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Sample records for lysimeter co2 gradient

  1. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

  2. Leaching of 60Co, 137Cs and 226Ra in lysimeter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mueck, K.; Steger, F.; Algader, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the first results obtained from lysimeter experiments started in 1990. The lysimeter plant consists of twelve soil monoliths from four different sites (three replicates each). Since 1990 the following agricultural crops were grown: endive, corn, winter wheat, mustard, sugar beet and potato. Gravitational water ranged from 3.9 % to 18.3 % of precipitation plus irrigation water, calculated as half years average values excluding the first six months of operation. The two Cambisols on sediments exhibited a mean percentage of approx. 10 %. The Dystric Cambisol on silicate rock and the Gleysol showed average values of 20 %. In 1990 the top layers (20 cm) were contaminated with three radionuclides. The leaching of the contaminants 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra differed distinctly between the elements. The lowest leaching rates were observed for 137 Cs, followed by 60 Co. The 226 Ra-concentrations in the gravitational water were clearly highest of all. However, the comparison of the 226 Ra/ 22 2 8 Ra ratios in deep soil layers and in gravitational water showed that the 226 Ra measured in the leachate originates from the natural contents in the subsoil and not from the artificial 226 Ra contamination of the topsoil. The mobility of the artificial radionuclides decreased therefore in the following order: 60 Co > ( 226 Ra) > 137 Cs. (author)

  3. Special wasteform lysimeter program at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Stone, J.A.; Wiley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Special Wasteform Lysimeter project at SRL is designed to measure performance of typical production-line, low-level, solid wasteforms produced at power reactors and emplaced in a himid SLB site. The use of lysimeters permits direct measurement of migration of radioactivity from these wasteforms to provide a technical basis for evaluating how well these forms will perform in an actual burial trench, and additionally allows comparison with unencapsulated defense waste. Cement and polymer wasteforms were place into 10 lysimeters in March 1982. By March, 1983, 60 Co from both types of wasteforms had been detected in te lysimeter sumps. 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co were found in porous cup samplers located directly below the wasteforms. Measurements in mid-summer 1983 showed that 60 Co levels were 10 to 100 times greater in lysimeters containing the cement forms than in those containing the polymer. 5 references

  4. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  5. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  6. Effects of increased temperature and CO{sub 2} on soil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogner, G.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. The Norwegian Forest Research Institute has studied the effects of increased CO{sub 2} and temperature on forest soil, soil leachate and plants in an open top chamber experiment. The purpose was to analyze the changes in soil parameters and the leaching of elements. Nitrate and aluminium received special attention. The growth of Norway spruce and birch was followed, and its impact on the soil parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the temperature increase of the soil and consequently an increased turnover of soil organic matter had the major effect on the quality of soil leachates. CO{sub 2} was less important. Leaching of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was high from control lysimeters with moss cover. Lysimeters with birch hardly leached NO{sub 3}{sup -} at all. Spruce is in an intermediate position. Increased leaching of Al{sup n+} is found for moss lysimeters. Leachates from birch lysimeters have high concentrations of Al{sup n+} only at the end of the growth seasons. Plant growth is to some extent increased by the CO{sub 2} treatment. Birch grew well in all lysimeters and all treatments, spruce developed clear symptoms of stress. This result does not fit with the increased availability of nutrients in soil solution

  7. Evaluation and performance of the special wasteform lysimeters at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1985-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory has been evaluating the leaching/migration behavior of commercial power reactor wasteforms by the use of lysimeters operated under field conditions at a humid site. These lysimeters model the conditions in actual burial trenches. Wasteforms comprising Portland cement, masonry cement, and vinyl ester-styrene polymer wasteforms were emplaced in the lysimeters in March 1982. Effluent water has been analyzed on a regular basis since that time. Cs-137, Sr-90, and/or Co-60 have observed in the effluent water from the lysimeters, as well as in soil moisture samples collected from the unsaturated zone beneath the wasteforms. In March of 1984, horizontal cores were taken from one of the lysimeters containing a Portland cement wasteform to determine the vertical and radial profiles of radionuclides which might not have reached the lysimeter sump. Results from all of these sampling methods are discussed and interpreted. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Assessment of soil hydrology variability of a new weighing lysimeter facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Berg, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Diversifying annual crop rotations is a strategy that mimics natural ecosystems and is postulated to increase agricultural resilience to climate change, soil quality and provision of soil ecosystem services. However, diverse cropping systems could increase soil mineral N levels and lead to greater leaching and/or N2O emissions; which raises the questions: (i) are diverse cropping systems actually beneficial for air and water quality? (ii) what are the trade-offs between soil, water, and air quality upon implementing a diverse cropping rotation? It can be difficult to fully evaluate the interactions between the two N-pollution pathways simultaneously in traditional field studies as drainage is largely unconstrained. Weighing lysimeters solve this issue by providing a closed system to measure N outputs via drainage and soil gas fluxes. A set of 18 weighting lysimeters were installed in Elora, Ontario, Canada in May 2016, to establish a long-term study of N-leaching and greenhouse gas emission from traditional and diverse cropping rotations for two different soil types. Each lysimeter is equipped with an automated chamber for continuous measurement of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. A full characterization of variations of physical properties that may affect GHG emissions and N-leaching (e.g., soil temperature, moisture, drainage and evapotranspiration rates) amongst the lysimeters is required prior to application and assessment of the management treatments. Novel techniques such as wavelet analysis is required as standard statistical analyses are not applicable to the time series data. A full description of the lysimeters will be presented along with results of the characterization.

  9. Measurement of precipitation using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    Austria's alpine foothill aquifers contain important drinking water resources, but are also used intensively for agricultural production. These groundwater bodies are generally recharged by infiltrating precipitation. A sustainable water resources management of these aquifers requires quantifying real evapotranspiration (ET), groundwater recharge (GR), precipitation (P) and soil water storage change (ΔS). While GR and ΔS can be directly measured by weighable lysimeters and P by separate precipitation gauges, ET is determined by solving the climatic water balance ET = P GR ± ΔS. According to WMO (2008) measurement of rainfall is strongly influenced by precipitation gauge errors. Most significant errors result from wind loss, wetting loss, evaporation loss, and due to in- and out-splashing of water. Measuring errors can be reduced by a larger area of the measuring gaugés surface and positioning the collecting vessel at ground level. Modern weighable lysimeters commonly have a surface of 1 m², are integrated into their typical surroundings of vegetation cover (to avoid oasis effects) and allow scaling the mass change of monolithic soil columns in high measuring accuracy (0.01 mm water equivalent) and high temporal resolution. Thus, also precipitation can be quantified by measuring the positive mass changes of the lysimeter. According to Meissner et al. (2007) also dew, fog and rime can be determined by means of highly precise weighable lysimeters. Furthermore, measuring precipitation using lysimeters avoid common measuring errors (WMO 2008) at point scale. Though, this method implicates external effects (background noise, influence of vegetation and wind) which affect the mass time series. While the background noise of the weighing is rather well known and can be filtered out of the mass time series, the influence of wind, which blows through the vegetation and affects measured lysimeter mass, cannot be corrected easily since there is no clear relation between

  10. Lysimeter literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs

  11. 1987 monitoring report for the defense waste lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides migrate through the soil to the sump. This report updates previous monitoring reports and discusses results obtained during the past year of operation. The effluents from the forty defense waste lysimeters continue to be analyzed on a monthly basis for gamma emitting radionuclides and quarterly for alpha emitting radionuclides and Sr-90. Cobalt-60, Sr-90, Sb-125, U-235, Pu-238, Pu-239 and Am-241 continue to be detected in sump effluent. Detectable levels of cobalt-60 and antimony-125 are each observed in only one lysimeter. Manganese-54, Ru-106 and Th-234 are no longer detected in effluent from any lysimeter. Significant levels of Sr-90 and Pu-238 are observed from several lysimeters, while others continue to show low levels of U-235, Pu-239 and Am-241. The release rates for transporting radionuclides through the soil to the sump indicate that migration is independent of whether a lysimeter is operated in a saturated or unsaturated mode. Pine trees continue to grow on the ten foot diameter lysimeters. No sampling of needles or woody stem portions was performed. The purpose of analyzing pine trees growing on lysimeters is to measure the amount of radionuclide uptake by the pine trees as their root systems come in contact with the waste material. 6 refs., 2 figs., 49 tabs

  12. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-06-08

    At the Savannah River Site, liquid, low-level nuclear waste will be disposed of by incorporating the waste in concrete, a wasteform called saltstone. Saltstone monoliths will then be buried in the earth. To study the potential uptake of radionuclides by trees and other plants growing in the soil in the area containing buried saltstone, a lysimeter study has been in progress since 1984. Thirty two lysimeters were designed, constructed, and filled with soil. Saltstone samples, containing the liquid, low-level supernate from the tank 50 in-tank precipitation demonstration, were buried in some of the lysimeters. Other lysimeters, not containing saltstone, were used as controls. Crops, grass, and trees were planted in the lysimeters and sampled periodically to determine radionuclide concentrations. Water samples were also collected from the lysimeter sumps and analyzed for radionuclide content. This report documents the results of vegetative and lysimeter sump water measurements from the beginning of the project in November of 1984 through September of 1989. 6 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Polley, H. W.; Jin, V. L.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 μL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 μL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 μL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem processes, but experiments typically examine only two or a few levels of CA, and are typically constrained to one soil type. However, soil hydrologic properties differ across the landscape. Therefore, variation in the impacts of increasing CA on ecosystem function on different soil types must be understood to model and forecast ecosystem function under future CA and climate scenarios. Here we evaluate the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grassland plots receiving equal rainfall inputs (from irrigation) and exposed to a continuous gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1) of CA in the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment in central Texas, USA. Sixty intact soil monoliths (1 m2 x 1.5 m deep) taken from three soil types (Austin silty clay, Bastrop sandy loam, Houston clay) and planted to seven native tallgrass prairie grasses and forbs were exposed to the CA gradient beginning in 2006. Aboveground net primary productivity was assessed by end of season (November) harvest of each species in each monolith. Total ANPP of all species was 35 to 50% greater on Bastrop and Houston soils compared to Austin soils in both years (p Solidago canadensis strongly increased with increasing CA, with S. nutans responding more strongly on Bastrop and Houston soils (p = 0.053), indicating that increased greater rainfall use efficiency at high CA on these productive soils was associated with increased dominance by these species. In contrast, the grass Bouteloua curtipendula decreased in biomass with increasing CA, especially on Austin and Bastrop soils. The least productive species were the grass Tridens albescens, the legume Desmanthus illinoensis, and the forb Salvia azurea, and these showed

  14. Special waste-form lysimeters: Arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1987-08-01

    The release of contaminant from solidified low-level waste forms is being studied in a field lysimeter facility at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Duplicate samples of five different waste forms have been buried in 10 lysimeters since March 1984. Waste-form samples represent three different waste streams and four solidification agents (masonry cement, Portland III cement, Dow polymer /sup (a)/, and bitumen). Most precipitation at the Hanford Site arrives as winter snow; this contributes to a strong seasonal pattern in water storage and drainage observed in the lysimeters. The result is an annual range in the volumetric soil water content from 11% in late winter to 7% in the late summer and early fall, as well as annual changes in pore water velocities from approximately 1 cm/wk in early spring to less than 0.05 cm/wk in early fall. Measurable quantities of tritium and cobalt-60 are being collected in lysimeter drainage water. Approximately 30% of the original tritium inventory has been leached from two lysimeters originally containing tritium. Cobalt-60 is present in all waste forms; it is being collected in the leachate from five lysimeters. The total amount released varies, but in each case it is less than 0.1% of the original cobalt inventory of the waste sample. Nonradioactive constituents contained in the waste form, such as sodium, boron, and sulfate, are also being leached

  15. Marine Microphytobenthic Assemblage Shift along a Natural Shallow-Water CO2 Gradient Subjected to Multiple Environmental Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, V; Brownlee, C; Milazzo, M; Hall-Spencer, J

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on coastal ecosystems requires an understanding of the responses of algae, since these are a vital functional component of shallow-water habitats. We investigated microphytobenthic assemblages on rock and sandy habitats along a shallow subtidal pCO2 gradient near volcanic seeps in the Mediterranean Sea. Field studies of natural pCO2 gradients help us understand the likely effects of ocean acidification because entire communities are subjec...

  16. The influence of the lysimeter filling on the soil monolith inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, T.; Schilling, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-04-01

    In general, lysimeters are vessels containing disturbed or undisturbed soil blocks, for the most realistic scenario with regard to real outdoor conditions an undisturbed soil block so called soil monolith is preferable. The lower boundary condition was realized in two different ways: as a zero-tension lysimeter with a perforated bottom plate or as controlled lower boundary condition with a suction plate. The optimal surface area and the lysimeter length depend mainly on the scientific question. For cropped lysimeter experiments the lysimeter length has to reflect to a maximum root length. The base area is strongly connected to the scale of observation, whereby small-scale heterogeneity will be averaged using large base areas. For our experiments lysimeters with 2.5 m length, 2 m2 base area and with a wall thickness of the round vessel of 10 mm were used. A base frame weighted down by 120 t of concrete weights is necessary to press a lysimeter cylinder into the ground by the aid of a hydraulic press. The hydraulic press is connected with the base frame via chains. Because of the control of the four hydraulic cylinders a very precise vertical pressing process is guaranteed. To visualize the impact of the lysimeter filling on the intactness of the soil monolith a finite element computation was conducted. The finite element package ANSYS Release 11 was used to execute a nonlinear static analysis on a 2D-axisymmetric finite element model, to simulate the pressing process starting from a soil initial stress state and ending with the full length of the vessel driven into the soil, after which the hydraulic press and the concrete weights are deactivated and the vessel-surrounding soil is excavated. The numerical model of the pressing process considers among other things, a cap non-associative plasticity model with shear and volumetric hardening, soil to soil contact with cohesive zone modelling, soil to vessel contact with high friction, soil excavation using element birth

  17. Summary: special waste form lysimeters - arid program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Walter, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters - Arid Program is to determine the performance of solidified commercial low-level waste forms using a field-scale lysimeter facility constructed for measuring the release and migration of radionuclides from the waste forms. The performance of these waste forms, as measured by radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter effluent, will be compared to that predicted by laboratory characterization of the waste forms. Waste forms being tested include nuclear power reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, Dow polymer, and bitumen. To conduct the field leaching experiments a lysimeter facility was built to measure leachate under actual environmental conditions. Field-scale samples of waste were buried in lysimeters equipped to measure water balance components, effluent radionuclide concentrations, and to a limited extent, radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter soil samples. The waste forms are being characterized by standard laboratory leach tests to obtain estimates of radionuclide release. These estimates will be compared to leach rates observed in the field. Adsorption studies are being conducted to determine the amount of contaminant available for transport after the release. Theoretical solubility calculations will also be performed to investigate whether common solid phases could be controlling radionuclide release. 4 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  18. Composition and properties of soil solution in the Podzolic soil of a green moss-spruce stand according to lysimeter data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilova, E I; Korovkina, L V

    1964-01-01

    Lysimeter water from an acid Podzolic soil in a green moss - spruce stand always contained free CO/sub 2/ and bicarbonates. Titrable acidity (as a result of CO/sub 2/) showed the following averages by horizons for the period of observation: 0.86 meq/liter. (A/sub 0/A/sub 1/), 0.67 meq/liter (A/sub 2/), and 0.98 meq per liter (B). The corresponding alkalinities were: 0.69, 0.51, and 2.50 meq/liter. Bicarbonates were the principal mineral components of the soil solution. Their concentration in the litter (A/sub 0/A/sub 1/) was relatively low; it reached a minimum in the Podzolic horizon, and then increased sharply in the illuvial horizon. The seasonal dynamics of bicarbonates in the lower part of the profile were not related to changes in bicarbonate content in the upper horizons. It followed the cycle of plant activity. The autumn lysimeter water, formed by displacement of the upper soil solution, showed maximum concentration of bicarbonates. The spring lysimeter water, and partly the summer water, which form following the period of winter anabiosis, showed the lowest concentration. As the plants absorb water, the roots evolve carbon dioxide. The higher the summer temperature, the more bicarbonates accumulate in the soil.

  19. Field Lysimeter Test Facility for protective barriers: Experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.; Downs, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    This document was first written in October 1986 and has been used to guide the design of the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) and to promote discussions between research and engineering staff regarding the selection of barrier treatments for inclusion in the FLTF. The construction of the lysimeter facility was completed June 28, 1987. This document describes the facility, the treatments placed in each lysimeter, types of measurements made in each lysimeter, and a brief discussion of project activities related to quality assurance, safety, and funding requirements. The treatment description and figures have been updated to reflect the lysimeter facility as constructed. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan - ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsen, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the Annual Report are to: (1) describe changes in the volume of liquid seen in each lysimeter, (2) describe concentrations and changes or trends in the concentrations of leachate-indicator constituents in any liquids accumulated in each lysimeter, (3) summarize the finding in regard to the presence or absence of leachate in each lysimeter, (4) make recommendations, if any, limited to vadose-zone study-related variables. The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters.

  1. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  2. Special wasteform lysimeters initial three-year monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Grant, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Lysimeters containing ten typical commercial power reactor low-level wsteforms are in operation at the Savannah River Plant. This ten-year program is designed to measure the leaching and migration of radionuclides from these wasteforms under realistic burial ground conditions in a humid site. The data which the lysimeters provide serves as a technical basis for evaluating the performance of the wasteforms under actual burial conditions. Three years' operation of the lysimeters has demonstrated that all of the wasteforms perform excellently, with minimal releases of radioactivity. Cement-based wasteforms appear superior at retaining strontium. Polymer-based wasteforms appear superior at retaining cobalt and cesium isotopes. The releases of activity from the lysimeters are compared to the leaching behavior in immersion tests, with several differences noted. The conclusions drawn in this study are tentative, subject to the performance of the wasteforms after the lysimeters have been in operation for a longer period of time

  3. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  4. Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe): A new radiomics descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Prateek; Tiwari, Pallavi; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-11-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new radiomic descriptor, Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe) for capturing subtle differences between benign and pathologic phenotypes which may be visually indistinguishable on routine anatomic imaging. CoLlAGe seeks to capture and exploit local anisotropic differences in voxel-level gradient orientations to distinguish similar appearing phenotypes. CoLlAGe involves assigning every image voxel an entropy value associated with the co-occurrence matrix of gradient orientations computed around every voxel. The hypothesis behind CoLlAGe is that benign and pathologic phenotypes even though they may appear similar on anatomic imaging, will differ in their local entropy patterns, in turn reflecting subtle local differences in tissue microarchitecture. We demonstrate CoLlAGe's utility in three clinically challenging classification problems: distinguishing (1) radiation necrosis, a benign yet confounding effect of radiation treatment, from recurrent tumors on T1-w MRI in 42 brain tumor patients, (2) different molecular sub-types of breast cancer on DCE-MRI in 65 studies and (3) non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinomas) from benign fungal infection (granulomas) on 120 non-contrast CT studies. For each of these classification problems, CoLlAGE in conjunction with a random forest classifier outperformed state of the art radiomic descriptors (Haralick, Gabor, Histogram of Gradient Orientations).

  5. Radionuclide release from low-level waste in field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    A field program has been in operation for 8 years at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to determine the leaching/migration behavior of low-level radioactive waste using lysimeters. The lysimeters are soil-filled caissons containing well characterized wastes, with each lysimeter serving as a model of a shallow land burial trench. Sampling and analysis of percolate water and vegetation from the lysimeters provide a determination of the release rates of the radionuclides from the waste/soil system. Vegetative uptake appears to be a major pathway for migration. Fractional release rates from the waste/soil system are less than 0.01% per year. Waste-to-soil leach rates up to 10% per year have been determined by coring several of the lysimeters. The leaching of solidified wasteforms under unsaturated field conditions has agreed well with static, immersion leaching of the same type waste in the laboratory. However, releases from the waste/soil system in the lysimeter may be greater than predicted based on leaching alone, due to complexation of the radionuclides by other components leached from the wastes to form mobile, anionic species

  6. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  7. The soil microbiome at the Gi-FACE experiment responds to a moisture gradient but not to CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Alexandre B; Müller, Christoph; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2016-09-01

    The soil bacterial community at the Giessen free-air CO2 enrichment (Gi-FACE) experiment was analysed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. No substantial effects of CO2 levels on bacterial community composition were detected. However, the soil moisture gradient at Gi-FACE had a significant effect on bacterial community composition. Different groups within the Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla were affected differently by soil moisture content. These results suggest that modest increases in atmospheric CO2 may cause only minor changes in soil bacterial community composition and indicate that the functional responses of the soil community to CO2 enrichment previously reported at Gi-FACE are due to factors other than changes in bacterial community composition. The effects of the moisture gradient revealed new information about the relationships between poorly known Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and soil moisture content. This study contrasts with the relatively small number of other temperate grassland free-air CO2 enrichment microbiome studies in the use of moderate CO2 enrichment and the resulting minor changes in the soil microbiome. Thus, it will facilitate the development of further climate change mitigation studies. In addition, the moisture gradient found at Gi-FACE contributes new knowledge in soil microbial ecology, particularly regarding the abundance and moisture relationships of the soil Verrucomicrobia.

  8. Leaching of pesticides through normal-tillage and low-tillage soil--a lysimeter study. I. Isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomsgaard, Inge S; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Felding, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Isoproturon is a herbicide, which was used in Denmark against grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds until 1998. Isoproturon has frequently been detected in ground water monitoring studies. Leaching of isoproturon (N,N-dimethyl-N'-(4-(1-methylethyl)-phenyl)urea) and its metabolites, N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N-methylurea and N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)urea was studied in four lysimetres, two of them being replicates from a low-tillage field (lysimeter 3 and 4), the other two being replicates from a normal tillage field (lysimeter 5 and 6). In both cases the soil was a sandy loam soil with 13-14% clay. The lysimetres had a surface area of 0.5 m2 and a depth of 110 cm. Lysimeter 3 and 4 were sprayed with unlabelled isoproturon while lysimeter 5 and 6 was sprayed with a mixture of 14C-labelled and unlabelled isoproturon. The total amount of isoproturon sprayed onto each lysimeter was 63 mg, corresponding to 1.25 kg active ingredient per ha. The lysimeters were sprayed with isoproturon on October 26, 1997. The lysimetres were installed in an outdoor system in Research Centre Flakkebjerg and were thus exposed to normal climatic conditions of the area. A mean of 360 l drainage water were collected from lysimeter 3 and 4 and a mean of 375 litres from lysimeter 5 and 6. Only negligible amounts of isoproturon and its primary metabolites were found in the drainage water samples, and thus no significant difference between the two lysimeter sets was shown. In a total of 82 drainage water samples, evenly distributed between the four lysimetres isoproturon was found in detectable amounts in two samples and N'-(4-isopropylphenyl)urea was found in detectable amounts in two other samples. The detection limit for all the compounds was 0.02 microg/l. 48% and 54% of the added radioactivity were recovered from the upper 10 cm soil layer in lysimeter 5 and 6, respectively, and 17 and 14% from 10-20 cm's depth. By extraction first with an aquatic CaCl2 solution 0.49% of the added radioactivity was

  9. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results

  10. Mathematical study of a lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    In studies of the rehabilitation of mine overburden heaps at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, simple buried water collectors have been used as lysimeters to measure the infiltration into the heaps. This report describes the development and results of a study state finite difference computer code which calculates the movement of water in such systems. It is shown that the water collection efficiency of this type of lysimeter depends strongly on the hydraulic properties of the soil in which it is buried, as does the rate of capillary loss during periods of zero infiltration

  11. Special waste form lysimeters-arid. Annual report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program was initiated to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level nuclear waste in an arid climate. Waste-form leaching tests are being conducted at a field facility at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. A similar program is being conducted at a humid site. The field facility consists of 10 lysimeters placed around a central instrument caisson. The waste samples from boiling water and pressurized water reactors were emplaced in 1984, and the lysimeters are being monitored for movement of contaminants and water. Solidifying agents being tested include vinyl ester-styrene, bitumen, and cement. Laboratory leaching and geochemical modeling studies are being conducted to predict expected leach rates at the field site and to aid field-data interpretation. Small samples of the solidified waste forms were made for use in the laboratory leaching studies that include standard leach tests and leaching of solidified waste forms in soil columns. Complete chemical and radionuclide analyses are being conducted on the solid and liquid portions of the wastes. 2 refs

  12. Tritium tracing in hydrogeochemical studies using model-lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthess, G.; Pekdeger, A.; Schulz, H.D.; Rast, H.; Rauert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Tritium was used as a reference tracer for hydrogeochemical studies in the unsaturated zone. The investigators used different lysimeter types (25, 50, 100 cm), with and without suction plates filled with undisturbed soil monoliths of sandy podsol and loamy lessive. The tritium loss was greater than the evaporation amount determined. Water logging takes place in lysimeter bottoms increasing the evaporation in up to 100 cm lysimeters filled with loamy lessive and 25 cm with sandy podsol. After a 20 mm rain event seepage characteristics indicate 'by-passing' water besides intergranular seepage. Dispersion coefficients (8.5 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 ) are higher than molecular diffusion coefficient. Dispersion takes place mainly in top soil with wide ranging pore size distribution. Distribution coefficients of tritium in soil are rather low. Concentrations of anions and dissolved organic substance are different depending on residence time of seepage water in soil. Even a short residence time of seepage water in unsaturated soil is enough for cation exchange reactions to take place. (orig.) [de

  13. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  14. Integrating lysimeter drainage and eddy covariance flux measurements in a groundwater recharge model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2015-01-01

    Field scale water balance is difficult to characterize because controls exerted by soils and vegetation are mostly inferred from local scale measurements with relatively small support volumes. Eddy covariance flux and lysimeters have been used to infer and evaluate field scale water balances...... because they have larger footprint areas than local soil moisture measurements.. This study quantifies heterogeneity of soil deep drainage (D) in four 12.5 m2 repacked lysimeters, compares evapotranspiration from eddy covariance (ETEC) and mass balance residuals of lysimeters (ETwbLys), and models D...

  15. Use of Long-Term Lysimeter Data in Support of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Cover Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desotell, L.T.; Hudson, D.B.; Yucel, V.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Water balance studies using two precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in support of low-level radioactive waste disposal since 1994. The lysimeters are located in northern Frenchman Flat approximately 400 meters (m) from the southwest corner of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Frenchman Flat is in the northern Mojave Desert and has an average annual precipitation of 125 millimeters (mm). Each lysimeter consists of a 2 m by 4 m by 2 m deep steel tank filled with native alluvium, supported on a sensitive scale. The scale is instrumented with an electronic load-cell and data-logger for continuous measurement of total soil water storage with a precision of approximately ±800 grams or ±0.1 mm of soil water storage. Data-loggers are linked to cell phone modems for remote data acquisition. One lysimeter is vegetated with native creosote bush, four wing salt bush, and annual grass at the approximate density of the surrounding landscape while the other is maintained as bare soil. Since no drainage has been observed from the bottom of the lysimeters and run-on/run-off is precluded, the change in soil-water storage is equal to precipitation minus evaporation/evapotranspiration. After equilibration, the bare lysimeter contains approximately 20.2 centimeters (cm) of water (10.1 % volumetric water content) and the vegetated lysimeter contains approximately 11.6 cm of water (5.8 % volumetric water content). The finite difference code UNSAT-H was used to simulate the continuous water balance of the lysimeters. Calibrated one-dimensional model simulations were generally in agreement with field data. 30-year model simulations were conducted to evaluate long-term potential transport of radionuclides via the soil water migration pathway. A 30-year climate record was generated by repeating the existing data record. Simulations indicate a 2 m thick closure cover, in conjunction with native vegetation, will essentially eliminate drainage

  16. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Protective barrier test results (FY 1990, the third year)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) was constructed to test protective barriers for isolating low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes from the biosphere. Protective barriers are specially configured earth materials placed over near-surface wastes to prevent intrusion of water, plants, and animals. Low-level radioactive waste is stored in near-surface repositories at the Hanford Site and can be transported into the biosphere by water, plants, and animals. The purpose of the FLTF is to measure water balance within barriers as precipitation is partitioned to evaporation (including transpiration), storage, and drainage. Runoff was prevented by raised edges on the lysimeters. Water balance in protective barriers depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, the gradient of a potential, and the conductivity of the underlying capillary barrier. Current barrier design uses soil with a high water storage capacity and a capillary barrier underlying the soil to increase its water storage capacity. This increased storage capacity is to hold water, which would normally drain, near the the surface where evaporation can cycle it back to the atmosphere. 7 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Results of field testing of waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the field testing task, using lysimeter arrays, is to expose samples of solidified resin waste to the actual physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions of disposal enviroment. Wastes used in the experiment include a mixture of synthetic organic ion exchange resins and a mixture of organic exchange resins and an inorganic zeolite. Solidification agents used to produce the 4.8-by 7.6-cm cylindrical waste forms used in the study were Portland Type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene. Seven of these waste forms were stacked end-to-end and inserted into each lysimeter to provide a 1-L volume. There are 10 lysimeters, 5 at ORNL and 5 at ANL-E. Lysimeters used in this study were designed to be self-contained units which will be disposed at the termination of the 20-year study. Each is a 0.91-by 3.12-m right-circular cylinder divided into an upper compartment, which contains fill material, waste forms, and instrumentation, and an empty lower compartment, which collects leachate. Four lysimeters at each site are filled with soil, while a fifth (used as a control) is filled with inert silica oxide sand. Instrumentation within each lysimeter includes porous cup soil-water samplers and soil moisture/temperature probes. The probes are connected to an on-site data acquisition and storage system (DAS) which also collects data from a field meteorological station located at each site. 9 refs

  18. Characterization and tropical seasonal variation of leachate: results from landfill lysimeter studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to characterize the leachate and to investigate the tropical climatic influence on leachate characteristics of lysimeter studies under different seasonal variations at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored since June 2008 to May 2010, these periods cover both the dry and rainy season. The leachate generation had followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and TKN load, while both the COD concentration and load was higher compared with sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C. In addition, sanitary landfill lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produces reasonable low COD concentration and load compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and providing remedial measures of proper liner system in sanitary landfill design and leachate treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of WC Particle Size and Co Content on the Graded Structure in Functionally Gradient WC-Co Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yigao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient WC-Co composites having a Co depleted surface zone and not comprising the h phase can be manufactured via carburizing process. During carburizing, besides carburizing process parameters, the microstructural parameters of WC-Co materials, such as WC grain size and Co content, also have significant influences on the formation of Co gradient structure. In this study, the effects of WC particle size and Co content on the gradient structure within gradient hardmetals have been studied, based on a series of carburizing experiments of WC-Co materials with different WC particle sizes and cobalt contents. The results show that both the thickness and the amplitude of the gradients within gradient WC-Co materials increase with increasing initial WC particle size and Co content of WC-Co alloys. The reason for this finding is discussed.

  20. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance

  1. African Mahogany transpiration with Granier method and water table lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. O. Sérvulo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The thermal dissipation probe (Granier method is useful in the water deficit monitoring and irrigation management of African Mahogany, but its model needs proper adjustment. This paper aimed to adjust and validate the Granier sap flux model to estimate African Mahogany transpiration, measure transpiration using lysimeter and relate it to atmospheric water demand. Weather conditions, transpiration and sap flux were monitored in three units of 2.5-year-old African Mahogany trees in constant water table lysimeter, in Goiânia, GO. Sapwood area (SA, leaf area (LA, transpiration measured by lysimeter (TLYS and estimated by sap flux (TSF were evaluated. The SA comprised 55.24% of the trunk’s transversal section. The LA varied from 11.95 to 10.66 m2. TLYS and TSF varied from 2.94 to 29.31 and from 0.94 to 15.45 L d-1, respectively. The original model underestimated transpiration by 44.4%, being the adjusted equation F = 268.25 . k1.231. SA was significant (F < 0.05. Due the root confinement, the transpiration showed low correlation, but positive, with the atmospheric water demand.

  2. End tidal-to-arterial CO2 and O2 gas gradients at low- and high-altitude during dynamic end-tidal forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Michael M; Ainslie, Philip N; MacLeod, David B; Willie, Chris K; Foster, Glen E

    2015-06-01

    We sought to characterize and quantify the performance of a portable dynamic end-tidal forcing (DEF) system in controlling the partial pressure of arterial CO2 (Pa(CO2)) and O2 (Pa(O2)) at low (LA; 344 m) and high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) during an isooxic CO2 test and an isocapnic O2 test, which is commonly used to measure ventilatory and vascular reactivity in humans (n = 9). The isooxic CO2 tests involved step changes in the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET(CO2)) of -10, -5, 0, +5, and +10 mmHg from baseline. The isocapnic O2 test consisted of a 10-min hypoxic step (PET(O2) = 47 mmHg) from baseline at LA and a 5-min euoxic step (PET(O2) = 100 mmHg) from baseline at HA. At both altitudes, PET(O2) and PET(CO2) were controlled within narrow limits (<1 mmHg from target) during each protocol. During the isooxic CO2 test at LA, PET(CO2) consistently overestimated Pa(CO2) (P < 0.01) at both baseline (2.1 ± 0.5 mmHg) and hypercapnia (+5 mmHg: 2.1 ± 0.7 mmHg; +10 mmHg: 1.9 ± 0.5 mmHg). This P(a)-PET(CO2) gradient was approximately twofold greater at HA (P < 0.05). At baseline at both altitudes, PET(O2) overestimated Pa(O2) by a similar extent (LA: 6.9 ± 2.1 mmHg; HA: 4.5 ± 0.9 mmHg; both P < 0.001). This overestimation persisted during isocapnic hypoxia at LA (6.9 ± 0.6 mmHg) and during isocapnic euoxia at HA (3.8 ± 1.2 mmHg). Step-wise multiple regression analysis, on the basis of the collected data, revealed that it may be possible to predict an individual's arterial blood gases during DEF. Future research is needed to validate these prediction algorithms and determine the implications of end-tidal-to-arterial gradients in the assessment of ventilatory and/or vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-117 prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. The program includes reviewing radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 7 years of sampling and examining the relationship between code input parameters and lysimeter data. Also, lysimeter data are applied to performance assessment source term models, and initial results from use of data in two models are presented

  4. The estimation of soil water fluxes using lysimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehenkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    The validation of soil water balance models regarding soil water fluxes in the field is still a problem. This requires time series of measured model outputs. In our study, a soil water balance model was validated using lysimeter time series of measured model outputs. The soil water balance model used in our study was the Hydrus-1D-model. This model was tested by a comparison of simulated with measured daily rates of actual evapotranspiration, soil water storage, groundwater recharge and capillary rise. These rates were obtained from twelve weighable lysimeters with three different soils and two different lower boundary conditions for the time period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998. In that period, grass vegetation was grown on all lysimeters. These lysimeters are located in Berlin, Germany. One potential source of error in lysimeter experiments is preferential flow caused by an artificial channeling of water due to the occurrence of air space between the soil monolith and the inside wall of the lysimeters. To analyse such sources of errors, Hydrus-1D was applied with different modelling procedures. The first procedure consists of a general uncalibrated appli-cation of Hydrus-1D. The second one includes a calibration of soil hydraulic parameters via inverse modelling of different percolation events with Hydrus-1D. In the third procedure, the model DUALP_1D was applied with the optimized hydraulic parameter set to test the hy-pothesis of the existence of preferential flow paths in the lysimeters. The results of the different modelling procedures indicated that, in addition to a precise determination of the soil water retention functions, vegetation parameters such as rooting depth should also be taken into account. Without such information, the rooting depth is a calibration parameter. However, in some cases, the uncalibrated application of both models also led to an acceptable fit between measured and simulated model outputs.

  5. Lysimeter experiments on the translocation of methabenzthiazuron and dissolved organic carbon in an orthic luvisol, construction of two climate measuring stations and investigations to validate the lysimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetz, T.

    1993-09-01

    To study the transfer of methabenzthiazuron into the soil solution and to investigate leaching in intensively cultivated orthic luvisol soil, 248 and 264 mg m -2 [phenyl-U- 14 C]methabenzthiazuron were applied to winter wheat in a w.p. 66.7% formulation by pre-emergence spraying in accordance with good agricultural practice on two lysimeters in November 1988. This corresponded to an application quantity of 3.7 and 4.0 kg ha -1 of Tribunil R . To study the translocation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in an orthic luvisol, 631 g m -2 14 C-labelled oat straw, corresponding to a practical application of 6-8 t ha -1 , was worked into the 0-5 cm of the soil of the third lysimeter in October 1988. After oat straw and methabenzthiazuron application, two suction candles were installed at each depth of 10, 20, 40 and 60 cm in two lysimeters for continuous soil solution sampling. (orig.)

  6. Distribution of 15N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual 15 N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either 15 N-urea or 15 N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet. (orig.)

  7. Precipitation and evapotranspiration at the mountain lysimeter station Stoderzinken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndl, Markus; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    Alpine water resources are highly important for the Austrian drinking water supply. In particular, the Northern Calcareous Alps contribute substantially to both the regional and the national drinking water supply. To analyse water balance, runoff and recharge in a representative mountain pasture area in the Northern Calcareous Alps a lysimeter station was established at the mountain Stoderzinken (1830 m a.s.l.) in 2005. This work examines the water balance at the lysimeter station during one summer period. Precipitation and evapotranspiration are determined using various approaches in order to identify potential errors in the measurement or interpretation of the data and thus to assess the uncertainties in the water balance components. For this purpose, data of rain gauges and a distrometer was compared with the precipitation calculated from the water balance of the lysimeter. Furthermore evapotranspiration was calculated using the HAUDE and PENMAN-MONTEITH equations for comparison. Already in previous seasons the distrometer was found to be prone to errors, which was confirmed when compared to the rain gauge data. In contrast, precipitation rates calculated from the lysimeter data were found to agree better with the rain gauge data but showed a trend to higher values. However, the approach to calculate precipitation from the lysimeter data turned out to be unsuitable for time periods with significant contribution of snow melt. Evapotranspiration calculated from lysimeter data are in good agreement with the results from the above-mentioned (semi-)empirical equations during dry periods. Furthermore the differences to the evapotranspiration calculated from the climate data correlate with the amount of precipitation. These results suggest that in alpine catchments the uncertainty in the precipitation data constitutes the major source of error in the calculation of evapotranspiration from the water balance of the lysimeter. However, it should be noted that these

  8. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Mullinix, George W R; Ward, Joy K

    2016-10-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO 2 ] gradient (180-1,000 µL L -1 ). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO 2 ] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO 2 ] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (M Bio ) and nonmycorrhizal (NM Bio ) plants (R Bio = [M Bio - NM Bio ]/NM Bio ). We then assessed linkages between R Bio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, R Bio increased with rising [CO 2 ], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L -1 [CO 2 ] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in R Bio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, R Bio increased from 180 to 390 µL L -1 and further increases in [CO 2 ] caused R Bio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO 2 ] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in R Bio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO 2 ] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO 2 ], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO 2 ]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO 2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Performance of special wasteform lysimeters and waste migration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The special wasteform lysimeter (SWL) program at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) near Aiken, South Carolina is designed to measure leaching behavior and radionuclide migration under realistic burial conditions at a humid site. A similar program at an arid site is being conducted at Hanford near Richland, Washington. The wasteforms were placed in the lysimeters in March 1982 and represent typical low-level waste from two commercial reactors. An extensive report covering the initial three years of operation was issued in November 1985. This report updates the results of that report and includes significant observations made during the past year of operation. The Waste Migration Program at SRL included continued monitoring of 40 defense waste lysimeters, radionuclide uptake by pine trees, and measurement of total organic carbon in the ground water of the burial ground. 5 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  10. Distribution of /sup 15/N fertilizer in field-lysimeters sown with garlic (Allium sativum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, M.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencas Agrarias)

    1982-01-01

    We examined the distribution of residual /sup 15/N and its uptake by a foxtail millet crop grown in field lysimeters following a previous garlic crop fertilized with either /sup 15/N-urea or /sup 15/N-ammonium sulphate. Garlic apparently removed more N from the lysimeters treated with urea-N than from those treated with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Fertilizer-N in the lysimeters was similar (ca. 32% of original) following millet harvest. About 16 per cent of both fertilizers in the lysimeters was removed by the millet.

  11. Shallow water marine sediment bacterial community shifts along a natural CO2 gradient in the Mediterranean Sea off Vulcano, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Tripathi, Binu M; Milazzo, Marco; Lee, Junghoon; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    The effects of increasing atmospheric CO(2) on ocean ecosystems are a major environmental concern, as rapid shoaling of the carbonate saturation horizon is exposing vast areas of marine sediments to corrosive waters worldwide. Natural CO(2) gradients off Vulcano, Italy, have revealed profound ecosystem changes along rocky shore habitats as carbonate saturation levels decrease, but no investigations have yet been made of the sedimentary habitat. Here, we sampled the upper 2 cm of volcanic sand in three zones, ambient (median pCO(2) 419 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 3.77), moderately CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 592 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 2.96), and highly CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 1611 μatm, minimum Ω(arag) 0.35). We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of seawater pCO(2) would cause significant shifts in sediment bacterial community composition, as shown recently in epilithic biofilms at the study site. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the V1 to V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a shift in community composition with increasing pCO(2). The relative abundances of most of the dominant genera were unaffected by the pCO(2) gradient, although there were significant differences for some 5 % of the genera present (viz. Georgenia, Lutibacter, Photobacterium, Acinetobacter, and Paenibacillus), and Shannon Diversity was greatest in sediments subject to long-term acidification (>100 years). Overall, this supports the view that globally increased ocean pCO(2) will be associated with changes in sediment bacterial community composition but that most of these organisms are resilient. However, further work is required to assess whether these results apply to other types of coastal sediments and whether the changes in relative abundance of bacterial taxa that we observed can significantly alter the biogeochemical functions of marine sediments.

  12. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-01-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA) , which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential, Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and sub oxid conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 levels linked to the Southern Ocean carbon isotope gradient and dust flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Diz, Paula; Hall, Ian R.; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations observed at the end of glacial periods has, at least in part, been attributed to the upwelling of carbon-rich deep water in the Southern Ocean. The magnitude of outgassing of dissolved CO2, however, is influenced by the biological fixation of upwelled inorganic carbon and its transfer back to the deep sea as organic carbon. The efficiency of this biological pump is controlled by the extent of nutrient utilization, which can be stimulated by the delivery of iron by atmospheric dust particles. Changes in nutrient utilization should be reflected in the δ13C gradient between intermediate and deep waters. Here we use the δ13C values of intermediate- and bottom-dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the carbon isotope gradient between thermocline and abyssal water in the subantarctic zone of the South Atlantic Ocean over the past 360,000 years. We find millennial-scale oscillations of the carbon isotope gradient that correspond to changes in dust flux and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as reported from Antarctic ice cores. We interpret this correlation as a relationship between the efficiency of the biological pump and fertilization by dust-borne iron. As the correlation is exponential, we suggest that the sensitivity of the biological pump to dust-borne iron fertilization may be increased when the background dust flux is low.

  15. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from forest and grassland lysimeter soils in response to simulated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is expected to be exposed to altered temperature and hydrological conditions, which will affect the vulnerability of nitrogen and carbon cycling in soils and thus production and fluxes of climate relevant trace gases. However, knowledge of the response of greenhouse gas fluxes to climate change is limited so far, but will be an important basis for future climate projections. Here we present preliminary results of an ongoing lysimeter field study which aims to assess the impact of simulated climate change on N2O and CH4 fluxes from a forest and a fertilized grassland soil. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide research infrastructure TERENO, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Lysimeters (A = 1m2) were established in 2010 at high elevated sites (HE, 500 and 600 m.a.s.l.) and subsequently transferred along an altitudinal gradient to a low elevated site (LE, 100 m.a.s.l.) within the Eifel / Lower Rhine Valley Observatory in Western Germany, thereby resulting in a temperature increase of 2.3 K whereas precipitation decreased by 160 mm during the present study period. Systematic monitoring of soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O and CH4 based on weekly manual closed chamber measurements at HE and LE sites has started in August 2013. Furthermore, we routinely determine dissolved N2O and CH4 concentrations in the seepage water using a headspace equilibration technique and record water discharge in order to quantify leaching losses of both greenhouse gases. Cumulative N2O fluxes clearly responded to simulated climate change conditions and increased by 250 % and 600 % for the forest and the grassland soil, respectively. This difference between the HE and LE sites was mainly caused by an exceptionally heavy precipitation event in July 2014 which turned the LE site sustainably to a consistently higher emission level. Nonetheless, emissions remained rather small and ranged between 20 and 40 μg m-2 h-1. In

  16. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Collins, H.; Polley, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 µL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA . Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important because it indicates the potential effects of CO2 enrichment on genetic variability and the potential for evolutionary change in future generations. We examined whether the responses of inflorescence production to CO2 enrichment in four C4 grasses and a C3 forb were predicted their vegetative biomass, and by soil moisture, soil nitrogen, or light availability. Inflorescence production was studied in a long-term CO2 concentration gradient spanning pre-industrial to anticipated mid-21st century values (250 - 500 µL L-1) maintained on clay, silty clay and sandy loam soils common in the U.S. Southern Plains. We expected that CO2 enrichment would increase inflorescence production, and more so with higher water, nitrogen, or light availability. However, structural equation modeling revealed that vegetative biomass was the single consistent direct predictor of flowering for all species (p grass) and Solidago canadensis (C3 forb), direct CO2 effects on flowering were only weakly mediated by indirect effects of soil water content and soil NO3-N availability. For the decreasing species (Bouteloua curtipendula, C4 grass), the negative CO2-flowering relationship was cancelled (p = 0.39) by indirect effects of increased SWC and NO3-N on clay and silty clay soils. For the species with no CO2 response, inflorescence production was predicted only by direct water content (p grass) or vegetative biomass (p = 0.0009, Tridens albescens, C4 grass) effects. Light availability was unrelated to inflorescence production. Changes in inflorescence production are thus closely tied to direct and indirect effects of CO2 enrichment on vegetative biomass, and may either increase, decrease, or leave

  17. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Field lysimeter facility for evaluating the performance of commercial solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Analyzing the potential migration of radionuclides from sites containing solid low-level wastes requires knowledge of contaminant concentrations in the soil solution surrounding the waste. This soil solution concentration is generally referred to as the source term and is determined by such factors as the concentration of radionuclides in the solid waste, the rate of leachate formation, the concentration of dissolved species in the leachate, any solubility reactions occurring when the leachate contacts the soil, and the rate of water flow in the soil surrounding the waste. A field lysimeter facility established at the Hanford site is being used to determine typical source terms in arid climates for commercial low-level wastes solidifed with cement, Dow polymer (vinyl ester-styrene), and bitumen. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-dia closed-bottom lysimeters situated around a 4-m-deep by 4-m-dia central instrument caisson. Commercial cement and Dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in 8 of the lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility's remaining 2 lysimeters during 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste forms will be used to periodically collect soil-water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, soil moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle-size distribution, and distributions and concentrations of radionuclides in the waste forms. 11 references, 12 figures, 5 tables

  19. Investigations of pollutant migration using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2002-01-01

    The third GSF Lysimeter Workshop focused on pollutant migration in underground strata, i.e. the dispersion of water constituents as referred to water transport on the basis of ideal tracer investigations [de

  20. Contributions of lysimeter data to the development of site specific performance assessment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Jastrow, J.D.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Accurate data on the long-term performance of radioactive wastes in a disposal system are becoming a necessity in part because of restrictive federal and state regulations that are being promulgated. Data on the performance of buried radioactive waste forms can be obtained from lysimeter arrays. Lysimeters are ideal instruments for the acquisition of actual field test data. When properly designed and operated, lysimeters can be used to isolate and then study soil/waste systems under actual environmental conditions. The complexity of interactions occurring under field conditions can never by completely duplicated by standard laboratory testing. This paper provides data from two instrumented, operational lysimeter arrays containing waste forms fabricated with highly located exchange resin materials. The lysimeters have been in operation for five years and have been providing data for both meteorological events and radionuclide content of percolating water for the past four years. This paper provides data obtained from the lysimeters, a discussion of the data, and a manipulation of the database for calculating some code parameters that can be used as input into codes used to verify performance of buried radioactive waste forms

  1. Special waste-form lysimeters-arid: Three-year monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Serne, R.J.; Toste, A.P.

    1988-04-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of commercial low-level waste require all liquid waste to be solidified before burial. Most waste must be solidified into a rigid matrix such as cement or plastic to prevent waste consolidation and site slumping after burial. These solidification processes affect the rate at which radionuclides and other solutes are released into the soil. In 1983, a program was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to study the release of waste from samples of low-level radioactive waste that had been commercially solidified. The primary method used by this program is to bury sample waste forms in field lysimeters and monitor leachate composition from the release and transport of solutes. The lysimeter facility consists of 10 lysimeters, each containing one sample of solidified waste. Five different waste forms are being tested, allowing duplicate samples of each one to be evaluated. The samples were obtained from operating nuclear power plants and are actual waste forms routinely generated at these facilities. All solidification was accomplished by commercial processes. Sample size is a partially filled 210-L drum. All containers were removed prior to burial leaving the bare waste form in contact with the lysimeter soil. 11 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Lysimeter study to investigate the effect of rainfall patterns on leaching of isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D; Fryer, Christopher J; Walker, Allan

    2002-01-01

    The influence of five rainfall treatments on water and solute leaching through two contrasting soil types was investigated. Undisturbed lysimeters (diameter 0.25 m, length 0.5 m) from a sandy loam (Wick series) and a moderately structured clay loam (Hodnet series) received autumn applications of the radio-labelled pesticide isoproturon and bromide tracer. Target rainfall plus irrigation from the end of November 1997 to May 1998 ranged from drier to wetter than average (235 to 414 mm); monthly rainfall was varied according to a pre-selected pattern or kept constant (triplicate lysimeters per regime). Leachate was collected at intervals and concentrations of the solutes were determined. Total flow (0.27-0.94 pore volumes) and losses of bromide (3-80% of applied) increased with increasing inputs of water and were larger from the Wick sandy loam than from the Hodnet clay loam soil. Matrix flow appeared to be the main mechanism for transport of isoproturon through the Wick soil whereas there was a greater influence of preferential flow for the Hodnet lysimeters. The total leached load of isoproturon from the Wick lysimeters was 0.02-0.26% of that applied. There was no clear variation in transport processes between the rainfall treatments investigated for this soil and there was an approximately linear relationship (r2 = 0.81) between leached load and total flow. Losses of isoproturon from the Hodnet soil were 0.03-0.39% of applied and there was evidence of enhanced preferential flow in the driest and wettest treatments. Leaching of isoproturon was best described by an exponential relationship between load and total flow (r2 = 0.62). A 45% increase in flow between the two wettest treatments gave a 100% increase in leaching of isoproturon from the Wick soil. For the Hodnet lysimeters, a 35% increase in flow between the same treatments increased herbicide loss by 325%.

  3. Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid: annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program was initiated to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level nuclear waste in an arid climate. Waste-form leaching tests are being conducted at a field facility at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. A similar program is being conducted at a humid site. The field facility consists of 10 lysimeters placed around a central instrument caisson. The waste samples from boiling water and pressurized water reactors were emplaced in 1984, and the lysimeters are being monitored for movement of contaminants and water. Solidifying agents being tested include vinyl ester-styrene, bitumen, and cement. Laboratory leaching and geochemical modeling studies are being conducted to predict expected leach rates at the field site and to aid field-data interpretation. Small samples of the solidified waste forms were made for use in the laboratory leaching studies that include standard leach tests and leaching of solidified waste forms in soil columns. Complete chemical and radionuclide analyses are being conducted on the solid and liquid portions of the wastes

  4. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, George W.R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180–1,000 µL L−1). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO2] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (MBio) and nonmycorrhizal (NMBio) plants (RBio = [MBio − NMBio]/NMBio). We then assessed linkages between RBio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, RBio increased with rising [CO2], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L−1. [CO2] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in RBio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, RBio increased from 180 to 390 µL L−1 and further increases in [CO2] caused RBio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO2] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in RBio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO2] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO2], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO2]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. PMID:27573369

  5. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Elevated CO2 can modify the response to a water status gradient in a steppe grass: from cell organelles to photosynthetic capacity to plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanling; Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-12

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is rising continuously, and abnormal precipitation may occur more frequently in the future. Although the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on plants have been well reported individually, little is known about their interaction, particularly over a water status gradient. Here, we aimed to characterize the effects of elevated CO2 and a water status gradient on the growth, photosynthetic capacity, and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of a dominant grass from a degraded grassland. Elevated CO2 stimulated plant biomass to a greater extent under moderate changes in water status than under either extreme drought or over-watering conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance were also enhanced by elevated CO2 under moderate drought, but inhibited with over-watering. Severe drought distorted mesophyll cell organelles, but CO2 enrichment partly alleviated this effect. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) and total biomass water use efficiency (WUEt) were increased by elevated CO2, regardless of water status. Plant structural traits were also found to be tightly associated with photosynthetic potentials. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment alleviated severe and moderate drought stress, and highlighted that CO2 fertilization's dependency on water status should be considered when projecting key species' responses to climate change in dry ecosystems.

  7. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O......, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy....... The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw....

  8. Unsaturated zone moisture and vapor movement induced by temperature variations in asphalt barrier field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, D.J.; Fayer, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. Lysimeters were constructed to evaluate the performance of asphalt barrier formulations under natural environmental conditions. These lysimeters were constructed of 1.7-m lengths of PVC pipe that have a diameter of 30 cm. The lysimeters were filled with layers of gravel, coarse sand, and asphalt. The sand and gravel placed under the asphalt barrier were wet when installed. TOUGH was used to conduct simulations to assess the effect of temperature variations on moisture and vapor movement beneath the asphalt layer in field test lysimeters. All variables in TOUGH were converted to double precision so that simulations could be run on a Sun-4 UNIX workstation. A radially symmetric grid was used to simulate the lysimeter. 8 refs., 9 figs

  9. Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: lysimeter facility design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ruben, M.S.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface carriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural earth materials were used to construct layered soil and rock barriers in each lysimeter. These barrier designs are capable in principal of significantly reducing or precluding infiltration of meteoric water through barriers into underlying contaminated zones. This paper summarizes salient facility design and construction features used in testing of the Hanford Site's engineered surface barriers

  10. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with sampling surface dimensions of 31 cm width * 91 cm long and 87 cm in height were placed 90 cm below the soil surface in a Lihen sandy loam. Our state-of-the-art design incorporated Bluetooth wireless technology to enable an automated datalogger to transmit drainage water data simultaneously every 15 minutes to a remote host and had a greater efficiency than other types of lysimeters. It also offered a significantly larger coverage area (2700 cm2) than similarly designed vadose zone lysimeters. The cumulative manually extracted drainage water was compared with the cumulative volume of drainage water recorded by the datalogger from the tipping bucket using several statistical methods. Our results indicated that our automated PCAPs are accurate and provided convenient means for estimating water drainage in the vadose zone without the need for costly and manually time-consuming supportive systems.

  11. Development and kinetic analysis of cobalt gradient formation in WC-Co composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG WC-Co) is one of the main research directions in the field of WC-Co over decades. Although it has long been recognized that FG WC-Co could outperform conventional homogeneous WC-Co owing to its potentially superior combinations of mechanical properties, until recently there has been a lack of effective and economical methods to make such materials. The lack of the technology has prevented the manufacturing and industrial applications of FG WC-Co from becoming a reality. This dissertation is a comprehensive study of an innovative atmosphere heat treatment process for producing FG WC-Co with a surface cobalt compositional gradient. The process exploited a triple phase field in W-C-Co phase diagram among three phases (solid WC, solid Co, and liquid Co) and the dependence of the migration of liquid Co on temperature and carbon content. WC-Co with a graded surface cobalt composition can be achieved by controlling the diffusion of carbon transported from atmosphere during sintering or during postsintering heat treatment. The feasibility of the process was validated by the successful preparations of FG WC-Co via both carburization and decarburization process following conventional liquid phase sintering. A study of the carburization process was undertaken to further understand and quantitatively modeled this process. The effects of key processing parameters (including heat treating temperature, atmosphere, and time) and key materials variables (involving Co content, WC grain size, and addition of grain growth inhibitors) on the formation of Co gradients were examined. Moreover, a carbon-diffusion controlled kinetic model was developed for simulating the formation of the gradient during the process. The parameters involved in this model were determined by thermodynamic calculations and regression-fit of simulation results with experimental data. In summary, this research first demonstrated the principle of the approach

  12. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  13. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance

  14. Verification SEBAL and Hargreaves –Samani Models to Estimate Evapotranspiration by Lysimeter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Morshedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the hydrological cycle, energy equations at the surface and water balance. ET estimation is needed in various fields of science, such as hydrology, agriculture, forestry and pasture, and water resources management. Conventional methods used to estimate evapotranspiration from point measurements. Remote sensing models have the capability to estimate ET using surface albedo, surface temperature and vegetation indices in larger scales. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL estimate ET at the moment of satellite path as a residual of energy balance equation for each pixel. In this study Hargreaves-Samani (HS and SEBAL models ET compared to an alfalfa lysimeter data’s, located in Shahrekord plain within the Karun basin. Satellite imageries were based on Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor data’s in seven satellite passes for path 164 and row 38 in the World Reference System, similar to lysimeter sampling data period, from April to October 2011. SEBAL uses the energy balance equation to estimate evapotranspiration. Equation No. 1 shows the energy balance equation for an evaporative surface: λET=Rn–G–H [1] In this equation Rn, H, G and λET represent the net radiation flux input to the surface (W/m2, Sensible heat flux (W/m2, soil heat flux (W/m2, and latent heat of vaporization (W/m2, respectively. In this equation the vertical flux considered and the horizontal fluxes of energy are neglected. The above equation must be used for large surfaces and uniformly full cover plant area. SEBAL is provided for estimating ET, using the minimum data measured by ground equipment. This model is applied and tested in more than 30 countries with an accuracy of about 85% at field scale, and 95 percent in the daily and seasonal scales. In Borkhar watershed (East of Isfahan, IRAN ASTER and MODIS satellite imageries were used for SEBAL to compare Penman-Monteith model. Results showed that estimated

  15. Study of the synthesis and self-assembly of CO2-philic copolymers with complexing groups: application to decontamination in supercritical CO2 medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribaut, T.

    2009-10-01

    In the frame of sustainable development, a priority is to decrease the volume of nuclear wastes. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) could allow to solve this problem. The aim of this study is to extract an ionic or particle cobalt contamination deposited on textile lab coats. The strategy uses CO 2 -philic/CO 2 -phobic copolymers soluble in scCO 2 and containing complexing groups. This approach combines the use of amphiphilic copolymers for steric stabilization of particles, of surfactants able to self-assemble to promote extraction and of ligands. Controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize fluorinated gradient or block copolymers. Cloud point curves of the copolymers are determined experimentally in scCO 2 . Prediction of polymer/scCO 2 phase diagrams was assessed by Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) modeling. Gradient copolymers appear more advantageous than block copolymers due to their solubility in much milder conditions of pressure and temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) allowed us to evidence the pressure-induced aggregation of the gradient copolymers in scCO 2 . Their interface properties were demonstrated: they allow to form water-in-CO 2 microemulsions and to stabilize cobalt hydroxide dispersions in scCO 2 . Lastly, in presence of a very low quantity of water, Co 2+ ions were removed with a rate of 37 % from a cotton/polyester matrix by a gradient copolymer. (author)

  16. Performance of special wasteform lysimeters and waste migration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The special wasteform lysimeter (SWL) program at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) near Aiken, South Carolina, is designed to measure leaching behavior and radionuclide migration under realistic burial conditions at a humid site. A similar program at an arid site is being conducted at Hanford near Richland, Washington. The wasteforms were placed in the lysimeters in March 1982 and represent typical low-level waste from two commercial reactors. An extensive report covering the initial three years of operation was issued in November 1985. This report updates the results of that report and includes significant observations made during the past year of operation. The Waste Migration Program at SRL included continued monitoring of 40 defense waste lysimeters, radionuclide uptake by pine trees, and measurement of total organic carbon in the groundwater of the burial ground

  17. Lysimeter study with a cambric arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: I. Concentrations of ions in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogn, T.A.; Abrahamsen, G.; Stuanes, A.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of artificial acid rain on soil leachate composition were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1/2 year with 125 mm yr -1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H 2 SO 4 added. pH levels of 6.1, 4 and 3 were used. Increasing content of H 2 SO 4 in the artificial rain increased the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the leachate significantly. The pH of the leachate was slightly reduced only by the most acidic treatment (pH 3). The H + retention was not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the Al ion concentration. A slight increase in the Al ion concentration was only observed in the leachate from the pH 3-treated lysimeter. It is concluded that cation exchange and/or weathering were the main buffer mechanisms in the soil. The study supports conclusions from other acidification studies, that acidic precipitation is likely to increase the leaching of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobiazg, Tomasz, E-mail: drobiazg@if.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Arzel, Ludovic [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Dönmez, Adem [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, 48000, Muğla (Turkey); Zabierowski, Paweł [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Barreau, Nicolas [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-01

    In the laboratory scale, cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} grown by the 3-stage process reach the best performance because of high open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current (V{sub OC}-J{sub SC}) combination. One of the reasons for that could be the V-shaped gradient of Ga to In atomic ratio throughout the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layer, which results from large differences in the diffusion coefficients of In and Ga. The location of the lowest Ga-content in the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (i.e. Ga notch), also corresponds to the Cu-poor to Cu-rich transition during the 2nd stage. Since this transition is associated to a phenomenon of recrystallisation, the arising question is whether high V{sub OC}-J{sub SC} combination is effectively inherent to V-shaped gradient or to recrystallisation. In our work we attempt to eliminate the influence of recrystallisation to exclusively study the influence of Ga/In gradients. Our approach was to co-evaporate samples by the one-step process with different gradients by the continuous modification of In and Ga fluxes during the deposition and keeping constant that of Cu in a way that its ratio to group III elements was 0.9. With this method, we could obtain a set of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers either free of gradient, with linear gradient (i.e. no notch) or V-shaped gradient with notch at a different distance from the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} surface. We observe that depending on the presence of notch in conduction band or the position of notch it is possible to modify the impact of secondary barriers on current-voltage characteristics. - Highlights: • Investigation of the indium and gallium gradients apart from the recrystallisation • Short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage benefit from the band gap gradient. • Constant band gap gradient decreases the influence of secondary barriers. • With the presence of gallium notch the secondary barriers are more pronounced.

  19. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  20. Influence of hydrologic factors on leaching of solidified low-level waste forms at an arid site field-scale lysimeter facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    Most of the precipitation at the Hanford Site arrives as winter snow; this contributes to a strong seasonal pattern in water storage and drainage observed in the lysimeters. This seasonal pattern in storage corresponds to an annual range in the volumetric soil water content of 11% in late winter to 7% in the late summer and early fall. Annual changes in drainage rates cause pore water velocities to vary annually by nearly two orders of magnitude. Rapid snowmelt and frozen soils in February 1985 caused runoff water from areas adjacent to the lysimeter facility to flood three of the lysimeters. This resulted in a temporary increase in soil water storage, and an additional 5 to 10 cm of drainage for these three lysimeters. Measurable quantities of tritium and cobalt-60 are being collected in lysimeter drainage water. Approximately 30% of the original tritium inventory has been leached from both lysimeters containing samples of this waste form. Cobalt-60 is consistently being leached from five lysimeters representing three of the five waste forms. Total cobalt-60 collected from each of the five lysimeters varies, but in each case is less than 0.1% of the original cobalt inventory of the waste sample. Comparisons of cobalt release among flooded and non-flooded lysimeters show no significant difference caused by the extra drainage

  1. Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl esterstyrene. These waste forms are being tested to: (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays over 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predicted releases. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented

  2. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-08-01

    A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included

  3. Plant-Sediment Interactions in Salt Marshes - An Optode Imaging Study of O2, pH, and CO 2 Gradients in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Mueller, Peter; Meier, Robert J; Liebsch, Gregor; Jensen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    In many wetland plants, belowground transport of O 2 via aerenchyma tissue and subsequent O 2 loss across root surfaces generates small oxic root zones at depth in the rhizosphere with important consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling. This study demonstrates how roots of the intertidal salt-marsh plant Spartina anglica affect not only O 2 , but also pH and CO 2 dynamics, resulting in distinct gradients of O 2 , pH, and CO 2 in the rhizosphere. A novel planar optode system (VisiSens TD ® , PreSens GmbH) was used for taking high-resolution 2D-images of the O 2 , pH, and CO 2 distribution around roots during alternating light-dark cycles. Belowground sediment oxygenation was detected in the immediate vicinity of the roots, resulting in oxic root zones with a 1.7 mm radius from the root surface. CO 2 accumulated around the roots, reaching a concentration up to threefold higher than the background concentration, and generally affected a larger area within a radius of 12.6 mm from the root surface. This contributed to a lowering of pH by 0.6 units around the roots. The O 2 , pH, and CO 2 distribution was recorded on the same individual roots over diurnal light cycles in order to investigate the interlinkage between sediment oxygenation and CO 2 and pH patterns. In the rhizosphere, oxic root zones showed higher oxygen concentrations during illumination of the aboveground biomass. In darkness, intraspecific differences were observed, where some plants maintained oxic root zones in darkness, while others did not. However, the temporal variation in sediment oxygenation was not reflected in the temporal variations of pH and CO 2 around the roots, which were unaffected by changing light conditions at all times. This demonstrates that plant-mediated sediment oxygenation fueling microbial decomposition and chemical oxidation has limited impact on the dynamics of pH and CO 2 in S. anglica rhizospheres, which may in turn be controlled by other processes such as root

  4. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  5. Results of field testing of radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W., Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining informaiton on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first six years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to use in performance assessment models is presented. Initial results from use of data in a performance assessment model are discussed

  6. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  7. End-inspiratory rebreathing reduces the end-tidal to arterial PCO2 gradient in mechanically ventilated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Machina, Matthew; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph Arnold; Minkovich, Leonid

    Noninvasive monitoring of the arterial partial pressures of CO2 (PaCO2) of critically ill patients by measuring their end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 (PetCO(2)) would be of great clinical value. However, the gradient between PetCO(2) and PaCO2 (Pet-aCO(2)) in such patients typically varies over a

  8. Ecotoxicity and fate of a silver nanomaterial in an outdoor lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Karsten; Hoppe, Martin; Kraas, Marco; Fries, Elke; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Sewage sludge is repeatedly applied as fertilizer on farmland due to its high nutrient content. This may lead to a significant increase of silver nanomaterials (AgNM) in soil over years. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ecotoxicity and fate of AgNM under environmentally relevant conditions in outdoor lysimeters over 25 months. Two AgNM concentrations (1.7 and 8.0 mg/kg dry matter soil) were applied via sewage sludge into soil. In subsamples of the soil, incubated under laboratory conditions for 180 days, the comparability of outdoor and laboratory results regarding ecotoxicity was determined. The results from our long term lysimeter experiments show no detectable horizontal displacement in combination with very low remobilization to the percolate water. Thus, indicate that the sludge applied AgNM remains nearly immobile in the pathway between soils and leachate. However, Ag uptake to the roots of wheat and canola suggests that the chemical conditions in the rhizosphere induce AgNM remobilization from the incorporated sewage sludge even after two harvesting cycles. At the higher AgNM concentration a steady inhibition of the soil microflora was observed over 25 month in the lysimeter study, while there was no effect at the lower AgNM concentration. The results of the laboratory experiment reflect the findings of the lysimeter study and indicate that a risk assessment for AgNM based on data from laboratory tests is acceptable.

  9. Lysimeter studies on the behavior of persistant organic pollutants in the soil-plant-system (1989-1994). Vol. 2. The behavior of 14C fluoranthene and 14C benzo(a)pyrene and also 14C PCB 28 and 14C PCB 52 in the agroecosystem - lysimeter experiments with an orthic luvisol. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeder, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.; Fuehr, F.

    1995-11-01

    14 C-labelled PAH and PCB (benzo(a)pyrene/fluoranthene resp. PCB 28/PCB 52) were mixed into the A n horizon of the lysimeters containing soil cores of an Orthic Luvisol which had been removed undisturbed. Carrots (1990), winter wheat and spinach (1991), potatoes and kale (1992) were grown to harvest maturity. Radio-HPLC enabled the selective enrichment of radioactive substances from extracts of soil, plant and leachate samples in high-purity fractions for GC/MS analyses. Additionally degradation studies with benzo(a)pyrene and fluoranthene have been carried out. In the PAH-lysimeter the concentration of radioactivity in the soil dropped to less than 50% of the initial value after 4 months and after 28 months to about 30%. This can be attributed to mineralisation of fluoranthene. An increasing formation of bound residues was determined either in lysimeter as well as in the degradation study, which finally amounted to more than 50% of the 14 C activity persisting in the soil, of which 2/3 was located in the humin fraction and roughly equal fraction of the remainder in the fulvic and humic acids. Apart from the parent substances both in the lysimeter and degradation study three benzo(a)pyrene quinones were characterised and a non-polar metabolite of benzo(a)pyren with unknown structure was isolated. In the PCB-lysimeter the concentration of the radioactivity in the soil remained almost unchanged throughout 28 months. Metabolites of PCB could not be detected. A total of 0.58% (PCBs) and 0.16% (PAHs) of the radioactivity applied was recovered in the plants. The highest concentration has been determined in carrots, lower concentrations have been found in the subsequent crops and only the PCB cogeneres were detectable in small quantities ( [de

  10. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mukelabai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and could not be explained by variables such as leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in

  12. Water transport monitoring in an unsaturated zone – Case study: lysimeter Selniška dobrava (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mali

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution transport in an aquifer depends on its structure, upper unsaturated zone and lower saturated zone. In order to understand processes in the unsaturated zone, several hydrogeological field measurements must be done. A field laboratory- lysimeter in Selni{kadobrava was installed for the improvement of field measurements, and explanation of the parameters and processes in the unsaturated zone. The problems, which can be solved by means of investigations in a lysimeter, are defined in this paper. Described are also:concept of investigation planning, construction and equipment of the lysimeter, measurements of unsaturated zone parameters and processes, water sampling for physical, chemical and isotope analysis.

  13. Fate of diuron and linuron in a field lysimeter experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, L; Capri, E; Di Corcia, A; Barra Caracciolo, A; Giuliano, G

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate of herbicides can be studied at different levels: in the lab with disturbed or undisturbed soil columns or in the field with suction cup lysimeters or soil enclosure lysimeters. A field lysimeter experiment with 10 soil enclosures was performed to evaluate the mass balance in different environmental compartments of the phenylurea herbicides diuron [3-(3,4-diclorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl-urea] and linuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea]. After application on the agricultural soil, the herbicides were searched for in soil, pore water, and air samples. Soil and water samples were collected at different depths of the soil profile and analyzed to determine residual concentrations of both the parent compounds and of their main transformation products, to verify their persistence and their leaching capacity. Air volatilization was calculated using the theoretical profile shape method. The herbicides were detected only in the surface layer (0-10 cm) of soil. In this layer, diuron was reduced to 50% of its initial concentration at the end of the experiment, while linuron was still 70% present after 245 d. The main metabolites detected were DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] and DCA (3,4-dichloroaniline). In soil pore water, diuron and linuron were detected at depths of 20 and 40 cm, although in very low concentrations. Therefore the leaching of these herbicides was quite low in this experiment. Moreover, volatilization losses were inconsequential. The calculated total mass balance showed a high persistence of linuron and diuron in the soil, a low mobility in soil pore water (less than 0.5% in leachate water), and a negligible volatilization effect. The application of the Pesticide Leaching Model (PELMO) showed similar low mobility of the chemicals in soil and water, but overestimated their volatilization and their degradation to the metabolite DCPMU. In conclusion, the use of soil enclosure lysimeters proved to be a good

  14. Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability

  15. Field Lysimeter Test Facility status report IV: FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Felmy, D.G.; Ritter, J.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Downs, J.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kirkham, R.R.; Link, S.O.

    1993-10-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, a unique facility, the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is used to measure drainage from and water storage in soil covers. Drainage has ranged from near zero amounts to more than 50% of the applied water, with the amount depending on vegetative cover and soil type. Drainage occurred from lysimeters with coarse soils and gravel covers, but did not occur from capillary barrier-type lysimeters (1.5 m silt loam soil over coarse sands and gravels) except under the most extreme condition tested. For capillary barriers that were irrigated and kept vegetation-free (bare surface), no drainage occurred in 5 of the past 6 years. However, this past year (1992--1993) a record snowfall of 1,425 mm occurred and water storage in the irrigated, bare-surfaced capillary barriers exceeded 500 mm resulting in drainage of more than 30 mm from these barriers. In contrast, capillary barriers, covered with native vegetation (i.e., shrubs and grasses) did not drain under any climatic condition (with or without irrigation). In FY 1994, the FLTF treatments will be increased from 11 to 17 with the addition of materials that will simulate portions of a prototype barrier planned for construction in 1994 at the Hanford Site. The 17 FLTF treatments are designed to test the expected range of surface soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions encountered at the Hanford Site and will assist in evaluating final surface barrier designs for a waste disposal facility

  16. Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste due to internal and external environmental factors in a lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio C; Caribé, Rômulo M; Ribeiro, Libânia S; Sousa, Raul B A; Monteiro, Veruschka E D; de Paiva, William

    2016-12-05

    Long-term settlement magnitude is influenced by changes in external and internal factors that control the microbiological activity in the landfill waste body. To improve the understanding of settlement phenomena, it is instructive to study lysimeters filled with MSW. This paper aims to understand the settlement behavior of MSW by correlating internal and external factors that influence waste biodegradation in a lysimeter. Thus, a lysimeter was built, instrumented and filled with MSW from the city of Campina Grande, the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Physicochemical analysis of the waste (from three levels of depth of the lysimeter) was carried out along with MSW settlement measurements. Statistical tools such as descriptive analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The settlement/compression, coefficient of variation and PCA results indicated the most intense rate of biodegradation in the top layer. The PCA results of intermediate and bottom levels presented fewer physicochemical and meteorological variables correlated with compression data in contrast with the top layer. It is possible to conclude that environmental conditions may influence internal indicators of MSW biodegradation, such as the settlement.

  17. Numerical simulation of water flow in lysimeters; Numerische Simulation des Wasserflusses in Lysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honisch, M.; Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    A small-scale lysimeter plant on the premises of GSF has been dedicated to the study of water movement in sediments of Quaternary and Tertiary origin. The purpose of the present study was to describe water transport and non-reactive transport in the lysimeters under transient conditions and test the suitability of the numerical simulation programme Hydrus-2D for the unsaturated zone. The hydraulic characteristics and dispersiveness parameters were derived from earlier studies. The validity of these values was determined on the basis of a tracer experiment using the ideal tracer tritium water. [Deutsch] Zur Charakterisierung der Wasserbewegung in Sedimenten quartaeren und tertiaeren Ursprungs wird auf dem Gelaende der GSF eine Kleinlysimeteranlage betrieben. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Wasserfluss und nicht-reaktiven Transport in den Saeulen unter transienten Bedingungen zu beschreiben und hierbei die Eignung des numerischen Simulationsprogramms Hydrus-2D fuer die ungesaettigte Zone zu ueberpruefen. Die hydraulischen Kenngroessen und Dispersivitaetsparameter waren aus frueheren Untersuchungen abzuleiten. Die offene Frage hinsichtlich der Validitaet dieser Werte sollte auf der Grundlage eines Tracerexperiments mit tritiiertem Wasser als idealem Tracer ueberprueft werden. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating lysimeter drainage against soil deep percolation modeled with profile soil moisture, field tracer propagation, and lab measured soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    them have been reported. To compare among methods, one year of four large-scale lysimeters drainage (D) was evaluated against modeled soil deep percolation using either profile soil moisture, bromide breakthrough curves from suction cups, or measured soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory....... Measured volumetric soil water content (q) was 3-4% higher inside lysimeters than in the field probably due to a zero tension lower boundary condition inside lysimeters. D from soil hydraulic properties measured in the laboratory resulted in a 15% higher evapotranspiration and 12% lower drainage...... predictions than the model calibrated with field measured q. Bromide (Br) breakthrough curves indicated high variability between lysimeters and field suction cups with mean Br velocities at first arrival time of 110 and 33 mm/d, respectively. D was 520 mm/yr with lysimeters, 613 mm/yr with the calibrated...

  19. Surface CO2 Exchange Dynamics across a Climatic Gradient in McKenzie Valley: Effect of Landforms, Climate and Permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Startsev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern regions are experiencing considerable climate change affecting the state of permafrost, peat accumulation rates, and the large pool of carbon (C stored in soil, thereby emphasizing the importance of monitoring surface C fluxes in different landform sites along a climate gradient. We studied surface net C exchange (NCE and ecosystem respiration (ER across different landforms (upland, peat plateau, collapse scar in mid-boreal to high subarctic ecoregions in the Mackenzie Valley of northwestern Canada for three years. NCE and ER were measured using automatic CO2 chambers (ADC, Bioscientific LTD., Herts, England, and soil respiration (SR was measured with solid state infrared CO2 sensors (Carbocaps, Vaisala, Vantaa, Finland using the concentration gradient technique. Both NCE and ER were primarily controlled by soil temperature in the upper horizons. In upland forest locations, ER varied from 583 to 214 g C·m−2·year−1 from mid-boreal to high subarctic zones, respectively. For the bog and peat plateau areas, ER was less than half that at the upland locations. Of SR, nearly 75% was generated in the upper 5 cm layer composed of live bryophytes and actively decomposing fibric material. Our results suggest that for the upland and bog locations, ER significantly exceeded NCE. Bryophyte NCE was greatest in continuously waterlogged collapsed areas and was negligible in other locations. Overall, upland forest sites were sources of CO2 (from 64 g·C·m−2·year−1 in the high subarctic to 588 g C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal zone; collapsed areas were sinks of C, especially in high subarctic (from 27 g·C·m−2 year−1 in mid-boreal to 86 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic and peat plateaus were minor sources (from 153 g·C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal to 6 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic. The results are important in understanding how different landforms are responding to climate change and would be useful in modeling the

  20. Lysimeter experiments on root uptake of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from soil into vine and apple trees and on the transfer into grapes and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Foerstel, H.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1993-01-01

    In lysimeters filled with two different soil types (Parabraunerde and Podzol) the transfer of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from soil into vine and apple trees was investigated over a time period of 5 years (1988-1992). The soil was contaminated in 1978, so that at the beginning of the experiment the radionuclides were already aged. Due to the low availability for root uptake, the transfer of 60 Co and 137 Cs into vine and apple trees was very low. 90 Sr was fairly available for root uptake which caused a considerable uptake and translocation into vegetative plant parts. The physiological behaviour of the radionuclides investigated determined generally a low transfer into must and apples. This was confirmed by the transfer factors variing between 0.001 and 0.029 for 60 Co, 0.01 and 0.036 for 90 Sr and 0.001 and 0.109 for 137 Cs, respectively. The corresponding values in apples were in the same order of magnitude. The influence of the soil type is shown by the higher incorporation of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs into the single plant organs and by the higher transfer factors in must and apples grown on the podzolic soil. (orig.) [de

  1. Plant-Sediment Interactions in Salt Marshes – An Optode Imaging Study of O2, pH, and CO2 Gradients in the Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Koop-Jakobsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In many wetland plants, belowground transport of O2 via aerenchyma tissue and subsequent O2 loss across root surfaces generates small oxic root zones at depth in the rhizosphere with important consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling. This study demonstrates how roots of the intertidal salt-marsh plant Spartina anglica affect not only O2, but also pH and CO2 dynamics, resulting in distinct gradients of O2, pH, and CO2 in the rhizosphere. A novel planar optode system (VisiSens TD®, PreSens GmbH was used for taking high-resolution 2D-images of the O2, pH, and CO2 distribution around roots during alternating light–dark cycles. Belowground sediment oxygenation was detected in the immediate vicinity of the roots, resulting in oxic root zones with a 1.7 mm radius from the root surface. CO2 accumulated around the roots, reaching a concentration up to threefold higher than the background concentration, and generally affected a larger area within a radius of 12.6 mm from the root surface. This contributed to a lowering of pH by 0.6 units around the roots. The O2, pH, and CO2 distribution was recorded on the same individual roots over diurnal light cycles in order to investigate the interlinkage between sediment oxygenation and CO2 and pH patterns. In the rhizosphere, oxic root zones showed higher oxygen concentrations during illumination of the aboveground biomass. In darkness, intraspecific differences were observed, where some plants maintained oxic root zones in darkness, while others did not. However, the temporal variation in sediment oxygenation was not reflected in the temporal variations of pH and CO2 around the roots, which were unaffected by changing light conditions at all times. This demonstrates that plant-mediated sediment oxygenation fueling microbial decomposition and chemical oxidation has limited impact on the dynamics of pH and CO2 in S. anglica rhizospheres, which may in turn be controlled by other processes such as root

  2. A study of dissipation, degradation and binding of 14C-labeled endosulfan to soil in model lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Amor, A.; Saiz, E.B. de

    1999-01-01

    The degradation, dissipation and binding of α-endosulfan in two agricultural soils and sand was studied in lysimeter system under outdoor conditions, using 14 C labeled insecticide. Dissipation was rapid during the first few weeks after application. The half life of disappearance was 38 to 61 days for the soils from Cerro Punta and El Ejido, whereas, in sand it was 91 days. The insecticide degraded by oxidation at the sulfite group to the sulfate. The resultant product underwent further degradation to form 14 CO 2 and bound residues. Although a significant amount of 14 C leached through the sand, which contained less that 0.1% organic matter, there was no leaching of endosulfan through the other two types of soil, when leaching was started immediately after treatment. (author)

  3. Al2O3 Coated Concentration-Gradient Li[Ni0.73Co0.12Mn0.15]O2 Cathode Material by Freeze Drying for Long-Life Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingpeng; Du, Chunyu; Yan, Chunqiu; He, Xiaoshu; Song, Bai; Yin, Geping; Zuo, Pengjian; Cheng, Xinqun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 -coated concentration-gradient oxide is synthesized by a freeze drying method. • The effect of Al 2 O 3 -coating on concentration-gradient cathode is firstly studied. • Al 2 O 3 -coated sample exhibits high capacity and significantly enhanced cyclability. • Improved cyclability is ascribed to the effective protection of uniform Al 2 O 3 layer. - Abstract: In order to enhance the electrochemical performance of the high capacity layered oxide cathode with a Ni-rich core and a concentration-gradient shell (NRC-CGS), we use a freeze drying method to coat Al 2 O 3 layer onto the surface of NRC-CGS Li[Ni 0.73 Co 0.12 Mn 0.15 ]O 2 material. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is revealed that an amorphous Al 2 O 3 layer of about 5 nm in thickness is uniformly formed on the surface of NRC-CGS Li[Ni 0.73 Co 0.12 Mn 0.15 ]O 2 material by the freeze drying procedure. The freeze drying Al 2 O 3 -coated (FD-Al 2 O 3 -coated) sample demonstrates similar discharge capacity and significantly enhanced cycling performances, in comparison to the pristine and conventional heating drying Al 2 O 3 -coated (HD-Al 2 O 3 -coated) samples. The capacity decay rate of FD-Al 2 O 3 -coated Li[Ni 0.73 Co 0.12 Mn 0.15 ]O 2 material is 1.7% after 150 cycles at 55 °C, which is 9 and 12 times lower than that of the pristine and HD-Al 2 O 3 -coated samples. The superior electrochemical stability of the FD-Al 2 O 3 -coated sample is attributed to the synergistic protection of CGS and high-quality Al 2 O 3 coating that effectively protect the active material from electrolyte attack. The freeze drying process provides an effective method to prepare the high performance surface-coated electrode materials

  4. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

  5. Intra-aggregate CO2 enrichment: a modelling approach for aerobic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotter, D.; Schack-Kirchner, H.

    2013-02-01

    CO2 concentration gradients inside soil aggregates, caused by the respiration of soil microorganisms and fungal hyphae, might lead to variations in the soil solution chemistry on a mm-scale, and to an underestimation of the CO2 storage. But, up to now, there seems to be no feasible method for measuring CO2 inside natural aggregates with sufficient spatial resolution. We combined a one-dimensional model for gas diffusion in the inter-aggregate pore space with a cylinder diffusion model, simulating the consumption/production and diffusion of O2 and CO2 inside soil aggregates with air- and water-filled pores. Our model predicts that for aerobic respiration (respiratory quotient = 1) the intra-aggregate increase in the CO2 partial pressure can never be higher than 0.9 kPa for siliceous, and 0.1 kPa for calcaric aggregates, independent of the level of water-saturation. This suggests that only for siliceous aggregates CO2 produced by aerobic respiration might cause a high small-scale spatial variability in the soil solution chemistry. In calcaric aggregates, however, the contribution of carbonate species to the CO2 transport should lead to secondary carbonates on the aggregate surfaces. As regards the total CO2 storage in aerobic soils, both siliceous and calcaric, the effect of intra-aggregate CO2 gradients seems to be negligible. To assess the effect of anaerobic respiration on the intra-aggregate CO2 gradients, the development of a device for measuring CO2 on a mm-scale in soils is indispensable.

  6. Simulating the integrated summertime Δ14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bozhinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dioxide (14CO2, reported in Δ14CO2 can be used to determine the fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil fuel CO2 no longer contains any 14C. After the release of CO2 at the source, atmospheric transport causes dilution of strong local signals into the background and detectable gradients of Δ14CO2 only remain in areas with high fossil fuel emissions. This fossil fuel signal can moreover be partially masked by the enriching effect that anthropogenic emissions of 14CO2 from the nuclear industry have on the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature. In this paper, we investigate the regional gradients in 14CO2 over the European continent and quantify the effect of the emissions from nuclear industry. We simulate the emissions and transport of fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem for a period covering 6 summer months in 2008. We evaluate the expected CO2 gradients and the resulting Δ14CO2 in simulated integrated air samples over this period, as well as in simulated plant samples. We find that the average gradients of fossil fuel CO2 in the lower 1200 m of the atmosphere are close to 15 ppm at a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution. The nuclear influence on Δ14CO2 signatures varies considerably over the domain and for large areas in France and the UK it can range from 20 to more than 500% of the influence of fossil fuel emissions. Our simulations suggest that the resulting gradients in Δ14CO2 are well captured in plant samples, but due to their time-varying uptake of CO2, their signature can be different with over 3‰ from the atmospheric samples in some regions. We conclude that the framework presented will be well-suited for the interpretation of actual air and plant 14CO2 samples.

  7. Precision requirements for space-based X(CO2) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.E.; Crisp, D.; Miller, C.E.; Salawitch, J.; Sander, S.P.; Sen, B.; Toon, C.; DeCola, P.L.; Olsen, S.C.; Randerson, J.T.; Michalak, A.M.; Alkhaled, A.; Michalak, A.M.; Rayner, P.; Jacob, D.J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jacob, D.J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jones, D.B.A.; Denning, A.S.; Nicholls, M.E.; O'Brien, D.; Doney, S.C.; Pawson, S.; Pawson, S.; Connor, B.J.; Fung, I.Y.; Tans, P.; Wennberg, P.O.; Yung, Y.L.; Law, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Precision requirements are determined for space-based column-averaged CO 2 dry air mole fraction X(CO 2 ) data. These requirements result from an assessment of spatial and temporal gradients in X(CO 2 ), the relationship between X(CO 2 ) precision and surface CO 2 flux uncertainties inferred from inversions of the X(CO 2 ) data, and the effects of X(CO 2 ) biases on the fidelity of CO 2 flux inversions. Observational system simulation experiments and synthesis inversion modeling demonstrate that the Orbiting Carbon Observatory mission design and sampling strategy provide the means to achieve these X(CO 2 ) data precision requirements. (authors)

  8. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Abril, G.; Andres, R.; Bastviken, D.; Bellassen, V.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Corazza, M.; Dechow, R.; Erb, K.H.; Etiope, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Grassi, G.; Hartmann, J.; Jung, M.; Lathiere, J.; Lohila, A.; Mayorga, E.; Moosdorf, N.; Njakou, D.S.; Otto, J.; Papale, D.; Peters, W.; Peylin, P.; Raymond, P.; Rodenbeck, C.; Saarnio, S.; Schulze, E.D.; Szopa, S.; Thompson, R.; Verkerk, P.J.; Vuichard, N.; Wang, R.; Wattenbach, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO,

  9. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  10. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R.

    1999-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [ 15 N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers [de

  11. Phase gradient algorithm based on co-axis two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Zhu, Qiong; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xin, Zhiduo; Liu, Jingye

    2017-12-01

    A phase gradient method based on co-axis two-step phase-shifting interferometry, is used to reveal the detailed information of a specimen. In this method, the phase gradient distribution can only be obtained by calculating both the first-order derivative and the radial Hilbert transformation of the intensity difference between two phase-shifted interferograms. The feasibility and accuracy of this method were fully verified by the simulation results for a polystyrene sphere and a red blood cell. The empirical results demonstrated that phase gradient is sensitive to changes in the refractive index and morphology. Because phase retrieval and tedious phase unwrapping are not required, the calculation speed is faster. In addition, co-axis interferometry has high spatial resolution.

  12. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  13. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  14. Noise spectroscopy of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebing, N. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, d-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S., E-mail: santiago.serrano-guisan@inl.int [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Avenida Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [University of Bielefeld, Department of Physics, Univesitätesstr. 25, d-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Schumacher, H.W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, d-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present experimental data of the precessional dynamics of the free layer of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) in the presence of thermal gradients across the MTJ. The free layer precession is investigated by noise spectroscopy. Thermal gradients of the order of tens of mK/nm across the MTJ are generated by electrical heating. Without applied thermal gradients we find spin transfer torque modified magnetization precession. With increasing thermal gradients we generally observe a decrease of the precession frequency which could be related to an increasing overall free layer temperature. However an asymmetry of the line width behavior for parallel and antiparallel orientation points towards additional effects beyond thermal activation. This could be a hint for the modification of the precessional dynamics in magnetic tunnel junctions by thermal spin torques. - Highlights: • Thermal gradients induced magnetization dynamics on MTJ structures are explored. • Magnetic noise spectroscopy is carried out to study the efficiency of such effects. • A decrease of resonance frequency is observed at both MTJ states for large ∇T. • An asymmetric linewidth behavior is observed for both MTJ states under ∇T. • Additional thermal effects beyond thermal activation must be considered.

  15. Leaching of transuranics observed in lysimeter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, A.; Fredriksson, L.

    1994-01-01

    A lysimeter installation, primarily designed for studies on plant uptake of transuranics from a number of Swedish soils, has been used also for studies on leaching of nuclides with drainage water from contaminated top soil layers in lysimeter vessels through 65 cm subsoil layers. Interception by ion exchanging resins simulated the nuclide transfer to a field drainage system. The study dealt with the contamination of agricultural land. The results obtained in the experiments have to be interpreted cautiously with regard to their bearing on field conditions. Also, the experimental period has been short when compared with the expected ecological half time of transuranic elements in the environment. However, the results indicate that over a first decade the leaching to drainage systems of transuranics in equilibrium with soil environments is of the same order as that of the crop uptake. The ranges assessed for leaching with an excess precipitation of 200 mm from a deposit in the plough layer to the drainage system during a decade are: for plutonium - 0.003-0.8%, for americium - 0.004-0.006% and for neptunium - 0.03-0.06%. The values for plutonium and americium are very similar except for the organic soil used which held the former nuclide very loosely bound. The leaching of neptunium seems to be ten times that for the other nuclides. It is higher on sandy soils than on organic and clay soils. (author)

  16. [Dynamic observation, simulation and application of soil CO2 concentration: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hao; Luo, Sha; Zhou, Ping; Li, Teng-Yi; Wang, Juan; Li, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Soil CO2 concentration is the consequences of biological activities in above- and below-ground, and its fluctuation may significantly affect the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and the projected climate change. This paper reviewed the methodologies for measuring the soil CO2 concentration in situ as well as their advantages and disadvantages, analyzed the variation patterns and controlling factors of soil CO2 concentration across the temporal (diurnal, several days, seasonal and inter-annual) and spatial (soil profile, site and landscape) scales, introduced the primary empirical and mechanical models for estimating and predicting soil CO2 concentration, and summarized the applications and constraints of soil CO2 concentration gradient in determining soil respiration. Four research priorities were proposed, i. e., to develop new techniques for collecting and determining the soil CO2 in severe soil conditions (e. g., flooding, lithoso and others), to approach the responses of soil CO2 concentration to weather change and related regulation mechanisms, to strengthen the researches on the spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 concentration, and to expand the applications of soil CO2 concentration gradient in the measurement of tropical-subtropical soil respiration.

  17. CO2 deficit in temperate forest soils receiving high atmospheric N-deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Siegfried

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is provided for an internal CO2 sink in forest soils, that may have a potential impact on the global CO2-budget. Lowered CO2 fraction in the soil atmosphere, and thus lowered CO2 release to the aboveground atmosphere, is indicated in high N-deposition areas. Also at forest edges, especially of spruce forest, where additional N-deposition has occurred, the soil CO2 is lowered, and the gradient increases into the closed forest. Over the last three decades the capacity of the forest soil to maintain the internal sink process has been limited to a cumulative supply of approximately 1000 and 1500 kg N ha(-1). Beyond this limit the internal soil CO2 sink becomes an additional CO2 source, together with nitrogen leaching. This stage of "nitrogen saturation" is still uncommon in closed forests in southern Scandinavia, however, it occurs in exposed forest edges which receive high atmospheric N-deposition. The soil CO2 gradient, which originally increases from the edge towards the closed forest, becomes reversed.

  18. Forecasting Responses of a Northern Peatland Carbon Cycle to Elevated CO2 and a Gradient of Experimental Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Shuang; Stacy, Mark; Shi, Zheng; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Luo, Yiqi

    2018-03-01

    The ability to forecast ecological carbon cycling is imperative to land management in a world where past carbon fluxes are no longer a clear guide in the Anthropocene. However, carbon-flux forecasting has not been practiced routinely like numerical weather prediction. This study explored (1) the relative contributions of model forcing data and parameters to uncertainty in forecasting flux- versus pool-based carbon cycle variables and (2) the time points when temperature and CO2 treatments may cause statistically detectable differences in those variables. We developed an online forecasting workflow (Ecological Platform for Assimilation of Data (EcoPAD)), which facilitates iterative data-model integration. EcoPAD automates data transfer from sensor networks, data assimilation, and ecological forecasting. We used the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Experiments data collected from 2011 to 2014 to constrain the parameters in the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, forecast carbon cycle responses to elevated CO2 and a gradient of warming from 2015 to 2024, and specify uncertainties in the model output. Our results showed that data assimilation substantially reduces forecasting uncertainties. Interestingly, we found that the stochasticity of future external forcing contributed more to the uncertainty of forecasting future dynamics of C flux-related variables than model parameters. However, the parameter uncertainty primarily contributes to the uncertainty in forecasting C pool-related response variables. Given the uncertainties in forecasting carbon fluxes and pools, our analysis showed that statistically different responses of fast-turnover pools to various CO2 and warming treatments were observed sooner than slow-turnover pools. Our study has identified the sources of uncertainties in model prediction and thus leads to improve ecological carbon cycling forecasts in the future.

  19. Examination plan for the soils and low-level radioactive waste forms of the NRC field testing lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. Lysimeters are ideal systems for obtaining actual field test data because, when properly designed and operated, they can be used to isolate soil and waste systems under actual environmental conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental plan for the examination of the waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays, which have now been shut down. Vertical soil cores have been taken from the soil columns and will be analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST-predicted releases to those previously determined and reported from the lysimeter leachate analyses. That comparison uses new partition coefficients (Kd) recently obtained from laboratory analysis of the lysimeter soils and sand. Those DUST code results also will be compared to actual radionuclide movements through the soil columns as determined from soil core analysis

  20. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Results after nine years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using Portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. This paper reviews radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 9 years of sampling. Included is a discussion of the recently discovered upward migration of radionuclides. Also, lysimeter data are applied to a performance assessment source term model, and initial results are presented

  2. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-06-01

    Short-pulse, high-power CO 2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO 2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ 2 -proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO 2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  3. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections

  4. Carbon Deposition in Solid Oxide Cells during Co-Electrolysis of H2O and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    current densities from 1.5 to 2.25 A/cm2 and reactant (H2O + CO2) conversion of up to 67%. Delamination and carbon nano-fibers were observed at the Ni-YSZ|YSZ interface for two cells with a dense microstructure operated at electrolysis current densities of 2.0 and 2.25 A/cm2 and a conversion of 59% and 67...... and the active Ni-YSZ electrode. Carbon nano-fibers were only observed close to the YSZ electrolyte, indicating a very reducing atmosphere and a large over-potential gradient in the active electrode, being highest at the interface to the bulk electrolyte and decreasing toward the Ni-YSZ support.......Carbon formation during co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 in Ni-YSZ supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) may occur, especially at high current density and high conversion. In order to evaluate the carbon formation limits, five galvanostatic tests were performed in this work at electrolysis...

  5. Lysimeter experiments to determine the ability of soil to reduce concentrations of BOD, available P and inorganic N in dirty water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick; Retter, A R

    2005-11-01

    Lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine the ability of different soils to reduce levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and concentrations of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N) in dirty water and the impact of applications on nitrate leaching. An additional experiment investigated the effect of dirty water components on leaching quality. This information is required to assess the potential risk of dirty water applications on polluting groundwater and to assess the use of such soils in the development of treatment systems for dirty water. Intact and disturbed soil lysimeters, 0.5 and 1m deep were constructed from four soils; a coarse free-draining sandy loam, a sandy loam over soft sandstone, a calcareous silty clay over chalk and a sandy loam over granite. For the coarse free-draining sandy loam, lysimeters were also constructed from disturbed soil with and without the addition of lime, to assess if this could increase phosphorus immobilisation. Levels of BOD and concentrations of MRP, NH4(+)-N and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) of leachates were measured following dirty water applications at 2 and 8 mm day(-1) under laboratory conditions. Under the daily 2mm application, all soils were effective at treating dirty water, reducing concentrations of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N by > or = 98% but NO3(-)-N concentrations increased up to 80 mg l(-1) from the 0.5 m deep lysimeters of the sandy loam over granite. Soils were less effective at reducing levels of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N at the 8 mm daily rate of application, with maximum NO3(-)-N concentrations of leachates of 200 mg l(-1) from disturbed soils.

  6. Block and Gradient Copoly(2-oxazoline) Micelles: Strikingly Different on the Inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Sergey K; Verbraeken, Bart; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Angelov, Borislav; Vishnevetskaya, Natalya S; Papadakis, Christine M; Rogers, Sarah; Radulescu, Aurel; Courtin, Tim; Martins, José C; Starovoytova, Larisa; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Kravchenko, Vitaly S; Potemkin, Igor I; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-08-17

    Herein, we provide a direct proof for differences in the micellar structure of amphiphilic diblock and gradient copolymers, thereby unambiguously demonstrating the influence of monomer distribution along the polymer chains on the micellization behavior. The internal structure of amphiphilic block and gradient co poly(2-oxazolines) based on the hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx) and the hydrophobic poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (PPhOx) was studied in water and water-ethanol mixtures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Contrast matching SANS experiments revealed that block copolymers form micelles with a uniform density profile of the core. In contrast to popular assumption, the outer part of the core of the gradient copolymer micelles has a distinctly higher density than the middle of the core. We attribute the latter finding to back-folding of chains resulting from hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions, leading to a new type of micelles that we refer to as micelles with a "bitterball-core" structure.

  7. Impact of CO_2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO_2 Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO_2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO_2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO_2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO_2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO_2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO_2 concentration and will create CO_2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO_2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO_2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO_2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO_2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO_2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO_2 injection/leakage plume where CO_2 concentrations are highest. At CO_2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO_2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO_2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site

  8. Nocturnal accumulation of CO2 underneath a tropical forest canopy along a topographical gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Alessandro C; Kruijt, Bart; Nobre, Antonio D; Dolman, Albertus J; Waterloo, Maarten J; Moors, Eddy J; de Souza, Juliana S

    2008-09-01

    Flux measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor above tropical rain forests are often difficult to interpret because the terrain is usually complex. This complexity induces heterogeneity in the surface but also affects lateral movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) not readily detected by the eddy covariance systems. This study describes such variability using measurements of CO2 along vertical profiles and along a toposequence in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil. Seasonal and diurnal variation was recorded, with atmospheric CO2 concentration maxima around dawn, generally higher CO2 build-up in the dry season and stronger daytime CO2 drawdown in the wet season. This variation was reflected all along the toposequence, but the slope and valley bottom accumulated clearly more CO2 than the plateaus, depending on atmospheric stability. Particularly during stable nights, accumulation was along lines of equal altitude, suggesting that large amounts of CO2 are stored in the valleys of the landscape. Flushing of this store only occurs during mid-morning, when stored CO2 may well be partly transported back to the plateaus. It is clear that, for proper interpretation of tower fluxes in such complex and actively respiring terrain, the horizontal variability of storage needs to be taken into account not only during the night but also during the mornings.

  9. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan - ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsen, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date

  11. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan - ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date.

  12. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-06-01

    Short-pulse, high-power CO 2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO 2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ 2 -proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage distance, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO 2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  13. Mesostructure-Induced Selectivity in CO2 Reduction Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anthony Shoji; Yoon, Youngmin; Wuttig, Anna; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2015-12-02

    Gold inverse opal (Au-IO) thin films are active for CO2 reduction to CO with high efficiency at modest overpotentials and high selectivity relative to hydrogen evolution. The specific activity for hydrogen evolution diminishes by 10-fold with increasing porous film thickness, while CO evolution activity is largely unchanged. We demonstrate that the origin of hydrogen suppression in Au-IO films stems from the generation of diffusional gradients within the pores of the mesostructured electrode rather than changes in surface faceting or Au grain size. For electrodes with optimal mesoporosity, 99% selectivity for CO evolution can be obtained at overpotentials as low as 0.4 V. These results establish electrode mesostructuring as a complementary method for tuning selectivity in CO2-to-fuels catalysis.

  14. Leaching of potassium in a lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    Leaching of potassium was studied in the lysimeter plant in Seibersdorf/Austria (Pannonian climate). Averaged over three years, gravitational water amounted to 15.7% of the sum of precipitation (mean 485 mm) and irrigation (mean 138 mm). Differences between the four soils with respect to drainage were explained by the specific percentage of the soil skeleton. The average yearly potassium leaching ranged from 3.64 kg K/ha·yr (Dystric-Cambisol) to 22.7 kg K/ha·yr (drained Gleysol). Correlation between gravitational water volume and potassium leaching were only significant for one out of four soil types. No correlation was observed between extractable potassium in the soil profiles and potassium leaching. (author)

  15. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled

  16. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  17. Results of about a seven years lysimeter study to the quantification of the mobility of radionuclides into the system soil-water-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Strebl, F.; Temmel, B.

    1999-04-01

    The result of seven years lysimeter experiments (twelve soil monoliths, four soil types) to determine the uptake of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra into agricultural crops and the leaching behaviour are presented. The mobility of the artificial radionuclides in soil profiles decreased in the following order: 60 Co ≥ 22 6Ra > 137 Cs. Total median values of soil-plant transfer factors (dry matter basis) for the three radionuclides decreased from 226 Ra (0.068 kg kg -1 ) to 137 Cs (0.043 kg kg -1 ) and 60 Co (0.018 kg kg -1 ). The physical and chemical properties of the experimental soils resulted in significant differences in transfer factors or fluxes between the investigated soils for 137 Cs and 226 Ra, but not for 60 Co. Differences in transfer between plant species and plant parts are distinct, with graminaceous species showing 5.8 and 15 times lower values for 137 Cs and 60 Co than dicodyle-donean species. In model calculations radionuclide losses through the different pathways (physical decay, leaching plant uptake and removal) were quantified. (author)

  18. Mineralization and Transfer Processes of 14C-labeled Pesticides in Outdoor Lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Sabine; Doerfler, Ulrike; Ruth, Bernhard; Loos, Christine; Wagner, Tobias; Karl, Heidrun; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    A recently designed two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system allows the detailed investigation of degradation, transport and transfer processes of 14 C-labeled substances in soil-plant-atmosphere-systems under outdoor conditions. With this test system it is feasible to distinguish between 14 C-emissions from soil surfaces and 14 C-emissions from plant surfaces in soil monoliths under real environmental conditions. Special soil humidity sensors allow the measurement of soil water content near to the soil surface, in 1 and 5 cm depth. The behavior of organic chemicals can be followed for a whole vegetation period and a mass balance for the applied chemical can be established. Some selected results of the herbicides isoproturon and glyphosate - using the two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system - are presented to demonstrate its applicability for the identification and quantification of the processes that govern pesticide behavior in soil-plant-systems. Mineralization of 14 C-isoproturon was very different in four different soils; the mineralization capacity of the soils ranged from 2 to 60%. Leaching of isoproturon in general was very low, but depending on the soil type and environmental conditions isoproturon and its metabolites could be leached via preferential flow, especially shortly after application. For the herbicide 14 C-glyphosate no accumulation of residues in the soil and no leaching of the residues to deeper soil layers could be observed after three applications. Glyphosate was rapidly degraded to AMPA in the soil. Glyphosate and AMPA were accumulated in soy bean nodules

  19. Synthesis of porous MnCo2O4microspheres with yolk–shell structure induced by concentration gradient and the effect on their performance in electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Yang, Yue; Sun, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel spherical yolk–shell MnCo2O4 powders with concentration gradient have been synthesized. The porous microspheres with yolk–shell structure (2.00–3.00 μm in average diameter, ∼200 nm in thickness of shell) are built up by irregular nanoparticles attached to each other. It is sh...

  20. LYSIMETER - A UNIQUE TOOL FOR MONITORING THE INTERACTIONS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Matušek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern lysimeter facilities in connection with meteorological stations allow monitoring and evaluation of mutual basic components of the environment, such as water, air, soil and vegetation. Water is the most important component of the ecosystem and the component which connects all the other components. Therefore, we need to know the basic distribution and water balance in the different components of the environment to be able to interpret some processes in nature. Rainfall, which is the primary source of vital processes in the soil, is formed in the air. The amount of precipitation that gets into the soil and into the groundwater is affected by weather conditions. Primary distribution of rainwater is divided between infiltration, surface runoff, transpiration and evapotranspiration. The amount of water infiltrated into the soil and then evaporated by solar activity or activities of plants can be identified primarily by monitoring changes in weight. For this monitoring we use weighable lysimeter. This equipment with the monolith size of surface area 1 m2 and the depth of 1.5 m is able to follow online updates of weight of the 2 ton body with an accuracy of 100 g. When we add to quantification of leakages through the bottom layer, we obtain a comprehensive record of rainfall at the time in the natural environment of the individual components. The obtained data can be further interpreted in terms of the needs of hydrology, agriculture, and environmental studies, and according to the purpose and objectives for which we want to use them.

  1. Influence of a heavy rainfall event on the leaching of [14C]isoproturon and its degradation products in outdoor lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörfler, Ulrike; Cao, Guoyin; Grundmann, Sabine; Schroll, Reiner

    2006-11-01

    In four different agricultural soils the long-term leaching behaviour of [14C]isoproturon was studied in outdoor lysimeters (2 m length, 1 m2 surface area). The herbicide was applied in spring 1997 and spring 2001. At the end of the first 4-year-investigation period between 0.13% and 0.31% of the applied radioactivity was leached. Isoproturon or known metabolites could not be detected in the leachate. However, shortly after the second application isoproturon and its degradation products 2-hydroxy-isoproturon and monodemethyl-isoproturon were leached via preferential flow in one of the lysimeters (Mollic gleysol) in concentrations of 4.5 microg L-1, 3.1 microg L-1 and 0.9 microg L-1, respectively, thus considerably exceeding the EU threshold limit of 0.1 microg L-1 for ground and drinking water. The results indicate that in soils where mass flow transfer dominates, leaching of isoproturon to groundwater is of low probability whereas in highly structured soils which have the tendency to form macropores, isoproturon can be transported via preferential flow to the groundwater.

  2. Mathematical modelling of deuterium transport in field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloszewski, P.; Klotz, D.; Trimborn, P.; Maciejewski, S.

    1999-01-01

    The results yielded by the Variable Flow Model (VFDM) permitted determining water flow velocities and degrees of dispersiveness. It transpired that it is not possible to isolate immobile water, which is to say that the available measuring and modelling data permit no conclusion as to whether or not the system contains immobile water. Comparison with the results obtained with the Dispersion Model (DM) showed that the simpler DM model yields tracer concentration curves in the system output that are almost as good as those of the more complicated VFDM model while entailing less work. The two models yield very similar calculations of lysimeter water content [de

  3. Annual Report for Gravity Collection Lysimeter Monitoring Plan – ERDF Cells 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-04-04

    The data and analyses contained in this report reflect the initial characterization of construction and consolidation water in Cells 5 and 6 lysimeters. Therefore, the scope of this report will be to establish constituent levels and document dewatering activities completed to date.

  4. Validation of a simple evaporation-transpiration scheme (SETS) to estimate evaporation using micro-lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Sadegh; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Several methods exist to estimate E and T. The Penman-Montieth or Priestly-Taylor methods along with the Jarvis scheme for estimating vegetation resistance are commonly used to estimate these fluxes as a function of land cover, atmospheric forcing and soil moisture content. In this study, a simple evaporation transpiration method is developed based on MOSAIC Land Surface Model that explicitly accounts for soil moisture. Soil evaporation and transpiration estimated by SETS is validated on a single column of soil profile with measured evaporation data from three micro-lysimeters located at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad synoptic station, Iran, for the year 2005. SETS is run using both implicit and explicit computational schemes. Results show that the implicit scheme estimates the vapor flux close to that by the explicit scheme. The mean difference between the implicit and explicit scheme is -0.03 mm/day. The paired T-test of mean difference (p-Value = 0.042 and t-Value = 2.04) shows that there is no significant difference between the two methods. The sum of soil evaporation and transpiration from SETS is also compared with P-M equation and micro-lysimeters measurements. The SETS predicts the actual evaporation with a lower bias (= 1.24mm/day) than P-M (= 1.82 mm/day) and with R2 value of 0.82.

  5. Comparative investigations on the transferability of results from standardized vessel and lysimeter experiments on the actual field conditions with the example of the residue situation in plants after spraying with Goltix and Tribunil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansper, M.

    1986-06-01

    The radioactivity values in the plant samples of the lysimeter and vessel experiments made it possible to calculate the material equivalent quantities in mg/kg of fresh or dry mass. The basis for the calculation was the specific 14 C activity of the applied materials. In these calculated material equivalent quantities one is dealing with compounds, which originate from a large number of material change processes including reassimilated in 14 CO 2 from decomposition processes in the ground. Within one test unit, with one exception, double quantities always led to residues of more than twice as much in the plants. (orig./PW) [de

  6. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of MR gradient echo imaging towards CO2 induced changes in cerebral blood flow was investigated in 10 normal subjects. The subjects were inhaling 5% and 7% CO2 and the experiments were carried out at 1.5 T (n = 6) and 2.0 T (n = 5), allowing a comparison of field strengths....... Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  7. Still needed data for successful deep CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, Gene C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite chemical knowledge about CO 2 that extends back centuries, some data bases are still evolving that are needed to predict even the sub-critical CO 2 behavior down the geothermal gradient's P- and T-values which will be encountered in sequestration utilizing deep mines and wells. These needed data include IR-spectral interpretations of CO 2 molecular structure as P and T change; the unraveling of the Joule Thomson coefficient (heating or cooling?) that changes algebraic polarity around 10 6 Pa; more exact equations of state (EOS) that correlate to potential CO 2 polarity changes in molecular structure; newer EOS than those that have currently been derived by templating directly measured data; and focus is needed on the EOS-derived properties, like fugacity. Also, natural analogues like (1) the carbonate stability in metamorphic silicate-carbonation facies and (2) Lake Nyos aqueous geochemistry with concern about the potential redox-equilibria-predicted presence of CO (and graphite), as well as CO 2 . (authors)

  8. Co-ordination of NDH and Cup proteins in CO2 uptake in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xunling; Sun, Nan; Xu, Min; Mi, Hualing

    2017-06-01

    High and low affinity CO2-uptake systems containing CupA (NDH-1MS) and CupB (NDH-1MS'), respectively, have been identified in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, but it is yet unknown how the complexes function in CO2 uptake. In this work, we found that deletion of cupB significantly lowered the growth of cells, and deletion of both cupA and cupB seriously suppressed the growth below pH 7.0 even under 3% CO2. The rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution was decreased slightly by deletion of cupA but significantly by deletion of cupB and more severely by deletion of both cupA and cupB, especially in response to changed pH conditions under 3% CO2. Furthermore, we found that assembly of CupB into NDH-1MS' was dependent on NdhD4 and NdhF4. NDH-1MS' was not affected in the NDH-1MS-degradation mutant and NDH-1MS was not affected in the NDH-1MS'-degradation mutants, indicating the existence of independent CO2-uptake systems under high CO2 conditions. The light-induced proton gradient across thylakoid membranes was significantly inhibited in ndhD-deletion mutants, suggesting that NdhDs functions in proton pumping. The carbonic anhydrase activity was suppressed partly in the cupA- or cupB-deletion mutant but severely in the mutant with both cupA and cupB deletion, indicating that CupA and CupB function in conversion of CO2 to HCO3-. In turn, deletion of cup genes lowered the transthylakoid membrane proton gradient and deletion of ndhDs decreased the CO2 hydration. Our results suggest that NDH-1M provides an alkaline region to activate Cup proteins involved in CO2 uptake. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Nature-Inspired 2D-Mosaic 3D-Gradient Mesoporous Framework: Bimetal Oxide Dual-Composite Strategy toward Ultrastable and High-Capacity Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wang, Yanlei; Mou, Lihui; Fang, Daliang; Chen, Shimou; Zhang, Suojiang

    2018-02-27

    In allusion to traditional transition-metal oxide (TMO) anodes for lithium-ion batteries, which face severe volume variation and poor conductivity, herein a bimetal oxide dual-composite strategy based on two-dimensional (2D)-mosaic three-dimensional (3D)-gradient design is proposed. Inspired by natural mosaic dominance phenomena, Zn 1-x Co x O/ZnCo 2 O 4 2D-mosaic-hybrid mesoporous ultrathin nanosheets serve as building blocks to assemble into a 3D Zn-Co hierarchical framework. Moreover, a series of derivative frameworks with high evolution are controllably synthesized, based on which a facile one-pot synthesis process can be developed. From a component-composite perspective, both Zn 1-x Co x O and ZnCo 2 O 4 provide superior conductivity due to bimetal doping effect, which is verified by density functional theory calculations. From a structure-composite perspective, 2D-mosaic-hybrid mode gives rise to ladder-type buffering and electrochemical synergistic effect, thus realizing mutual stabilization and activation between the mosaic pair, especially for Zn 1-x Co x O with higher capacity yet higher expansion. Moreover, the inside-out Zn-Co concentration gradient in 3D framework and rich oxygen vacancies further greatly enhance Li storage capability and stability. As a result, a high reversible capacity (1010 mA h g -1 ) and areal capacity (1.48 mA h cm -2 ) are attained, while ultrastable cyclability is obtained during high-rate and long-term cycles, rending great potential of our 2D-mosaic 3D-gradient design together with facile synthesis.

  10. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David

    2018-02-01

    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  11. Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu

    2015-05-01

    Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations with soil CO2 flux measurements. Deeply sourced CO2 migrates through steeply dipping fault zones to the shallow aquifers predominantly as an aqueous phase. Dense CO2-rich brine mixes with regional groundwater, enhancing CO2 dissolution. Linear stability analysis reveals that CO2 could be dissolved completely within only 500 years. Assigning lower permeability to the fault zones induces fault-parallel movement, feeds up-gradient aquifers with more CO2, and impedes down-gradient fluid flow, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The regional fault permeability that best reproduces field spatial CO2 flux variation is estimated 1 × 10-17 ≤ kh < 1 × 10-16 m2 and 5 × 10-16 ≤ kv < 1 × 10-15 m2. The anticlinal trap serves as an essential fluid source for eruption at Crystal Geyser. Geyser-like discharge sensitively responds to varying well permeability, radius, and CO2 recharge rate. The cyclic behavior of wellbore CO2 leakage decreases with time.

  12. Controlled CO2 injection into a shallow aquifer and leakage detection monitoring practices at the K-COSEM site, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Joun, W.; Ju, Y. J.; Ha, S. W.; Jun, S. C.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial carbon dioxide injection into a shallow aquifer system was performed with two injection types imitating short- and long-term CO2 leakage events into a shallow aquifer. One is pulse type leakage of CO2 (6 hours) under a natural hydraulic gradient (0.02) and the other is long-term continuous injection (30 days) under a forced hydraulic gradient (0.2). Injection and monitoring tests were performed at the K-COSEM site in Eumseong, Korea where a specially designed well field had been installed for artificial CO2 release tests. CO2-infused and tracer gases dissolved groundwater was injected through a well below groundwater table and monitoring were conducted in both saturated and unsaturated zones. Real-time monitoring data on CO2 concentration and hydrochemical parameters, and periodical measurements of several gas tracers (He, Ar, Kr, SF6) were obtained. The pulse type short-term injection test was carried out prior to the long-term injection test. Results of the short-term injection test, under natural hydraulic gradient, showed that CO2 plume migrated along the preferential pathway identified through hydraulic interference tests. On the other hand, results of the long-term injection test indicated the CO2 plume migration path was aligned to the forced hydraulic gradient. Compared to the short-term test, the long-term injection formed detectable CO2 concentration change in unsaturated wellbores. Recovery data of tracer gases made breakthrough curves compatible to numerical simulation results. The monitoring results indicated that detection of CO2 leakage into groundwater was more effectively performed by using a pumping and monitoring method in order to capture by-passing plume. With this concept, an effective real-time monitoring method was proposed. Acknowledgement: Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2storage" from the KEITI (Project number : 2014001810003)

  13. Magnetic domain propagation in Pt/Co/Pt micro wires with engineered coercivity gradients along and across the wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, A., E-mail: arctgh@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Gaul, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Urbaniak, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Ehresmann, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Stobiecki, F. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Electron lithography and ion bombardment were used to modify the Co/Pt micro-wires. • Two-dimensional perpendicular magnetic anisotropy gradient was engineered. • Engineered anisotropy gradient allowed to control domain wall positions in the wires. • Simulations confirm the influence of defects on a remanent state of the wires. - Abstract: Pt(15 nm)/[Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)]{sub 4} multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were patterned into several-micrometer wide wires by electron-beam lithography. Bombarding the wires with He{sup +} ions with a fluence gradient along the wire results in a spatial gradient of switching fields that allows a controllable positioning of domain walls. The influence of the reduced anisotropy near the wire edges causes a remanent state in which the reversal close to the long edges precedes that in the middle of the wires. Experiments using Kerr microscopy prove this effect and micromagnetic simulations corroborate that a decrease of the anisotropy at the edges is responsible for the effect.

  14. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  15. Combined effect of capillary barrier and layered slope on water, solute and nanoparticle transfer in an unsaturated soil at lysimeter scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prédélus, Dieuseul; Coutinho, Artur Paiva; Lassabatere, Laurent; Bien, Le Binh; Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    It is well recognized that colloidal nanoparticles are highly mobile in soils and can facilitate the transport of contaminants through the vadose zone. This work presents the combined effect of the capillary barrier and soil layer slope on the transport of water, bromide and nanoparticles through an unsaturated soil. Experiments were performed in a lysimeter (1×1×1.6m(3)) called LUGH (Lysimeter for Urban Groundwater Hydrology). The LUGH has 15 outputs that identify the temporal and spatial evolution of water flow, solute flux and nanoparticles in relation to the soil surface conditions and the 3D system configuration. Two different soil structures were set up in the lysimeter. The first structure comprises a layer of sand (0-0.2cm, in diameter) 35cm thick placed horizontally above a layer of bimodal mixture also 35cm thick to create a capillary barrier at the interface between the sand and bimodal material. The bimodal material is composed of a mixture 50% by weight of sand and gravel (0.4-1.1cm, in diameter). The second structure, using the same amount of sand and bimodal mixture as the first structure represents an interface with a 25% slope. A 3D numerical model based on Richards equation for flow and the convection dispersion equations coupled with a mechanical module for nanoparticle trapping was developed. The results showed that under the effect of the capillary barrier, water accumulated at the interface of the two materials. The sloped structure deflects flow in contrast to the structure with zero slope. Approximately 80% of nanoparticles are retained in the lysimeter, with a greater retention at the interface of two materials. Finally, the model makes a good reproduction of physical mechanisms observed and appears to be a useful tool for identifying key processes leading to a better understanding of the effect of capillary barrier on nanoparticle transfer in an unsaturated heterogeneous soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lowry, Gregorgy V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO22 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  17. CO2 Losses from Terrestrial Organic Matter through Photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Campbell, D. I.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Schipper, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the sum of CO2 uptake by plants and CO2 losses from both living plants and dead organic matter. In all but a few ecosystem scale studies on terrestrial carbon cycling, losses of CO2 from dead organic matter are assumed to be the result of microbial respiration alone. Here we provide evidence for an alternative, previously largely underestimated mechanism for ecosystem-scale CO2 emissions. The process of photodegradation, the direct breakdown of organic matter by solar radiation, was found to contribute substantially to the ecosystem scale CO2 losses at both a bare peatland in New Zealand, and a summer-dead grassland in California. Comparisons of daytime eddy covariance (EC) data with data collected at the same time using an opaque chamber and the CO2 soil gradient technique, or with night-time EC data collected during similar moisture and temperature conditions were used to quantify the direct effect of exposure of organic matter to solar radiation. At a daily scale, photodegradation contributed up to 62% and 92% of summer mid-day CO2 fluxes at the de-vegetated peatland and at the grassland during the dry season, respectively. Irradiance-induced CO2 losses were estimated to be 19% of the total annual CO2 loss at the peatland, and almost 60% of the dry season CO2 loss at the grassland. Small-scale measurements using a transparent chamber confirmed that CO2 emissions from air-dried peat and grass occurred within seconds of exposure to light when microbial activity was inhibited. Our findings imply that photodegradation could be important for many ecosystems with exposed soil organic matter, litter and/or standing dead material. Potentially affected ecosystems include sparsely vegetated arid and semi-arid ecosystems (e.g. shrublands, savannahs and other grasslands), bare burnt areas, agricultural sites after harvest or cultivation (especially if crop residues are left on the surface), deciduous forests after leaf fall, or ecosystems

  18. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lowry, Gregory V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO2 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  19. The importance of crop growth modeling to interpret the Δ14CO2 signature of annual plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhinova, D.; Combe, M.; Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

    The C-14/C abundance in CO2((CO2)-C-14) promises to provide useful constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric transport through the large gradients introduced by anthropogenic activity. The currently sparse atmospheric (CO2)-C-14 monitoring network can potentially be augmented by

  20. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  1. Mineralization and Transfer Processes of {sup 14}C-labeled Pesticides in Outdoor Lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, Sabine; Doerfler, Ulrike, E-mail: doerfler@gsf.de; Ruth, Bernhard; Loos, Christine [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology (Germany); Wagner, Tobias [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology (Germany); Karl, Heidrun; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    A recently designed two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system allows the detailed investigation of degradation, transport and transfer processes of {sup 14}C-labeled substances in soil-plant-atmosphere-systems under outdoor conditions. With this test system it is feasible to distinguish between {sup 14}C-emissions from soil surfaces and {sup 14}C-emissions from plant surfaces in soil monoliths under real environmental conditions. Special soil humidity sensors allow the measurement of soil water content near to the soil surface, in 1 and 5 cm depth. The behavior of organic chemicals can be followed for a whole vegetation period and a mass balance for the applied chemical can be established. Some selected results of the herbicides isoproturon and glyphosate - using the two-chamber-lysimeter-test-system - are presented to demonstrate its applicability for the identification and quantification of the processes that govern pesticide behavior in soil-plant-systems. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-isoproturon was very different in four different soils; the mineralization capacity of the soils ranged from 2 to 60%. Leaching of isoproturon in general was very low, but depending on the soil type and environmental conditions isoproturon and its metabolites could be leached via preferential flow, especially shortly after application. For the herbicide {sup 14}C-glyphosate no accumulation of residues in the soil and no leaching of the residues to deeper soil layers could be observed after three applications. Glyphosate was rapidly degraded to AMPA in the soil. Glyphosate and AMPA were accumulated in soy bean nodules.

  2. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Matthew; Oliver, Kevin; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul; Achterberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual...

  3. "1"3CO/C"1"8O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure "1"3CO(1-0)/C"1"8O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of "1"2CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved "1"3CO/C"1"8O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  4. Device for applying organic chemicals to lysimeter surfaces; Applikationsvorrichtung fuer organische Chemikalien auf Lysimeteroberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenoekologie

    1999-02-01

    One of the aims of environmental research at the GSF Research Centre for the Environment and Health is to determine the behaviour of environmentally consequential chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems under as natural conditions as possible. The GSF lysimeter plant in Neuherberg permits studying the environmental behaviour of organic chemicals in different soils. Collaborators at GSF have developed a means of applying -14-marked substances in field lysimeters so as to be able to refind released chemicals, identify their conversion products and set up mass balances for the chemicals. [Deutsch] Ein Ziel der Umweltforschung im GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit ist es, das Verhalten von Umweltchemikalien in terrestrischen Oekosystemen unter moeglichst natuerlichen Bedingungen zu bestimmen. In der GSF-Lysimeteranlage Neuherberg kann das Umweltverhalten von Organika in verschiedenen Boeden untersucht werden. Zur Wiedererkennung der ausgebrachten Chemikalie bzw. zur Identifizierung aus ihr entstandener Umwandlungsprodukte und letztendlich auch zur Erstellung einer Massenbilanz fuer das ausgebrachte Praeparat wurde in der GSF die Moeglichkeit geschaffen, {sup 14}C-markierte Substanzen in Freilandlysimetern applizieren zu koennen. (orig.)

  5. The importance of crop growth modeling to interpret the ¿14CO2 signature of annual plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhinova, D.N.; Combe, M.; Palstra, S.W.L.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    2013-01-01

    [1] The 14C/C abundance in CO2(¿14CO2) promises to provide useful constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric transport through the large gradients introduced by anthropogenic activity. The currently sparse atmospheric ¿14CO2 monitoring network can potentially be augmented by using

  6. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Bousquet, P.; Rivier, L.; Ciais, P.; Carouge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO 2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100-1000 km). CO 2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO 2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO 2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO 2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO 2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt), a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE), and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE). The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1) in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2) LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3) CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO 2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO 2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic scale) with

  7. Atmospheric CO2 capture for the artificial photosynthetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Zukowska, Adrianna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-11-01

    The scope of these studies is to evaluate the ambient CO2 capture abilities of the membrane contactor system in the same conditions as leaves works during photosynthesis, such as ambient temperature, pressure and low CO2 concentration, where the only driving force is the concentration gradient. The polysulfone membrane was made by phase inversion process and characterized by ESEM micrographs which were used to determine the thickness, asymmetry and pore size. Besides, the porosity of the membrane was measured from the membrane and polysulfone density correlation and hydrophobicity was analyzed by contact angle measurements. Moreover, the compatibility of the membrane and absorbent solution was evaluated, in order to exclude wetting issues. The prepared membranes were introduced in a cross flow module and used as contactor between the CO2 and the potassium hydroxide solution, as absorbing media. The influence of the membrane thickness, absorbent stirring rate and absorption time, on CO2 capture were evaluated. The results show that the efficiency of our CO2 capture system is similar to stomatal carbon dioxide assimilation rate.

  8. Numerical simulation of kinetic demixing and decomposition in a LaCoO3-δ oxygen membrane under an oxygen potential gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ta, Na; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    A composition- and temperature-dependent mobility database of all ionic species in the LaCoO3-δ phase was developed and combined with a La-Co-O thermodynamic database to simulate kinetic demixing and partial decomposition in LaCoO3-δ oxygen membranes operated under a 0.0001/0.21 bar oxygen partial...... pressure difference at 1073 K for 1 year. Formation of La2O3, Co3O4 and CoO phases across the membrane is predicted. The kinetic demixing process can be divided into two stages, namely, establishment of the oxygen potential gradient (fast) and demixing of the cations (slow); the former is controlled...... by the mobility of oxygen ions, and the latter is determined by the higher mobility of Co ions as compared to the La ion in the ABO3-type perovskite. A drift motion of both oxide surfaces towards the high PO2 side occurs with the movement of cations....

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  10. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site

  11. Soil CO2 efflux of a larch forest in northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fujinuma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We had continuously measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs in a larch forest in northern Japan at hourly intervals for the snow-free period in 2003 with an automated chamber system and partitioned Rs into heterotrophic respiration (Rh and autotrophic respiration (Rr by using the trench method. In addition, we applied the soil CO2 concentration gradients method to continuously measure soil CO2 profiles under snowpack in the snowy period and to partition Rs into topsoil (Oa and A horizons CO2 efflux (Ft with a depth of 0.13 m and sub-soil (C horizon CO2 efflux (Fc. We found that soil CO2 effluxes were strongly affected by the seasonal variation of soil temperature but weakly correlated with soil moisture, probably because the volumetric soil moisture (30–40% at 95% confidence interval was within a plateau region for root and microbial activities. The soil CO2 effluxes changed seasonally in parallel with soil temperature in topsoil with the peak in late summer. On the other hand, the contribution of Rr to Rs was the largest at about 50% in early summer, when canopy photosynthesis and plant growth were more active. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of Rr peaked in June. Under snowpack, Rs was stable until mid-March and then gradually increased with snow melting. Rs summed up to 79 gC m−2 during the snowy season for 4 months. The annual Rs was determined at 934 gC m−2 y−1 in 2003, which accounted for 63% of ecosystem respiration. The annual contributions of Rh and Rs to Rs were 57% and 43%, respectively. Based on the gradient approach, Rs was partitioned vertically into litter (Oi and Oe horizons with a depth of 0.01–0.02 m, topsoil and sub-soil respirations with proportions of 6, 72 and 22%, respectively, on an annual basis. The vertical distribution of CO2 efflux was consistent with those of soil carbon and root biomass.

  12. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  13. Influence of a heavy rainfall event on the leaching of [14C]isoproturon and its degradation products in outdoor lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfler, Ulrike; Cao Guoyin; Grundmann, Sabine; Schroll, Reiner

    2006-01-01

    In four different agricultural soils the long-term leaching behaviour of [ 14 C]isoproturon was studied in outdoor lysimeters (2 m length, 1 m 2 surface area). The herbicide was applied in spring 1997 and spring 2001. At the end of the first 4-year-investigation period between 0.13% and 0.31% of the applied radioactivity was leached. Isoproturon or known metabolites could not be detected in the leachate. However, shortly after the second application isoproturon and its degradation products 2-hydroxy-isoproturon and monodemethyl-isoproturon were leached via preferential flow in one of the lysimeters (Mollic gleysol) in concentrations of 4.5 μg L -1 , 3.1 μg L -1 and 0.9 μg L -1 , respectively, thus considerably exceeding the EU threshold limit of 0.1 μg L -1 for ground and drinking water. The results indicate that in soils where mass flow transfer dominates, leaching of isoproturon to groundwater is of low probability whereas in highly structured soils which have the tendency to form macropores, isoproturon can be transported via preferential flow to the groundwater. - In a heavy clay soil isoproturon and its degradation products can be leached to the groundwater via preferential flow

  14. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to predict future climate change relies on our understanding of current and future CO2 fluxes, particularly on a regional scale (100–1000 km. CO2 regional sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Inverse transport modeling, a method often used to quantify these fluxes, relies on atmospheric CO2 measurements. One of the main challenges for the transport models used in the inversions is to properly reproduce CO2 vertical gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, as these gradients impact on the partitioning of the calculated fluxes between the different model regions. Vertical CO2 profiles are very well suited to assess the performances of the models. In this paper, we conduct a comparison between observed and modeled CO2 profiles recorded during two CAATER campaigns that occurred in May 2001 and October 2002 over Western Europe, as described in a companion paper. We test different combinations between a global transport model (LMDZt, a mesoscale transport model (CHIMERE, and different sets of biospheric fluxes, all chosen with a diurnal cycle (CASA, SiB2 and ORCHIDEE. The vertical profile comparison shows that: 1 in most cases the influence of the biospheric flux is small but sometimes not negligible, ORCHIDEE giving the best results in the present study; 2 LMDZt is most of the time too diffuse, as it simulates a too high boundary layer height; 3 CHIMERE better reproduces the observed gradients between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, but is sometimes too variable and gives rise to incoherent structures. We conclude there is a need for more vertical profiles to conduct further studies to improve the parameterization of vertical transport in the models used for CO2 flux inversions. Furthermore, we use a modeling method to quantify CO2 fluxes at the regional scale from a chosen observing point, coupling influence functions from the transport model LMDZt (that works quite well at the synoptic

  15. Upward migration of radio-cesium and strontium in a sand-filled lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The upward migration of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr was observed in a silica sand-filled lysimeter at the Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low Level Waste Data Base Development experiment site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The source of the radionuclides first observed on the surface was identified from isotopic analysis as being from the buried waste. Cores of the sand were collected and analyzed for the vertical distribution of the radionuclides. Results of analyses revealed that pulses (elevated levels) in the activity of the Cs and Sr radioisotopes occurred at the same depths. During the sectioning of the sand core collected from directly above the buried waste form it was discovered that a fine root from an unidentified plant was present throughout all but the upper few centimeters of the core. Because the upward migration was unexpected, information that may lead to the determination of a definitive mechanism of migration was not preserved. The distribution of the radionuclides coupled with the presence of the root suggest that Cs and Sr migrated upward in the evapotranspiration stream of the root. Further study must be undertaken to confirm this phenomenon. Upward migration of radionuclides as observed here could result in direct exposures and offsite releases from underground storage facilities. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. A model to describe the surface gradient-nanograin formation and property of friction stir processed laser Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruidi; Yuan, Tiechui; Qiu, Zili

    2014-07-01

    A gradient-nanograin surface layer of Co-base alloy was prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) of laser-clad coating in this work. However, it is lack of a quantitatively function relationship between grain refinement and FSP conditions. Based on this, an analytic model is derived for the correlations between carbide size, hardness and rotary speed, layer depth during in-situ FSP of laser-clad Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy. The model is based on the principle of typical plastic flow in friction welding and dynamic recrystallization. The FSP experiment for modification of laser-clad Co-based alloy was conducted and its gradient nanograin and hardness were characterized. It shows that the model is consistent with experimental results.

  17. Experimental observation and numerical simulation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Injecting surface temperature CO2 into geothermally warm reservoirs for geologic storage or energy production may result in depressed temperature near the injection well and thermal gradients and mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. Thermal gradients are particularly important to consider in reservoirs containing carbonate minerals, which are more soluble at lower temperatures, as well as in CO2-based geothermal energy reservoirs where lowering heat exchanger rejection temperatures increases efficiency. Additionally, equilibrating a fluid with cation-donating silicates near a low-temperature injection well and transporting the fluid to higher temperature may enhance the kinetics of mineral precipitation in such a way as to overcome the activation energy required for mineral trapping of CO2. We have investigated this process by subjecting a dolomite core to a 650-hour temperature series experiment in which the fluid was saturated with CO2 at high pressure (110-126 bars) and 21°C. This fluid was recirculated through the dolomite core, increasing permeability from 10-16 to 10-15.2 m2. Subsequently, the core temperature was raised to 50° C, and permeability decreased to 10-16.2 m2 after 289 hours, due to thermally-driven CO2 exsolution. Increasing core temperature to 100°C for the final 145 hours of the experiment caused dolomite to precipitate, which, together with further CO2 exsolution, decreased permeability to 10-16.4 m2. Post-experiment x-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscope imagery of the dolomite core reveals abundant matrix dissolution and enlargement of flow paths at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of the passages at elevated temperature by dolomite. To place this experiment within the broader context of geologic CO2 sequestration, we designed and utilized a reactive transport simulator that enables dynamic calculation of CO2 equilibrium constants and fugacity and activity coefficients by incorporating

  18. Correlations among atmospheric CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and CO in the Arctic, March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, T.J.; Steele, L.P.; Novelli, P.C. (NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-12-01

    During six aircraft flights conducted as part of the third Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP III, March 1989), 189 air samples were collected throughout the Arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere for analysis of CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and CO. The mixing ratios of the three gases varied significantly both horizontally and vertically. Elevated concentrations were found in layers with high anthropogenic aerosol concentrations (Arctic Haze). The mixing ratios of CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and CO were highly correlated on all flights. A linear regression of CH[sub 4] vs CO[sub 2] for pooled data from all flights yielded a correlation coefficient (r[sup 2]) of 0.88 and a slope of 13.5 ppb CH[sub 4]/ppm CO[sub 2] (n 186). For CO vs CO[sub 2] a pooled linear regression gave r[sup 2] 0.91 and a slope of 15.8 ppb CO/ppm CO[sub 2] (n 182). Carbon dioxide CH[sub 4] and CO also exhibited mean vertical gradients with slopes of 0.37, -4.4 and -4.2 ppb km[sup -1], respectively. Since the carbon dioxide variations observed in the Arctic atmosphere during winter are due primarily to variations in the emissions and transport of anthropogenic CO[sub 2] from Europe and Asia, the strong correlations that we have found suggest that a similar interpretation applies to CH[sub 4] and CO. Using reliable estimates of CO[sub 2] emissions for the source regions and the measured CH[sub 4]/CO[sub 2] and CO/CO[sub 2] ratios, we estimate a regional European CH[sub 4] source of 47[+-] 6 Tg CH[sub 4] yr[sup -1] that may be associated with fossil fuel combustion. A similar calculation for CO results in an estimated regional CO source of 82[+-]2 Tg CO yr[sup -1]. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The Origins of UV-optical Color Gradients in Star-forming Galaxies at z ˜ 2: Predominant Dust Gradients but Negligible sSFR Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. S.; Jiang, Dongfei; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Yesuf, Hassen M.; Tacchella, Sandro; Mao, Shude; Wang, Weichen; Guo, Yicheng; Fang, Jerome J.; Barro, Guillermo; Zheng, Xianzhong; Jia, Meng; Tong, Wei; Liu, Lu; Meng, Xianmin

    2017-07-01

    The rest-frame UV-optical (I.e., NUV - B) color is sensitive to both low-level recent star formation (specific star formation rate—sSFR) and dust. In this Letter, we extend our previous work on the origins of NUV - B color gradients in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z˜ 1 to those at z˜ 2. We use a sample of 1335 large (semimajor axis radius {R}{SMA}> 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 18) SFGs with extended UV emission out to 2{R}{SMA} in the mass range {M}* ={10}9{--}{10}11 {M}⊙ at 1.5negative NUV - B color gradients (redder centers), and their color gradients strongly increase with galaxy mass. We also show that the global rest-frame FUV - NUV color is approximately linear with {A}{{V}}, which is derived by modeling the observed integrated FUV to NIR spectral energy distributions of the galaxies. Applying this integrated calibration to our spatially resolved data, we find a negative dust gradient (more dust extinguished in the centers), which steadily becomes steeper with galaxy mass. We further find that the NUV - B color gradients become nearly zero after correcting for dust gradients regardless of galaxy mass. This indicates that the sSFR gradients are negligible and dust reddening is likely the principal cause of negative UV-optical color gradients in these SFGs. Our findings support that the buildup of the stellar mass in SFGs at Cosmic Noon is self-similar inside 2{R}{SMA}.

  20. When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from 80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone. This observation was

  1. Elevated CO2 concentration affects vertical distribution of photosynthetic activity in Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll * CO2 assimilation * elevated CO2 * concentration * transpiration * vertical gradient * water-use efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0067/

  2. Influence of a heavy rainfall event on the leaching of [{sup 14}C]isoproturon and its degradation products in outdoor lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, Ulrike [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: doerfler@gsf.de; Cao Guoyin [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Grundmann, Sabine [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Schroll, Reiner [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In four different agricultural soils the long-term leaching behaviour of [{sup 14}C]isoproturon was studied in outdoor lysimeters (2 m length, 1 m{sup 2} surface area). The herbicide was applied in spring 1997 and spring 2001. At the end of the first 4-year-investigation period between 0.13% and 0.31% of the applied radioactivity was leached. Isoproturon or known metabolites could not be detected in the leachate. However, shortly after the second application isoproturon and its degradation products 2-hydroxy-isoproturon and monodemethyl-isoproturon were leached via preferential flow in one of the lysimeters (Mollic gleysol) in concentrations of 4.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, 3.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, thus considerably exceeding the EU threshold limit of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for ground and drinking water. The results indicate that in soils where mass flow transfer dominates, leaching of isoproturon to groundwater is of low probability whereas in highly structured soils which have the tendency to form macropores, isoproturon can be transported via preferential flow to the groundwater. - In a heavy clay soil isoproturon and its degradation products can be leached to the groundwater via preferential flow.

  3. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; et al.

    Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the ‘advection velocity’, which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal

  4. Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 change linked to Southern Ocean nutrient utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Diz, P.; Hall, I. R.; Zahn, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biological uptake of CO2 by the ocean and its subsequent storage in the abyss is intimately linked with the global carbon cycle and constitutes a significant climatic force1. The Southern Ocean is a particularly important region because its wind-driven upwelling regime brings CO2 laden abyssal waters to the surface that exchange CO2 with the atmosphere. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a CO2 sink and also drives global primary productivity as unutilized nutrients, advected with surface waters from the south, are exported via Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) as preformed nutrients to the low latitudes where they fuel the biological pump in upwelling areas. Recent model estimates suggest that up to 40 ppm of the total 100 ppm atmospheric pCO2 reduction during the last ice age were driven by increased nutrient utilization in the SAZ and associated feedbacks on the deep ocean alkalinity. Micro-nutrient fertilization by iron (Fe), contained in the airborne dust flux to the SAZ, is considered to be the prime factor that stimulated this elevated photosynthetic activity thus enhancing nutrient utilization. We present a millennial-scale record of the vertical stable carbon isotope gradient between subsurface and deep water (Δδ13C) in the SAZ spanning the past 350,000 years. The Δδ13C gradient, derived from planktonic and benthic foraminifera, reflects the efficiency of biological pump and is highly correlated (rxy = -0.67 with 95% confidence interval [0.63; 0.71], n=874) with the record of dust flux preserved in Antarctic ice cores6. This strongly suggests that nutrient utilization in the SAZ was dynamically coupled to dust-induced Fe fertilization across both glacial-interglacial and faster millennial timescales. In concert with ventilation changes of the deep Southern Ocean this drove ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange and, ultimately, atmospheric pCO2 variability during the late Pleistocene.

  5. Y2O3-W Continuous Graded Materials by Co-sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shi-yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The raw Y2O3 powder was classified and graded based on modified co-sedimentation mathematical model,using the size distribution of W particles as the known condition. Y2O3-W continuous graded materials with the composition distribution index P values of 1.0, 0.7, 0.3 and 0.1 were prepared by co-sedimentation and hot-pressing. The results show that the Y2O3 powder consistent with the design requirements can be obtained by graduation method. The gradient continuity of materials can be verified by microstructure observation and hardness testing.

  6. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  7. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    driven by the air-ice pCO2 gradient. Hence, while the temperature is a leading factor in controlling magnitude of air-ice CO2 fluxes, pCO2 of the ice controls both magnitude and direction of fluxes. However, pCO2 in Arctic is significantly higher than in Antarctica. This difference could be due to a higher level of organic matter in Arctic. The degradation of this organic matter fuel CO2 efflux from the ice to the atmosphere in early spring. We observed evidence of CaCO3 precipitation, but only at the top of the ice. Implications in term of air-ice CO2 transfer of such CaCO3 precipitation will be discussed. In addition, salt-rich snow appears to strongly affect air-ice CO2 fluxes in the arctic. Borges, A. V., et al. (2006), Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 70(3), 375-387.

  8. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC's open-quotes Technical Position on Waste Formclose quotes are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later

  9. Limited evidence for CO2 -related growth enhancement in northern Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine populations across climate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Cooper, Leila Annie; Sala, Anna

    2018-04-15

    Forests sequester large amounts of carbon annually and are integral in buffering against effects of global change. Increasing atmospheric CO 2 may enhance photosynthesis and/or decrease stomatal conductance (g s ) thereby enhancing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), having potential indirect and direct benefits to tree growth. While increasing iWUE has been observed in most trees globally, enhanced growth is not ubiquitous, possibly due to concurrent climatic constraints on growth. To investigate our incomplete understanding of interactions between climate and CO 2 and their impacts on tree physiology and growth, we used an environmental gradient approach. We combined dendrochronology with carbon isotope analysis (δ 13 C) to assess the covariation of basal area increment (BAI) and iWUE over time in lodgepole pine. Trees were sampled at 18 sites spanning two climatically distinct elevation transects on the lee and windward sides of the Continental Divide, encompassing the majority of lodgepole pine's northern Rocky Mountain elevational range. We analyzed BAI and iWUE from 1950 to 2015, and explored correlations with monthly climate variables. As expected, iWUE increased at all sites. However, concurrent growth trends depended on site climatic water deficit (CWD). Significant growth increases occurred only at the driest sites, where increases in iWUE were strongest, while growth decreases were greatest at sites where CWD has been historically lowest. Late summer drought of the previous year negatively affected growth across sites. These results suggest that increasing iWUE, if strong enough, may indirectly benefit growth at drier sites by effectively extending the growing season via reductions in g s . Strong growth decreases at high elevation windward sites may reflect increasing water stress as a result of decreasing snowpack, which was not offset by greater iWUE. Our results imply that increasing iWUE driven by decreasing g s may benefit tree growth in

  10. Study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amine Monir, M.; Khenata, R.; Baltache, H.; Murtaza, G.; Abu-Jafar, M.S.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin Omran, S.

    2015-01-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler CoFeIn and full-Heusler Co 2 FeIn alloys have been investigated by using the state of the art full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) for the calculation of the structural properties, whereas the PBE-GGA+U approximation (where U is the Hubbard Coulomb energy term) is applied for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties in order to treat the “d” electrons. The structural properties have been calculated in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases where we have found that both the CoFeIn and Co 2 FeIn alloys have a stable ferromagnetic phase. The obtained results of the spin-polarized band structure and the density of states show that the CoFeIn alloy is a metal and the Co 2 FeIn alloy has a complete half-metallic nature. Through the obtained values of the total spin magnetic moment, we conclude that in general, the Co 2 FeIn alloy is half-metallic ferromagnet material whereas the CoFeIn alloy has a metallic nature. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys were investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • Electronic properties reveal the metallic (half-metallic) nature for CoFeIn (Co2FeIn)

  11. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri N.; Brown, Kristina A.; Edwards, Laura A.; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 μatm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 μatm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods. PMID:24297880

  12. Mathematical modelling of deuterium transport in field lysimeters; Mathematische Modellierung des Deuteriumtransports in Freilandlysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloszewski, P.; Klotz, D.; Trimborn, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie; Maciejewski, S. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk (Poland). Inst. of Hydroengineering

    1999-02-01

    The results yielded by the Variable Flow Model (VFDM) permitted determining water flow velocities and degrees of dispersiveness. It transpired that it is not possible to isolate immobile water, which is to say that the available measuring and modelling data permit no conclusion as to whether or not the system contains immobile water. Comparison with the results obtained with the Dispersion Model (DM) showed that the simpler DM model yields tracer concentration curves in the system output that are almost as good as those of the more complicated VFDM model while entailing less work. The two models yield very similar calculations of lysimeter water content. [Deutsch] Die Ergebnisse der Modellierung mit dem Variable-Flow-Modell (VFDM) ermoeglichten die Bestimmung von Wassergeschwindigkeiten des Wassers und Dispersivitaeten. Es wurde dabei festgestellt, dass eine Abtrennung des immobilen Wassers nicht moeglich ist. D.h. es kann nicht auf Grund vorhandener Messdaten und der Modellierung entschieden werden, ob das System immobiles Wasser beinhaltet oder nicht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse nach dem Variable-Flow- und dem Dispersions-Modell (DM) zeigte, dass das einfache Modell DM mit weniger Aufwand fast so gute Tracerkonzentrationskurven im Output aus dem System liefert wie das komplizierte Modell mit VFDM. Die berechneten Wassergehalte der Lysimeter nach beiden Modellierungen sind sehr aehnlich. (orig.)

  13. Electrochemical CO2 Reduction by Ni-containing Iron Sulfides: How Is CO2 Electrochemically Reduced at Bisulfide-Bearing Deep-sea Hydrothermal Precipitates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takai, Ken; Ishii, Takumi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the late 1970's has led to many hypotheses concerning chemical evolution in the prebiotic ocean and the early evolution of energy metabolism in ancient Earth. Such studies stand on the quest for the bioenergetic evolution to utilize reducing chemicals such as H 2 for CO 2 reduction and carbon assimilation. In addition to the direct reaction of H 2 and CO 2 , the electrical current passing across a bisulfide-bearing chimney structure has pointed to the possible electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction at the cold ocean-vent interface (R. Nakamura, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 7692 − 7694). To confirm the validity of this hypothesis, here, we examined the energetics of electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction by iron sulfide (FeS) deposits at slightly acidic pH. Although FeS deposits inefficiently reduced CO 2 , the efficiency of the reaction was substantially improved by the substitution of Fe with Ni to form FeNi 2 S 4 (violarite), of which surface was further modified with amine compounds. The potential-dependent activity of CO 2 reduction demonstrated that CO 2 reduction by H 2 in hydrothermal fluids was involved in a strong endergonic electron transfer reaction, suggesting that a naturally occurring proton-motive force (PMF) as high as 200 mV would be established across the hydrothermal vent chimney wall. However, in the chimney structures, H 2 generation competes with CO 2 reduction for electrical current, resulting in rapid consumption of the PMF. Therefore, to maintain the PMF and the electrosynthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal vent mineral deposits, we propose a homeostatic pH regulation mechanism of FeS deposits, in which elemental hydrogen stored in the hydrothermal mineral deposits is used to balance the consumption of the electrochemical gradient by H 2 generation

  14. Change in cap rock porosity triggered by pressure and temperature dependent CO2–water–rock interactions in CO2 storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hemme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage in deep geological formations is a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Supercritical CO2 is injected into a reservoir and dissolves in the brine. Under the impact of pressure and temperature (P–T the aqueous species of the CO2-acidified brine diffuse through the cap rock where they trigger CO2–water–rock interactions. These geochemical reactions result in mineral dissolution and precipitation along the CO2 migration path and are responsible for a change in porosity and therefore for the sealing capacity of the cap rock. This study focuses on the diffusive mass transport of CO2 along a gradient of decreasing P–T conditions. The process is retraced with a one-dimensional hydrogeochemical reactive mass transport model. The semi-generic hydrogeochemical model is based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on a broad variety of scenarios, including different initial mineralogical, chemical and physical parameters, the hydrogeochemical parameters that are most sensitive for safe long-term CO2 storage are identified. The results demonstrate that P–T conditions have the strongest effect on the change in porosity and the effect of both is stronger at high P–T conditions because the solubility of the mineral phases involved depends on P–T conditions. Furthermore, modeling results indicate that the change in porosity depends strongly on the initial mineralogical composition of the reservoir and cap rock as well as on the brine compositions. Nevertheless, a wide range of conditions for safe CO2 storage is identified.

  15. Photosynthetic Water Use Efficiency in it Sorghastrum nutans (C4) and it Solidago canadensis (C3) in Three Soils Along a CO2 Concentration Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Hui, D.; Procter, A.; Johnson, H. B.; Polley, H. W.; Jackson, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    The water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf photosynthetic carbon uptake is a key regulator of ecosystem carbon cycles and is strongly sensitive to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. However WUE responses to [CO2] typically differ between C3 and C4 species and may differ on varying soil types because of differences in soil moisture retention and plant uptake efficiency. We measured leaf-level photosynthesis (ACO2), stomatal conductance (gS), and transpiration (E) with an infrared gas analyzer to estimate WUE for the C4 grass Sorghastrum nutans and the C3 forb Solidago canadensis in constructed grassland species assemblages growing in three soils arrayed along a 200 560 ppm [CO2] gradient in the LYCOG Experiment, in central Texas, USA. LYCOG consists of eighty intact soil monoliths (1 m X 1 m X 1.5 m) representing 3 soil series, Austin (Udorthentic Haplustolls, a mollisol), Bastrop (Udic Paleustalfs, a sandy loam alfisol) and Houston Black (Udic Haplusterts, a vertisol). The monoliths were vegetated by transplanting 8 native perennial prairie species (5 grasses and 3 forbs), including S. nutans and S. canadensis. Both are abundant and widespread; S. nutans is a dominant species throughout much of North American tallgrass prairie, and S. canadensis is one of the most abundant and widespread forbs in North America. ACO2, gS, and E were measured three times during the growing season. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (FvFm) was measured concurrently to assess photosynthetic capacity, and leaf water potential (Ψ leaf) and soil water content were measured to assess plant water status and soil moisture availability. WUE increased strongly (p< 0.0001) at higher [CO2], due to a combination of decreasing E due to decreased gS (p ≤ 0.0005) and increasing ACO2 (p = 0.0055). This pattern was the same in both species (species x [CO2] ns). There was a corresponding increase in Ψ leaf (p = 0.01) at higher [CO2], but no [CO2] effect on FvFm. E and gS were lower on

  16. Degradation of solid oxide cells during co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2: Carbon deposition under high current densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    conversions of the reactants were no more than 66.8 %. Ni-YSZ electrode delamination and carbon nano-fibers could be observed after test at the Ni-YSZ | YSZ electrolyte interface for two of the cells. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the reactant conversion needed for carbon formation is above 99 %, far...... above the experimental conversions. The observed carbon formation may be caused by the gas diffusion limitations at high current densities. Carbon nano-fibers were only observed close to the YSZ electrolyte indicating a large overpotential gradient at the TPBs close to the electrolyte......During co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide cells (SOCs) the risk of carbon deposition in the Ni-YSZ electrode under high current densities (∼ 2.0 A/cm2) was studied in this work. Five galvanostatic tests were performed at current density between 1.5 and 2.25 A/cm2 and the average...

  17. Studies on development of experimental system for trial manufacture of semi-field scale lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Masae; Watabe, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Hirobumi; Ohwaku, Keiichi

    1978-01-01

    Because of difficulties in conduct of in situ experiments using the radiotracer method for this purpose, it is necessary to develope the technique on utilization of the results obtained by the laboratory works to resolve phenomenon in the actual environment. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this object, following experiments are especially conducted. The effects of vegetation to the mobility of transition elements in the surface layer of soil was studied by Wagner pot experiment. The vertical movement pattern of radionuclides in the deeper layer in the ground, especially transfer of long-lived-nuclides from soil into water, was investigated using radioactivity survey data of fallout. These results indicated the importance of information on the behaviour of contaminants in 'surface soil', 'Intermediate zone', 'capillary zone' and 'aquifer'. Therefore, an experimental mode, consisted of above four parts, was designed. The apparatus would include several substructures; an artificial rainfall apparatus, the Lysimeter, and receptive basin and so on. A regulation system for the fluctuation of hydraulic gradient in the aquifer would be also required. In order to get information on the above four parts of ground constitutions altogether, approximately 4 - 12 m depth was recommended for the model. (author)

  18. Dependence of mitochondrial coenzyme A uptake on the membrane electrical gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahiliani, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) transport was studied in isolated rat heart mitochondria. Uptake of CoA was assayed by determining [3H]CoA associated with mitochondria under various conditions. Various oxidizable substrates including alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, or malate stimulated CoA uptake. The membrane proton (delta pH) and electrical (delta psi) gradients, which dissipated with time in the absence of substrate, were maintained at their initial levels throughout the incubation in the presence of substrate. Addition of phosphate caused a concentration-dependent decrease of both delta pH and CoA uptake. Nigericin also dissipated the proton gradient and prevented CoA uptake. Valinomycin also prevented CoA uptake into mitochondria. Although the proton gradient was unaffected, the electrical gradient was completely abolished in the presence of valinomycin. Addition of 5 mM phosphate 10 min after the start of incubation prevented further uptake of CoA into mitochondria. A rapid dissipation of the proton gradient upon addition of phosphate was observed. Addition of nigericin or valinomycin 10 min after the start of incubation also resulted in no further uptake of CoA into with mitochondria; valinomycin caused an apparent efflux of CoA from mitochondria. Uptake was found to be sensitive to external pH displaying a pH optimum at pHext 8.0. Although nigericin significantly inhibited CoA uptake over the pHext range of 6.75-8, maximal transport was observed around pHext 8.0-8.25. Valinomycin, on the other hand, abolished transport over the entire pH range. The results suggest that mitochondrial CoA transport is determined by the membrane electrical gradient. The apparent dependence of CoA uptake on an intact membrane pH gradient is probably the result of modulation of CoA transport by matrix pH

  19. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration.

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Hatzell, Marta C; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17-87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration.

  20. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration.

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-03-24

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17-87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration.

  1. Vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases and related tracers from a tunnel study: : CO: CO2, N2O: CO2, CH4: CO2, O2: CO2 ratios, and the stable isotopes 13C and 18O in CO2 and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Vollmer, M. K.; Jordan, A.; Brand, W. A.; Pathirana, S. L.; Rothe, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of CO2, CO, N2O and CH4 mole fractions, O2/N2 ratios and the stable isotopes 13C and 18O in CO2 and CO have been performed in air samples from the Islisberg highway tunnel (Switzerland). The molar CO : CO2 ratios, with an average of (4.15 ± 0.34) ppb:ppm, are lower than reported in

  2. Co-Seismic Gravity Gradient Changes of the 2006-2007 Great Earthquakes in the Central Kuril Islands from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Shahrisvand, M.

    2017-09-01

    GRACE satellites (the Gravity Recovery And climate Experiment) are very useful sensors to extract gravity anomalies after earthquakes. In this study, we reveal co-seismic signals of the two combined earthquakes, the 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands from GRACE observations. We compute monthly full gravitational gradient tensor in the local north-east-down frame for Kuril Islands earthquakes without spatial averaging and de-striping filters. Some of gravitational gradient components (e.g. ΔVxx, ΔVxz) enhance high frequency components of the earth gravity field and reveal more details in spatial and temporal domain. Therefore, co-seismic activity can be better illustrated. For the first time, we show that the positive-negative-positive co-seismic ΔVxx due to the Kuril Islands earthquakes ranges from - 0.13 to + 0.11 milli Eötvös, and ΔVxz shows a positive-negative-positive pattern ranges from - 0.16 to + 0.13 milli Eötvös, agree well with seismic model predictions.

  3. Revisiting hydraulic hysteresis based on long-term monitoring of hydraulic states in lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, M.; Wollschläger, U.; Wöhling, T.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2016-05-01

    Hysteretic processes have been recognized for decades as an important characteristic of soil hydraulic behavior. Several studies confirmed that wetting and drying periods cannot be described by a simple functional relationship, and that some nonequilibrium of the water retention characteristics has to be taken into account. A large number of models describing the hysteresis of the soil water retention characteristic were successfully tested on soil cores under controlled laboratory conditions. However, its relevance under field conditions under natural forcings has rarely been investigated. In practice, the modeling of field soils usually neglects the hysteretic nature of soil hydraulic properties. In this study, long-term observations of water content and matric potential in lysimeters of the lysimeter network TERENO-SoilCan are presented, clearly demonstrating the hysteretic behavior of field soils. We propose a classification into three categories related to different time scales. Based on synthetic and long-term monitoring data, three different models of hysteresis were applied to data sets showing different degrees of hysteresis. We found no single model to be superior to the others. The model ranking depended on the degree of hysteresis. All models were able to reflect the general structure of hysteresis in most cases but failed to reproduce the detailed trajectories of state variables especially under highly transient conditions. As an important result we found that the temporal dynamics of wetting and drying significantly affects these trajectories which should be accounted for in future model concepts.

  4. REVEALING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR GAS IN ORION WITH A LARGE-SCALE SURVEY IN J = 2-1 LINES OF {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, AND C{sup 18}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikita-machi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Mizuno, Akira [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: atsushi.nishimura@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present fully sampled ∼3' resolution images of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) emission taken with the newly developed 1.85 m millimeter-submillimeter telescope over the entire area of the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. The data were compared with J = 1-0 of the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O data taken with the Nagoya 4 m telescope and the NANTEN telescope at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas. We explore the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature using line combinations of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) assuming a uniform velocity gradient and abundance ratio of CO. The derived gas density is in the range of 500 to 5000 cm{sup –3}, and the derived gas temperature is mostly in the range of 20 to 50 K along the cloud ridge with a temperature gradient depending on the distance from the star forming region. We found that the high-temperature region at the cloud edge faces the H II region, indicating that the molecular gas is interacting with the stellar wind and radiation from the massive stars. In addition, we compared the derived gas properties with the young stellar objects distribution obtained with the Spitzer telescope to investigate the relationship between the gas properties and the star formation activity therein. We found that the gas density and star formation efficiency are positively well correlated, indicating that stars form effectively in the dense gas region.

  5. Microstructure, magnetic properties and magnetic hardening in 2:17 Sm-Co magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(Co,Fe,M,L) z magnets (M=Cu or Ni, and L=Zr or Ti) to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets. Ti-containing magnets do not have a lamellar phase but exhibit only a cellular microstructure, resulting in a much lower coercivity (below 10 kOe). Ni-containing magnets exhibit a perfect cellular/lamellar microstructure, but without a large domain wall energy gradient at the interface of the 2:17 and 1:5 phases, leading to a low coercivity. Only in the magnets containing both Cu and Zr, a uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure with a high domain wall energy gradient across the 1:5 phase is formed, resulting in high coercivity. These results indicate that the conditions for effective magnetic hardening are: (1) Formation of a cellular/lamellar microstructure, and (2) establishment of a domain wall energy gradient at the cell boundaries. Based on all of these experimental results, the magnetization reversal mechanism of 2:17 Sm-Co magnets can be explained by both the domain wall pinning and nucleation models. The nucleation mechanism holds at any temperature in the Cu-rich magnets, and only above the Curie temperature of the 1:5 phase in the alloys with the lower Cu content. In these cases, the 2:17 cells become magnetically decoupled. (orig.)

  6. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-03-05

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  8. Study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amine Monir, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Baltache, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Abu-Jafar, M.S., E-mail: mabujafar@najah.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, An-Najah N. University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); and others

    2015-11-15

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler CoFeIn and full-Heusler Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have been investigated by using the state of the art full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) for the calculation of the structural properties, whereas the PBE-GGA+U approximation (where U is the Hubbard Coulomb energy term) is applied for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties in order to treat the “d” electrons. The structural properties have been calculated in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases where we have found that both the CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have a stable ferromagnetic phase. The obtained results of the spin-polarized band structure and the density of states show that the CoFeIn alloy is a metal and the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy has a complete half-metallic nature. Through the obtained values of the total spin magnetic moment, we conclude that in general, the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy is half-metallic ferromagnet material whereas the CoFeIn alloy has a metallic nature. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys were investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • Electronic properties reveal the metallic (half-metallic) nature for CoFeIn (Co2FeIn)

  9. Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    ER D C TR -0 9- 10 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in...Program ERDC TR-09-10 December 2009 Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters Elly P. H...for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC TR-09-10 ii Abstract: This report describes a study in which phytoremediation of

  10. High-gradient operators in the psl(2|2 Gross–Neveu model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cagnazzo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed more than 25 years ago that sigma model perturbation theory suffers from strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators. The phenomenon was first seen in 1-loop calculations for the O(N vector model and it is known to persist at least to two loops. More recently, Ryu et al. suggested that a certain deformation of the psl(N|N WZNW-model at level k=1, or equivalently the psl(N|N  Gross–Neveu model, could be free of RG-relevant high-gradient operators and they tested their suggestion to leading order in perturbation theory. In this note we establish the absence of strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators in the psl(2|2 Gross–Neveu model to all loops. In addition, we determine the spectrum for a large subsector of the model at infinite coupling and observe that all scaling weights become half-integer. Evidence for a conjectured relation with the CP1|2 sigma model is not found.

  11. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An analysis of the global spatial variability of column-averaged CO2 from SCIAMACHY and its implications for CO2 sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Xiuying; Huang, Chunlin; Lu, Xuehe; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are important because of their potential for improving the scientific understanding of global carbon cycle processes and budgets. We present an analysis of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (denoted XCO2) of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) retrievals, which were derived from a satellite instrument with relatively long-term records (2003–2009) and with measurements sensitive to the near surface. The spatial-temporal distributions of remotely sensed XCO2 have significant spatial heterogeneity with about 6–8% variations (367–397 ppm) during 2003–2009, challenging the traditional view that the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric CO2 is not significant enough (2 and surface CO2 were found for major ecosystems, with the exception of tropical forest. In addition, when compared with a simulated terrestrial carbon uptake from the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) carbon emission inventory, the latitudinal gradient of XCO2 seasonal amplitude was influenced by the combined effect of terrestrial carbon uptake, carbon emission, and atmospheric transport, suggesting no direct implications for terrestrial carbon sinks. From the investigation of the growth rate of XCO2 we found that the increase of CO2 concentration was dominated by temperature in the northern hemisphere (20–90°N) and by precipitation in the southern hemisphere (20–90°S), with the major contribution to global average occurring in the northern hemisphere. These findings indicated that the satellite measurements of atmospheric CO2 improve not only the estimations of atmospheric inversion, but also the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and its feedback to atmospheric CO2.

  13. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  14. Evaluation of evapotranspiration on paddy rice using non-weighting lysimeters under the different air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D.; Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), as a representative of crop water needs, is important for not only high crop productivity, but also improving irrigation water management. In farm lands crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of ETc to potential ET, is often used to simply estiamte ETc. However, the traits of Kc under the global warming condition will different with current one because plant transpiration and surface evaporaiton will be changed by the alternative crop growth and evaporative energy. In this study, Non-Weighting Lysimeter (NWL) was used to directly estimate ETc under the warmed condition, particularly for paddy riace which has one of lower water use efficiency. The different air t emperature (Ta) conditions for the NWL were provided by Temperature Gradient Chamber (TGC), which was formed gradually warmed conditions. The water body evporation and paddy rice evapotransipiration in the NWL were at the two places of ambient Ta (AT) and AT+3° in the TGC. In addition, we installed Infra-Red thermometer (IRT) to understand the surface energy balance. The result was shown that the different partitioning of evaporation and transpiration of paddy rice at the AT+3°, comparing at AT. Further, the water use efficiency, the ratio of yield to total ET, was also decreased in the warmed condition. These experiments for paddy rice ET in the warmed conditions during growth period will be useful to understand the effect of global warming on the hydrological cycle and manamge the irrigation schedule for more efficient water use.

  15. An inverse analysis reveals limitations of the soil-CO2 profile method to calculate CO2 production and efflux for well-structured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Corre

    2010-08-01

    exchange fluxes across water-filled pores causes the soil-CO2 profile method to fail. These fluxes are driven by the different diffusivities in inter- vs. intra-aggregate pores which create permanent CO2 gradients if separated by a "diffusive water barrier". These results corroborate other studies which have shown that the theory to treat gas diffusion as homogeneous process, a precondition for use of the soil-CO2 profile method, is inaccurate for pore networks which exhibit spatial separation between CO2 production and diffusion out of the soil.

  16. Experimental observation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M; Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E

    2014-02-18

    Injection of cool CO2 into geothermally warm carbonate reservoirs for storage or geothermal energy production may lower near-well temperature and lead to mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. To investigate this process, a dolomite core was subjected to a 650 h, high pressure, CO2 saturated, flow-through experiment. Permeability increased from 10(-15.9) to 10(-15.2) m(2) over the initial 216 h at 21 °C, decreased to 10(-16.2) m(2) over 289 h at 50 °C, largely due to thermally driven CO2 exsolution, and reached a final value of 10(-16.4) m(2) after 145 h at 100 °C due to continued exsolution and the onset of dolomite precipitation. Theoretical calculations show that CO2 exsolution results in a maximum pore space CO2 saturation of 0.5, and steady state relative permeabilities of CO2 and water on the order of 0.0065 and 0.1, respectively. Post-experiment imagery reveals matrix dissolution at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of flow passages at elevated temperature. Geochemical calculations indicate that reservoir fluids subjected to a thermal gradient may exsolve and precipitate up to 200 cm(3) CO2 and 1.5 cm(3) dolomite per kg of water, respectively, resulting in substantial porosity and permeability redistribution.

  17. The role of Co impurities and oxygen vacancies in the ferromagnetism of Co-doped SnO2: GGA and GGA+U studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongxia; Yan Yu; Mohammed, Y. Sh.; Du Xiaobo; Li Kai; Jin Hanmin

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure and ferromagnetic stability of Co-doped SnO 2 are studied using the first-principle density functional method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The addition of effective U Co transforms the ground state of Co-doped SnO 2 to insulating from half-metallic and the coupling between the nearest neighbor Co spins to weak antimagnetic from strong ferromagnetic. GGA+U Co calculations show that the pure substitutional Co defects in SnO 2 cannot induce the ferromagnetism. Oxygen vacancies tend to locate near Co atoms. Their presence increases the magnetic moment of Co and induces the ferromagnetic coupling between two Co spins with large Co-Co distance. The calculated density of state and spin density distribution calculated by GGA+U Co show that the long-range ferromagnetic coupling between two Co spins is mediated by spin-split impurity band induced by oxygen vacancies. More charge transfer from impurity to Co-3d states and larger spin split of Co-3d and impurity states induced by the addition of U Co enhance the ferromagnetic stability of the system with oxygen vacancies. By applying a Coulomb U O on O 2 s orbital, the band gap is corrected for all calculations and the conclusions derived from GGA+U Co calculations are not changed by the correction of band gap.

  18. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 uL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA. Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important ...

  19. Sea anemones may thrive in a high CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Boatman, Toby G; Payton, Ross; Tye Pettay, D; Johnson, Vivienne R; Warner, Mark E; Lawson, Tracy

    2012-10-01

    Increased seawater pCO 2 , and in turn 'ocean acidification' (OA), is predicted to profoundly impact marine ecosystem diversity and function this century. Much research has already focussed on calcifying reef-forming corals (Class: Anthozoa) that appear particularly susceptible to OA via reduced net calcification. However, here we show that OA-like conditions can simultaneously enhance the ecological success of non-calcifying anthozoans, which not only play key ecological and biogeochemical roles in present day benthic ecosystems but also represent a model organism should calcifying anthozoans exist as less calcified (soft-bodied) forms in future oceans. Increased growth (abundance and size) of the sea anemone (Anemonia viridis) population was observed along a natural CO 2 gradient at Vulcano, Italy. Both gross photosynthesis (P G ) and respiration (R) increased with pCO 2 indicating that the increased growth was, at least in part, fuelled by bottom up (CO 2 stimulation) of metabolism. The increase of P G outweighed that of R and the genetic identity of the symbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium spp.) remained unchanged (type A19) suggesting proximity to the vent site relieved CO 2 limitation of the anemones' symbiotic microalgal population. Our observations of enhanced productivity with pCO 2 , which are consistent with previous reports for some calcifying corals, convey an increase in fitness that may enable non-calcifying anthozoans to thrive in future environments, i.e. higher seawater pCO 2 . Understanding how CO 2 -enhanced productivity of non- (and less-) calcifying anthozoans applies more widely to tropical ecosystems is a priority where such organisms can dominate benthic ecosystems, in particular following localized anthropogenic stress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Nocturnal accumulation of CO2 underneath a tropical forest canopy along a tropographical gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, de A.C.; Kruijt, B.; Nobre, A.D.; Dolman, A.J.; Waterloo, M.J.; Moors, E.J.; Souza, de J.

    2008-01-01

    Flux measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor above tropical rain forests are often difficult to interpret because the terrain is usually complex. This complexity induces heterogeneity in the surface but also affects lateral movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) not readily detected by the eddy

  1. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs when assessing

  2. {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th St, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Meier, David [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Pl, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Murphy, Eric [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas, E-mail: m.jimenez@zah.uni-heidelberg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure {sup 13}CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of {sup 12}CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  3. Biogeochemical controls on microbial CH4 and CO2 production in Arctic polygon tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.

    2016-12-01

    Accurately simulating methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from high latitude soils is critically important for reducing uncertainties in soil carbon-climate feedback predictions. The signature polygonal ground of Arctic tundra generates high level of heterogeneity in soil thermal regime, hydrology and oxygen availability, which limits the application of current land surface models with simple moisture response functions. We synthesized CH4 and CO2 production measurements from soil microcosm experiments across a wet-to dry permafrost degradation gradient from low-centered (LCP) to flat-centered (FCP), and high-centered polygons (HCP) to evaluate the relative importance of biogeochemical processes and their response to warming. More degraded polygon (HCP) showed much less carbon loss as CO2 or CH4, while the total CO2 production from FCP is comparable to that from LCP. Maximum CH4 production from the active layer of LCP was nearly 10 times that of permafrost and FCP. Multivariate analyses identifies gravimetric water content and organic carbon content as key predictors for CH4 production, and iron reduction as a key regulator of pH. The synthesized data are used to validate the geochemical model PHREEQC with extended anaerobic organic substrate turnover, fermentation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis reactions. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that better representations of anaerobic processes and their pH dependency could significantly improve estimates of CH4 and CO2 production. The synthesized data suggest local decreases in CH4 production along the polygon degradation gradient, which is consistent with previous surface flux measurements. Methane oxidation occurring through the soil column of degraded polygons contributes to their low CH4 emissions as well.

  4. The role of metabolism in modulating CO2 fluxes in boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Matthew J.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Lake CO2 emissions are increasingly recognized as an important component of the global CO2 cycle, yet the origin of these emissions is not clear, as specific contributions from metabolism and in-lake cycling, versus external inputs, are not well defined. To assess the coupling of lake metabolism with CO2 concentrations and fluxes, we estimated steady state ratios of gross primary production to respiration (GPP:R) and rates of net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP-R) from surface water O2 dynamics (concentration and stable isotopes) in 187 boreal lakes spanning long environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that internal metabolism plays a dominant role in regulating CO2 fluxes in most lakes, but this pattern only emerges when examined at a resolution that accounts for the vastly differing relationships between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes. Fluxes of CO2 exceeded those from NEP in over half the lakes, but unexpectedly, these effects were most common and typically largest in a subset ( 30% of total) of net autotrophic lakes that nevertheless emitted CO2. Equally surprising, we found no environmental characteristics that distinguished this category from the more common net heterotrophic, CO2 outgassing lakes. Excess CO2 fluxes relative to NEP were best predicted by catchment structure and hydrologic properties, and we infer from a combination of methods that both catchment inputs and internal anaerobic processes may have contributed this excess CO2. Together, our findings show that the link between lake metabolism and CO2 fluxes is often strong but can vary widely across the boreal biome, having important implications for catchment-wide C budgets.

  5. Investigations of pollutant migration using lysimeters; Untersuchungen zur Schadstoff-Migration in Lysimetern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    The third GSF Lysimeter Workshop focused on pollutant migration in underground strata, i.e. the dispersion of water constituents as referred to water transport on the basis of ideal tracer investigations. [German] Der am 29./30.04.2002 stattgefundene Workshop 'Untersuchungen zur Schadstoffmigration in Lysimetern' war der dritte GSF-Lysimeterworkshop nach denen in den Jahren 1998 und 2000 veranstalteten. Nachdem in den Jahren 1998 und 2000 der Wassertransport und die Bestimmung der Sickerwassergeschwindigkeit in Lysimetern im Mittelpunkt standen, war 2002 die Schadstoffmigration im Untergrund der Schwerpunkt der Vortraege und Poster. Unter Migration wird das Ausbreitungsverhalten von Wasserinhalts-(Fremd-, Schad-)Stoffen bezogen auf den Wassertransport, bestimmt mit idealen Tracern, verstanden. (orig.)

  6. Pollutants transport and atmospheric variability of CO2 over Siberia: contribution of airborne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, J.D.

    2008-12-01

    The work presented here intends to characterize the variations of atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , CO, O 3 and ultrafine particles, over a large scale aircraft transect above Siberia, during three intensive YAK-AEROSIB campaigns in April 2006, September 2006 and August 2007, respectively. Pollutant and greenhouse gases distribution in this poorly studied region is needed to model atmospheric long range transport. I show here that CO concentrations at the time of the campaigns is broadly affected by (1) advection of Chinese pollutants through baro-clinic perturbations, (2) advection (diffuse or not) of European pollutants at various altitudes, (3) and of biomass burning from Central Asia. This set of factors is analyzed through a novel statistical technique based on clustering of backward transport simulated by the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Large observed CO 2 gradients in summer are matched against vertical mixing in GCM simulated CO 2 . At last I present ultrafine particle measurements, and a possible nucleation summer maximum in the clean, continental mid-troposphere. (author)

  7. Acid-base relations in epithelium of turtle bladder: site of active step in acidification and role of metabolic CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, P R

    1969-07-01

    The acid-base relations across the two surfaces of the epithelium of the turtle bladder were examined. By means of the 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) technique the intracellular OH(-) concentration was measured in the presence and absence of a transepithelial pH gradient. When both sides of the bladder were bathed with solutions free of exogenous CO(2) and bicarbonate at pH 7.41 ([OH(-)] = 239 nmoles/liter), the epithelial cells were alkaline, the mean intracellular [OH(-)] being 347nmoles/liter. This alkalinity of the cells was preserved in bladders that secreted H(+) against a gradient of over 2 pH units. In bathing solutions stirred with 4.85% CO(2) and buffered with 25 mM HCO(3) (-) at pH 7.41 the intracellular [OH(-)] was lower than in CO(2)-free solutions and close to the extracellular [OH(-)]. In the CO(2)-free system anaerobiosis caused increased alkalinity of the cells and inhibition of H(+) secretion presumably by decreased metabolic CO(2) production. Carbonic acid inhibitors reduced H(+) secretion, but had no significant effect on the alkalinity of the cells. An inactive analogue of acetazolamide had no effect on H(+) secretion. The results indicate that the active step in acidification is located near the mucosal surface of the epithelium and that the alkali formed within the epithelial cells moves passively into the serosal solution along an electro-chemical gradient. The inhibitory effect of certain sulfonamides on H(+) secretion by the bladder is directly correlated with their known carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, but not associated with a measurable change in the mean intracellular [OH(-)].

  8. Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 of the Earths atmosphere is increasing, which has the potential of increasing greenhouse effect and air temperature in the future. Plants respond to environment CO2 and temperature. Therefore, climate change may affect agriculture. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature about the impact of a possible increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield. Increasing CO2 concentration increases crop yield once the substrate for photosynthesis and the gradient of CO2 concentration between atmosphere and leaf increase. C3 plants will benefit more than C4 plants at elevated CO2. However, if global warming will take place, an increase in temperature may offset the benefits of increasing CO2 on crop yield.

  9. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  10. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Model Uncertainty and Validation was one of the four themes of BIOMOVS II which had been identified by the programme's steering committee. It arose out of a concern that biosphere assessment models are generally simplified representations of highly complex environmental systems which, therefore, include a degree of uncertainty in their outputs. This uncertainty may be due to inadequate representations of the physical, chemical and biological processes; issues associated with scaling up highly non-linear systems; problems of model identification, in particular user interpretation. Therefore, during the course of the 5 year (1991-1996) BIOMOVS II programme a number of working sub-groups reestablished to address these issues. This document is the final report of the Prediction of Upward Migration of Radionuclides in Lysimeters sub-group which was established towards the end of the programme, late in 1994. It describes the 'blind' application of various hydrological and radiochemical transport models to experiment data derived from vegetated lysimeters. In order to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes affecting the radionuclide migration from contaminated near surface water tables into arable crops, a lysimeter experiment has been undertaken at Imperial College, funded by UK Nirex Ltd. Detailed observations of climate, soil hydrology, plant growth and radiochemical migration were collected on the uptake of various radionuclides by a winter wheat crop. A selected set of data was made available to members of BIOMOVS II in order to allow them to test relevant components of current versions of assessment code. This was a challenging task owing to the rather unusual experimental design, in particular, the introduction of radionuclides at the base of the lysimeter, 5 cm below a fixed water table, and their subsequent upward migration through the soil. The comprehensive hydrological data set available provided various modelers, particularly those

  11. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen

    1996-09-01

    Model Uncertainty and Validation was one of the four themes of BIOMOVS II which had been identified by the programme's steering committee. It arose out of a concern that biosphere assessment models are generally simplified representations of highly complex environmental systems which, therefore, include a degree of uncertainty in their outputs. This uncertainty may be due to inadequate representations of the physical, chemical and biological processes; issues associated with scaling up highly non-linear systems; problems of model identification, in particular user interpretation. Therefore, during the course of the 5 year (1991-1996) BIOMOVS II programme a number of working sub-groups reestablished to address these issues. This document is the final report of the Prediction of Upward Migration of Radionuclides in Lysimeters sub-group which was established towards the end of the programme, late in 1994. It describes the 'blind' application of various hydrological and radiochemical transport models to experiment data derived from vegetated lysimeters. In order to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes affecting the radionuclide migration from contaminated near surface water tables into arable crops, a lysimeter experiment has been undertaken at Imperial College, funded by UK Nirex Ltd. Detailed observations of climate, soil hydrology, plant growth and radiochemical migration were collected on the uptake of various radionuclides by a winter wheat crop. A selected set of data was made available to members of BIOMOVS II in order to allow them to test relevant components of current versions of assessment code. This was a challenging task owing to the rather unusual experimental design, in particular, the introduction of radionuclides at the base of the lysimeter, 5 cm below a fixed water table, and their subsequent upward migration through the soil. The comprehensive hydrological data set available provided various modelers, particularly those involved in tritium

  12. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  13. Wellbore integrity analysis of a natural CO2 producer

    KAUST Repository

    Crow, Walter

    2010-03-01

    Long-term integrity of existing wells in a CO2-rich environment is essential for ensuring that geological sequestration of CO2 will be an effective technology for mitigating greenhouse gas-induced climate change. The potential for wellbore leakage depends in part on the quality of the original construction as well as geochemical and geomechanical stresses that occur over its life-cycle. Field data are essential for assessing the integrated effect of these factors and their impact on wellbore integrity, defined as the maintenance of isolation between subsurface intervals. In this report, we investigate a 30-year-old well from a natural CO2 production reservoir using a suite of downhole and laboratory tests to characterize isolation performance. These tests included mineralogical and hydrological characterization of 10 core samples of casing/cement/formation, wireline surveys to evaluate well conditions, fluid samples and an in situ permeability test. We find evidence for CO2 migration in the occurrence of carbonated cement and calculate that the effective permeability of an 11′-region of the wellbore barrier system was between 0.5 and 1 milliDarcy. Despite these observations, we find that the amount of fluid migration along the wellbore was probably small because of several factors: the amount of carbonation decreased with distance from the reservoir, cement permeability was low (0.3-30 microDarcy), the cement-casing and cement-formation interfaces were tight, the casing was not corroded, fluid samples lacked CO2, and the pressure gradient between reservoir and caprock was maintained. We conclude that the barrier system has ultimately performed well over the last 3 decades. These results will be used as part of a broader effort to develop a long-term predictive simulation tool to assess wellbore integrity performance in CO2 storage sites. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  15. Evidence of the Lower Thermospheric Winter-to-Summer Circulation From SABER CO2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liying; Burns, Alan; Yue, Jia

    2017-10-01

    Numerical studies have shown that there is a lower thermospheric winter-to-summer circulation that is driven by wave dissipation and that it plays a significant role in trace gas distributions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and in the composition of the thermosphere. However, the characteristics of this circulation are poorly known. Direct observations of it are difficult, but it leaves clear signatures in tracer distributions. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) onboard the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite has obtained CO2 concentration from 2002 to present. This data set, combined with simulations by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, provides an unprecedented opportunity to infer the morphology of this circulation in both the summer and winter hemispheres. Our study show that there exists a maximum vertical gradient of CO2 at summer high latitudes, driven by the convergence of the upwelling of the mesospheric circulation and the downwelling of the lower thermospheric circulation; in the winter hemisphere, the maximum vertical gradient of CO2 is located at a higher altitude, driven by the convergence of the upwelling of the lower thermospheric circulation and the downwelling of the solar-driven thermospheric circulation; the bottom of the lower thermospheric circulation is located between 95 km and 100 km, and it has a vertical extent of 10 km. Analysis of the SABER CO2 and temperature at summer high latitudes showed that the bottom of this circulation is consistently higher than the mesopause height by 10 km.

  16. Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO sub 2 laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y; He, P

    1999-01-01

    Utilizing the high-power, radially polarized CO sub 2 laser and high-quality electron beam at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility, a vacuum laser acceleration scheme is proposed. In this scheme, optics configuration is simple, a small focused beam spot size can be easily maintained, and optical damage becomes less important. At least 0.5 GeV/m acceleration gradient is achievable by 1 TW laser power.

  17. Flow through in situ reactors with suction lysimeter sampling capability and methods of using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Corey W [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwelder, D Brad [Blackfoot, ID; Hubbell, Joel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and a sampling conduit received within the passageway. The sampling conduit may be used to receive a geological speciment derived from geological strata therein and a lysimeter is disposed within the sampling conduit in communication with the geological specimen. Fluid may be added to the geological specimen through the passageway defined by the liner, between an inside surface of the liner and an outside surface of the sampling conduit. A distal portion of the sampling conduit may be in fluid communication with the passageway.

  18. Variation in salt marsh CO2 fluxes across a latitudinal gradient along the US Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Nahrawi, H. B.; Leclerc, M.; O'Connell, J. L.; Mishra, D. R.; Fogarty, M. C.; Edson, J. B.; Lule, A. V.; Vargas, R.; Giblin, A. E.; Alber, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes occur at the dynamic interface of land and ocean, where they play an important role as sink and source of nutrients, carbon (C) and sediment. They often are strong carbon sinks, because they continuously accumulate soil organic matter and sediment to keep their position relative to sea level. Decadal average C sequestration rates can be inferred from soil carbon density and mass accumulation rates, but little information about biological and climatic controls on C cycling and storage in these systems exists. In this study, we report measurements of atmospheric CO2 exchange from salt marshes along the US Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. These measurements were made over periods from one to five years. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant vegetation at all sites. At the northern most site, Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER, and the southern most site, Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER, flux measurements over several years have shown variations in the net CO2 flux influenced by the local climate. For example, annual net C uptake at the PIE LTER over 5 years (2013-2017) depends on rainfall in the growing season (June-August) which modulates soil salinity levels. This pattern is not as evident at the GCE LTER (2014-2015). Furthermore, the growing season length differs between both sites. Based on the CO2 flux measurements, a temperature threshold of 15o C limits the net C uptake at both sites and daily rates of net C uptake are generally smaller during the longer growing season in Georgia. Nevertheless, gross primary production (GPP) is similar for both sites. We will extend this analysis to include sites from Delaware and North Carolina to assess controls (e.g. leaf area using MODIS vegetation indices, temperature, photoperiod) on Spartina phenology and CO2 exchange.

  19. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  20. Rechargeable Al-CO2 Batteries for Reversible Utilization of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqing; Liu, Xizheng; Li, Chao; Yin, Huiming; Xi, Wei; Liu, Ruirui; He, Guang; Zhao, Xian; Luo, Jun; Ding, Yi

    2018-05-21

    The excessive emission of CO 2 and the energy crisis are two major issues facing humanity. Thus, the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 and its utilization in metal-CO 2 batteries have attracted wide attention because the batteries can simultaneously accelerate CO 2 fixation/utilization and energy storage/release. Here, rechargeable Al-CO 2 batteries are proposed and realized, which use chemically stable Al as the anode. The batteries display small discharge/charge voltage gaps down to 0.091 V and high energy efficiencies up to 87.7%, indicating an efficient battery performance. Their chemical reaction mechanism to produce the performance is revealed to be 4Al + 9CO 22Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 3C, by which CO 2 is reversibly utilized. These batteries are envisaged to effectively and safely serve as a potential CO 2 fixation/utilization strategy with stable Al. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. On the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere: the role of synoptic and mesoscale processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Douglas; Higuchi, Kaz; Shashkov, Alexander; Worthy, Douglas; Liu, Jane; Chen Jing; Yuen Chiu Wai

    2004-01-01

    Estimating global carbon fluxes by inverting atmospheric CO 2 through the use of atmospheric transport models has shown the importance of the covariance between biospheric fluxes and atmospheric transport on the carbon budget. This covariance or coupling occurs on many time scales. This study examines the coupling of the biosphere and the atmosphere on the meso- and synoptic scales using a coupled atmosphere-biosphere regional model covering Canada. The results are compared with surface and light aircraft measurement campaigns at two boreal forest sites in Canada. Associated with cold and warm frontal features, the model results showed that the biospheric fluxes are strongly coupled to the atmosphere through radiative forcing. The presence of cloud near frontal regions usually results in reduced photosynthetic uptake, producing CO 2 concentration gradients across the frontal regions on the order of 10 parts per million (ppm). Away from the frontal region, the biosphere is coupled to the mesoscale variations in similar ways, resulting in mesoscale variations in CO 2 concentrations of about 5 ppm. The CO 2 field is also coupled strongly to the atmospheric dynamics. In the presence of frontal circulation, the CO 2 near the surface can be transported to the mid to upper troposphere. Mesoscale circulation also plays a significant part in transporting the CO 2 from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the mid-troposphere. In the absence of significant mesoscale or synoptic scale circulation, the CO 2 in the PBL has minimal exchange with the free troposphere, leading to strong gradients across the top of the PBL. We speculate that the ubiquity of the common synoptic and mesoscale processes in the atmosphere may contribute significantly to the rectifier effect and hence CO 2 inversion calculations

  2. Co-gradient variation in growth rate and development time of a broadly distributed butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Barton

    Full Text Available Widespread species often show geographic variation in thermally-sensitive traits, providing insight into how species respond to shifts in temperature through time. Such patterns may arise from phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, or their interaction. In some cases, the effects of genotype and temperature may act together to reduce, or to exacerbate, phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits across varying thermal environments. We find evidence for such interactions in life-history traits of Heteronympha merope, a butterfly distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient in south-eastern Australia. We show that body size in this butterfly is negatively related to developmental temperature in the laboratory, in accordance with the temperature-size rule, but not in the field, despite very strong temperature gradients. A common garden experiment on larval thermal responses, spanning the environmental extremes of H. merope's distribution, revealed that butterflies from low latitude (warmer climate populations have relatively fast intrinsic growth and development rates compared to those from cooler climates. These synergistic effects of genotype and temperature across the landscape (co-gradient variation are likely to accentuate phenotypic variation in these traits, and this interaction must be accounted for when predicting how H. merope will respond to temperature change through time. These results highlight the importance of understanding how variation in life-history traits may arise in response to environmental change. Without this knowledge, we may fail to detect whether organisms are tracking environmental change, and if they are, whether it is by plasticity, adaptation or both.

  3. Status report for the Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility; Fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory are jointly developing earthen protective barriers for the near-surface disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste at the Hanford Site. The proposed barrier design consists of a blanket of fine-textured soil overlying a sequence of layers, varying from sand to basalt riprap. The experiments conducted at the Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility (STLF) were designed to measure the influence of erosion-control practices and alternate barrier layer configurations on water movement within the barrier, and extraction of water from the barrier. This report describes the results of data collected during the period from September 1988 through May 1992 at the STLF. Four concurrent experiments are being performed at this facility, each of these experiments are designed to test different components of the proposed barrier. The experiments are as follows

  4. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  5. Optical diagnostics of CO2 laser-fusion targets using backscattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casperson, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the f/2.4 focusing optics on one of the eight Helios CO 2 laser beam lines, direct backscattered light from a variety of glass microballoon targets has been observed. The quantities that have been measured include: (1) the total backscattered energy; (2) relative amplitudes of the backscattered fundamental and low harmonics (n = 1, 2, 3) of the 10.6 μm incident light; (3) the 3/2 harmonic emission from a double pulse backscatter experiment; (4) the temporally resolved 10.6 μm light using a fast pyroelectric detector and a Los Alamos 5-GHz oscilloscope; and (5) the time-integrated spectrally resolved fundamental using a 3/4 meter spectrometer and a high resolution pyroelectric detector array (resolution approx. 40 A at 10.6 μm). The suitability of these diagnostics for evaluating the CO 2 laser plasma in terms of stimulated scattering processes, plasma density gradients, velocity of the critical surface, etc., is discussed

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance of Cu2O/Coal-based carbon nanoparticle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedong, Zhang; Maimaiti, Halidan; Awati, Abuduheiremu; Yisilamu, Gunisakezi; Fengchang, Sun; Ming, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons provides a promising approach to overcome the challenges of environmental crisis and energy shortage. Here we fabricated a cuprous oxide (Cu2O) based composite photocatalyst consisting of Cu2O/carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). To prepare the CNPs, coal samples from Wucaiwan, Xinjiang, China, were first treated with HNO3, followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation to strip nanocrystalline carbon from coal. After linking with oxygen-containing group such as hydroxyl, coal-based CNPs with sp2 carbon structure and multilayer graphene lattice structure were synthesized. Subsequently, the CNPs were loaded onto the surface of Cu2O nanoparticles prepared by in-situ reduction of copper chloride (CuCl2·2H2O). The physical properties and chemical structure of the Cu2O/CNPs as well as photocatalytic activity of CO2/H2O reduction into CH3OH were measured. The results demonstrate that the Cu2O/CNPs are composed of spherical particles with diameter of 50 nm and mesoporous structure, which are suitable for CO2 adsorption. Under illumination of visible light, electron-hole pairs are generated in Cu2O. Thanks to the CNPs, the fast recombination of electron-hole pairs is suppressed. The energy gradient formed on the surface of Cu2O/CNPs facilitates the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs for CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  7. Fungal Community Responses to Past and Future Atmospheric CO2 Differ by Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. Christopher; Fay, Philip A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Jackson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Soils sequester and release substantial atmospheric carbon, but the contribution of fungal communities to soil carbon balance under rising CO2 is not well understood. Soil properties likely mediate these fungal responses but are rarely explored in CO2 experiments. We studied soil fungal communities in a grassland ecosystem exposed to a preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250 to 500 ppm) in a black clay soil and a sandy loam soil. Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of the rRNA gene cluster revealed that fungal community composition and its response to CO2 differed significantly between soils. Fungal species richness and relative abundance of Chytridiomycota (chytrids) increased linearly with CO2 in the black clay (P 0.7), whereas the relative abundance of Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) increased linearly with elevated CO2 in the sandy loam (P = 0.02, R2 = 0.63). Across both soils, decomposition rate was positively correlated with chytrid relative abundance (r = 0.57) and, in the black clay soil, fungal species richness. Decomposition rate was more strongly correlated with microbial biomass (r = 0.88) than with fungal variables. Increased labile carbon availability with elevated CO2 may explain the greater fungal species richness and Chytridiomycota abundance in the black clay soil, whereas increased phosphorus limitation may explain the increase in Glomeromycota at elevated CO2 in the sandy loam. Our results demonstrate that soil type plays a key role in soil fungal responses to rising atmospheric CO2. PMID:25239904

  8. The molecular gradient using the divide-expand-consolidate resolution of the identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory: The DEC-RI-MP2 gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Dmytro; Kristensen, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Thomas [Department of Chemistry, qLeap Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark)

    2016-07-14

    We report an implementation of the molecular gradient using the divide-expand-consolidate resolution of the identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (DEC-RI-MP2). The new DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method combines the precision control as well as the linear-scaling and massively parallel features of the DEC scheme with efficient evaluations of the gradient contributions using the RI approximation. We further demonstrate that the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method is capable of calculating molecular gradients for very large molecular systems. A test set of supramolecular complexes containing up to 158 atoms and 1960 contracted basis functions has been employed to demonstrate the general applicability of the DEC-RI-MP2 method and to analyze the errors of the DEC approximation. Moreover, the test set contains molecules of complicated electronic structures and is thus deliberately chosen to stress test the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient implementation. Additionally, as a showcase example the full molecular gradient for insulin (787 atoms and 7604 contracted basis functions) has been evaluated.

  9. The molecular gradient using the divide-expand-consolidate resolution of the identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory: The DEC-RI-MP2 gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Dmytro; Kristensen, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report an implementation of the molecular gradient using the divide-expand-consolidate resolution of the identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (DEC-RI-MP2). The new DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method combines the precision control as well as the linear-scaling and massively parallel features of the DEC scheme with efficient evaluations of the gradient contributions using the RI approximation. We further demonstrate that the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient method is capable of calculating molecular gradients for very large molecular systems. A test set of supramolecular complexes containing up to 158 atoms and 1960 contracted basis functions has been employed to demonstrate the general applicability of the DEC-RI-MP2 method and to analyze the errors of the DEC approximation. Moreover, the test set contains molecules of complicated electronic structures and is thus deliberately chosen to stress test the DEC-RI-MP2 gradient implementation. Additionally, as a showcase example the full molecular gradient for insulin (787 atoms and 7604 contracted basis functions) has been evaluated.

  10. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Submesoscale CO2 variability across an upwelling front off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn, Eike E.; Thomsen, Sören; Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L.; Kanzow, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    As a major source for atmospheric CO2, the Peruvian upwelling region exhibits strong variability in surface fCO2 on short spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the physical processes driving the strong variability is of fundamental importance for constraining the effect of marine emissions from upwelling regions on the global CO2 budget. In this study, a frontal decay on length scales of 𝒪(10 km) was observed off the Peruvian coast following a pronounced decrease in down-frontal (equatorward) wind speed with a time lag of 9 h. Simultaneously, the sea-to-air flux of CO2 on the inshore (cold) side of the front dropped from up to 80 to 10 mmol m-2 day-1, while the offshore (warm) side of the front was constantly outgassing at a rate of 10-20 mmol m-2 day-1. Based on repeated ship transects the decay of the front was observed to occur in two phases. The first phase was characterized by a development of coherent surface temperature anomalies which gained in amplitude over 6-9 h. The second phase was characterized by a disappearance of the surface temperature front within 6 h. Submesoscale mixed-layer instabilities were present but seem too slow to completely remove the temperature gradient in this short time period. Dynamics such as a pressure-driven gravity current appear to be a likely mechanism behind the evolution of the front.

  12. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. ?13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significa...

  13. Elemental Redistribution at the Onset of Soil Genesis from Basalt as Measured in a Soil Lysimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Umanzor, M.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Sengupta, A.; Amistadi, M. K.; Root, R.; Troch, P.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental translocation, resulting in enrichment or depletion relative to parent rock, is a consequence of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions of soil genesis. Accurate measurement of translocation in natural systems is complicated by factors such as parent material heterogeneity and dust deposition. In the present work, a fully controlled and monitored 10° sloping soil lysimeter with known homogeneous initial conditions, was utilized to investigate initial stages of soil genesis from 1 m3 of crushed basalt. Throughout the two-year experiment, periodic irrigation coupled with sensor measurements enabled monitoring of changes in internal moisture states. A total 15-meter water influx resulted in distinct efflux patterns, wetting and drying cycles, as well as high volume water storage. Biological changes, such as algal and grass emergence, were visible on the soil surface, and microbial colonization throughout the profile was measured in a companion study, suggesting that biogeochemical hotspots may have formed. Forensic excavation and sampling of 324 voxels captured the final state heterogeneity of the lysimeter with respect to length and depth. Total elemental concentrations and a five-step sequential extraction (SE) scheme quantified elemental redistributions into operationally-defined pools including exchangeable, poorly-crystalline (hydr)oxides, and crystalline (hydr)oxides. Data were correlated to water flux and storage that was determined from sensor and tracer data over the two years of rock-water interaction; then used to map 2D cross-sections and identify geochemical hotspots. Total and SE Fe concentrations were used to establish a governing mass balance equation, and sub mass balance equations with unique partitioning coefficients of Fe were developed for each SE pool, respectively. The results help to explain elemental (e.g., Fe) lability and redistribution due to physical and geochemical weathering during the initial stages of soil genesis.

  14. The first 1-year-long estimate of the Paris region fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on atmospheric inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Staufer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a Bayesian atmospheric inversion to quantify the Paris region's fossil fuel CO2 emissions on a monthly basis, based on a network of three surface stations operated for 1 year as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS experiment (August 2010–July 2011, is analysed. Differences in hourly CO2 atmospheric mole fractions between the near-ground monitoring sites (CO2 gradients, located at the north-eastern and south-western edges of the urban area, are used to estimate the 6 h mean fossil fuel CO2 emission. The inversion relies on the CHIMERE transport model run at 2 km  ×  2 km horizontal resolution, on the spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 2008 from a local inventory established at 1 km  ×  1 km horizontal resolution by the AIRPARIF air quality agency, and on the spatial distribution of the biogenic CO2 fluxes from the C-TESSEL land surface model. It corrects a prior estimate of the 6 h mean budgets of the fossil fuel CO2 emissions given by the AIRPARIF 2008 inventory. We found that a stringent selection of CO2 gradients is necessary for reliable inversion results, due to large modelling uncertainties. In particular, the most robust data selection analysed in this study uses only mid-afternoon gradients if wind speeds are larger than 3 m s−1 and if the modelled wind at the upwind site is within ±15° of the transect between downwind and upwind sites. This stringent data selection removes 92 % of the hourly observations. Even though this leaves few remaining data to constrain the emissions, the inversion system diagnoses that their assimilation significantly reduces the uncertainty in monthly emissions: by 9 % in November 2010 to 50 % in October 2010. The inverted monthly mean emissions correlate well with independent monthly mean air temperature. Furthermore, the inverted annual mean emission is consistent with the independent revision of the AIRPARIF inventory for the year

  15. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  16. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone. Part I. Design, installation, and data collection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    A field test facility has been designed and installed to obtain data on the vegetative uptake of radionuclides from buried low-level radioactive waste. The waste is a cement-like, solidified salt solution known as saltstone. The facility consists of 32 lysimeters (containers 6 feet in diameter and 6 to 10 feet in depth) holding buried saltstone at varying depths, and with varying types of vegetation grown at the surface. Vegetation, soil, and groundwater samples will be analyzed for Tc-99, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137, and other radionuclides. Groundwater will also be analyzed for other water quality parameters, including nitrates

  17. Large-scale demonstration of disposal of decontaminated salt as saltstone. Part I. Construction, loading, and capping of lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.C.

    1984-06-01

    The installation phase of a large-scale demonstration of the disposal concept for decontaminated, low-level radioactive salt waste at the Savannah River Plant was completed in December 1983 and January 1984. The installation entailed immobilizing 7500 gallons of decontaminated salt solution with a blended cement formulation and pouring the resulting grout, saltstone, into three specially designed lysimeters for extended in-field leaching tests under natural conditions. 4 references, 35 figures, 4 tables

  18. Gradient Self-Doped CuBi2O4 with Highly Improved Charge Separation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuxian; Septina, Wilman; Chemseddine, Abdelkrim; Abdi, Fatwa F; Friedrich, Dennis; Bogdanoff, Peter; van de Krol, Roel; Tilley, S David; Berglund, Sean P

    2017-10-25

    A new strategy of using forward gradient self-doping to improve the charge separation efficiency in metal oxide photoelectrodes is proposed. Gradient self-doped CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes are prepared with forward and reverse gradients in copper vacancies using a two-step, diffusion-assisted spray pyrolysis process. Decreasing the Cu/Bi ratio of the CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes introduces Cu vacancies that increase the carrier (hole) concentration and lowers the Fermi level, as evidenced by a shift in the flat band toward more positive potentials. Thus, a gradient in Cu vacancies leads to an internal electric field within CuBi 2 O 4 , which can facilitate charge separation. Compared to homogeneous CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes, CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a forward gradient show highly improved charge separation efficiency and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for reduction reactions, while CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a reverse gradient show significantly reduced charge separation efficiency and photoelectrochemical performance. The CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a forward gradient produce record AM 1.5 photocurrent densities for CuBi 2 O 4 up to -2.5 mA/cm 2 at 0.6 V vs RHE with H 2 O 2 as an electron scavenger, and they show a charge separation efficiency of 34% for 550 nm light. The gradient self-doping accomplishes this without the introduction of external dopants, and therefore the tetragonal crystal structure and carrier mobility of CuBi 2 O 4 are maintained. Lastly, forward gradient self-doped CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes are protected with a CdS/TiO 2 heterojunction and coated with Pt as an electrocatalyst. These photocathodes demonstrate photocurrent densities on the order of -1.0 mA/cm 2 at 0.0 V vs RHE and evolve hydrogen with a faradaic efficiency of ∼91%.

  19. The effect of gradient boracic polyanion-doping on structure, morphology, and cycling performance of Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hao; Yan, Xinxiu; Wang, Lei; Deng, Bangwei; Ge, Wujie; Qu, Meizhen

    2018-01-01

    A gradient boracic polyanion-doping method is applied to Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode material in this study to suppress the capacity/potential fade during charge-discharge cycling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that all samples present spherical morphology and the secondary particle size increases with increasing boron content. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrate that boracic polyanions are successfully introduced into the bulk material and more enriched in the outer layer. XPS analysis further reveals that the valence state of Ni3+ is partly reduced to Ni2+ at the surface due to the incorporation of boracic polyanions. From the electrochemical measurements, B0.015-NCA electrode exhibits excellent cycling performance, even at high potential and elevated temperature. Moreover, the SEM images illustrate the presence of cracks and a thick SEI layer on pristine particles after 100 cycles at high temperature, while the B0.015-NCA particles show an intact structure and thin SEI layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirms that the boracic polyanion doping could hinder the impedance increase during cycling at elevated temperature. These results clearly indicate that the gradient boracic polyanion-doping contributes to the remarkable enhancement of structure stability and cycling performance of NCA.

  20. High-gradient operators in the psl(2 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnazzo, Alessandra; Schomerus, Volker; Tlapak, Vaclav

    2014-10-01

    It has been observed more than 25 years ago that sigma model perturbation theory suffers from strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators. The phenomenon was first seen in 1-loop calculations for the O(N) vector model and it is known to persist at least to two loops. More recently, Ryu et al. suggested that a certain deformation of the psl(N vertical stroke N) WZNW-model at level k=1, or equivalently the psl(N vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, could be free of RG-relevant high-gradient operators and they tested their suggestion to leading order in perturbation theory. In this note we establish the absence of strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators in the psl(2 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model to all loops. In addition, we determine the spectrum for a large subsector of the model at infinite coupling and observe that all scaling weights become half-integer. Evidence for a conjectured relation with the CP 1 vertical stroke 2 sigma model is not found.

  1. Seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and temperate forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Susumo; Murayama, Shohei; Kondo, Hiroaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Carbon dioxide, which is a very important greenhouse gas, contributes approximately 55 % to the problem of global warming. The knowledge to the sources and sinks of carbon on a global basis is very poor. IPCC (1994) suggested that unknown 1.5-2.0 GtC/year may be sunk in terrestrial ecosystem, in particular, in the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. The clear evidence for it has not been shown yet by IPCC (1994). However, based on the gradient of CO{sub 2}, as a function of latitude, main CO{sub 2} sink can be thought to be in the terrestrial biosphere, in the middle to high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. From this view, more investigation of the role of the temperate forest on the CO{sub 2} balance is inevitable. In this presentation, the seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and biosphere in temperate deciduous forest in Japan is intended to be elucidated. (author)

  2. Seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and temperate forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Susumo; Murayama, Shohei; Kondo, Hiroaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Carbon dioxide, which is a very important greenhouse gas, contributes approximately 55 % to the problem of global warming. The knowledge to the sources and sinks of carbon on a global basis is very poor. IPCC (1994) suggested that unknown 1.5-2.0 GtC/year may be sunk in terrestrial ecosystem, in particular, in the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. The clear evidence for it has not been shown yet by IPCC (1994). However, based on the gradient of CO{sub 2}, as a function of latitude, main CO{sub 2} sink can be thought to be in the terrestrial biosphere, in the middle to high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere. As can be seen from a recent estimation of the carbon fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere, there is a high degree of uncertainty in the magnitude. From this view, more investigation of the role of the temperate forest on the CO{sub 2} balance is inevitable. In this presentation, the seasonal variation of CO{sub 2} flux between air and biosphere in temperate deciduous forest in Japan is intended to be elucidated. (author)

  3. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  4. Multitracer studies for determining seepage water and anion movement in four types of soil using lysimeters with different functions and designs; Multitracer-Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung in vier Bodenformen bei Lysimetern unterschiedlicher Nutzung und Bauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, S.; Russow, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung; Seeger, J. [Lysimeterstation Falkenberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Lysimeter experiments based on the stable isotope tracer technique are a suitable means of examining the complex relationships governing water and material transport processes in the soil. The present paper reports on experiments in which water and nitrate movement was traced directly by means of lysimeters placed at different depths and using deuterium water and [{sup 15}N]N-nitrate for pulse marking. Extensive investigations carried out during the dissection of soil monoliths that had been used for many years in lysimeters offered an opportunity for stable isotope tracer studies aimed at determining seepage water and anion movement in undisturbed soils and, after dismantling the lysimeters, conducting soil analyses to find out more about the fate of nonpercolated tracers at various soil depths. Following other authors, bromide anions were additionally used as conservative tracers. [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der komplexen Zusammenhaenge des Wasser- und Stofftransportes im Boden bieten sich Lysimeterversuche unter Nutzung der stabilisotopen Tracertechnik an. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird zunaechst ueber die direkte Verfolgung der Wasser- und Nitrat-Bewegung in tiefengestaffelten Lysimetern durch Pulsmarkierung mit Deuteriumwasser und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat berichtet. Im Rahmen von umfangreichen Untersuchungen bei der Zerlegung von langjaehrig in Lysimetern genutzten Bodenmonolithen bestand des weiteren die Moeglichkeit, stabilisotope Traceruntersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Sickerwasser- und Anionenbewegung an ungestoerten Boeden durchzufuehren und nach der Zerlegung der Lysimeter ueber entsprechende Analysen des Bodens Aussagen zum Verbleib der nicht perkolierten Tracer in verschiedenen Bodentiefen zu treffen. Zusaetzlich wurde dabei das von anderen Autoren bereits genutzte Bromid-Anion als sogenannter konservativer Tracer eingesetzt. (orig.)

  5. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  6. The gradient flow running coupling in SU2 with 8 flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Karavirta, Tuomas; Leino, Viljami

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the gradient flow running coupling with Dirichlet boundary condition in the SU(2) gauge theory with 8 fermion flavours. Improvements to the gradient flow measurement allow us to obtain a robust continuum limit. The results are consistent with perturbative running...

  7. Analytical gradients for tensor hyper-contracted MP2 and SOS-MP2 on graphical processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.

    2017-10-01

    Analytic energy gradients for tensor hyper-contraction (THC) are derived and implemented for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), with and without the scaled-opposite-spin (SOS)-MP2 approximation. By exploiting the THC factorization, the formal scaling of MP2 and SOS-MP2 gradient calculations with respect to system size is reduced to quartic and cubic, respectively. An efficient implementation has been developed that utilizes both graphics processing units and sparse tensor techniques exploiting spatial sparsity of the atomic orbitals. THC-MP2 has been applied to both geometry optimization and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The resulting energy conservation in micro-canonical AIMD demonstrates that the implementation provides accurate nuclear gradients with respect to the THC-MP2 potential energy surfaces.

  8. Well technologies for CO2 geological storage: CO2-resistant cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Rimmele, G.; Porcherie, O.; Goffe, B.

    2007-01-01

    Storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground is considered the most effective way for long-term safe and low-cost CO 2 sequestration. This recent application requires long-term well-bore integrity. A CO 2 leakage through the annulus may occur much more rapidly than geologic leakage through the formation rock, leading to economic loss, reduction of CO 2 storage efficiency, and potential compromise of the field for storage. The possibility of such leaks raises considerable concern about the long-term well-bore isolation and the durability of hydrated cement that is used to isolate the annulus across the producing/injection intervals in CO 2 -storage wells. We propose a new experimental procedure and methodology to study reactivity of CO 2 -Water-Cement systems in simulating the interaction of the set cement with injected supercritical CO 2 under downhole conditions. The conditions of experiments are 90 deg. C under 280 bars. The evolution of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of Portland cement with time is studied up to 6 months. The results are compared to equivalent studies on a new CO 2 -resistant material; the comparison shows significant promise for this new material. (authors)

  9. Atmospheric CO2 and climate: Importance of the transient response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.H.; Thompson, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that the thermal inertia of the upper layers of the oceans, combined with vertical mixing of deeper oceanic waters, could delay the response of the globally averaged surface temperature to an increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration by a decade or so relative to equilibrium calculations. This study extends the global analysis of the transient response to zonal averages, using a hierarchy of simple energy balance models and vertical mixing assumptions for water exchange between upper and deeper oceanic layers. It is found that because of the latitudinal dependence of both thermal inertia and radiative and dynamic energy exchange mechanisms, the approach toward equilibrium of the surface temperature of various regions of the earth will be significantly different from the global average approach. This suggests that the actual time evolution of the horizontal surface temperature gradients--and any associated regional climatic anomalies-may well be significantly different from that suggested by equilibrium climatic modeling simulations (or those computed with a highly unrealistic geographic distribution of ocean thermal capacity). Also, the transient response as a function of latitude is significantly different between globally equivalent CO 2 and solar constant focusing runs. It is suggested that the nature of the transient response is a major uncertainty in characterizing the CO 2 problem and that study of this topic should become a major priority for future research. An appendix puts this issue in the context of the overall CO 2 problem

  10. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oikawa

    Full Text Available The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3 dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4 and Andropogon virginicus (C4 grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution

  11. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saigusa

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3 dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4 and Andropogon virginicus (C4 grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution

  12. Seasonal change in CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, N.; Liu, S.; Oikawa, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-03-01

    The seasonal change in CO2 flux over an artificial grassland was analyzed from the ecological and meteorological point of view. This grassland contains C3 and C4 plants; the three dominant species belonging to the Gramineae; Festuca elatior (C3) dominated in early spring, and Imperata cylindrica (C4) and Andropogon virginicus (C4) grew during early summer and became dominant in mid-summer. CO2 flux was measured by the gradient method, and the routinely observed data for the surface-heat budget were used to analyze the CO2 and H2O exchange between the grassland and atmosphere. From August to October in 1993, CO2 flux was reduced to around half under the same solar-radiation conditions, while H2O flux decreased 20% during the same period. The monthly values of water use efficiency, i.e., ratio of CO2 flux to H2O flux decreased from 5.8 to 3.3 mg CO2/g H2O from August to October, the Bowen ratio increased from 0.20 to 0.30, and the ratio of the bulk latent heat transfer coefficient CE to the sensible heat transfer coefficient CH was maintained around 0.40-0.50. The increase in the Bowen ratio was explained by the decrease in air temperature from 22.3 °C in August to 16.6 °C in October without considering biological effects such as stomatal closure on the individual leaves. The nearly constant CE/CH ratios suggested that the contribution ratio of canopy resistance to aerodynamic resistance did not change markedly, although the meteorological conditions changed seasonally. The decrease in the water use efficiency, however, suggested that the photosynthetic rate decreased for individual leaves from August to October under the same radiation conditions. Diurnal variations of CO2 exchange were simulated by the multi-layer canopy model taking into account the differences in the stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pathway between C3 and C4 plants. The results suggested that C4 plants played a major role in the CO2 exchange in August, the contribution of C4 plants

  13. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the influences of ocean acidification on the ocean pelagic ecosystem, so far the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study (European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA was performed in Kings Bay (Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. During a 30 day incubation, bacterial diversity was investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that general bacterial diversity, taxonomic richness and community structure were influenced by the variation of productivity during the time of incubation, but not the degree of ocean acidification. A BIOENV analysis suggested a complex control of bacterial community structure by various biological and chemical environmental parameters. The maximum apparent diversity of bacterioplankton (i.e., the number of T-RFs in high and low pCO2 treatments differed significantly. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment by the combination of T-RFLP and clone library analysis. Our study suggests that ocean acidification affects the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  14. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Xia, X.; Lau, S. C. K.; Motegi, C.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Jiao, N.

    2013-06-01

    In order to test the influences of ocean acidification on the ocean pelagic ecosystem, so far the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study (European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA) was performed in Kings Bay (Kongsfjorden), Spitsbergen. During a 30 day incubation, bacterial diversity was investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that general bacterial diversity, taxonomic richness and community structure were influenced by the variation of productivity during the time of incubation, but not the degree of ocean acidification. A BIOENV analysis suggested a complex control of bacterial community structure by various biological and chemical environmental parameters. The maximum apparent diversity of bacterioplankton (i.e., the number of T-RFs) in high and low pCO2 treatments differed significantly. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment by the combination of T-RFLP and clone library analysis. Our study suggests that ocean acidification affects the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  15. A Portable FTIR Analyser for Field Measurements of Trace Gases and their Isotopologues: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, del13C in CO2 and delD in water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D. W.; Bryant, G. R.; Deutscher, N. M.; Wilson, S. R.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a portable Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) analyser capable of simultaneous high precision analysis of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air, as well as δ13C in CO2 and δD in water vapour. The instrument is based on a commercial 1 cm-1 resolution FTIR spectrometer fitted with a mid-IR globar source, 26 m multipass White cell and thermoelectrically-cooled MCT detector operating between 2000 and 7500 cm-1. Air is passed through the cell and analysed in real time without any pre-treatment except for (optional) drying. An inlet selection manifold allows automated sequential analysis of samples from one or more inlet lines, with typical measurement times of 1-10 minutes per sample. The spectrometer, inlet sampling sequence, real-time quantitative spectrum analysis, data logging and display are all under the control of a single program running on a laptop PC, and can be left unattended for continuous measurements over periods of weeks to months. Selected spectral regions of typically 100-200 cm-1 width are analysed by a least squares fitting technique to retrieve concentrations of trace gases, 13CO2 and HDO. Typical precision is better than 0.1% without the need for calibration gases. Accuracy is similar if measurements are referenced to calibration standard gases. δ13C precision is typically around 0.1‰, and for δD it is 1‰. Applications of the analyser include clean and polluted air monitoring, tower-based flux measurements such as flux gradient or integrated horizontal flux measurements, automated soil chambers, and field-based measurements of isotopic fractionation in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. The simultaneous multi-component advantages can be exploited in tracer-type emission measurements, for example of CH4 from livestock using a co-released tracer gas and downwind measurement. We have also developed an open path variant especially suited to tracer release studies and measurements of NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. An illustrative

  16. Stability and oxygen permeation behavior of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ–La0.8Sr0.2CrO3−δ composite membrane under large oxygen partial pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Bo; Yi, Jianxin; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Chen, Chusheng

    2006-01-01

    The stability and oxygen permeation behavior of the Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ–La0.8Sr0.2CrO3−δ dual-phase composite were investigated under a large oxygen gradient with one side of it exposed to air and the other side to CO, CH4 or H2 at elevated temperatures. An oxygen permeation flux of 8.6 × 10−7 mol cm−2

  17. Simulation of co-phase error correction of optical multi-aperture imaging system based on stochastic parallel gradient decent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Ma, Haotong; Luo, Chuanxin

    2016-10-01

    The optical multi-aperture imaging system is an effective way to magnify the aperture and increase the resolution of telescope optical system, the difficulty of which lies in detecting and correcting of co-phase error. This paper presents a method based on stochastic parallel gradient decent algorithm (SPGD) to correct the co-phase error. Compared with the current method, SPGD method can avoid detecting the co-phase error. This paper analyzed the influence of piston error and tilt error on image quality based on double-aperture imaging system, introduced the basic principle of SPGD algorithm, and discuss the influence of SPGD algorithm's key parameters (the gain coefficient and the disturbance amplitude) on error control performance. The results show that SPGD can efficiently correct the co-phase error. The convergence speed of the SPGD algorithm is improved with the increase of gain coefficient and disturbance amplitude, but the stability of the algorithm reduced. The adaptive gain coefficient can solve this problem appropriately. This paper's results can provide the theoretical reference for the co-phase error correction of the multi-aperture imaging system.

  18. CO{sub 2}-recycling by plants: how reliable is the carbon isotope estimation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegwolf, R T.W.; Saurer, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Koerner, C [Basel Univ., Basel (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the study of plant carbon relations, the amount of the respiratory losses from the soil was estimated, determining the gradient of the stable isotope {sup 13}C with increasing plant canopy height. According to the literature 8-26% of the CO{sub 2} released in the forests by soil and plant respiratory processes are reassimilated (recycled) by photosynthesis during the day. Our own measurements however, which we conducted in grass land showed diverging results from no indicating of carbon recycling, to a considerable {delta}{sup 13}C gradient suggesting a high carbon recycling rate. The role of other factors, such as air humidity and irradiation which influence the {delta}{sup 13}C in a canopy as well, are discussed. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Extreme CO2 disturbance and the resilience of soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jack W.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Haw, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CSS) technology has the potential to inadvertently release large quantities of CO2 through geologic substrates and into surrounding soils and ecosystems. Such a disturbance has the potential to not only alter the structure and function of plant and animal communities, but also soils, soil microbial communities, and the biogeochemical processes they mediate. At Mammoth Mountain, we assessed the soil microbial community response to CO2 disturbance (derived from volcanic ‘cold’ CO2) that resulted in localized tree kill; soil CO2 concentrations in our study area ranged from 0.6% to 60%. Our objectives were to examine how microbial communities and their activities are restructured by extreme CO2 disturbance, and assess the response of major microbial taxa to the reintroduction of limited plant communities following an extensive period (15–20 years) with no plants. We found that CO2-induced tree kill reduced soil carbon (C) availability along our sampling transect. In response, soil microbial biomass decreased by an order of magnitude from healthy forest to impacted areas. Soil microorganisms were most sensitive to changes in soil organic C, which explained almost 60% of the variation for microbial biomass C (MBC) along the CO2gradient. We employed phospholipid fatty acid analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine compositional changes among microbial communities in affected areas and found substantial reductions in microbial biomass linked to the loss of soil fungi. In contrast, archaeal populations responded positively to the CO2 disturbance, presumably due to reduced competition of bacteria and fungi, and perhaps unique adaptations to energy stress. Enzyme activities important in the cycling of soil C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) declined with increasing CO2, though specific activities (per unit MBC) remained stable or increased suggesting functional redundancy among restructured communities. We conclude that both the

  20. CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakuta, Toshikatu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The climate change induced by CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is probably the most serious environmental threat that mankind has ever experienced. Nowadays fossil fuels occupy the majority of the world commercial energy supply. Most nations will be dependent on fossil fuels even in the first half of the next century. Around 30 % of CO{sub 2} in the world is emitted from thermal power plants. Recovering CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and storing it outside the atmosphere is a promising option for the mitigation of global warming. CO{sub 2} fixation and storage include CO{sub 2} disposal into oceans and underground, and utilization of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} separation process will be used in any CO{sub 2} storage system, and is estimated to consume almost half the energy of the total system. Research and development of highly efficient CO{sub 2} separation process is most important from the viewpoint of practical application of CO{sub 2} fixation system.

  1. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  2. Exceptionally High Efficient Co-Co2P@N, P-Codoped Carbon Hybrid Catalyst for Visible Light-Driven CO2-to-CO Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen Gan

    2018-05-02

    Artificial photosynthesis has attracted wide attention, particularly the development of efficient solar light-driven methods to reduce CO2 to form energy-rich carbon-based products. Because CO2 reduction is an uphill process with a large energy barrier, suitable catalysts are necessary to achieve this transformation. In addition, CO2 adsorption on a catalyst and proton transfer to CO2 are two important factors for the conversion reaction,and catalysts with high surface area and more active sites are required to improve the efficiency of CO2 reduction. Here, we report a visible light-driven system for CO2-to-CO conversion that consists of a heterogeneous hybrid catalyst of Co and Co2P nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanolayers codoped with N and P (Co-Co2P@NPC) and a homogeneous Ru(II)-based complex photosensitizer. The average generation rate of CO of the system was up to 35,000 μmol h-1 g-1 with selectivity of 79.1% in 3 h. Linear CO production at an exceptionally high rate of 63,000 μmol h-1 g-1 was observed in the first hour of reaction. Inspired by this highly active catalyst, we also synthesized Co@NC and Co2P@NPC materials and explored their structure, morphology, and catalytic properties for CO2 photoreduction. The results showed that the nanoparticle size, partially adsorbed H2O molecules on the catalyst surface, and the hybrid nature of the systems influenced their photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Investigation on the parameter optimization and performance of laser cladding a gradient composite coating by a mixed powder of Co50 and Ni/WC on 20CrMnTi low carbon alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Jia; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a gradient composite coating was manufactured on 20CrMnTi alloy steel by laser cladding. The laser power, cladding scan velocity and powder flow rate were selected as influencing factors of the orthogonal cladding experiments. The influencing factors were optimized by the comprehensive analysis of Taguchi OA and TOPSIS method. The high significant parameters and the predicted results were confirmed by the ANOVA method. The macromorphology and microstructures are characterized by using laser microscope, SEM, XRD and microhardness tester. Comparison tests of wear resistance of gradient composite coating, 20CrMnTi cemented quenching sample and the 20CrMnTi sample were conducted on the friction-wear tester. The results show that the phases are γ-Co solid solution, Co3B, M23C6 and etc. The interlayers and wear-resisting layer also contain new hard phases as WC, W2C. The microhardness of the gradient coating was increased to 3 times as compared with that of the 20CrMnTi substrate. The wear resistance of the gradient composite coating and 20CrMnTi cemented quenching sample was enhanced to 36.4 and 15.9 times as compared with that of the 20CrMnTi.

  4. Relationship between synoptic scale weather systems and column averaged atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, M.; Yaremchuk, A.; Onishi, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Inoue, G.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of the atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models contributes to the understanding of the geographical distributions of CO2 sources and sinks. Space-borne sensors could be advantageous for CO2 measurements as they can provide wider spatial and temporal coverage. Inversion studies have suggested requirement of better than 1% precision for the space-borne observations. Since sources and sinks are inferred from spatial and temporal gradients in CO2, the space-borne observations must have no significant geographically varying biases. To study the dynamical biases in column CO2 due to possible correlation between clouds and atmospheric CO2 at synoptic scale, we have made simulations of CO2 (1988-2003) using NIES tracer transport model. Model resolution is 2.5o x 2.5o in horizontal and it has 15 vertical sigma-layers. Fluxes for (1) fossil fuels, (2) terrestrial biosphere (CASA NEP), (3) the oceans, and (4) inverse model derived monthly regional fluxes from 11 land and 11 ocean regions are used. SVD truncation is used to filter out noise in the inverse model flux time series. Model reproduces fairly well CO2 global trend and observed time series at monitoring sites around the globe. Lower column CO2 concentration is simulated inside cyclonic systems in summer over North hemispheric continental areas. Surface pressure is used as a proxy for dynamics and it is demonstrated that anomalies in column averaged CO2 has fairly good correlation with the anomalies in surface pressure. Positive correlation, as high as 0.7, has been estimated over parts of Siberia and N. America in summer time. Our explanation is based on that the low-pressure system is associated the upward motion, which leads to lower column CO2 values over these regions due to lifting of CO2-depleted summertime PBL air, and higher column CO2 over source areas. A sensitivity study without inverse model fluxes shows same correlation. The low-pressure systems' induced negative biases are 0

  5. Radionuclide field lysimeter experiment (RadFLEx): geochemical and hydrological data for SRS performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Powell, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Barber, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Devol, T. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Dixon, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Erdmann, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Maloubier, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Martinez, N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Montgomery, D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Peruski, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Witmer, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The SRNL Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment (RadFLEx) is a one-of-a-kind test bed facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes in the Savannah River Site (SRS) vadose zone at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms of sediment) and temporal scale (from months to decade) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. RadFLEx is a decade-long project that was initiated on July 5, 2012 and is funded by six different sources. The objective of this status report is as follows: 1) to report findings to date that have an impact on SRS performance assessment (PA) calculations, and 2) to provide performance metrics of the RadFLEx program. The PA results are focused on measurements of transport parameters, such as distribution coefficients (Kd values), solubility, and unsaturated flow values. As this is an interim report, additional information from subsequent research may influence our interpretation of current results. Research related to basic understanding of radionuclide geochemistry in these vadose zone soils and other source terms are not described here but are referenced for the interested reader.

  6. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of partially inverse spinel CoFe2O4: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y H; Liu, Z W; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Qiu, W Q; Zeng, D C; Wen, L S; Zhao, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 , which may be prepared through various heat treatments, differs remarkably from the ideal inverse spinel in many properties. The structure of partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 as well as its electronic and magnetic properties through a systemic theoretical calculation of (Co 1-x Fe x ) Tet (Co x Fe 2-x ) Oct O 4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) have been investigated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. It is found that the Co and Fe ions prefer their high spin configurations with higher spin moments at octahedral sites in all the studied cases, in line with experimental observations. The Co ions at the octahedral sites favour being far away from each other in the partial inverse spinels, which also show half metallicity at certain inversion degrees.

  7. Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements with Clouds from an Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Numata, K.; Chen, J. R.; Sun, X.; DiGangi, J. P.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space are limited to cloud-free scenes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed, integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations, XCO2, from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate XCO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. We demonstrate this measurement capability using airborne lidar measurements from summer 2017 ASCENDS airborne science campaign in Alaska. We show retrievals of XCO2 to ground and to a variety of cloud tops. We will also demonstrate how the partial column XCO2 to cloud tops and cloud slicing approach help resolving vertical and horizontal gradient of CO2 in cloudy conditions. The XCO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in situ measurements and compared to the Goddard Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM) simulations. Adding this measurement capability to the future lidar mission for XCO2 will provide full global and seasonal data coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This unique facility is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation.

  8. Electrochemical deposition of carbon films on titanium in molten LiCl–KCl–K2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiushi; Xu, Qian; Wang, Yang; Shang, Xujing; Li, Zaiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Electrodeposition of carbon films on the oxide-scale-coated titanium has been performed in a LiCl–KCl–K 2 CO 3 melt, which are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical process of carbon deposition is investigated by cyclic voltammetry on the graphite, titanium and oxide-scale-coated titanium electrodes. The particle-size-gradient carbon films over the oxide-scale-coated titanium can be achieved by electrodeposition under the controlled potentials for avoiding codeposition of lithium carbide. The deposited carbon films are comprised of micron-sized ‘quasi-spherical’ carbon particles with graphitized and amorphous phases. The cyclic voltammetry behavior on the graphite, titanium and oxide-scale-coated titanium electrodes shows that CO 3 2− ions are reduced most favorably on the graphite for the three electrodes. Lithium ions can discharge under the less negative potential on the electrode containing carbon compared with titanium electrode because of the formation of lithium carbide from the reaction between lithium and carbon. - Highlights: ► Carbon films are prepared on oxide-scale-coated titanium in a LiCl–KCl–K 2 CO 3 melt. ► The films comprise micron-size ‘quasi-spherical’ carbon particles. ► The films present particle-size-gradient. ► The particles contain graphitized and amorphous phases. ► The prepared carbon films are more electrochemically active than graphite.

  9. Land-use change effects on fluxes and isotopic composition of CO2 and CH4 in Panama, and possible insights into the atmospheric H2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.; Schwendenmann, L.; Potvin, C.

    2003-12-01

    Land-use changes in tropical regions are believed to release a quantity of C to the atmosphere which is similar in magnitude to the entire "missing" sink for anthropogenic CO2. Our research attempts to evaluate carbon cycling in three land-cover systems in central Panama: cow pasture, native tree plantation, and undisturbed moist forest. In this ongoing project, we are collecting samples of air from profiles in the stable, nocturnal boundary layer, which is dominated by ecosystem respiration. Samples are analyzed for CO2 and its isotopes, CH4 and its C isotopic composition, N2O, H2, CO, and SF6. We use a flux-gradient method to estimate ecosystem-scale fluxes of trace gases from soil to the atmosphere. Keeling plot intercepts reflect the respiratory contribution of C3 and C4 biomass under contrasting land cover systems, and how this varies with pronounced wet-dry seasonal cycles. C isotopes of methane and gradients of molecular hydrogen provide insight into the source of methane production from pasture and plantation soils. Rainforest soils, in contrast, are sinks for both atmospheric methane and hydrogen. The process oriented nature of this field experiment will contribute to parameterization of carbon cycle models at a variety of spatial scales.

  10. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  11. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  12. Experiences with the use of conservative tracers as an aid in transferring lysimeter results to the open field; Erfahrungen beim Einsatz von konservativen Tracern als Hilfsmittel zur Uebertragung von Lysimeterergebnissen auf Freilandflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, J.; Meissner, R.; Rupp, H. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Lysimeterstation; Mueller, L.; Eulenstein, F. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. (ZALF), Muencheberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Four lysimeter trials performed on an IS-type soil yielded an almost constant range of displacement of a tracer front (NO{sub 3} front) of 4.0 to 4.5 mm / l of seepage water (referred to a surface area of 1 m-2 and a depth of 1 m). This was experimental confirmation of a tentatively formulated simplified relationship between seepage water volume, vertical tracer displacement, and field capacity. The results were also in very good agreement with those of a control study in the open field carried out under similar hydrological, pedological, and agrotechnical conditions using lysimeters and Cl tracers for determining quantities of seepage water formation. As the present lysimeter trials mirror soil hydrological processes in the open field with sufficient accuracy, they appear well suited to take the place of the so often lacking territorial data as a means of validating mathematical models describing seepage-water-bound material export. [Deutsch] Auf der Basis von 4 Lysimeterversuchen konnte fuer die Bodenart IS ein nahezu konstanter Wertebereich fuer die Verlagerung einer Tracerfront (NO{sub 3}-Front) in Hoehe von 4,0 bis 4,5 mm/l Sickerwasser (bezogen auf eine Oberflaeche von 1 m{sup 2} und eine Tiefe von 1 m) ermittelt werden. Damit konnte die vereinfachte Beziehung zwischen Sickerwassermenge, Tracerverlagerungstiefe und Feldkapazitaet experimentell bestaetigt werden. Ein Vergleich zur Bestimmung der Sickerwassermengenbildung mit Hilfe von Lysimetern und durch Einsatz von Cl-Tracern unter aehnlich hydrologischen, pedologischen und agrotechnischen Bedingungen im Freiland wies eine hohe Uebereinstimmung auf. Da die hier durchgefuehrten Lysimeteruntersuchungen bodenhydrologische Prozesse von Freilandflaechen mit ausreichender Genauigkeit widerspieglen, erscheinen sie anstelle oft fehlender Gebietskenndaten zur Validierung von mathematischen Modellen zur Beschreibung sickerwassergebundener Stoffaustraege gut geeignet. (orig.)

  13. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  14. Micro-PIV measurements of multiphase flow of water and liquid CO2 in 2-D heterogeneous porous micromodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-07-01

    We present an experimental study of pore-scale flow dynamics of liquid CO2 and water in a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous micromodel, inspired by the structure of a reservoir rock, at reservoir-relevant conditions (80 bar, 21°C). The entire process of CO2 infiltration into a water-saturated micromodel was captured using fluorescence microscopy and the micro-PIV method, which together reveal complex fluid displacement patterns and abrupt changes in velocity. The CO2 front migrated through the resident water in an intermittent manner, forming dendritic structures, termed fingers, in directions along, normal to, and even opposing the bulk pressure gradient. Such characteristics indicate the dominance of capillary fingering through the micromodel. Velocity burst events, termed Haines jumps, were also captured in the heterogeneous micromodel, during which the local Reynolds number was estimated to be ˜21 in the CO2 phase, exceeding the range of validity of Darcy's law. Furthermore, these drainage events were observed to be cooperative (i.e., across multiple pores simultaneously), with the zone of influence of such events extending beyond tens of pores, confirming, in a quantitative manner, that Haines jumps are nonlocal phenomena. After CO2 completely breaks through the porous section, shear-induced circulations caused by flowing CO2 were also observed, in agreement with previous studies using a homogeneous porous micromodel. To our knowledge, this study is the first quantitative measurement that incorporates both reservoir-relevant conditions and rock-inspired heterogeneity, and thus will be useful for pore-scale model development and validation.

  15. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO 2 concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO 2 concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO 2 and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO 2 and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH 4 + and NO 3 - uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO 2 concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant's metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO 2 concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO 2 . The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled with exposure to the long-term CO 2 concentration. The

  16. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte.: desenvolvimento e calibração A large-scale weighting lysimeter. part I: development and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. M. de S. Campeche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A evapotranspiração de plantas frutíferas foi medida a partir da instalação e calibração de um lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. O equipamento, composto por caçamba metálica em aço carbono, possui arquitetura circular com área de 5,72 m² e massa total de 10,5 toneladas. Uma muda de coqueiro anão-verde foi transplantada para o lisímetro e mantida sob as mesmas condições de solo e adubação do campo experimental. Na automação do processo foi utilizado o mecanismo de alívio de carga baseado em sistemas de alavancas e contrapesos, apoiado em uma célula de carga com capacidade de 200 kg e precisão de 0,02% de sua capacidade. Os dados de saída da célula de carga foram armazenados em um coletor automático de dados tipo data logger. A relação entre a variação de massa e a voltagem da célula de carga do lisímetro é descrita adequadamente por modelo linear com mínima histerese. A metodologia empregada na instalação e na calibração do lisímetro foi adequada, obtendo-se um coeficiente de determinação de 0,99 na equação de calibração. Os resultados ainda indicam que o lisímetro de pesagem pode ser utilizado com êxito na determinação de evapotranspiração de plantas frutíferas de grande porte.The objectives of present study were to develop and to calibrate a large-scale weighing lysimeter in order to estimate evapotranspiration of fruit plants. The equipment consisted of a metallic bucket (steel carbon of circular design with total area of 5.72 m² and total mass of 10.5 t. A seedling of dwarf-green coconut palm was transplanted in lysimeter and maintained under same fertilization conditions of experimental field. For automation of the process, a mechanism of load relief based on systems of levers and counterbalances was used, leaning in a load cell with capacity of 200 kg and precision of 0.02% of its capacity. The output data of load cell were stored in an automatic data acquisition system. The

  17. Hydrogen purification by selective methanation of CO in CO/CO2/H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Mette; Johannessen, Tue; Livbjerg, Hans

    down through the reactor and inside the catalyst pellets/particles. The small particles, which have a rather high effectiveness factor with respect to methanation of CO, have a high CO selectivity, whereas the larger pellets have very low selectivity even at high CO inlet concentrations. Negative...... of reaction kinetics and pore diffusion is crucial for interpreting the experimental data. We have found that the selectivity decreases by increasing the reactor temperature or catalyst particle size and when the CO inlet concentration is reduced. As a result, the selectivity drops significantly...... in an integral reactor operating at high CO-conversion. The lower limit of CO concentration in the outlet is determined by the quasi-equilibrium between CO removal and CO production from CO2....

  18. Development of the WRF-CO2 4D-Var assimilation system v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; French, Nancy H. F.; Baxter, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Regional atmospheric CO2 inversions commonly use Lagrangian particle trajectory model simulations to calculate the required influence function, which quantifies the sensitivity of a receptor to flux sources. In this paper, an adjoint-based four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) assimilation system, WRF-CO2 4D-Var, is developed to provide an alternative approach. This system is developed based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, including the system coupled to chemistry (WRF-Chem), with tangent linear and adjoint codes (WRFPLUS), and with data assimilation (WRFDA), all in version 3.6. In WRF-CO2 4D-Var, CO2 is modeled as a tracer and its feedback to meteorology is ignored. This configuration allows most WRF physical parameterizations to be used in the assimilation system without incurring a large amount of code development. WRF-CO2 4D-Var solves for the optimized CO2 flux scaling factors in a Bayesian framework. Two variational optimization schemes are implemented for the system: the first uses the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) minimization algorithm (L-BFGS-B) and the second uses the Lanczos conjugate gradient (CG) in an incremental approach. WRFPLUS forward, tangent linear, and adjoint models are modified to include the physical and dynamical processes involved in the atmospheric transport of CO2. The system is tested by simulations over a domain covering the continental United States at 48 km × 48 km grid spacing. The accuracy of the tangent linear and adjoint models is assessed by comparing against finite difference sensitivity. The system's effectiveness for CO2 inverse modeling is tested using pseudo-observation data. The results of the sensitivity and inverse modeling tests demonstrate the potential usefulness of WRF-CO2 4D-Var for regional CO2 inversions.

  19. Development of the WRF-CO2 4D-Var assimilation system v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional atmospheric CO2 inversions commonly use Lagrangian particle trajectory model simulations to calculate the required influence function, which quantifies the sensitivity of a receptor to flux sources. In this paper, an adjoint-based four-dimensional variational (4D-Var assimilation system, WRF-CO2 4D-Var, is developed to provide an alternative approach. This system is developed based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF modeling system, including the system coupled to chemistry (WRF-Chem, with tangent linear and adjoint codes (WRFPLUS, and with data assimilation (WRFDA, all in version 3.6. In WRF-CO2 4D-Var, CO2 is modeled as a tracer and its feedback to meteorology is ignored. This configuration allows most WRF physical parameterizations to be used in the assimilation system without incurring a large amount of code development. WRF-CO2 4D-Var solves for the optimized CO2 flux scaling factors in a Bayesian framework. Two variational optimization schemes are implemented for the system: the first uses the limited memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS minimization algorithm (L-BFGS-B and the second uses the Lanczos conjugate gradient (CG in an incremental approach. WRFPLUS forward, tangent linear, and adjoint models are modified to include the physical and dynamical processes involved in the atmospheric transport of CO2. The system is tested by simulations over a domain covering the continental United States at 48 km  ×  48 km grid spacing. The accuracy of the tangent linear and adjoint models is assessed by comparing against finite difference sensitivity. The system's effectiveness for CO2 inverse modeling is tested using pseudo-observation data. The results of the sensitivity and inverse modeling tests demonstrate the potential usefulness of WRF-CO2 4D-Var for regional CO2 inversions.

  20. H2-assisted CO2 thermochemical reduction on La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ membranes: a kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics data for CO2 thermochemical reduction in an isothermal membrane reactor is required to identify the rate-limiting steps. Here, we report a detailed reaction kinetics study on this process supported by an La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) membrane. The dependence of CO2 reduction rate on various operating conditions is examined such as CO2 concentration on the feed side, fuel concentrations on the sweep side and temperatures. CO2 reduction rate is proportional to the oxygen flux across the membrane, and the measured maximum fluxes are 0.191 and 0.164 μmol cm-2 s-1 with 9.5% H2 and 11.6% CO on the sweep side at 990oC, respectively. Fuel is used to maintain the chemical potential gradient across the membrane and CO is used by construction to derive the surface reaction kinetics. This membrane also exhibits stable performances for 106 hours. A resistance-network model is developed to describe the oxygen transport process and the kinetics data are parameterized using the experimental values. The model shows a transition of the rate limiting step between the surface reactions on the feed side and the sweep side depending on the operating conditions.

  1. H2-assisted CO2 thermochemical reduction on La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ membranes: a kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-04

    Kinetics data for CO2 thermochemical reduction in an isothermal membrane reactor is required to identify the rate-limiting steps. Here, we report a detailed reaction kinetics study on this process supported by an La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) membrane. The dependence of CO2 reduction rate on various operating conditions is examined such as CO2 concentration on the feed side, fuel concentrations on the sweep side and temperatures. CO2 reduction rate is proportional to the oxygen flux across the membrane, and the measured maximum fluxes are 0.191 and 0.164 μmol cm-2 s-1 with 9.5% H2 and 11.6% CO on the sweep side at 990oC, respectively. Fuel is used to maintain the chemical potential gradient across the membrane and CO is used by construction to derive the surface reaction kinetics. This membrane also exhibits stable performances for 106 hours. A resistance-network model is developed to describe the oxygen transport process and the kinetics data are parameterized using the experimental values. The model shows a transition of the rate limiting step between the surface reactions on the feed side and the sweep side depending on the operating conditions.

  2. Simulation of CO2 Solubility in Polystyrene-b-Polybutadieneb-Polystyrene (SEBS) by artificial intelligence network (ANN) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharudin, R. W.; AbdulBari Ali, S.; Zulkarnain, M.; Shukri, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    This study reports on the integration of Artificial Neural Network (ANNs) with experimental data in predicting the solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) blowing agent in SEBS by generating highest possible value for Regression coefficient (R2). Basically, foaming of thermoplastic elastomer with CO2 is highly affected by the CO2 solubility. The ability of ANN in predicting interpolated data of CO2 solubility was investigated by comparing training results via different method of network training. Regards to the final prediction result for CO2 solubility by ANN, the prediction trend (output generate) was corroborated with the experimental results. The obtained result of different method of training showed the trend of output generated by Gradient Descent with Momentum & Adaptive LR (traingdx) required longer training time and required more accurate input to produce better output with final Regression Value of 0.88. However, it goes vice versa with Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm) technique as it produced better output in quick detention time with final Regression Value of 0.91.

  3. CO2-Switchable Membranes Prepared by Immobilization of CO2-Breathing Microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenwu; Lei, Lei; Tang, Jun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-12-20

    Herein, we report the development of a novel CO 2 -responsive membrane system through immobilization of CO 2 -responsive microgels into commercially available microfiltration membranes using a method of dynamic adsorption. The microgels, prepared from soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO 2 -responsive monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA), can be reversibly expanded and shrunken upon CO 2 /N 2 alternation. When incorporated into the membranes, this switching behavior was preserved and further led to transformation between microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, as indicated from the dramatic changes on water flux and BSA rejection results. This CO 2 -regulated performance switching of membranes was caused by the changes of water transportation channel, as revealed from the dynamic water contact angle tests and SEM observation. This work represents a simple yet versatile strategy for making CO 2 -responsive membranes.

  4. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Qian; Veneman, Rens; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is

  5. Regulating the migration of smooth muscle cells by a vertically distributed poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) gradient on polymer brushes covalently immobilized with RGD peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sai; Du, Wang; Duan, Yiyuan; Zhang, Deteng; Liu, Yixiao; Wu, Bingbing; Zou, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Hongwei; Gao, Changyou

    2018-05-30

    The gradient localization of biological cues is of paramount importance to guide directional migration of cells. In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-block- poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)-b-PHEMA) brushes with a uniform underneath P(HEMA-co-GMA) layer and a gradient thickness of PHEMA blocks were prepared by using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization and a dynamically controlled polymerization process. The polymer chains were subsequently functionalized with the cell-adhesive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides by reaction with the glycidyl groups, and their structures and properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and air contact angle. Adhesion and migration processes of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were then studied. Compared with those on the sufficiently exposed RGD surface, the cell adhesion and mobility were well maintained when the RGD peptides were localized at 18.9 nm depth, whereas the adhesion, spreading and migration rate of SMCs were significantly impaired when the RGD peptides were localized at a depth of 38.4 nm. On the RGD depth gradient surface, the SMCs exhibited preferential orientation and enhanced directional migration toward the direction of reduced thickness of the second PHEMA brushes. Half of the cells were oriented within ± 30° to the x-axis direction, and 72% of the cells moved directionally at the optimal conditions. Cell adhesion strength, arrangement of cytoskeleton, and gene and protein expression levels of adhesion-related proteins were studied to corroborate the mechanisms, demonstrating that the cell mobility is regulated by the complex and synergetic intracellular signals resulted from the difference in surface properties. Cell migration is of paramount importance for the processes of tissue repair and regeneration. So far, the gradient localization of

  6. Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, R.

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of 14 C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The 14 C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The 14 C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of 14 C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of 14 C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  7. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.

    2013-10-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  8. Electronic structure calculation of Sr2CoWO6 double perovskite using DFT+U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Golak; Jha, Dhiraj; Himanshu, A. K.; Ray, Rajyavardhan; Mukherjee, P.; Das, Nisith; Singh, B. K.; Sreenivas, K.; Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    Using the synchrotron and Raman spectroscopy we measured the lattice parameter and Raman modes of the half-metallic (HM) Sr2CoWO6 (SCoW) synthesied by the solid state reaction technique.. The physical properties of SCoW are studies within the framework of density function theory (DFT) under the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) of Perdew, Bruke, and Ernzerhof both by itself and including a coulomb repulsion via the Hubbard approach or GGA+U. Our results states that Sr2CoWO6 material behaves as insulators for the spin-up orientation and spindown orientation as found for the half metallic systems and at U = 0.06eV the ground state of spin up channel being insulating with spin gap of 2.27eV comparable to the experimental Band gap (BG).

  9. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns - Part 1: Observed variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Messager, C.; Ramonet, M.; Paris, J.D.; Ciais, P.; Filippi, D.; Pastel, M.; Nedelec, P.

    2011-01-01

    help to identify the origin of fossil fuel emissions in the PBL even when distanced by several days/hundreds of kms from their sources. We have compared airborne CO 2 observations to nearby ground station measurements and thereby, confirmed that measurements taken in the lower few meters of the PBL (low-level ground stations) are representative of the local scale, while those located in the free troposphere (FT) (mountain stations) are representative of atmospheric CO 2 regionally on a scale of a few hundred kilometers. Stations located several 100 km away from each other differ from a few ppm in their measurements indicating the existence of a gradient within the free troposphere. Observations at stations located on top of small mountains may match the airborne data if the sampled air comes from the FT rather than coming up from the valley. Finally, the analysis of the CO 2 vertical variability conducted on the 14 profiles recorded in each campaign shows a variability at least 5 to 8 times higher in the PBL (the 1- standard deviation associated to the CO 2 mean of all profiles within the PBL is 4.0 ppm and 5.7 ppm for CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, respectively) than in the FT (within the FT, 1-σ is 0.5 ppm and 1.1 ppm for CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, respectively). The CO 2 jump between the PBL and the FT equals 3.7 ppm for the first campaign and -0.3 ppm for the second campaign. A very striking zonal CO 2 gradient of about 11 ppm was observed in the mid-PBL during CAATER-2, with higher concentrations in the west than in the east. This gradient may originate from differences in atmospheric mixing, ground emission rates or Autumn's earlier start in the west. More airborne campaigns are currently under analysis in the framework of the CARBOEUROPE-IP project to better assess the likelihood of these different hypotheses. In a companion paper (Xueref-Remy et al., 2011, Part 2), a comparison of vertical profiles from observations and several modeling frameworks was conducted for both

  10. In-plane anisotropy of the electric field gradient in Ba(Fe 1 -xCox)2As2 observed by 75As NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Itoh, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    We have performed 75As NMR measurements on single crystals to investigate the nematic behavior via the in-plane anisotropy of the electronic state at the As site far from Co impurities in the representative iron arsenides Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 . From the analysis of the angular dependence of the NMR satellites in the c plane using the binominal distribution, we find that there is the in-plane fourfold symmetry breaking, namely, the orthorhombic-type anisotropy in the electric field gradient (EFG) at the As site with no Co atom at the nearest neighboring Fe sites even in the tetragonal phase of both BaFe2As2 and Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2(x ≠0 ) . The NMR spectrum in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of BaFe2As2 is shown not to support a nanotwin model on the basis of the nematic order proposed from the pair-distribution analysis of neutron scattering data. Based on results of the x and temperature T dependences of the in-plane anisotropy in the wide x and T ranges, the symmetry breaking is concluded to come from the local orthorhombic domains induced by disorder such as Co impurities or lattice imperfections. Furthermore, we find that the asymmetry parameter of EFG η obeys the Curie-Weiss law which may be governed by nematic susceptibility, and the Weiss temperature becomes zero at xc˜0.05 in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 .

  11. Soil CO2 concentrations and efflux dynamics of a tree island in the Pantanal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Pinto, Osvaldo B.; Johnson, Mark S.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Dalmagro, Higo J.; Leite, Nei K.; Speratti, Alicia B.; Krampe, Daniela; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2017-08-01

    The Pantanal is the largest tropical wetland on the planet, and yet little information is available on the biome's carbon cycle. We used an automatic station to measure soil CO2 concentrations and oxidation-reduction potential over the 2014 and 2015 flood cycles of a tree island in the Pantanal that is immune to inundation during the wetland's annual flooding. The soil CO2 concentration profile was then used to estimate soil CO2 efflux over the two periods. In 2014, subsurface soil saturation at 0.30 m depth created conditions in that layer that led to CO2 buildup close to 200,000 ppm and soil oxidation-reduction potential below -300 mV, conditions that were not repeated in 2015 due to annual variability in soil saturation at the site. Mean CO2 efflux over the 2015 flood cycle was 0.023 ± 0.103 mg CO2-C m-2 s-1 representing a total annual efflux of 593 ± 2690 mg CO2-C m-2 y-1. Unlike a nearby tree island site that experiences full inundation during the wet season, here the soil dried quickly following repeated rain events throughout the year, which led to the release of CO2 pulses from the soil. This study highlights not only the complexity and heterogeneity in the Pantanal's carbon balance based on differences in topography, flood cycles, and vegetation but also the challenges of applying the gradient method in the Pantanal due to deviations from steady state conditions.

  12. Studies on CO2 removal and reduction. CO2 taisaku kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    This paper summarizes study trends mainly in CO2 fixing processes. Underground CO2 storage is a most promising method because it can fix a huge amount of CO2 and has low effects on ecological systems. Storing CO2 in ocean includes such methods as storing it in deep oceans; storing it in deep ocean beds; dissolving it into sea water; neutralizing it with calcium carbonates; and precipitating it as dry ice. Japan, disposing CO2 in these ways, may create international problems. Separation of CO2 may use a chemical absorption process as a superior method. Other processes discussed include a physical adsorption method and a membrane separation method. A useful method for CO2 fixation using marine organisms is fixation using coral reefs. This process will require an overall study including circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. Marine organisms may include planktons and algae. CO2 fixation using land plants may be able to fix one trillion and 8 hundred billion tons of CO2 as converted to carbon. This process would require forest protection, prevention of desertification, and tree planting. Discussions are being given also on improving power generation cycles, recovering CO2 from automotive exhausts, and backfilling carbons into ground by means of photosynthesis. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldrey, Matthew P.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature- and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual) timescales. Previous work shows that in the North Atlantic, ΔpCO2 and k both contribute significantly to interannual F variability but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. On some timescale between interannual and multidecadal, gas transfer velocity variability and its associated uncertainty become negligible. Here we quantify this critical timescale for the first time. Using an ocean model, we determine the importance of k, ΔpCO2, and α on a range of timescales. On interannual and shorter timescales, both ΔpCO2 and k are important controls on F. In contrast, pentadal to multidecadal North Atlantic flux variability is driven almost entirely by ΔpCO2; k contributes less than 25%. Finally, we explore how accurately one can estimate North Atlantic F without a knowledge of nonseasonal k variability, finding it possible for interannual and longer timescales. These findings suggest that continued efforts to better constrain gas transfer velocities are necessary to quantify interannual variability in the North Atlantic carbon sink. However, uncertainty in k variability is unlikely to limit the accuracy of estimates of longer-term flux variability.

  14. CO2 exsolution - challenges and opportunities in subsurface flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    In geological carbon sequestration, a large amount of injected CO2 will dissolve in brine over time. Exsolution occurs when pore pressures decline and CO2 solubility in brine decreases, resulting in the formation of a separate CO2 phase. This scenario occurs in storage reservoirs by upward migration of carbonated brine, through faults, leaking boreholes or even seals, driven by a reverse pressure gradient from CO2 injection or ground water extraction. In this way, dissolved CO2 could migrate out of storage reservoirs and form a gas phase at shallower depths. This paper summarizes the results of a 4-year study regarding the implications of exsolution on storage security, including core-flood experiments, micromodel studies, and numerical simulation. Micromodel studies have shown that, different from an injected CO2 phase, where the gas remains interconnected, exsolved CO2 nucleates in various locations of a porous medium, forms disconnected bubbles and propagates by a repeated process of bubble expansion and snap-off [Zuo et al., 2013]. A good correlation between bubble size distribution and pore size distribution is observed, indicating that geometry of the pore space plays an important role in controlling the mobility of brine and exsolved CO2. Core-scale experiments demonstrate that as the exsolved gas saturation increases, the water relative permeability drops significantly and is disproportionately reduced compared to drainage relative permeability [Zuo et al., 2012]. The CO2 relative permeability remains very low, 10-5~10-3, even when the exsolved CO2 saturation increases to over 40%. Furthermore, during imbibition with CO2 saturated brines, CO2 remains trapped even under relatively high capillary numbers (uv/σ~10-6) [Zuo et al., submitted]. The water relative permeability at the imbibition endpoint is 1/3~1/2 of that with carbonated water displacing injected CO2. Based on the experimental evidence, CO2 exsolution does not appear to create significant risks

  15. The influence of ALN-Al gradient material gradient index on ballistic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Youcong; Liu Qiwen; Li Yao; Shen Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Ballistic performance of the gradient material is superior to laminated material, and gradient materials have different gradient types. Using ls-dyna to simulate the ballistic performance of ALN-AL gradient target plates which contain three gradient index (b = 1, b = 0.5, b = 2). Through Hopkinson bar numerical simulation to the target plate materials, we obtained the reflection stress wave and transmission stress wave state of gradient material to get the best gradient index. The internal stress state of gradient material is simulated by amplification processing of the target plate model. When the gradient index b is equal to 1, the gradient target plate is best of all.

  16. Managing Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil with hydrated lime - An outdoor study in lysimeters and field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Karin A; Vinnerås, Björn; Albihn, Ann

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 among domestic animals can have great financial consequences for an animal enterprise but also be a threat for public health as there is a risk for transmission of the infection through the environment. In order to minimize disease transmission, it is important to treat not only the affected animals but also the areas on which they have been kept. In the present study, the effect of hydrated lime as a treatment for Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil was investigated. The study was performed outdoors, in a lysimeter system and in field plots. The soils were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and/or E. coli O157:H7 and hydrated lime was added at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%). Sampling was performed over one month, and the levels of bacteria were analyzed by standard culture methods. In addition, the soil pH was monitored throughout the study. The results showed that application of 0.5-1 kg hydrated lime per m(2) reduced both Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below the detection limit (2 log10 CFU g-1 soil) in 3-7 days. Lower application rates of hydrated lime did not reduce pathogen numbers in the lysimeter study, but in the field plots no E. coli O157:H7 was detected at the end of the four-week study period regardless of hydrated lime application. A recommended strategy for treating a Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil could therefore be to monitor the pH over the time of treatment and to repeat hydrated lime application if a decrease in pH is observed.

  17. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  18. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1995. Volume 8, Annual report, October 1994-- September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion- exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. Compressive test results of 12-year-old cement and vinyl ester- styrene solidified waste form samples are presented, which show effects of aging and self-irradiation. Results of the tenth year of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period

  19. Novel Inorganic/Polymer Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.S. Winston [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Depts. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, and Materials Science and Engineering; Dutta, Prabir K. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Depts. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Chemistry, and Materials Science and Engineering; Schmit, Steve J. [Gradient Technology, Elk River, MN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    consultation with TriSep Corporation, Gradient Technology and American Electric Power (AEP). The membrane module demonstrated > 800 GPU of CO2 permeance and > 150 CO2/N2 selectivity when tested with real flue gas at NCCC. The results obtained were used to update the techno-economic analysis. In addition, the EH&S assessment of the membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture was conducted.

  20. Air-water CO2 evasion from US East Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildas Laruelle, Goulven; Goossens, Nicolas; Arndt, Sandra; Cai, Wei-Jun; Regnier, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the first regional-scale assessment of estuarine CO2 evasion along the US East Coast (25-45° N). The focus is on 42 tidal estuaries, which together drain a catchment of 697 000 km2 or 76 % of the total area within this latitudinal band. The approach is based on the Carbon-Generic Estuary Model (C-GEM) that allows the simulation of hydrodynamics, transport, and biogeochemistry for a wide range of estuarine systems using readily available geometric parameters and global databases of seasonal climatic, hydraulic, and riverine biogeochemical information. Our simulations, performed using conditions representative of the year 2000, suggest that, together, US East Coast estuaries emit 1.9 Tg C yr-1 in the form of CO2, which corresponds to about 40 % of the carbon inputs from rivers, marshes, and mangroves. Carbon removal within estuaries results from a combination of physical (outgassing of supersaturated riverine waters) and biogeochemical processes (net heterotrophy and nitrification). The CO2 evasion and its underlying drivers show important variations across individual systems, but reveal a clear latitudinal pattern characterized by a decrease in the relative importance of physical over biogeochemical processes along a north-south gradient. Finally, the results reveal that the ratio of estuarine surface area to the river discharge, S/Q (which has a scale of per meter discharged water per year), could be used as a predictor of the estuarine carbon processing in future regional- and global-scale assessments.

  1. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  2. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S

    2004-01-01

    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  4. A study of CO2 precipitation method considering an ionic CO2 and Ca(OH)2 slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangwon; Jo, Hoyong; Kang, Dongwoo; Park, Jinwon

    2014-01-01

    CCS (carbon capture and storage) is the most popular technology used for the reduction of CO 2 in the post-combustion stage. However, the CCS process has some disadvantages including uncertainty about the stability of the land that is used to store the separated CO 2 . Consequently, CCU (carbon capture and utilization) technologies have recently received increased attention as a possible replacement for CCS. In this study, we utilized CO 2 fixation methods by using the metal carbonate mechanism. We selected 5 and 30 wt% MEA (mono-ethanolamine) solutions to rapidly make a carbonate and Ca(OH) 2 slurry. In all of the experiments, normal temperature and pressure conditions were maintained (except during desorption to check for residual CO 2 in the MEA solution). Consequently, most of the CO 2 was converted to carbonate. The MEA converted CO 2 to ionic CO 2 and rapidly created calcium carbonate. Also the formed solids that were observed were determined to be CaCO 3 and Ca(OH) 2 by X-ray diffractometry. Also, the MEA solution could be reused to absorb CO 2 . Therefore, we have confirmed the development of our suggested CCS process. This process has the ability not only to reuse emitted CO 2 , but it can also be employed to reuse construction wastes that include heavy metals. - Highlights: • We propose novel CO 2 conversion technology by utilizing an amine solution. • In this study, alkaline solutions were used to produce CO 2 precipitate. • The MEA (mono-ethanolamine) solution has a sufficient potential to fix CO 2 with metal sources under moderate condition. • Also, the Ca(OH) 2 slurry yielded enough Ca 2+ ions to make carbonate

  5. Identification and prognostic value of anterior gradient protein 2 expression in breast cancer based on tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jilong; Gong, Guohua; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer has attracted substantial attention as one of the major cancers causing death in women. It is crucial to find potential biomarkers of prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, the expression pattern of anterior gradient protein 2 in breast cancer was identified based on the main molecular subgroups. Through analysis of 69 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly higher in non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression pattern. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis. The quantification results revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) tumours compared with normal tissues. Anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) and grade 1 + 2 tissues compared with grade 3 tissues (p gradient protein 2 expression was significantly associated with histologic type, histological grade, oestrogen status and progesterone status. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological variables showed that anterior gradient protein 2 expression, tumour size and lymph node status were significantly correlated with overall survival in patients with grade 1 and 2 tumours. Cox multivariate analysis revealed anterior gradient protein 2 as a putative independent indicator of unfavourable outcomes (p = 0.031). All these data clearly showed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer and can be regarded as a putative biomarker for

  6. Absorption of CO2 laser light by a dense, high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.; Forrest, M.J.; Morgan, P.D.; Offenberger, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between a pulsed, CO 2 laser beam and the plasma produced in a plasma focus device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The CO 2 laser radiation, directed orthogonal to the pinch axis and along the density gradient only weakly perturbs the focus since the radiation density of 30 J cm -3 (allowing for the Airy enhancement factor near the critical layer), is still less than the plasma thermal energy >=1 kJ cm -3 . On the contrary, the CO 2 laser beam is grossly affected by the plasma and absorption during the compressed pinch phase when the plasma frequency is much more complete than can be predicted by classical resistivity. Density fluctuations at the Langmuir frequency are measured directly for forward scattering from a probe, ruby laser beam. Since the wave numbers correspond to approximately 0.1 the Langmuir waves should appear as electron 'lines' in the scattered spectrum shifted by 427 A from the ruby laser wavelength. At low CO 2 laser pump intensity the electron wave intensity is close to the thermal level. As the pump is increased beyond a threshold of approximately 3x10 9 W/cm -2 (in vacuo) enhanced scattering is observed, reaching a factor of 30 above thermal. A WKB treatment of the electron-ion decay instability which takes into account the linear growth of waves at equal electron and ion temperatures and their convection in an inhomogeneous plasma is reasonably consistent with the observations

  7. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  8. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.; Antunez, E.

    1994-03-01

    Most of the computational work in the numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows in permeable media arises in the solution of large systems of linear equations. The simplest technique for solving such equations is by direct methods. However, because of large storage requirements and accumulation of roundoff errors, the application of direct solution techniques is limited, depending on matrix bandwidth, to systems of a few hundred to at most a few thousand simultaneous equations. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers, has been added to TOUGH2 to complement its direct solver and significantly increase the size of problems tractable on PCs. T2CG1 includes three different solvers: a Bi-Conjugate Gradient (BCG) solver, a Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared (BCGS) solver, and a Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) solver. Results from six test problems with up to 30,000 equations show that T2CG1 (1) is significantly (and invariably) faster and requires far less memory than the MA28 direct solver, (2) it makes possible the solution of very large three-dimensional problems on PCs, and (3) that the BCGS solver is the fastest of the three in the tested problems. Sample problems are presented related to heat and fluid flow at Yucca Mountain and WIPP, environmental remediation by the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System, and geothermal resources

  9. Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-glufosinate in a silty sand soil. Experiments in outdoor lysimeters with undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, R

    1996-12-01

    Degradation and leaching behaviour of {sup 14}C-labelled glufosinate in a silty sand soil was investigated in two outdoor lysimeters after repeated application of 12.5 litres/hectare (1/ha) Basta (divided in 7.5 and 5 l/ha respectively). The {sup 14}C-loss during application was 4.8-8.2%. The {sup 14}C-content in the plants (vines and weeds) was 0.3% of that applied at the most. After 130 days, 25.9 and 25.5% of the applied material was found in the soil up to a depth of 40 cm. One year after the first application, this amount was still 18.5 and 18.6%. As a consequence of the renewed spraying, the detected amounts of {sup 14}C were 44.3 and 43.1% some 107 days after the first application in the second experimental year. The additional investigation in lysimeter 2 after 373 days showed a decrease to 33.9%. Most of the detected radioactivity remained in the 0-10 cm soil layer. At the end of the experiment, the amount of {sup 14}C in the 30-40 cm layer was 0.5%. The total residues in the 0-10 cm soil layer were less than 1 mg/kg at all dates of sampling, and only a small amount still represented the free acid of the active ingredient. The average values were 0.05 mg/kg after 130 days, 0.01 mg/kg after 363 days and 0.09 mg/kg at the following date of sampling. In the spring of the following year, no residues of the free acid were detectable. The radioactivity in the percolate amounted to a maximum of 0.11% of that applied and in no case represented the free acid of the ammonium salt. (author)

  10. Variability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 1: Observed variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Paris

    2011-06-01

    fossil fuel emissions in the PBL even when distanced by several days/hundreds of kms from their sources. We have compared airborne CO2 observations to nearby ground station measurements and thereby, confirmed that measurements taken in the lower few meters of the PBL (low-level ground stations are representative of the local scale, while those located in the free troposphere (FT (moutain stations are representative of atmospheric CO2 regionally on a scale of a few hundred kilometers. Stations located several 100 km away from each other differ from a few ppm in their measurements indicating the existence of a gradient within the free troposphere. Observations at stations located on top of small mountains may match the airborne data if the sampled air comes from the FT rather than coming up from the valley. Finally, the analysis of the CO2 vertical variability conducted on the 14 profiles recorded in each campaign shows a variability at least 5 to 8 times higher in the PBL (the 1-σ standard deviation associated to the CO2 mean of all profiles within the PBL is 4.0 ppm and 5.7 ppm for CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, respectively than in the FT (within the FT, 1-σ is 0.5 ppm and 1.1 ppm for CAATER-1 and CAATER-2, respectively. The CO2 jump between the PBL and the FT equals 3.7 ppm for the first campaign and −0.3 ppm for the second campaign. A very striking zonal CO2 gradient of about 11 ppm was observed in the mid-PBL during CAATER-2, with higher concentrations in the west than in the east. This gradient may originate from differences in atmospheric mixing, ground emission rates or Autumn's earlier start in the west. More airborne campaigns are currently under analysis in the framework of the CARBOEUROPE-IP project to better assess the likelihood of these different hypotheses. In a companion paper (Xueref-Remy et al., 2011, Part 2, a comparison of vertical profiles from observations and several modeling frameworks was conducted for both campaigns.

  11. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  12. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  13. Gradient Mn-La-Pt Catalysts with Three-layered Structure for Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kedi; Yang, Rui; Lang, Xiaoshi; Zhang, Qingguo; Wang, Zhenhua; He, Tieshi

    2016-01-01

    Gradient Mn-La-Pt catalysts with three-layered structure of manganese dioxide (MnO2), lanthanum oxide (La2O3), and Platinum (Pt) for Li-O2 battery are prepared in this study. The mass ratio of the catalysts is respectively 5:2:3, 4:2:4, and 3:2:5 (MnO2: La2O3: Pt) which is start from the side of the electrolyte. The relationship between morphology structure and electrochemical performance of gradient catalyst is investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry and constant current charge/discharge test. The Li-O2 battery based on gradient Mn-La-Pt catalysts shows high discharge specific capacity (2707 mAh g−1), specific energy density (8400 Wh kg−1) and long cycle life (56 cycles). The improvement of the Li-O2 battery discharge capacity is attributed to the gradient distribution of MnO2 and Pt and the involvement of La2O3 that can improve the energy density of the battery. More important, this work will also provide new ideas and methods for the research of other metal-air battery. PMID:27731340

  14. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-05-16

    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  15. Investigating Molecular Inheritance of Carbon in Star-forming Regions along a Galactic Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Rachel L.; Blake, Geoffrey; Boogert, Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus Martin; Lockwood, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of CO isotopologues taken at high spectral resolution toward young stellar objects (YSOs) are valuable tools for investigating protoplanetary chemical reservoirs, and enable robust comparisons between YSOs and solar system material (meteorites and the Sun). Investigating a range of YSO environments also helps parameterize variations in the distribution and evolution of carbon-based molecules, furthering an understanding of prebiotic chemistry. We have begun a wide survey of massive YSOs using Keck-NIRSPEC at high spectral resolution (R=25,000). Fundamental and first-overtone near-IR CO rovibrational absorption spectra have thus far been obtained toward 14 massive, luminous YSOs at Galactocentric radii (RGC) ranging from ~4.5 to 9.7 kpc. From these data we can obtain precise [12CO]/[13CO] gas-phase abundance ratios along a Galactic gradient, and [12CO]/[13CO]Gas can be further evaluated against published [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice and [12CO]/[13CO]Ice because all observations are in absorption, a robust study of molecular inheritance is possible by virtue of comparing 12C/13C along the same lines-of-sight. Initial results for cold CO gas at RGC ~ 6.1 kpc and 9.4 kpc reveal [12C16O]/[13C16O] of 59+/‑8 and 74+/‑3, respectively, roughly following an expected 12C/13C Galactic gradient. Thus far, we find [12CO]/[13CO] in the cold CO gas to be lower than [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice, suggesting that CO2 may not originate from CO reservoirs as often assumed. While very high-resolution observations of CO gas toward low-mass YSOs observed with VLT-CRIRES show significant heterogeneity in [12CO]/[13CO] at RGC ~ 8 kpc, this dispersion is not found for the massive YSOs. Both the low-mass and massive YSOs have higher [12CO]/[13CO] in warm vs. cold gas, and both show signatures suggesting possible interplay between CO ice and gas reservoirs. Overall, our results indicate that carbon isotopic evolution in massive YSO environments may follow different paths compared to low-mass YSOs

  16. Investigating Molecular Inheritance of Carbon in Star-forming Regions along a Galactic Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Rachel L.

    2015-04-01

    Observations of CO isotopologues taken at high spectral resolution toward young stellar objects (YSOs) are valuable tools for investigating protoplanetary chemical reservoirs, and enable robust comparisons between YSOs and solar system material (meteorites and the Sun). Investigating a range of YSO environments also helps parameterize variations in the distribution and evolution of carbon-based molecules, furthering an understanding of prebiotic chemistry. We have begun a wide survey of massive YSOs using Keck-NIRSPEC at high spectral resolution (R=25,000). Fundamental and first-overtone near-IR CO rovibrational absorption spectra have thus far been obtained toward 14 massive, luminous YSOs at Galactocentric radii (RGC) ranging from ~4.5 to 9.7 kpc. From these data we can obtain precise [12CO]/[13CO] gas-phase abundance ratios along a Galactic gradient, and [12CO]/[13CO]Gas can be further evaluated against published [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice and [12CO]/[13CO]Ice because all observations are in absorption, a robust study of molecular inheritance is possible by virtue of comparing 12C/13C along the same lines-of-sight. Initial results for cold CO gas at RGC ~ 6.1 kpc and 9.4 kpc reveal [12C16O]/[13C16O] of 59+/‑8 and 74+/‑3, respectively, roughly following an expected 12C/13C Galactic gradient. Thus far, we find [12CO]/[13CO] in the cold CO gas to be lower than [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice, suggesting that CO2 may not originate from CO reservoirs as often assumed. While very high-resolution observations of CO gas toward low-mass YSOs observed with VLT-CRIRES show significant heterogeneity in [12CO]/[13CO] at RGC ~ 8 kpc, this dispersion is not found for the massive YSOs. Both the low-mass and massive YSOs have higher [12CO]/[13CO] in warm vs. cold gas, and both show signatures suggesting possible interplay between CO ice and gas reservoirs. Overall, our results indicate that carbon isotopic evolution in massive YSO environments may follow different paths compared to low-mass YSOs

  17. Enhancing Catalyzed Decomposition of Na2CO3 with Co2MnO x Nanowire-Decorated Carbon Fibers for Advanced Na-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cong; Luo, Jianmin; Jin, Chengbin; Yuan, Huadong; Sheng, Ouwei; Huang, Hui; Gan, Yongping; Xia, Yang; Liang, Chu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenkui; Tao, Xinyong

    2018-05-23

    The metal-CO 2 batteries, especially Na-CO 2 , batteries come into sight owing to their high energy density, ability for CO 2 capture, and the abundance of sodium resource. Besides the sluggish electrochemical reactions at the gas cathodes and the instability of the electrolyte at a high voltage, the final discharge product Na 2 CO 3 is a solid and poor conductor of electricity, which may cause the high overpotential and poor cycle performance for the Na-CO 2 batteries. The promotion of decomposition of Na 2 CO 3 should be an efficient strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance. Here, we design a facile Na 2 CO 3 activation experiment to screen the efficient cathode catalyst for the Na-CO 2 batteries. It is found that the Co 2 MnO x nanowire-decorated carbon fibers (CMO@CF) can promote the Na 2 CO 3 decomposition at the lowest voltage among all these metal oxide-decorated carbon fiber structures. After assembling the Na-CO 2 batteries, the electrodes based on CMO@CF show lower overpotential and better cycling performance compared with the electrodes based on pristine carbon fibers and other metal oxide-modified carbon fibers. We believe this catalyst screening method and the freestanding structure of the CMO@CF electrode may provide an important reference for the development of advanced Na-CO 2 batteries.

  18. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  19. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuhr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments were undertaken in a controlled experimental field to study the root uptake of Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54 under outdoor conditions. Parallel experiments were set up using the Kick - Brauckman experimental pots under greenhouse and the Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The results obtained from the three types of experiments are compared. (H.K.)

  20. The structural, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of perovskite oxides PbM1/2Nb1/2O3 (M = Fe, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkisi, A.; Surucu, G.; Deligoz, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the structural, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of perovskite oxides PbM1/2Nb1/2O3 (M = Fe, Co and Ni) are investigated. The systems are treated in ferromagnetic order. The calculations are carried out in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) within the plane-wave pseudopotential method. The exchange-correlation potential is approximated by generalized-gradient spin approach (GGA). The intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion is also taken into account in calculations (GGA + U). We have considered two generalized-gradient spin approximation functionals, which are Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and PBE for solids (PBEsol) for structural parameter calculations when it included Hubbard potential. Although the spin-polarized electronic band structures of PbCo1/2Nb1/2O3 and PbNi1/2Nb1/2O3 systems exhibit metallic property in ferromagnetic phase, a bandgap is observed in spin-down states of PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 resulting in half-metallic behavior. The main reason for this behavior is attributed to the hybridization between d-states of transition metal atoms and p-states of oxygen atoms. The stability mechanically and the calculated mechanical properties by using elastic constants show that these compounds are mechanically stable in tetragonal phase and have anisotropic character mechanically.

  1. CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketzer, Marcelo [Brazilian Carbon Storage Research Center (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the importance of the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} is outlined for the reduction of gas discharges of greenhouse effect; then the principles of CO{sub 2} storage in geologic formations are reviewed; afterwards, the analogs for the CO{sub 2} storage are commented, such as the storage of the acid gas, the natural gas storage and the natural CO{sub 2} deposits. Also it is spoken on the CO{sub 2} storage in coal, in water-bearing saline deposits and in oil fields, and finally the subject of the safety and monitoring of the CO{sub 2} storage is reviewed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se expone la importancia de la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} para la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero; luego se tratan los principios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones geologicas; despues se comentan los analogos para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} como el almacenamiento del gas acido, el almacenamiento de gas natural y los yacimientos naturales de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se habla sobre el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en carbon, acuiferos salinos y yacimientos petroliferos y por ultimo se toca el tema de la seguridad y monitoreo del almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  2. Solid state synthesis of stoichiometric LiCoO2 from mechanically activated Co-Li2CO3 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Bruni, Giovanna; Marini, Amedeo

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometric lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) has been synthesized by solid state reaction of mixtures of the system Co-0.5Li 2 CO 3 after mechanical activation by high energy milling. The differences in the reaction mechanism and in product stoichiometry with respect to what happens when starting from the non activated (physical) system have been brought into evidence by TG analysis. Furthermore it has been shown that stoichiometric LiCoO 2 is obtained by a 200 h annealing of the activated mixture at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. Finally, it has been revealed that longer activation times (150 h) result in Co oxidation to Co 3 O 4 that, in turn, hampers the formation of stoichiometric LiCoO 2

  3. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  4. Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A. A.; Steduto, P.; Orgaz, F.; Matista, A.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes a Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) system which, in conjunction with an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA), is referred to as BREB+ and is used to estimate evapotranspiration ( ET) and net CO2 flux ( NCF) over crop canopies. The system is composed of a net radiometer, soil heat flux plates, two psychrometers based on platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), bridge circuits to measure resistances, an IRGA, air pumps and switching valves, and a data logger. The psychrometers are triple shielded and aspirated, and with aspiration also between the two inner shields. High resistance (1 000 ohm) PRT's are used for dry and wet bulbs to minimize errors due to wiring and connector resistances. A high (55 K ohm) fixed resistance serves as one arm of the resistance bridge to ensure linearity in output signals. To minimize gaps in data, to allow measurements at short (e.g., 5 min) intervals, and to simplify operation, the psychrometers were fixed at their upper and lower position over the crop and not alternated. Instead, the PRT's, connected to the bridge circuit and the data logger, were carefully calibrated together. Field tests using a common air source showed appartent effects of the local environment around each psychrometer on the temperatures measured. ET rates estimated with the BREB system were compared to those measured with large lysimeters. Daily totals agreed within 5%. There was a tendency, however, for the lysimeter measurements to lag behind the BREB measurements. Daily patterns of NCF estimated with the BREB+ system are consistent with expectations from theories and data in the literature. Side-by-side comparisons with a stirred Mylar canopy chamber showed similar NCF patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies between the results of the two methods were quite marked in the morning or afternoon on certain dates. Part of the discrepancies may be attributed to inaccuracies in the psychrometric temperature measurements. Other possible causes

  5. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing

    2017-11-29

    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  6. Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.-H.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Blake, D. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Kiley, C. M.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Streets, D. G.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nolf, S. R.

    2003-10-01

    We report here airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific during the March-April 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The CO2 spatial distributions were notably influenced by cyclogenesis-triggered transport of regionally polluted continental air masses. Examination of the CO2 to C2H2/CO ratio indicated rapid outflow of combustion-related emissions in the free troposphere below 8 km. Although the highest CO2 mixing ratios were measured within the Pacific Rim region, enhancements were also observed further east over the open ocean at locations far removed from surface sources. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered within the planetary boundary layer contained up to 393 ppmv of CO2. Coincident enhancements in the mixing ratios of C2Cl4, C2H2, and C2H4 measured concurrently revealed combustion and industrial sources. To elucidate the source distributions of CO2, an emissions database for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5-day backward trajectories that revealed the WNW/W sector of northeast Asia was a major contributor to these pollution events. Comparisons of NOAA/CMDL and JMA surface data with measurements obtained aloft showed a strong latitudinal gradient that peaked between 35° and 40°N. We estimated a net CO2 flux from the Asian continent of approximately 13.93 Tg C day-1 for late winter/early spring with the majority of the export (79%) occurring in the lower free troposphere (2-8 km). The apportionment of the flux between anthropogenic and biospheric sources was estimated at 6.37 Tg C day-1 and 7.56 Tg C day-1, respectively.

  7. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.; Delshad, M.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  8. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.

    2012-11-03

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  9. Persistence of 14C-labeled atrazine and its residues in a field lysimeter soil after 22 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Koeppchen, Stephan; Hofmann, Diana; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two years after the last application of ring- 14 C-labeled atrazine at customary rate (1.7 kg ha -1 ) on an agriculturally used outdoor lysimeter, atrazine is still detectable by means of accelerated solvent extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. Extractions of the 0-10 cm soil layer yielded 60% of the residual 14 C-activity. The extracts contained atrazine (1.0 μg kg -1 ) and 2-hydroxy-atrazine (42.5 μg kg -1 ). Extractions of the material of the lowest layer 55-60 cm consisting of fine gravel yielded 93% of residual 14 C-activity, of which 3.4 μg kg -1 was detected as atrazine and 17.7 μg kg -1 was 2-hydroxy-atrazine. The detection of atrazine in the lowest layer was of almost four times higher mass than in the upper soil layer. These findings highlight the fact that atrazine is unexpectedly persistent in soil. The overall persistence of atrazine in the environment might represent a potential risk for successive groundwater contamination by leaching even after 22 years of environmental exposure. - Atrazine and its metabolite 2-hydroxy-atrazine are still present in soil after long-term aging.

  10. CO{sub 2} separation from exhaust gas; CO{sub 2} separasjon fra eksosgass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magelssen, Paul Fr. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    When Saga wanted to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from Snorre B, cleaning of CO{sub 2} from exhaust gas was one of several options considered. CO{sub 2} cleaning using membrane/amine technology is under development. Saga required that the technology should be qualified and that the yield of the Snorre B project should not be reduced. This presentation discusses qualification of combined membrane/amine technology, environmental issues, economic issues and implementation on the Snorre B platform. Flue gas from the gas turbine is passed to a CO{sub 2} absorption and desorption stage from which the CO{sub 2} is passed on for compression and disposal while the cleaned flue is let out. The membrane is situated between the flue gas and the absorbent liquid. The pores are large enough for the CO{sub 2} to pass through quickly and small enough to prevent the liquid from penetrating into the pores. The packing factor is high, 500 - 1000 m2/m3, there is no formation of froth, ducts or entrainment of the liquid. New technology implies 65 - 70% size reduction of the main equipment and 39 - 40% reduction of the energy consumption. Research on amines brings out new chemicals which imply 80% reduction in the consumption of chemicals and the quantity of special waste produced. If a CO{sub 2} cleaning plant is installed on a LM 2500, the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 97,200 ton/year given the right operational conditions. Although it was decided in 1998 not to install the module with the CO{sub 2} pilot cleaning plant, Snorre B is still a good environmental project having CO{sub 2} emission within the values set by Miljoesok.

  11. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeff; Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ˜ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  12. Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentrations to Cloud Tops With a Pulsed Multi-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; hide

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was approx. 5% for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 micro-s wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90% of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  13. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  14. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new field facility was used to study CO2 migration processes and test techniques to detect and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. For 10 days starting 9 July 2007, and for seven days starting 5 August 2007, 0.1 and 0.3 t CO2 d-1, respectively, were released from a ~;100-m long, sub-water table (~;2.5-m depth) horizontal well. The spatio-temporal evolution of leakage was mapped through repeated grid measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2). The surface leakage onset...

  15. A conversion of CO{sub 2}-ECBM related lab observations to reservoir requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Merkel, A.; Busch, A. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Krooss, B.M. [Shell Global Solutions International, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    To predict a CBM production profile either during primary or secondary production, aspects like coal permeability and porosity, density, ash and moisture content, initial gas-in-place (GIP) (from canister desorption tests), gas sorption capacity from laboratory isotherms (to obtain gas saturations and desorption pressure), gas diffusivities, coal volumetrics (thickness and areal extent) need to be understood as a minimum requirement. When dealing with CO{sub 2}-ECBM selective adsorption, counter diffusion in the coal matrix, or coal shrinkage and swelling (from CH{sub 4} desorption and CO{sub 2} adsorption, respectively) and the influence of moisture need to be investigated in addition to the parameters above. During CO{sub 2}-ECBM processes, the areal distribution of the CO{sub 2} injected is accomplished by flow through the cleat network. When CO{sub 2} is entering the coal matrix by a combined sorption/diffusion process it will adsorb to the coal inner surface and at the same time replace part of the CH{sub 4}. This replacement occurs either by a reduction in the CH{sub 4} partial pressure or by a higher selective sorption of CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4}. Because of a concentration gradient between CH{sub 4} in the matrix compared to the cleat system, CH{sub 4} diffuses from the coal matrix into the cleat system where, by pressure drawdown towards a production well, it can be produced. In this context this presentation summarizes gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and water sorption on coal and specifically addresses the following topics: - CH{sub 4} saturation development in CBM reservoir with depth (thermodynamic considerations); - CO{sub 2}-ECBM 'sweet spot' identification; - CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} sorption capacity as a function depth and rank; - CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} sorption on natural coals and its dependence on coal specific parameters like coal rank, maceral composition or ash content (Busch and Gensterblum, 2011); - Water sorption on coal, its

  16. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  17. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved by the SRON-KIT RemoTeC algorithm from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land–sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source–sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  18. CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe - Phase 2; CO{sub 2}-Erdwaermesonde - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueniger, A.; Wellig, B.

    2009-12-15

    In this project the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics inside a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe have been investigated. The functionality of such a probe, which works like a thermosyphon, was analyzed by means of a simulation model in MATLAB. The model couples the behaviour inside the heat probe with the heat conduction in the earth. A parameter study revealed that the self-circulation character of such a probe leads to flattening of the vertical earth temperature profile near the probe and, hence, leads to more uniform heat removal along the probe. The circulation of CO{sub 2} even goes on when the heat pump is off. This might be advantageous for the regeneration phase. The heat transfer resistance of the evaporating CO{sub 2} film flowing down the probe wall is very small compared to the conduction resistance of the earth. Therefore, no difference has been found between the performances of a conventional heat pipe and a configuration where the liquid phase injection is distributed on different height stages along the probe. It is estimated that the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps can be improved by 15-25% with a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe. The main advantage is that the heat transfer to the evaporator of the heat pump (condensation of CO{sub 2} / evaporation of refrigerant) is much more efficient than in a conventional brine probe without phase change. Furthermore, no circulation pump is needed. (authors)

  19. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  20. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  1. Gradient flow and IR fixed point in SU(2) with Nf=8 flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Viljami; Karavirta, Tuomas; Rantaharju, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    We study the running of the coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with 8 massless fundamental representation fermion flavours, using the gradient flow method with the Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions. Gradient flow allows us to measure robust continuum limit for the step scaling function...

  2. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  3. Interaction strength between different grazers and macroalgae mediated by ocean acidification over warming gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, E; Rodil, I F; Vaz-Pinto, F; Fernández, A; Arenas, F

    2017-04-01

    Since the past century, rising CO 2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO 2 treatments (ΔCO 2 ≃ 450 μatm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 °C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  5. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  6. Simulation of atmospheric CO2 over Europe and western Siberia using the regional scale model REMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, A.; Ciais, P.; Lafont, S.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the temporal variability of atmospheric CO 2 over Europe and western Siberia are investigated using the regional atmospheric model, REMO. The model, of typical horizontal resolution 50 km, is part of a nested modelling framework that has been established as a concerted action during the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project. In REMO, the transport of CO 2 is simulated together with climate variables, which offers the possibility of calculating at each time step the land atmosphere CO 2 fluxes as driven by the modelled meteorology. The uptake of CO 2 by photosynthesis is calculated using a light use efficiency formulation, where the absorbed photosynthetically active solar radiation is inferred from satellite measurements. The release of CO 2 from plant and soil respiration is driven by the simulated climate and assumed to be in equilibrium with photosynthesis over the course of one year. Fossil CO 2 emissions and air-sea fluxes within the model domain are prescribed, whereas the influence of sources outside the model domain is computed from as a boundary condition CO 2 fields determined a global transport model. The modelling results are compared against pointwise eddy covariance fluxes, and against atmospheric CO 2 records. We show that a necessary condition to simulate realistically the variability of atmospheric CO 2 over continental Europe is to account for the diurnal cycle of biospheric exchange. Overall, for the study period of July 1998, REMO realistically simulates the short-term variability of fluxes and of atmospheric mixing ratios. However, the mean CO 2 gradients from western Europe to western Siberia are not correctly reproduced. This latter deficiency points out the key role of boundary conditions in a limited-area model, as well as the need for using more realistic geographic mean patterns of biospheric carbon fluxes

  7. Effects of sub-seabed CO2 leakage: Short- and medium-term responses of benthic macrofaunal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T; Bertocci, I; Queiros, A M; Rastelli, E; Borgersen, G; Brkljacic, M; Nunes, J; Sorensen, K; Danovaro, R; Widdicombe, S

    2018-03-01

    The continued rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels is driving climate change and temperature shifts at a global scale. CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies have been suggested as a feasible option for reducing CO 2 emissions and mitigating their effects. However, before CCS can be employed at an industrial scale, any environmental risks associated with this activity should be identified and quantified. Significant leakage of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs and pipelines is considered to be unlikely, however direct and/or indirect effects of CO 2 leakage on marine life and ecosystem functioning must be assessed, with particular consideration given to spatial (e.g. distance from the source) and temporal (e.g. duration) scales at which leakage impacts could occur. In the current mesocosm experiment we tested the potential effects of CO 2 leakage on macrobenthic assemblages by exposing infaunal sediment communities to different levels of CO 2 concentration (400, 1000, 2000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 ), simulating a gradient of distance from a hypothetic leakage, over short-term (a few weeks) and medium-term (several months). A significant impact on community structure, abundance and species richness of macrofauna was observed in the short-term exposure. Individual taxa showed idiosyncratic responses to acidification. We conclude that the main impact of CO 2 leakage on macrofaunal assemblages occurs almost exclusively at the higher CO 2 concentration and over short time periods, tending to fade and disappear at increasing distance and exposure time. Although under the cautious perspective required by the possible context-dependency of the present findings, this study contributes to the cost-benefit analysis (environmental risk versus the achievement of the intended objectives) of CCS strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  9. Synthesis, Structure, Bonding, and Reactivity of Metal Complexes Comprising Diborane(4) and Diborene(2): [{Cp*Mo(CO)2 }2 {μ-η22 -B2 H4 }] and [{Cp*M(CO)2 }2 B2 H2 M(CO)4 ], M=Mo,W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bijan; Bag, Ranjit; Ghorai, Sagar; Bakthavachalam, K; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2018-04-26

    The reaction of [(Cp*Mo) 2 (μ-Cl) 2 B 2 H 6 ] (1) with CO at room temperature led to the formation of the highly fluxional species [{Cp*Mo(CO) 2 } 2 {μ-η 22 -B 2 H 4 }] (2). Compound 2, to the best of our knowledge, is the first example of a bimetallic diborane(4) conforming to a singly bridged C s structure. Theoretical studies show that 2 mimics the Cotton dimolybdenum-alkyne complex [{CpMo(CO) 2 } 2 C 2 H 2 ]. In an attempt to replace two hydrogen atoms of diborane(4) in 2 with a 2e [W(CO) 4 ] fragment, [{Cp*Mo(CO) 2 } 2 B 2 H 2 W(CO) 4 ] (3) was isolated upon treatment with [W(CO) 5 ⋅thf]. Compound 3 shows the intriguing presence of [B 2 H 2 ] with a short B-B length of 1.624(4) Å. We isolated the tungsten analogues of 3, [{Cp*W(CO) 2 } 2 B 2 H 2 W(CO) 4 ] (4) and [{Cp*W(CO) 2 } 2 B 2 H 2 Mo(CO) 4 ] (5), which provided direct proof of the existence of the tungsten analogue of 2. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enclathration of CO2 as a co-guest of structure H hydrates and its implications for CO2 capture and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yohan; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Yongwon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine sH hydrates with CO 2 + N 2 + neohexane for CO 2 capture and sequestration. • The structural transition occurs in the CO 2 (40%) + N 2 (60%) + neohexane system. • CO 2 molecules are enclathrated into sH hydrates in the N 2 -rich systems. • CO 2 selectivity in sH hydrates is slightly lower than that in sI hydrates. • ΔH d values provide information on the structural transition of sH to sI hydrates. - Abstract: In this study, the thermodynamic behaviors, cage-specific guest distributions, structural transition, and dissociation enthalpies of sH hydrates with CO 2 + N 2 gas mixtures were investigated for their potential applications to hydrate-based CO 2 capture and sequestration. The stability conditions of the CO 2 + N 2 + water systems and the CO 2 + N 2 + neohexane (2,2-dimethylbutane, NH) + water systems indicated that the gas mixtures in the range of flue gas compositions could form sH hydrates, thereby mitigating the pressure and temperature required for gas hydrate formation. Structure identification using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed the coexistence of sI and sH hydrates in the CO 2 (40%) + N 2 (60%) + NH system and the hydrate structure transformed from sH into sI as the CO 2 concentration increased. In addition, the Raman analysis clearly demonstrated that CO 2 molecules were enclathrated into the cages of sH hydrates in the N 2 -rich systems. It was found from direct CO 2 composition measurements that CO 2 selectivity in the sH hydrate phase was slightly lower than that in the corresponding sI hydrate phase. Dissociation enthalpy (ΔH d ) measurements using a high-pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP μ-DSC) indicated that the ΔH d values could also provide valuable information on the structural transition of sH to sI hydrates with respect to the CO 2 concentration in the feed gas. This study provides a better understanding of the thermodynamic and physicochemical background for CO 2

  11. Atomistic simulations of void migration under thermal gradient in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Tapan G.; Millett, Paul; Tonks, Michael; Wolf, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that within a few hours after startup of a nuclear reactor, the temperature gradient within a fuel element causes migration of voids/bubbles radially inwards to form a central hole. To understand the atomic processes that control this migration of voids, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on single crystal UO 2 with voids of diameter 2.2 nm. An external temperature gradient was applied across the simulation cell. At the end of the simulation run, it was observed that the voids had moved towards the hot end of the simulation cell. The void migration velocity obtained from the simulations was compared with the available phenomenological equations for void migration due to different transport mechanisms. Surface diffusion of the slowest moving specie, i.e. uranium, was found to be the dominant mechanism for void migration. The contribution from lattice diffusion and the thermal stress gradient to the void migration was analyzed and found to be negligible. By extrapolation, a crossover from the surface-diffusion-controlled mechanism to the lattice-diffusion-controlled mechanism was found to occur for voids with sizes in the μm range.

  12. Effect of Co crystallinity on Co/CNT catalytic activity in CO/CO{sub 2} hydrogenation and CO disproportionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, Sergei A., E-mail: chernyak.msu@gmail.com [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Physical Chemistry, Leninsky Avenue 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Suslova, Evgeniya V.; Egorov, Alexander V.; Maslakov, Konstantin I. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Savilov, Serguei V.; Lunin, Valery V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskiye Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Physical Chemistry, Leninsky Avenue 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous and crystalline Co supported on CNTs were obtained by tuning of CNT surface. • CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation does not occur on amorphous Co particles. • Thermal activation of amorphous Co led to crystallization of metal. • Amorphous Co promotes CO disproportionation. • Carbon shells around the amorphous metal particles after the CO hydrogenation. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different degree of surface oxidation were used as supports for 5 wt.% Co catalysts. CNTs and Co/CNT catalysts were analyzed by XPS, nitrogen adsorption, TEM and electron diffraction to reveal their structure. High oxidation degree of CNT surface (8.6 at.% of O) and low Co loading led to predominantly amorphous Co species. This resulted in the absence of catalytic activity in both CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in opposite to the catalyst supported on less oxidized CNTs (5.4 at.% of O) where Co species were found to be crystalline. Thermal treatment of inactive catalyst in H{sub 2} and He led to the formation of Co crystal phase which was active in catalysis. Co particle size in catalyst supported on strongly oxidized CNTs was unchanged during CO hydrogenation in opposite to Co supported on less oxidized CNTs. Carbon shell formation on the surface of amorphous Co particles during CO hydrogenation was revealed, which testified CO disproportionation. Qualitative mechanism of CO hydrogenation on small Co particles was proposed.

  13. CO2 capture by ionic liquids - an answer to anthropogenic CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglard, Pauline; Vorlet, Olivier; Marti, Roger; Naef, Olivier; Vanoli, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are efficient solvents for the selective removal of CO2 from flue gas. Conventional, offthe-shelf ILs are limited in use to physisorption, which restricts their absorption capacity. After adding a chemical functionality like amines or alcohols, absorption of CO2 occurs mainly by chemisorption. This greatly enhances CO2 absorption and makes ILs suitable for potential industrial applications. By carefully choosing the anion and the cation of the IL, equimolar absorption of CO2 is possible. This paper reviews the current state of the art of CO2 capture by ILs and presents the current research in this field performed at the ChemTech Institute of the Ecole d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes de Fribourg.

  14. Estimating CO{sub 2} Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO{sub 2} Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co., LTD(ETP), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Estimating potential of CO{sub 2} emission reduction of non-capture CO{sub 2} utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO{sub 2} emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO{sub 2} of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO{sub 2} emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO{sub 3} (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO{sub 3}). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO{sub 2} reduction through the CO{sub 2} carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO{sub 2} emission technology.

  15. Possible use of Fe/CO2 fuel cells for CO2 mitigation plus H2 and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Greg H.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous oxidation of scrap iron in the presence of a constant CO 2 -rich waste gas stream and water is evaluated as a means of sequestering anthropogenic CO 2 as well as generating hydrogen gas and electricity. The stoichiometry of the net reaction, Fe 0 + CO 2 + H 2 O → FeCO 3 + H 2 , and assumptions about reaction rates, reactant and product prices/values and overhead costs suggest that CO 2 might be mitigated at a net profit in excess of $30/tonne CO 2 . The principle profit center of the process would be hydrogen production, alone providing a gross income of >$160/tonne CO 2 reacted. However, the realization of such fuel cell economics depends on a number of parameters including: (1) the rate at which the reaction can be sustained, (2) the areal and volumetric density with which H 2 and electricity can be produced, (3) the purity of the H 2 produced, (4) the transportation costs of the reactants (Fe, CO 2 and H 2 O) and products (FeCO 3 or Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 ) to/from the cells and (5) the cost/benefit trade-offs of optimizing the preceding variables in a given market and regulatory environment. Because of the carbon intensity of conventional iron metal production, a net carbon sequestration benefit for the process can be realized only when waste (rather than new) iron and steel are used as electrodes and/or when Fe(HCO 3 ) 2 is the end product. The used electrolyte could also provide a free source of Fe 2+ ions for enhancing iron-limited marine photosynthesis and, thus, greatly increasing the CO 2 sequestration potential of the process. Alternatively, the reaction of naturally occurring iron oxides (iron ore) with CO 2 can be considered for FeCO 3 formation and sequestration, but this foregoes the benefits of hydrogen and electricity production. Use of Fe/CO 2 fuel cells would appear to be particularly relevant for fossil fuel gasification/steam reforming systems given the highly concentrated CO 2 they generate and given the existing infrastructure they

  16. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs

  17. Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Rachel M.; Kowalczyk, Eva A.; Wangs, Ying-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO 2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO 2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO 2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

  18. Estimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H.; Omonode, Rex A.

    2018-04-01

    Annual budgets of greenhouse and other trace gases require knowledge of the emissions throughout the year. Unfortunately, emissions into the surface boundary layer during stable, calm nocturnal periods are not measurable using most micrometeorological methods due to non-stationarity and uncoupled flow. However, during nocturnal periods with very light winds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) frequently accumulate near the surface and this mass accumulation can be used to determine emissions. Gas concentrations were measured at four heights (one within and three above canopy) and turbulence was measured at three heights above a mature 2.5 m maize canopy from 23 July to 10 September 2015. Nocturnal CO2 and N2O fluxes from the canopy were determined using the accumulation of mass within a 6.3 m control volume and out the top of the control volume within the nocturnal surface boundary layer. Diffusive fluxes were estimated by flux gradient method. The total accumulative and diffusive fluxes during near-calm nights (friction velocities CO2 and 0.53 nmol m-2 s-1 N2O. Fluxes were also measured using chambers. Daily mean CO2 fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 90 to 130 % of those determined using soil chambers. Daily mean N2O fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 60 to 80 % of that determined using soil chambers. The better signal-to-noise ratios of the chamber method for CO2 over N2O, non-stationary flow, assumed Schmidt numbers, and anemometer tilt were likely contributing reasons for the differences in chambers versus accumulated nocturnal mass flux estimates. Near-surface N2O accumulative flux measurements in more homogeneous regions and with greater depth are needed to confirm the conclusion that mass accumulation can be effectively used to estimate soil emissions during nearly calm nights.

  19. A microporous MOF with a polar pore surface exhibiting excellent selective adsorption of CO2 from CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures with high CO2 loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arun; Chand, Santanu; Elahi, Syed Meheboob; Das, Madhab C

    2017-11-14

    A microporous MOF {[Zn(SDB)(L) 0.5 ]·S} n (IITKGP-5) with a polar pore surface has been constructed by the combination of a V-shaped -SO 2 functionalized organic linker (H 2 SDB = 4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) with an N-rich spacer (L = 2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene), forming a network with sql(2,6L1) topology. IITKGP-5 is characterized by TGA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The framework exhibits lozenge-shaped channels of an approximate size of 4.2 × 5.6 Å 2 along the crystallographic b axis with a potential solvent accessible volume of 26%. The activated IITKGP-5a revealed a CO 2 uptake capacity of 56.4 and 49 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K/1 atm and 295 K/1 atm, respectively. On the contrary, it takes up a much smaller amount of CH 4 (17 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K and 13.6 cm 3 g -1 at 295 K) and N 2 (5.5 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K; 4 cm 3 g -1 at 295 K) under 1 atm pressure exhibiting its potential for a highly selective adsorption of CO 2 from flue gas as well as a landfill gas mixture. Based on the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST), a CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 435.5 and a CO 2 /CH 4 selectivity of 151.6 have been realized at 273 K/100 kPa. The values at 295 K are 147.8 for CO 2 /N 2 and 23.8 for CO 2 /CH 4 gas mixtures under 100 kPa. In addition, this MOF nearly approaches the target values proposed for PSA and TSA processes for practical utility exhibiting its prospect for flue gas separation with a CO 2 loading capacity of 2.04 mmol g -1 .

  20. A common behaviour of thermoelectric layered cobaltites: incommensurate spin density wave states in [Ca2Co4/3Cu2/3O4]0.62[CoO2] and [Ca2CoO3]0.62[CoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, J; Brewer, J H; Ansaldo, E J; Itahara, H; Dohmae, K; Xia, C; Seno, Y; Hitti, B; Tani, T

    2003-01-01

    Magnetism of a misfit layered cobaltite [Ca 2 Co 4/3 Cu 2/3 O 4 ] x RS [CoO 2 ] (x ∼ 0.62, RS denotes a rocksalt-type block) was investigated by a positive muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ + SR) experiment. A transition to an incommensurate (IC) spin density wave (SDW) state was found below 180 K (= T C on ); and a clear oscillation due to a static internal magnetic field was observed below 140 K(= T C ). Furthermore, an anisotropic behaviour of the zero-field μ + SR experiment indicated that the IC-SDW lies in the a-b plane, with oscillating moments directed along the c axis. These results were quite similar to those for the related compound [Ca 2 CoO 3 ] 0.62 RS [CoO 2 ], i.e., Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 . Since the IC-SDW field in [Ca 2 Co 4/3 Cu 2/3 O 4 ] 0.62 RS [CoO 2 ] was approximately the same as those in pure and doped [Ca 2 CoO 3 ] 0.62 RS [CoO 2 ], it was concluded that the IC-SDW exists in the [CoO 2 ] planes

  1. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO{sub 2} and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO{sub 2} and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant`s metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO{sub 2}. The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled

  2. Environmental CO2 inhibits Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying by modulating olfactory neurons and evokes widespread changes in neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Lorenz A.; de Bono, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) gradients are ubiquitous and provide animals with information about their environment, such as the potential presence of prey or predators. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans avoids elevated CO2, and previous work identified three neuron pairs called “BAG,” “AFD,” and “ASE” that respond to CO2 stimuli. Using in vivo Ca2+ imaging and behavioral analysis, we show that C. elegans can detect CO2 independently of these sensory pathways. Many of the C. elegans sensory neurons we examined, including the AWC olfactory neurons, the ASJ and ASK gustatory neurons, and the ASH and ADL nociceptors, respond to a rise in CO2 with a rise in Ca2+. In contrast, glial sheath cells harboring the sensory endings of C. elegans’ major chemosensory neurons exhibit strong and sustained decreases in Ca2+ in response to high CO2. Some of these CO2 responses appear to be cell intrinsic. Worms therefore may couple detection of CO2 to that of other cues at the earliest stages of sensory processing. We show that C. elegans persistently suppresses oviposition at high CO2. Hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), the executive neurons driving egg-laying, are tonically inhibited when CO2 is elevated. CO2 modulates the egg-laying system partly through the AWC olfactory neurons: High CO2 tonically activates AWC by a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and AWC output inhibits the HSNs. Our work shows that CO2 is a more complex sensory cue for C. elegans than previously thought, both in terms of behavior and neural circuitry. PMID:26100886

  3. What have we learned from intensive atmospheric sampling field programmes of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Matross, D.M.; Chow, V.Y.; Gottlieb, E.; Pathmathevan, M.; Munger, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal gradients in atmospheric CO 2 contain signatures of carbon fluxes, and as part of inverse studies,these signatures have been combined with atmospheric models to infer carbon sources and sinks. However, such studies have yet to yield finer-scale, regional fluxes over the continent that can be linked to ecosystem processes and ground-based observations. The reasons for this gap are twofold: lack of atmospheric observations over the continent and model deficiencies in interpreting such observations. This paper describes a series of intensive atmospheric sampling field programmes designed as pilot experiments to bridge the observational gap over the continent and to help test and develop models to interpret these observations. We summarize recent results emerging from this work,outlining the role of the intensive atmospheric programmes in collecting CO 2 data in both the vertical and horizontal dimensions. These data: (1) quantitatively establish the spatial variability of CO 2 and the associated errors from neglecting this variability in models; (2) directly measure regional carbon fluxes from airmass-following experiments and (3) challenge models to reduce and account for uncertainties in atmospheric transport. We conclude with a look towards the future, outlining ways in which intensive atmospheric sampling can contribute towards advancing carbon science

  4. Analysis of poly(styrene-co-methyl acrylate) and poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparidans, R.W.; Claessens, H.A.; van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Poly(styrene—co-methyl acrylate) and poly(styrene—co-butyl acrylate) were separated according to their chemical composition by gradient elution. The chromatographic separation on silica was optimized for a gradient ranging from n-heptane as a non-solvent to dichloromethane containing a small amount

  5. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  6. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ∼ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  7. Carbon-14 exchange between CO2 and CO in the system 14CO2-CO-NOsub(x)(Ar, N2, O2)-quartz vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, A.; Zielinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been established that the rate of 14 C exchange between CO 2 and CO is diminished in presence of NO and NO 2 . The temperature dependence of the overall rate of exchange and the partial orders in respect to separate components of the exchange mixtures have been determined. The rate dependence on quartz surface has been established and the surface mechanism considered. The inhibiting action NO and NO 2 is explained. At higher pressures the catalytic effect of NO was found and explained. (author)

  8. Coarsening behaviour and interfacial structure of γ′ precipitates in Co-Al-W based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, V.A.; Barnard, J.S.; Rahman, K.M.; Yan, H.-Y.; Midgley, P.A.; Dye, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the effects of alloying on the coarsening behaviour of the L1 2 ordered γ ′ phase and the structure of the γ/γ ′ interfaces in three Co-Al-W base superalloys aged at ∼90 °C below the respective solvus temperatures: Co-7Al-7W, Co-10Al-5W-2Ta and Co-7Al-7W-20Ni (at.%). The coarsening kinetics are adequately characterised by the classical Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Co-7Al-7W exhibited much slower coarsening than its quaternary derivatives. Alloying can be exploited to modify the coarsening kinetics either by increasing the solvus temperature by adding tantalum, or by adding nickel to shift the rate controlling mechanism towards dependence on the diffusion of aluminium rather than tungsten. Lattice resolution STEM imaging was used to measure the widths of the order-disorder (structural) and Z-contrast (compositional) gradients across the γ/γ ′ interfaces. Similarly to nickel base superalloys, the compositional gradient was found to be wider than the structural. Co-7Al-7W-20Ni had much wider interface gradients than Co-7Al-7W and Co-10Al-5W-2Ta, which suggests that its γ ′ phase stoichiometry is less constrained. A possible correlation between temperature and misfit normalised r vs. t 1/3 coarsening rate coefficients and the structural gradient width has also been identified, whereby alloys with wider interfaces exhibit faster coarsening rates.

  9. Promoting Ethylene Selectivity from CO2 Electroreduction on CuO Supported onto CO2 Capture Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong; Hong, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Peng-Yang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Feng-Yang; Wu, Qi-Hui; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2018-03-09

    Cu is a unique catalyst for CO 2 electroreduction, since it can catalyze CO 2 reduction to a series of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and carboxylic acids. Nevertheless, such Cu catalysts suffer from poor selectivity. High pressure of CO 2 is considered to facilitate the activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction. Herein, a new strategy is presented for CO 2 reduction with improved C 2 H 4 selectivity on a Cu catalyst by using CO 2 capture materials as the support at ambient pressure. N-doped carbon (N x C) was synthesized through high-temperature carbonization of melamine and l-lysine. We observed that the CO 2 uptake capacity of N x C depends on both the microporous area and the content of pyridinic N species, which can be controlled by the carbonization temperature (600-800 °C). The as-prepared CuO/N x C catalysts exhibit a considerably higher C 2 H 4 faradaic efficiency (36 %) than CuO supported on XC-72 carbon black (19 %), or unsupported CuO (20 %). Moreover, there is a good linear relationship between the C 2 H 4 faradaic efficiency and CO 2 uptake capacity of the supports for CuO. The local high CO 2 concentration near Cu catalysts, created by CO 2 capture materials, was proposed to increase the coverage of CO intermediate, which is favorable for the coupling of two CO units in the formation of C 2 H 4 . This study demonstrates that pairing Cu catalysts with CO 2 capture supports is a promising approach for designing highly effective CO 2 reduction electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  12. Bioinspired conical copper wire with gradient wettability for continuous and efficient fog collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Xiao, Kai; Yao, Xi; Bai, Hao; Jiang, Lei

    2013-11-06

    Inspired by the efficient fog collection on cactus spines, conical copper wires with gradient wettability are fabricated through gradient electrochemical corrosion and subsequent gradient chemical modification. These dual-gradient copper wires' fog-collection ability is demonstrated to be higher than that of conical copper wires with pure hydrophobic surfaces or pure hydrophilic surfaces, and the underlying mechanism is also analyzed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  14. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans.

  15. PRECONDITIONED CONJUGATE-GRADIENT 2 (PCG2), a computer program for solving ground-water flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents PCG2 : a numerical code to be used with the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model . PCG2 uses the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method to solve the equations produced by the model for hydraulic head. Linear or nonlinear flow conditions may be simulated. PCG2 includes two reconditioning options : modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioning, which is efficient on scalar computers; and polynomial preconditioning, which requires less computer storage and, with modifications that depend on the computer used, is most efficient on vector computers . Convergence of the solver is determined using both head-change and residual criteria. Nonlinear problems are solved using Picard iterations. This documentation provides a description of the preconditioned conjugate gradient method and the two preconditioners, detailed instructions for linking PCG2 to the modular model, sample data inputs, a brief description of PCG2, and a FORTRAN listing.

  16. Theoretical study of the influence of chemical reactions and physical parameters on the convective dissolution of CO2 in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loodts, Vanessa; Rongy, Laurence; De Wit, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface carbon sequestration has emerged as a promising solution to the problem of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. How does the efficiency of such a sequestration process depend on the physical and chemical characteristics of the storage site? This question is emblematic of the need to better understand the dynamics of CO2 in subsurface formations, and in particular, the properties of the convective dissolution of CO2 in the salt water of aquifers. This dissolution is known to improve the safety of the sequestration by reducing the risks of leaks of CO2 to the atmosphere. Buoyancy-driven convection makes this dissolution faster by transporting dissolved CO2 further away from the interface. Indeed, upon injection, the less dense CO2 phase rises above the aqueous layer where it starts to dissolve. The dissolved CO2 increases the density of the aqueous solution, thereby creating a layer of denser CO2-rich solution above less dense solution. This unstable density gradient in the gravity field is at the origin of convection. In this framework, we theoretically investigate the effect of CO2 pressure, salt concentration, temperature, and chemical reactions on the dissolution-driven convection of CO2 in aqueous solutions. On the basis of a linear stability analysis, we assess the stability of the time-dependent density profiles developing when CO2 dissolves in an aqueous layer below it. We predict that increasing CO2 pressure destabilizes the system with regard to buoyancy-driven convection, because it increases the density gradient at the origin of the instability. By contrast, increasing salt concentration or temperature stabilizes the system via effects on CO2 solubility, solutal expansion coefficient, diffusion coefficient and on the viscosity and density of the solution. We also show that a reaction of CO2 with chemical species dissolved in the aqueous solution can either enhance or decrease the amplitude of the convective dissolution compared

  17. Triazine containing N-rich microporous organic polymers for CO2 capture and unprecedented CO2/N2 selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Bhanja, Piyali; Das, Sabuj Kanti; Sen, Tapas; Bhaumik, Asim

    2017-01-01

    Targeted synthesis of microporous adsorbents for CO 2 capture and storage is very challenging in the context of remediation from green house gases. Herein we report two novel N-rich microporous networks SB-TRZ-CRZ and SB-TRZ-TPA by extensive incorporation of triazine containing tripodal moiety in the porous polymer framework. These materials showed excellent CO 2 storage capacities: SB-TRZ-CRZ displayed the CO 2 uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K and SB-TRZ-TPA gave that of 16 wt% under identical conditions. The substantial dipole quadruple interaction between network (polar triazine) and CO 2 boosts the selectivity for CO 2 /N 2 . SB-TRZ-CRZ has this CO 2 /N 2 selectivity ratio of 377, whereas for SB-TRZ-TPA it was 97. Compared to other porous polymers, these materials are very cost effective, scalable and very promising material for clean energy application and environmental issues. - Graphical abstract: We report two novel N-rich microporous polymeric materials by doping of triazine containing tripodal dopant in the organic framework. These materials showed excellent CO 2 storage capacities as high as 25.5 wt% under 1 bar pressure with exceptional CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 377. - Highlights: • Triazine containing trimodal moiety incorporated in polycarbazolic and poly triphenylamine networks. • N-rich crosslinked polymers with high BET surface area and 1.5–1.7 nm size large micropores. • CO 2 uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K. • These crosslinked porous polymers showed exceptional CO 2 /N 2 selectivity.

  18. CO{sub 2} uptake by the Kalanchoe plant; CO{sub 2}-opname bij Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study on the assimilation of the Kalanchoe plant are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal time period of a natural day (24 hours) to supply carbon dioxide to a Kalanchoe plant. A Kalanchoe plant originally is a so-called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant: CO{sub 2} uptake at night and chemical conversion of CO{sub 2} into malic acid. By day the fixed CO{sub 2} is used for photosynthesis. It appears that a Kalanchoe plant also takes up CO{sub 2} by day, which is directly used for photosynthesis. For Dutch horticulture conditions (20C, sufficient moisture) extra CO{sub 2} supply by day in the spring results in an increase of both the fresh weight and the dry weight compared to no extra CO{sub 2} supply. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs., 4 appendices

  19. Temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes at three differently managed grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Imer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A profound understanding of temporal and spatial variabilities of soil carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is needed to reliably quantify these fluxes and to develop future mitigation strategies. For managed grassland ecosystems, temporal and spatial variabilities of these three soil greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes occur due to changes in environmental drivers as well as fertilizer applications, harvests and grazing. To assess how such changes affect soil GHG fluxes at Swiss grassland sites, we studied three sites along an altitudinal gradient that corresponds to a management gradient: from 400 m a.s.l. (intensively managed to 1000 m a.s.l. (moderately intensive managed to 2000 m a.s.l. (extensively managed. The alpine grassland was included to study both effects of extensive management on CH4 and N2O fluxes and the different climate regime occurring at this altitude. Temporal and spatial variabilities of soil GHG fluxes and environmental drivers on various timescales were determined along transects of 16 static soil chambers at each site. All three grasslands were N2O sources, with mean annual soil fluxes ranging from 0.15 to 1.28 nmol m−2 s−1. Contrastingly, all sites were weak CH4 sinks, with soil uptake rates ranging from −0.56 to −0.15 nmol m−2 s−1. Mean annual soil and plant respiration losses of CO2, measured with opaque chambers, ranged from 5.2 to 6.5 μmol m−2 s−1. While the environmental drivers and their respective explanatory power for soil N2O emissions differed considerably among the three grasslands (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.19 to 0.42, CH4 and CO2 soil fluxes were much better constrained (adjusted r2 ranging from 0.46 to 0.80 by soil water content and air temperature, respectively. Throughout the year, spatial heterogeneity was particularly high for soil N2O and CH4 fluxes. We found permanent hot spots for soil N2O emissions as well as

  20. Novel Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine): Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolko, Lukáš; Černák, Juraj; Kuchár, Juraj; Miklovič, Jozef; Boča, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Green crystals of Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) were isolated from the aqueous system CoBr2 - bapen - HBr, crystallographically studied and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Its ionic crystal structure is built up of [Co(bapen)Br2]+ cations and [CoBr4]2- anions. The Co(III) central atoms within the complex cations are hexacoordinated (donor set trans-N4Br2) with bromido ligands placed in the axial positions. The Co(II) atoms exhibit distorted tetrahedral coordination. Beside ionic forces weak Nsbnd H⋯Br intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the structure. Temperature variable magnetic measurements confirm the S = 3/2 behavior with the zero-field splitting of an intermediate strength: D/hc = 8.7 cm-1.

  1. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  2. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun

    2014-12-02

    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  3. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  4. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  6. Effect of Uncertainties in CO2 Property Databases on the S-CO2 Compressor Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cha, Je Eun

    2013-01-01

    Various S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facilities are on the state of construction or operation for demonstration of the technology. However, during the data analysis, S-CO 2 property databases are widely used to predict the performance and characteristics of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle. Thus, a reliable property database is very important before any experiment data analyses or calculation. In this paper, deviation of two different property databases which are widely used for the data analysis will be identified by using three selected properties for comparison, C p , density and enthalpy. Furthermore, effect of above mentioned deviation on the analysis of test data will be briefly discussed. From this deviation, results of the test data analysis can have critical error. As the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle researcher knows, CO 2 near the critical point has dramatic change on thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is true that a potential error source of property prediction exists in CO 2 properties near the critical point. During an experiment data analysis with the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facility, thermodynamic properties are always involved to predict the component performance and characteristics. Thus, construction or defining of precise CO 2 property database should be carried out to develop Korean S-CO 2 Brayton cycle technology

  7. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  8. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  9. Advances in Geological CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Co-Sequestration with O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe A; O& #x27; Connor, William K.; Ideker, J.H.

    2012-10-28

    The injection of CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and sequestration in brine-bearing formations for long term storage has been in practice or under investigation in many locations globally. This study focused on the assessment of cement wellbore seal integrity in CO{sub 2}- and CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-saturated brine and supercritical CO{sub 2} environments. Brine chemistries (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}) at various saline concentrations were investigated at a pressure of 28.9 MPa (4200 psi) at both 50{degree}C and 85{degree}C. These parameters were selected to simulate downhole conditions at several potential CO{sub 2} injection sites in the United States. Class H portland cement is not thermodynamically stable under these conditions and the formation of carbonic acid degrades the cement. Dissociation occurs and leaches cations, forming a CaCO{sub 3} buffered zone, amorphous silica, and other secondary minerals. Increased temperature affected the structure of C-S-H and the hydration of the cement leading to higher degradation rates.

  10. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO 2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  11. [Distribution characteristics of heavy metals along an elevation gradient of montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jia-rong; Nie, Ming; Zou, Qin; Hu, Shao-chang; Chen, Jia-kuan

    2011-12-01

    In the present paper, the concentrations of fourteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Cr, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, Cd and As) were determined by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy along an elevation gradient of montane forest. The results show that the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, V, Pb and As. And the concentrations of Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Se and Cd were not significantly affected by the elevation gradient. Because the studying area is red soil, the elevation gradient had significant effects on the concentrations of Fe, Al and Ti which are characteristic heavy metals of red soil, suggesting that the red soil at different elevations has different intensities of weathering desilication and bioaccumulation. Other heavy metals have different relationships with the elevation gradient, such as the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Cd were high at relatively high elevation and Pb and As were high at relatively low elevation. These results suggest that the different elevations of montane forest soils were polluted by differently types of heavy metals.

  12. Density gradient in SiO 2 films on silicon as revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, A. G.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Hughes, H. L.; Skorupa, W.

    2002-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy of thermally grown and deposited SiO 2 films on silicon shows in a non-destructive manner that these films have a gradient in their density. The gradient is most pronounced for the oxide grown in dry oxygen. Oxidation in water-containing ambient results in an oxide with reduced gradient, similarly to the gradient in the deposited oxide. These observations are in accordance with earlier optical and other studies using stepwise etching or a set of samples of varying thickness. The effective oxygen charge, which is very likely one of the reasons for the difference in the W parameters of silica glass and quartz crystal, could be even higher at some localized configurations in the SiO 2 films resulting in increased positron trapping.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  14. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean