated groups showed an increase in absorbance compared to the control group. Also, in the in vivo study, there was a significant increase in the number of human ADSCs in the laser-irradiated groups compared to the control group (p Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Studies on the effect of low level laser therapy on bone repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clingen-Vance, H.J

    1997-05-01

    The speed and quality of bone repair has direct clinical relevance. It has been suggested that Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) accelerates bone healing and that neuropeptides play a role in bone metabolism. This study investigated LLLT effects (using a GaAlAs semiconductor laser, 830 nm wavelength, 70 mW output power at an energy density of 4J/cm2) on the repair of pinned immobilised femoral osteotomies in male Sprague Dawley rats randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: a control group, group A (osteotomised limb irradiated) and group B (non-osteotomised limb irradiated). Specimens were retrieved from 1-5 weeks post-trauma for histology, immunohistochemical investigation of neuropeptide expression (NPY, CGRP, SP, VIP), radioimmunoassay, bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength testing studies. Histology suggested accelerated bone repair in group B by 3 weeks, while by 5 weeks the control group was more advanced displaying bony union. Distinct differences were detected in the pattern and level of neuropeptide expression in repairing fractures between groups with several novel and discrete peptide localisations being reported for bone and cartilage cell types and bone marrow megakaryocytes. A role for neuropeptides in bone metabolism is supported. Bone densitometry showed no significant difference between groups for in vivo BMD data but did on more accurate in vitro assessment. Biomechanical studies demonstrated stronger osteotomies in the control group compared to irradiated groups at 5 weeks post-osteotomy suggesting that bone quality may be poorer after LLLT. The initial acceleration of bone repair after laser therapy indicates that it is biostimulatory to repair (a systemic effect was detected), however as the control group was more advanced by 5 weeks post-fracture further investigation of different treatment schedules is indicated. This research confirms that BMD is not the sole determinant of bone strength but that bone quality is clearly

  9. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  10. Comparison of the stable-isotopic composition of soil water collected from suction lysimeters, wick samplers, and cores in a sandy unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M. K.; Delin, G. N.; Komor, S. C.; Regan, C. P.

    1999-10-01

    Soil water collected from suction lysimeters and wick samplers buried in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer and extracted from soil cores were analyzed for stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Soil water isotopic values differed among the three sampling methods in most cases. However, because each sampling method collected different fractions of the total soil-water reservoir, the isotopic differences indicated that the soil water at a given depth and time was isotopically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity reflects the presence of relatively more and less mobile components of soil water. Isotopic results from three field tests indicated that 95-100% of the water collected from wick samplers was mobile soil water while samples from suction lysimeters and cores were mixtures of more and less mobile soil water. Suction lysimeter samples contained a higher proportion of more mobile water (15-95%) than samples from cores (5-80%) at the same depth. The results of this study indicate that, during infiltration events, soil water collected with wick samplers is more representative of the mobile soil water that is likely to recharge ground water during or soon after the event than soil water from suction lysimeters or cores.

  11. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  12. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  13. Low-level laser effects on bacterial cultures submitted to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, E. M.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Low-level lasers have been used worldwide to treat a number of diseases, pain relief, and wound healing. Some studies demonstrated that low-level laser radiations induce effects depending on the physiological state and DNA repair mechanisms of cells. In this work we evaluated the effects of low-level red and infrared lasers on Escherichia coli cells deficient in SOS responses submitted to heat stress. Exponential and stationary E. coli cultures of wild type (AB1157), RecA deficient (AB2463) and LexA deficient (AB2494), both SOS response deficient, were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences and submitted to heat stress (42 °C, 20 min). After that, cell survival and morphology were evaluated. Previous exposure to red, but not infrared lasers, increases survival fractions and decreases the area ratios of E. coli AB1157 cells submitted to heat stress. Our research suggests that a low-level red laser increases cell viability and protects cells from morphological alteration in E. coli cultures submitted to heat stress depending on laser wavelength and SOS response.

  14. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mastura Mahmud

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Ni˜no event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state ofSarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  15. Mesoscale model simulation of low level equatorial winds over Borneo during the haze episode of September 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2009-08-01

    The large-scale vegetation fires instigated by the local farmers during the dry period of the major El Niño event in 1997 can be considered as one of the worst environmental disasters that have occurred in southeast Asia in recent history. This study investigated the local meteorology characteristics of an equatorial environment within a domain that includes the northwestern part of Borneo from the 17 to 27 September 1997 during the height of the haze episode by utilizing a limited area three-dimensional meteorological and dispersion model, The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). Daily land and sea breeze conditions near the northwestern coast of Borneo in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia were predicted with moderate success by the index of agreement of less than one between the observed and simulated values for wind speed and a slight overprediction of 2.3 of the skill indicator that evaluates the standard deviation to the observed values. The innermost domain of study comprises an area of 24,193 km2, from approximately 109°E to 111°E, and from 1°N to 2.3°N, which includes a part of the South China Sea. Tracer analysis of air particles that were sourced in the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo verified the existence of the landward and shoreward movements of the air during the simulation of the low level wind field. Polluted air particles were transported seawards during night-time, and landwards during daytime, highlighting the recirculation features of aged and newer air particles during the length of eleven days throughout the model simulation. Near calm conditions at low levels were simulated by the trajectory analysis from midnight to mid-day on the 22 of September 1997. Low-level turbulence within the planetary boundary layer in terms of the total kinetic energy was weak, congruent with the weak strength of low level winds that reduced the ability of the air to transport the pollutants. Statistical evaluation showed that parameters such as the systematic

  16. [Low level auditory skills in school children attending third and fourth grade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R

    2008-04-01

    In Germany testing auditory low level skills has gained some popularity. However only few studies have provided norms. Prior to further testing we here aimed at establishing normal values for school children. prospective study. School children attending 3rd and 4th grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJB and TOJM). descriptive and correlational analysis. Data did not follow a normal distribution, i. e. only few children had poor results whereas the majority of children had fair to excellent results. Correlational analysis indicated some dependency among auditory low level skills as tested here. These data are consistent with previously described data that auditory low levels maturate during development at least up to age 10. However the significance of poor results for impaired language acquisition remains unclear.

  17. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  18. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  19. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  1. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  2. Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Amy C; Burgman, Robert; Norris, Joel R

    2009-07-24

    Feedbacks involving low-level clouds remain a primary cause of uncertainty in global climate model projections. This issue was addressed by examining changes in low-level clouds over the Northeast Pacific in observations and climate models. Decadal fluctuations were identified in multiple, independent cloud data sets, and changes in cloud cover appeared to be linked to changes in both local temperature structure and large-scale circulation. This observational analysis further indicated that clouds act as a positive feedback in this region on decadal time scales. The observed relationships between cloud cover and regional meteorological conditions provide a more complete way of testing the realism of the cloud simulation in current-generation climate models. The only model that passed this test simulated a reduction in cloud cover over much of the Pacific when greenhouse gases were increased, providing modeling evidence for a positive low-level cloud feedback.

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 2, Niobium-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to, state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information used to produce this series of reports and an introductory report. This report is Volume 11 of the series. It outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of niobium-94, waste types and forms that contain it, and its behavior in environmental media such as soils, plants, groundwater, air, animals and the human body.

  4. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  5. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  6. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  7. All dressed up and no place to go managing low level waste in the 90`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovankovich, B.; Buchanan, J.; Gomeringer, J. [Public Service Electric & Gas Co., Hancocks Bridge, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) operates two Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and one Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) along the Delaware River in Southern New Jersey. The Access Contract between the Northeast Commission expired June 30, 1994 and was not renewed. A Northeast Compact Low Level Waste Disposal Site is not complete yet. PSE&G, like all other owners in the nuclear industry, is coping with economic competitiveness while being faced with deregulation. This paper addresses the Radiation Protection Program, Radioactive material Control Program, and Low Level Radioactive Waste Management changes that PSE&G has implemented to adapt to the necessity of on-site storage of Low Level Radioactive Waste.

  8. Effects of surface drag on low-level frontogenesis within baroclinic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; TAN ZheMin

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5), the evolution and structures of baroclinic waves with and without surface drag in case of dry and moist atmosphere are simulated, with special emphases on the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontal structure and frontogenesis. There are two different effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis in the dry case. On one hand, the surface drag weakens the low-level frontogenesis and less inclined to develop the baroclinic wave due to the dissipation. But on the other hand, the surface drag induces a strong ageostrophic flow, which prolongs the low-level frontogenesis and finally leads to the enhancement of cold front. Compared with the no surface drag case, the surface drag increases the frontal slope especially in the boundary layer, where the front is almost vertical to the surface, and then enhances the prefrontal vertical motion. All these conclusions expanded the analytical theory of Tan and Wu (1990). In the moist atmosphere, the influence of surface drag on frontal rainbands is also obvious. The surface drag weakens the convection, and reduces the energy dissipation near the surface when the initial relative humidity is relatively weak. At this time, the confluence induced post-frontal updrafts moves across the cold front and reinforces the prefrontal convection, which is beneficial to the maintenance of the rainband in cold sector. Given the enhancement of relative humidity, the moist convection dominates the low-level frontogenesis while the retardation of surface drag on energy dissipation is not obvious, therefore the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis and precipitation are reduced.

  9. Effects of surface drag on low-level frontogenesis within baroclinic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5), the evolution and structures of baroclinic waves with and without surface drag in case of dry and moist atmosphere are simulated, with special emphases on the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontal structure and frontogenesis. There are two different effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis in the dry case. On one hand, the surface drag weakens the low-level frontogenesis and less inclined to develop the baroclinic wave due to the dissipation. But on the other hand, the surface drag induces a strong ageostrophic flow, which prolongs the low-level frontogenesis and finally leads to the enhancement of cold front. Compared with the no surface drag case, the surface drag increases the frontal slope espe- cially in the boundary layer, where the front is almost vertical to the surface, and then enhances the prefrontal vertical motion. All these conclusions expanded the analytical theory of Tan and Wu (1990). In the moist atmosphere, the influence of surface drag on frontal rainbands is also obvious. The surface drag weakens the convection, and reduces the energy dissipation near the surface when the initial relative humidity is relatively weak. At this time, the confluence induced post-frontal updrafts moves across the cold front and reinforces the prefrontal convection, which is beneficial to the maintenance of the rainband in cold sector. Given the enhancement of relative humidity, the moist convection domi- nates the low-level frontogenesis while the retardation of surface drag on energy dissipation is not obvious, therefore the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis and precipitation are re- duced.

  10. Antialgal effects of five individual allelochemicals and their mixtures in low level pollution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ding, Ying; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    An effective, environmentally friendly, and eco-sustainable approach for removing harmful microalgae is exploiting the allelopathic potential of aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we simulated field pollution conditions in the laboratory to investigate algal inhibition by allelochemicals, thereby providing insights into field practices. We tested five allelochemicals, i.e., coumarin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and a typical green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, under two conditions. In the unpolluted treatment, individual allelochemicals had strong algal inhibition effects, where coumarin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid had greater potential for algal inhibition than protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid based on the 50 % inhibitory concentration. However, when two or three allelochemicals were mixed in specific proportions, the algal inhibition rate exceeded 80 %, thereby indicating allelopathic synergistic interactions. Mixtures of four or five allelochemicals had weak effects on algal inhibition, which indicated antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the presence of low lead pollution significantly reduced the antialgal potential of individual allelochemicals, whereas the allelopathic synergistic interactions with mixtures between two or three allelochemicals were changed into antagonistic effects by low pollution. In particular, the allelopathic antagonistic interactions between four or five allelochemicals were increased by pollution. The allelopathic performance of these five allelochemicals may depend on various factors, such as the chemical species, mixture parameters, and algal strain. Thus, we found that low level pollution reduced the allelopathic inhibition of microalgae by allelochemicals. Therefore, the control of algae by the direct addition of allelochemicals should consider various environmental factors.

  11. Fourier power spectrum characteristics of face photographs: attractiveness perception depends on low-level image properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Menzel

    Full Text Available We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks - but not veridical face photographs - affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess - compared to face images - a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power. Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1. We found that Fourier slope - in contrast to the other tested image properties - did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3. Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis.

  12. Megalencephaly syndromes: exome pipeline strategies for detecting low-level mosaic mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Tapper

    Full Text Available Two megalencephaly (MEG syndromes, megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP and megalencephaly-polymicrogyriapolydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH, have recently been defined on the basis of physical and neuroimaging features. Subsequently, exome sequencing of ten MEG cases identified de-novo postzygotic mutations in PIK3CA which cause MCAP and de-novo mutations in AKT and PIK3R2 which cause MPPH. Here we present findings from exome sequencing three unrelated megalencephaly patients which identified a causal PIK3CA mutation in two cases and a causal PIK3R2 mutation in the third case. However, our patient with the PIK3R2 mutation which is considered to cause MPPH has a marked bifrontal band heterotopia which is a feature of MCAP. Furthermore, one of our patients with a PIK3CA mutation lacks syndactyly/polydactyly which is a characteristic of MCAP. These findings suggest that the overlap between MCAP and MPPH may be greater than the available studies suggest. In addition, the PIK3CA mutation in one of our patients could not be detected using standard exome analysis because the mutation was observed at a low frequency consistent with somatic mosaicism. We have therefore investigated several alternative methods of exome analysis and demonstrate that alteration of the initial allele frequency spectrum (AFS, used as a prior for variant calling in samtools, had the greatest power to detect variants with low mutant allele frequencies in our 3 MEG exomes and in simulated data. We therefore recommend non-default settings of the AFS in combination with stringent quality control when searching for causal mutation(s that could have low levels of mutant reads due to post-zygotic mutation.

  13. Fourier power spectrum characteristics of face photographs: attractiveness perception depends on low-level image properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks - but not veridical face photographs - affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess - compared to face images - a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope - in contrast to the other tested image properties - did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Applying Low-Level Laser Therapy to Surgical Wounds After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Alecsander R; Madi, Otavio; Neto, Rafael Melillo L; Lima, Sizenando E; de Carvalho, Bruno T; Ojea, Maria Juliana M R; Marcos, Rodrigo L; da Silva, Fabricio S; Zamuner, Stella R; Chavantes, Maria Cristina

    2016-11-01

    Bariatric surgery is a successful method for weight loss in cases of morbid obesity; however, as an invasive procedure, surgical complications may occur. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used due to its effectiveness in controlling the inflammatory response, accelerating tissue repair, and reducing pain. The objective of this study was to investigate photobiomodulation effects after bariatric surgery and determine the laser actions during the inflammatory process, wound healing (clinical observation), and analgesia. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in which 85 patients underwent Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) by conventional techniques (i.e., open surgery). Patients were divided into two groups and were irradiated with LLLT at 10 different points through the surgical scar in three sessions of applications: the laser group (laser-on) consisted of 43 patients who received the CW diode laser (MMOptics), while the placebo group (laser-off) consisted of 42 patients who were treated by the same protocol but with a disabled laser. Temperature was measured by a digital thermometer in both groups, and pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pain. Biochemical analysis and digital images were used to document and evaluate the inflammatory response as well as tissue repair process at the surgical wound site. Patients in the laser group demonstrated diminished wound temperature as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared with the placebo group, indicating better inflammatory process control as well as improved wound healing and reduced pain. LLLT applied with the described protocol led to a decrease by biochemical markers and wound temperature compared with the placebo, which indicated that LLLT was able to control the inflammatory process; in addition, seroma and pain were reduced and cicatrization was improved by this preventive procedure.

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  16. Effects of polarization in low-level laser therapy of spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Obara, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a promising approach to treat the spinal cord injury (SCI). Since nerve fibers have optical anisotropy, propagation of light in the spinal tissue might be affected by its polarization direction. However, the effect of polarization on the efficacy of LLLT has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared LLLT for SCI. Rat spinal cord was injured with a weight-drop device. The lesion site was irradiated with an 808-nm diode laser beam that was transmitted through a polarizing filter immediately after injury and daily for five consecutive days. The laser power at the injured spinal cord surface was 25 mW, and the dosage per day was 9.6 J/cm2 (spot diameter, 2 cm; irradiation duration, 1200 s). Functional recovery was assessed daily by an open-field test. The results showed that the functional scores of the SCI rats that were treated with 808-nm laser irradiation were significantly higher than those of the SCI alone group (Group 1) from day 5 after injury, regardless of the polarization direction. Importantly, as compared to the locomotive function of the SCI rats that were treated with the perpendicularly-polarized laser parallel to the spinal column (Group 2), that of the SCI rats that were irradiated with the linearly aligned polarization (Group 3) was significantly improved from day 10 after injury. In addition, the ATP contents in the injured spinal tissue of Group 3, which were measured immediately after laser irradiation, were moderately higher than those of Group 2. These observations are attributable to the deeper penetration of the parallelpolarized light in the anisotropic spinal tissue, suggesting that polarization direction significantly affects the efficacy of LLLT for SCI.

  17. Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas Dantas; Sargenti-Neto, Sérgio; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda

    2015-07-01

    The biological effects of local therapy with laser on bone repair have been well demonstrated; however, this possible effect on bone repair outside the irradiated field has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (λ = 830 nm) on repair of surgical bone defects outside the irradiated field, in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to osteotomy on the left femur and randomly separated into four groups (n = 15): group I, control, bone defect only; group II, laser applied on the right femur (distant dose); group III, laser applied locally on the bone defect and also on the right femur (local and distant doses); and group IV, laser applied locally on the left femur (local dose). Laser groups received applications within a 48-h interval in one point per session of density energy (DE) = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.028 cm. Five animals of each group were euthanized 7, 15, and 21 days after surgery. Histologic analysis in all groups showed new bone formation in the region of interest (ROI) at 7 days. After 15 days, bone remodeling with a decrease of bone neoformation in the marrow area was observed in all groups. After 21 days, advanced bone remodeling with new bone mostly located in the cortical area was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed at 7 days a significant increase of bone formation in groups III and IV compared to groups I and II. At days 15 and 21, histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences between them. Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area.

  18. Low-level laser therapy attenuates creatine kinase levels and apoptosis during forced swimming in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussai, Daniela Aparecida; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de; Dourado, Doroty Mesquita; Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Pereira, Daniel Martins

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that high-intensity physical exercise can cause damage to skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle soreness, fatigue, inflammatory processes and cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) levels and cell apoptosis. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups: group 1 (control), resistance swimming; group 2 (LLLT), resistance swimming with LLLT. They were subjected to a single application of indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) laser immediately following the exercise for 40 s at an output power of 100 mW, wavelength 660 nm and 133.3 J/cm(2). The groups were subdivided according to sample collection time: 24 h and 48 h. CK was measured before and both 24 h and 48 h after the test. Samples of the gastrocnemius muscle were processed to determine the presence of apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. (There was a significant difference in CK levels between groups (P < 0.0001) as well as between the 24 h and 48 h levels in the control group, whereas there was no significant intra-group difference in the LLLT group at the same evaluation times. In the LLLT group there were 66.3 +/- 13.2 apoptotic cells after 24 h and 39.0 +/- 6.8 apoptotic cells after 48 h. The results suggest that LLLT influences the metabolic profile of animals subjected to fatigue by lowering serum levels of CK. This demonstrates that LLLT can act as a preventive tool against cell apoptosis experienced during high-intensity physical exercise.

  19. Activation of VEGF and FGF induced angiogenesis under influence of low level laser radiation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Levon; Brill, Grigory; Makela, Anu

    2006-02-01

    One of the feasible explanations for long-term treatment effects of laser therapy of diseases connected with tissue ischemia and altered blood circulation is activation of angiogenesis after low level laser irradiation. The aim of the current study was to investigate if laser irradiation can enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induced angiogenesis in vitro. The study was conducted on rat thoracic aortal rings. Samples of group 1 served as control, samples of groups 2 and 3 were incubated with VEGF or FGF, group 4 samples were irradiated with laser (660 nm, 20 mW) during 10 min, samples of groups 5 and 6 were incubated with VEGF or FGF accordingly and received 10 min of laser irradiation. In the control group no noticeable angiogenesis occurred. The application of VEGF activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 1,3+/-0,24 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 0,93+/-0,11 mm. Laser light irradiation (group 4) activated angiogenesis (1,9+/-0,29 mm2 and 0,75+/-0,10 mm). The combined influence of laser light and VEGF on angiogenesis (group 5) was significantly stronger (p FGF also activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 2,76+/-0,22 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 1,19+/-0,12 mm. Combined influence of laser light and FGF on angiogenesis (group 6) was again significantly stronger (p <0,001), than each of the factors separately (5,43+/-0,28 mm2 and 1,99+/-0,10 mm). Studies show that laser irradiation can intensify effects of growth factors in vitro.

  20. EDTA fouling in dead-end ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Lixia [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Zhang, Xue [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hu, Hongying [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • EDTA in LLRW caused unrecoverable UF membrane fouling. • The rejection of nuclides by UF was significantly enhanced with EDTA addition. • The nuclide (except Ag) deposition on membrane increased with EDTA addition. • Reducing EDTA in the feed water or alkaline/ultrasonic washing were suggested. - Abstract: EDTA is widely used as a detergent, and finally enters into wastewater. The influence of EDTA on ultrafiltration of low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW) was investigated under different operation conditions. As the main organic pollutant, EDTA led to unrecoverable membrane fouling and the normalized flux decreased from 100% to 85% depending on its concentration. The clogging caused by EDTA increased the surface roughness of the membrane, leading to the flux reduction. Both nuclide rejections and depositions on the membrane surfaces were enhanced with EDTA addition, due to the strong complexation of the nuclides with EDTA. However, Ag deposition on the membrane decreased slightly in the presence of EDTA, which may be caused by the stronger attraction of Ag to the unmodified membrane than that to the EDTA-modified one. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of membranes had negligible effects on membrane fouling, while the nuclide rejections by membrane and the depositions of nuclides on membrane both decreased significantly when the TMP increased to 0.2 MPa and MWCO increased from 5 kDa to 30 kDa. Based on these results, it clearly showed that EDTA even at a low concentration had strong effects on the performance of UF treating LLRW. Therefore, it is suggested for industrial application that pretreatments to reduce EDTA or alkaline/ultrasonic washing involved in UF process were necessary to reduce the nuclide depositions on the membrane surfaces and irradiation dose of membrane surface.

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Fat Layer Reduction: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Nyame, Theodore T.; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Sadasivam, Magesh; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) is a noninvasive, nonthermal approach to disorders requiring reduction of pain and inflammation and stimulation of healing and tissue regeneration. Within the last decade, LLLT started being investigated as an adjuvant to liposuction, for noninvasive body contouring, reduction of cellulite, and improvement of blood lipid profile. LLLT may also aid autologous fat transfer procedures by enhancing the viability of adipocytes. However the underlying mechanism of actions for such effects still seems to be unclear. It is important, therefore, to understand the potential efficacy and proposed mechanism of actions of this new procedure for fat reduction. Materials and Methods A review of the literature associated with applications of LLLT related to fat layer reduction was performed to evaluate the findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies with respect to the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety. Results The studies as of today suggest that LLLT has a potential to be used in fat and cellulite reduction as well as in improvement of blood lipid profile without any significant side effects. One of the main proposed mechanism of actions is based upon production of transient pores in adipocytes, allowing lipids to leak out. Another is through activation of the complement cascade which could cause induction of adipocyte apoptosis and subsequent release of lipids. Conclusion Although the present studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of LLLT in fat layer reduction, studies demonstrating the efficacy of LLLT as a stand-alone procedure are still inadequate. Moreover, further studies are necessary to identify the mechanism of action. PMID:23749426

  2. Antiretroviral therapy (ART management of Low-Level Viremia in Taiwan (ALLEVIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to investigate that if switch of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART would result in viral suppression (20 to 5 log10 (% (59.4% (61.3% (54.3% .480 CD4 at LLV, median (range, cells/uL (63–1092 (63–1092 (134–1010 .156 PVL at enrollment, copies/mL (21–999 (21–939 (21–999 .002 PVL of 20–199 (% (77.0% (84.0% (58.7% .001 PVL of 200–999 (% (23.0% (16.0% (41.3% .001 Duration of cART exposure, median (range, weeks (12–391 (15–321 (12–391 .062 Years of HIV diagnosed, median, (range, years (1–14 (1–14 (2–13 .356 Ever treatment failure (% /165 /119 /46 .111 Current cART NRTIs+nNRTI (23.6% (32.8% (0% <0.001 NRTIs+PI (18.8% (24.4% (4.3% .003 NRTIs+PI/r (51.5% (39.5% (82.6% <0.001 NRTIs+II (4.2% (3.3% (6.5% .967 II+PI/r (1.8% (0% (6.5% .021 Conclusions: According to the clinical guidelines of BHIVA, patients with low-level viremia who switched to cART consisting of 2 NRTIs plus boosted PI or newer mechanisms were more likely to re-establish viral suppression to <40 copies/mL at week 48.

  3. Persistence of microbial contamination on transvaginal ultrasound probes despite low-level disinfection procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima M'Zali

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: In many countries, Low Level Disinfection (LLD of covered transvaginal ultrasound probes is recommended between patients' examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LLD under routine conditions on a range of microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were taken over a six month period in a private French Radiology Center. 300 specimens derived from endovaginal ultrasound probes were analyzed after disinfection of the probe with wipes impregnated with a quaternary ammonium compound and chlorhexidine. Human papillomavirus (HPV was sought in the first set of s100 samples, Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas were searched in the second set of 100 samples, bacteria and fungi in the third 100 set samples. HPV, C. trachomatis and mycoplasmas were detected by PCR amplification. PCR positive samples were subjected to a nuclease treatment before an additional PCR assay to assess the likely viable microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi were investigated by conventional methods. RESULTS: A substantial persistence of microorganisms was observed on the disinfected probes: HPV DNA was found on 13% of the samples and 7% in nuclease-resistant form. C. trachomatis DNA was detected on 20% of the probes by primary PCR but only 2% after nuclease treatment, while mycoplasma DNA was amplified in 8% and 4%, respectively. Commensal and/or environmental bacterial flora was present on 86% of the probes, occasionally in mixed culture, and at various levels (10->3000 CFU/probe; Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 4% of the probes (10-560 CFU/probe. No fungi were isolated. CONCLUSION: Our findings raise concerns about the efficacy of impregnated towels as a sole mean for disinfection of ultrasound probes. Although the ultrasound probes are used with disposable covers, our results highlight the potential risk of cross contamination between patients during ultrasound examination and emphasize the need for reviewing

  4. Effects of low-level radiation upon the hematopoietic steam cell: implications for leukemogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bond, V.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Miller, M.E.; Bullis, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    These studies have addressed firstly the effect of single small doses of x-ray upon murine hematopoietic stem cells to obtain a better estimate of the D/sub q/. It is small, of the order of 20 rads. Secondly, a dose fractionation schedule tht does not kill or perturb the kinetics of hemopoietic cell proliferation was sought in order to investigate the leukemogenic potential of low level radiation upon an unperturbed hemopoietic system. The studies reported herein show tht 1.25 rads every other day decrease the CFU-S content of bone marrow by the time 40 rads are accumulated. Studies on the effect of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 rads 3 times per week are under way. Two rads 3 times per week produced a modest decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow after an accumulation of 68 rads. With 3.0 rads 3 times per week an accumulation of 102 rads produces a significant decrease in CFU-S content of bone marrow. Dose fractionation at 0.5 and 1.0 rad 3 times per week has not produced a CFU-S depression after accumulation of 17 and 34 rads. Radiation leukemogenesis studies published to date have utilized single doses and chronic exposure schedules that probably have significantly perturbed the kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells. Whether radiation will produce leukemia in animal models with dose schedules that do not perturb kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells remains to be seen.

  5. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  6. Low-level lasers as an adjunct in periodontal therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Radmila; Kesić, Ljiljana; Mihailović, Dragan; Jovanović, Goran; Antić, Slobodan; Brkić, Zlata

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of periodontitis, and severe periodontitis often coexists with severe DM. The proposed dual pathway of tissue destruction suggests that control of chronic periodontal infection and gingival inflammation is essential for achieving long-term control of DM. The purpose this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by exfoliative cytology in patients with DM and gingival inflammation. Three hundred patients were divided in three equal groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with periodontitis and type 1 DM, Group 2 of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM, and Group 3 of patients with periodontitis (control group). After oral examination, smears were taken from gingival tissue, and afterward all of the patients received oral hygiene instructions, removal of dental plaque, and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A split-mouth design was applied; on the right side of jaws GaAlAs LLLT (670 nm, 5 mW, 14 min/day) (model Mils 94; Optica Laser, Sofia, Bulgaria) was applied for five consecutive days. After the therapy was completed, smears from both sides of jaws were taken. The morphometric analysis was done using the National Institutes of Health Image software program and a model NU2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Investigated parameters were significantly lower after therapy compared with values before therapy. After therapy on the side subjected to LLLT, there was no significantly difference between patients with DM and the control group. It can be concluded that LLLT as an adjunct in periodontal therapy reduces gingival inflammation in patients with DM and periodontitis.

  7. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  8. The influence of high and low levels of estrogen on diurnal urine regulation in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones have a pronounced effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP, and therefore on the diurnal water homeostasis. Low and high levels of plasma-estradiol as seen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may therefore alter the diurnal regulation of urine production. Furthermore the structural resemblance of oxytocin to vasopressin has led to speculations about the possible antidiuretic properties of oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. To elucidate the influence of high and low p-estradiol on the regulation of the diurnal urine production, 15 normal menstruating women (21–33 y underwent two circadian in-patient investigations, both situated in follicular phase. Methods Admitting the participants solely in the follicular phase resulted in high and low plasma-estradiol whereas plasma-progesterone was similar. Urine and blood samples were taken at predetermined time points to determine plasma AVP, plasma oxytocin, plasma aldosterone, plasma natriuretic peptide (ANP, urinary solute excretions, and urinary excretions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2. Blood pressure was measured every hour. Results Plasma AVP, plasma aldosterone and plasma ANP were unaffected by the different levels of estradiol. All had marked circadian variations whereas oxytocin did not display any circadian rhythm. High estradiol resulted in lower p-osmolality and p-sodium reflecting the downward resetting of the osmoreceptors. Oxytocin did not correlate with either diuresis or urine osmolality. The diurnal urine production was similar in the two groups as were urine osmolality, excretion of PGE-2 and AQP-2. AQP-2 does not have a circadian rhythm and is not significantly correlated to either AVP or oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. Conclusion High and low level of estradiol has no influence on the circadian rhythm of AVP or the subsequent urine production. High p-estradiol resets the osmoreceptors for AVP

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  10. Comparison of quality of facial scars after single low-level laser therapy and combined low-level with high-level (PDL 595 nm) laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Jana; Remlova, Eva; Jelinkova, Helena; Rosina, Jozef; Dostalova, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of our study was to compare the quality of resulting facials scar 12 weeks after single and combined laser therapy. Forty-one children from age 1.5 to 5 years with facial scars after injury participated in the study. Thirty-one underwent laser therapy, 14 were treated using single low-level laser therapy (670 nm, fluence 3-5 J/cm(-2) ), and 17 underwent combined high-level laser therapy with non-ablative pulsed dye laser (PDL; 595 nm, spot size 7 mm, delay 0.45 ms or 1.5 ms, fluence 9-11 J/cm(-2) , cryogen spray/delay 20/30 ms) and low-level laser therapy. The control group consisted of 10 untreated children. Before treatment and at week 4, 8, and, 12 the scars were evaluated using the POSAS questionnaire. A statistically significant improvement in scars (between ratings before treatment and 4 weeks after therapy, before treatment and 8 weeks after therapy and before treatment and 12 weeks after therapy) was observed in all parameters in both treatment groups (p < 0.0001). For the HLLT+LLLT group the most significant enhancement in the quality of scars was found for all items and at all evaluations, except pigmentation and pliability. There was no improvement observed in quality of facial scars in the control group.

  11. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    to groundwater. However, viruses may leach to groundwater and represent a health risk as for some viruses only few virus particles are needed to cause human disease. The bacterial pathogens and the phage 28B were found on the potato samples harvested just after the application of microbial tracers was terminated......The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O...... loam soil. The added bacterial pathogens were not found in any leachate samples during the entire study period of 212 days. Under the study conditions with repacked soil, limited macropores and low water velocity, bacterial pathogens seemed to be retained in the soil matrix and died-off before leaching...

  12. A theoretical concept of low level/low LET radiation carcinogenic risk (LLCR) projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filyushkin, I.V. [Laboratory of Theoretical Radiobiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-06-01

    Carcinogenic risk to humans resulting from low level/low LET radiation exposure (LLLCR) has not been observed directly because epidemiological observations have not yet provided statistically significant data on risk values. However, these values are of great interest for radiation health science and radiation protection practice under both normal conditions and emergency situations. This report presents a theoretical contribution to the validation of dose and dose rate efficiency factors (DDREF) transforming cocinogenic risk coefficients from those revealed in A-bomb survivors to factors appropriate for the projection of the risk resulting from very low levels of low LET radiation.

  13. An alternative viewpoint to the biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.R. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of low-level exposures to toxic chemicals and radiations are presumed to be similar to those associated with higher level exposures. There is a growing body of evidence that this assumption is incorrect. Through a series of data-based examples, this paper challenges the assumptions inherent to the current toxics model and offers three alternatives: nonlinear dose response in which the effects seen at low levels may be interpreted as paradoxical, or even beneficial; a holistic model in which the outcome is the whole animal; and a trade-off model in which the unit of study is the population and not an individual.

  14. Effect of low-level laser-treated mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gammal, Zaynab H; Zaher, Amr M; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2017-07-06

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation. It is well established that the bio-stimulatory effect of low-level laser is influenced by the following parameters: wavelength, power density, duration, energy density, delivery time, and the type of irradiated target. In this review, we evaluate the available experimental data on treatment of myocardial infarction using low-level laser. Eligible papers were characterized as in vivo experimental studies that evaluated the use of low-level laser therapy on stem cells in order to attenuate myocardial infarction. The following descriptors were used separately and in combination: laser therapy, low-level laser, low-power laser, stem cell, and myocardial infarction. The assessed low-level laser parameters were wavelength (635-804 nm), power density (6-50 mW/cm(2)), duration (20-150 s), energy density (0.96-1 J/cm(2)), delivery time (20 min-3 weeks after myocardial infarction), and the type of irradiated target (bone marrow or in vitro-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). The analysis focused on the cardioprotective effect of this form of therapy, the attenuation of scar tissue, and the enhancement of angiogenesis as primary targets. Other effects such as cell survival, cell differentiation, and homing are also included. Among the evaluated protocols using different parameters, the best outcome for treating myocardial infarction was achieved by treating the bone marrow by one dose of low-level

  15. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  16. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  17. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha(-1) for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha(-1) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha(-1), respectively). NO3(-) contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO3(-) loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg(-1) silage) was significantly (Pdairy manure should be increased and that of inorganic fertilizer decreased to reduce N leaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain.

  18. Transit time distributions and StorAge Selection functions in a sloping soil lysimeter with time-varying flow paths: Direct observation of internal and external transport variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Pangle, Luke A.; Cardoso, Charléne; Lora, Marco; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Harman, Ciaran J.; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Transit times through hydrologic systems vary in time, but the nature of that variability is not well understood. Transit times variability was investigated in a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter, representing a simplified model of a hillslope receiving periodic rainfall events for 28 days. Tracer tests were conducted using an experimental protocol that allows time-variable transit time distributions (TTDs) to be calculated from data. Observed TTDs varied with the storage state of the system, and the history of inflows and outflows. We propose that the observed time variability of the TTDs can be decomposed into two parts: "internal" variability associated with changes in the arrangement of, and partitioning between, flow pathways; and "external" variability driven by fluctuations in the flow rate along all flow pathways. These concepts can be defined quantitatively in terms of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions, which is a theory describing lumped transport dynamics. Internal variability is associated with temporal variability in the rSAS function, while external is not. The rSAS function variability was characterized by an "inverse storage effect," whereby younger water is released in greater proportion under wetter conditions than drier. We hypothesize that this effect is caused by the rapid mobilization of water in the unsaturated zone by the rising water table. Common approximations used to model transport dynamics that neglect internal variability were unable to reproduce the observed breakthrough curves accurately. This suggests that internal variability can play an important role in hydrologic transport dynamics, with implications for field data interpretation and modeling.

  19. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  20. Preclinical studies identify non-apoptotic low-level caspase-3 as therapeutic target in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyet, Camille; Schulze, Katja; Sayar, Beyza S; Howald, Denise; Müller, Eliane J; Galichet, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The majority of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients suffer from a live-threatening loss of intercellular adhesion between keratinocytes (acantholysis). The disease is caused by auto-antibodies that bind to desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg) 3 or Dsg3 and Dsg1 in mucous membranes and skin. A currently unresolved controversy in PV is whether apoptosis is involved in the pathogenic process. The objective of this study was to perform preclinical studies to investigate apoptotic pathway activation in PV pathogenesis with the goal to assess its potential for clinical therapy. For this purpose, we investigated mouse and human skin keratinocyte cultures treated with PV antibodies (the experimental Dsg3 monospecific antibody AK23 or PV patients IgG), PV mouse models (passive transfer of AK23 or PVIgG into adult and neonatal mice) as well as PV patients' biopsies (n=6). A combination of TUNEL assay, analyses of membrane integrity, early apoptotic markers such as cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the collapse of actin cytoskeleton failed to provide evidence for apoptosis in PV pathogenesis. However, the in vitro and in vivo PV models, allowing to monitor progression of lesion formation, revealed an early, transient and low-level caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition confirmed the functional implication of caspase-3 in major events in PV such as shedding of Dsg3, keratin retraction, proliferation including c-Myc induction, p38MAPK activation and acantholysis. Together, these data identify low-level caspase-3 activation downstream of disrupted Dsg3 trans- or cis-adhesion as a major event in PV pathogenesis that is non-synonymous with apoptosis and represents, unlike apoptotic components, a promising target for clinical therapy. At a broader level, these results posit that an impairment of adhesive functions in concert with low-level, non-lethal caspase-3 activation can evoke profound cellular changes which may be of relevance for other diseases including

  1. Preclinical studies identify non-apoptotic low-level caspase-3 as therapeutic target in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Luyet

    Full Text Available The majority of pemphigus vulgaris (PV patients suffer from a live-threatening loss of intercellular adhesion between keratinocytes (acantholysis. The disease is caused by auto-antibodies that bind to desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg 3 or Dsg3 and Dsg1 in mucous membranes and skin. A currently unresolved controversy in PV is whether apoptosis is involved in the pathogenic process. The objective of this study was to perform preclinical studies to investigate apoptotic pathway activation in PV pathogenesis with the goal to assess its potential for clinical therapy. For this purpose, we investigated mouse and human skin keratinocyte cultures treated with PV antibodies (the experimental Dsg3 monospecific antibody AK23 or PV patients IgG, PV mouse models (passive transfer of AK23 or PVIgG into adult and neonatal mice as well as PV patients' biopsies (n=6. A combination of TUNEL assay, analyses of membrane integrity, early apoptotic markers such as cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and the collapse of actin cytoskeleton failed to provide evidence for apoptosis in PV pathogenesis. However, the in vitro and in vivo PV models, allowing to monitor progression of lesion formation, revealed an early, transient and low-level caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition confirmed the functional implication of caspase-3 in major events in PV such as shedding of Dsg3, keratin retraction, proliferation including c-Myc induction, p38MAPK activation and acantholysis. Together, these data identify low-level caspase-3 activation downstream of disrupted Dsg3 trans- or cis-adhesion as a major event in PV pathogenesis that is non-synonymous with apoptosis and represents, unlike apoptotic components, a promising target for clinical therapy. At a broader level, these results posit that an impairment of adhesive functions in concert with low-level, non-lethal caspase-3 activation can evoke profound cellular changes which may be of relevance for other

  2. 76 FR 10810 - Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear...-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this workshop is to gather information from a broad...-level radioactive wastes that did not exist at the time part 61 was promulgated. The developments...

  3. DNA damage in blood cells exposed to low-level lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; Silva, Ana Paula Almeida da; Amorim, Philipi Freitas; Campos, Vera Maria Araújo; Magalhães, Luis Alexandre Gonçalves; de Paoli, Flavia; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-04-01

    In regenerative medicine, there are increasing applications of low-level lasers in therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases in soft and in bone tissues. However, there are doubts about effects on DNA, and an adequate dosimetry could improve the safety of clinical applications of these lasers. This work aimed to evaluate DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of Wistar rats induced by low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences, powers, and emission modes according to therapeutic protocols. Peripheral blood samples were exposed to lasers and DNA damage was accessed by comet assay. In other experiments, DNA damage was accessed in blood cells by modified comet assay using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III enzymes. Data show that exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers induce DNA damage depending on fluence, power and emission mode, which are targeted by Fpg and endonuclease III. Oxidative DNA damage should be considered for therapeutic efficacy and patient safety in clinical applications based on low-level red and infrared lasers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  5. Catch It Low to Prevent It High: Countering Low-Level Verbal Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the low-level aggression of verbal abuse demonstrated by children and adolescents. Describes the teasing, cursing, gossip, and ostracism associated with verbal abuse. Provides strategies for working with youth who are verbally aggressive including, how to reduce verbal maltreatment, how to engage in constructive communication, and ways…

  6. The mobile incinerator for intermediate and low level radioactive organic (wood) wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raginsky, L.S.; Demidovich, N.N.; Elanchik, A.G. [A.A. Bochvar Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident contaminated many settlements and the environment. The programme Vector was designed to mitigate the effects and involves designing a mobile facility for incinerating solid organic intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes. Results of the first stage are described.

  7. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty

    2002-12-01

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  8. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry for the determination of 210Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    A well High purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) Compton anticoincidence shield recently installed at DTU Nutech and specially designed for low-level measurements was used for the 210Pb determination in environmental samples. The system is compared to standard stand-alone HPGe...

  9. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for shipment as provided in Department of Transportation Regulations (49 CFR parts 171-179) for... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  10. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  11. Comparable low-level mosaicism in affected and non affected tissue of a complex CDH patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. Veenma (Danielle); L.W.J.E. Beurkens (Leonardus); H. Douben (Hannie); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); P. Noomen (Petra); L.C. Govaerts (Lutgarde); E.W.M. Grijseels (Els); M. Leguin (Maarten); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured

  12. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 8, introduction cementitious systems for Low-Level Waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.F.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Mason, T.O.; Brough, A.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents details about cementitious systems for low-level waste immobilization. Topics discussed include: composition and properties of portland cement; hydration properties; microstructure of concrete; pozzolans; slags; zeolites; transport properties; and geological aspects of long-term durability of concrete.

  13. Commissioning of the I-LHC RF low level with beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P; Wehrle, U; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    During the machine development session of 2007-10-03, the energy matching between PS and SPS was completed for the 208Pb82+ beam. The I-LHC RF low level, including the phase loop and the synchronisation loop, was commissioned to capture a single bunch of 208Pb82+. After commissioning, the beam was used for several non RF related machine developments.

  14. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  15. Evaluation of Commercial SCI Components and Low-level SCI Softwarefor the ATLAS Second Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, F; Bogaerts, A; Botterill, David R; Hauser, R; Middleton, R; Wickens, F J; Werner, P

    2000-01-01

    This note describes the work that has been carried out over aperiod of two years on the evaluation of hardware and softwarecomponents for the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI).These components include two generations of link controllers,several PCI-SCI interfaces and switches, a number of PCs andworkstations, low-level Application Programming Interfaces andsimple message passing libraries.

  16. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  17. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry.

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  19. Low-level infrared laser modulates muscle repair and chromosome stabilization genes in myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Camila Luna; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-08-01

    Infrared laser therapy is used for skeletal muscle repair based on its biostimulative effect on satellite cells. However, shortening of telomere length limits regenerative potential in satellite cells, which occurs after each cell division cycle. Also, laser therapy could be more effective on non-physiologic tissues. This study evaluated low-level infrared laser exposure effects on mRNA expression from muscle injury repair and telomere stabilization genes in myoblasts in normal and stressful conditions. Laser fluences were those used in clinical protocols. C2C12 myoblast cultures were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) in standard or normal (10 %) and reduced (2 %) fetal bovine serum concentrations; total RNA was extracted for mRNA expression evaluation from muscle injury repair (MyoD and Pax7) and chromosome stabilization (TRF1 and TRF2) genes by real time quantitative polymerization chain reaction. Data show that low-level infrared laser increases the expression of MyoD and Pax7 in 10 J/cm(2) fluence, TRF1 expression in all fluences, and TRF2 expression in 70 J/cm(2) fluence in both 10 and 2 % fetal bovine serum. Low-level infrared laser increases mRNA expression from genes related to muscle repair and telomere stabilization in myoblasts in standard or normal and stressful conditions.

  20. Measurement of low level carbon-14 in biologic specimens by wet ashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucks, D.; Maibach, H.

    1981-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies of animal and human skin are often advantageously performed with low levels of C-14. We detail an efficient wet ashing mehtod capable of detecting 20 dpm per sample, equivalent to twice the background level, thus permitting complete kinetic assays with 1 ..mu..Ci or less of C-14 per subject.